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In Brazil, about 80% of electricity generation is accomplished through hydroelectric

sources.
In this vast universe, usage of generators with more than one winding per phase
is very uncommon.
This type of machine, however, may have specific protection for detecting faults
between windings of the same phase in a scheme known as “Split Phase Protection.”

Turn-to-Turn Fault Protection:


 Most low-speed hydroelectric generators in North America are constructed with
two or more parallel circuits per phase.

 Under normal conditions, the currents in the two parallel circuits are equal.

 When a turn fault occurs, the difference in the voltages that develop in the two
circuits causes a current to circulate.

 Stator differential protection does not detect turn-to-turn faults

 Current can be 6 to 7 times nominal and can damage stator

 Use turn-to-turn protection schemes to detect and avoid damage

Split Phase Using Separate CTs: Separate CTs may have slightly different
replication characteristics

Split Phase Using Core Balance CTs: Balance CTs allow greater sensitivity