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Electropneumatics

Basic level

Workbook
TP 201

With CD-ROM

+24 V 1 2

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K1 1M1
A2

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1V2 1 1 1V3

2 2

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1

Festo Didactic
541090 en
Use for intended purpose

The training system from Festo Didactic has been developed and produced exclusively for training and
further education in the field of automation and technology. The respective training companies and/or
trainers must ensure that all trainees observe the safety precautions which are described in this workbook.

Festo Didactic hereby excludes any and all liability for damages suffered by trainees, the training company
and/or any third parties, which occur during use of the equipment in situations which serve any purpose
other than training and/or further education, unless such damages have been caused by Festo Didactic due
to malicious intent or gross negligence.

Order no. 541090


Status: 04/2012
Authors: Markus Pany, Sabine Scharf
Editor: Frank Ebel
Graphics: Doris Schwarzenberger
Layout: 04/2012

© Festo Didactic SE, D-73770 Denkendorf, Germany, 2015


All rights reserved.
Internet: www.festo-didactic.com
E-mail: did@de.festo.com

The purchaser shall receive a single right of use which is non-exclusive, non-time-limited and limited
geographically to use at the purchaser's site/location as follows.
The purchaser shall be entitled to use the work to train his/her staff at the purchaser's site/location and
shall also be entitled to use parts of the copyright material as the basis for the production of his/her own
training documentation for the training of his/her staff at the purchaser's site/location with
acknowledgement of source and to make copies for this purpose. In the case of schools/technical colleges
and training centres, the right of use shall also include use by school and college students and trainees at
the purchaser's site/location for teaching purposes.
The right of use shall in all cases exclude the right to publish the copyright material or to make this available
for use on intranet, Internet and LMS platforms and databases such as Moodle, which allow access by a
wide variety of users, including those outside of the purchaser's site/location.
Entitlement to other rights relating to reproductions, copies, adaptations, translations, microfilming and
transfer to and storage and processing in electronic systems, no matter whether in whole or in part, shall
require the prior consent of Festo Didactic.
Table of Contents

Preface ____________________________________________________________________________________ V
Introduction _______________________________________________________________________________ VII
Safety precautions and work instructions _____________________________________________________ VIII
Technology module for electro-pneumatics (TP200)_______________________________________________ X
Learning objectives for the basic level (TP201) __________________________________________________ XI
Overview of learning objectives per exercise ____________________________________________________ XII
Equipment set for the basic level (TP201) _____________________________________________________ XIII
Allocation of equipment per exercise _________________________________________________________ XVII
Practical tools for the trainer _______________________________________________________________ XVIII
Structure of the exercises _________________________________________________________________ XVIII
Designations of the components____________________________________________________________ XVIII
CD ROM contents _________________________________________________________________________ XIX
Equipment set for the advanced level (TP202) _________________________________________________ XXI
Learning objectives for the advanced level (TP202) _____________________________________________ XXII

Exercises and solutions

Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases __________________________________________________________ 1


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe __________________________________________________ 13
Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans _______________________________________________________________ 23
Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets ____________________________________________________________ 33
Exercise 5: Diverting packages _______________________________________________________________ 41
Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine ____________________________________ 51
Exercise 7: Sorting packages _________________________________________________________________ 61
Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards ___________________________________________________________ 69
Exercise 9: Diverting bottles _________________________________________________________________ 77
Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys _____________________________________________________________ 87
Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles _____________________________________________________________ 99
Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station __________________________________ 107

© Festo Didactic 541090 III


Exercises and worksheets

Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases __________________________________________________________ 1


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe __________________________________________________ 13
Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans _______________________________________________________________ 23
Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets ____________________________________________________________ 33
Exercise 5: Diverting packages _______________________________________________________________ 41
Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine ____________________________________ 51
Exercise 7: Sorting packages _________________________________________________________________ 61
Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards ___________________________________________________________ 69
Exercise 9: Diverting bottles _________________________________________________________________ 77
Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys _____________________________________________________________ 87
Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles _____________________________________________________________ 99
Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station __________________________________ 107

IV © Festo Didactic 541090


Preface

Festo Didactic’s training system for automation and technology is geared towards various educational
backgrounds and vocational requirements. The training packages are therefore broken down as follows:
Basic modules impart basic, interdisciplinary, technological knowledge.
Technology modules address the important topics of open and closed-loop control technology.
Function modules explain the fundamental functions of automated systems.
Application modules enable training and further education that is aligned to real-life practice.

The technology modules deal with various technologies including pneumatics, electro-pneumatics,
programmable logic controllers, automation using a personal computer, hydraulics, electro-hydraulics,
proportional hydraulics and applications technology (handling).

The modular design of the training system makes it possible to focus on applications above and beyond
those covered in the individual modules, such as, for example, PLC actuation of pneumatic, hydraulic and
electric drives.

© Festo Didactic 541090 V


All training modules have the same structure:
• Hardware
• Courseware
• Software
• Seminars

The hardware is comprised of industrial components and systems that are specially designed for training
purposes.
The structure of the courseware corresponds to that of the training hardware. It includes:
• Textbooks (with exercises and examples)
• Workbooks (with practical exercises, supplementary instructions and solutions)
• Transparencies and videos (for dynamic instruction)

The working materials for TP201 consist of 19 exercises and a workbook. Each exercise has its own set of
ready-to-use worksheets. The solutions are included in the workbook, which also has the worksheets and a CD
ROM. The exercises can be purchased without the workbook and are used as consumables. They can thus be
easily made available to trainees. Data sheets for the hardware components are made available along with the
training module and on the CD ROM.

The teaching and learning media are available in several languages. They’re intended for use in classroom
instruction, but are also suitable for self-study.

Where software is concerned, computer training programs and programming software are made available
for programmable logic controllers.

A wide range of seminars covering the contents of the technology module round off the programme for
training and further education.

VI © Festo Didactic 540671


Introduction

This workbook is part of the training system for automation and technology from Festo Didactic. The system
provides a solid basis for practical training and further education. The TP200 technology module only
includes electro-pneumatic control systems.

The TP201 basic level is suitable for basic training in the field of electro-pneumatic control technology. It
covers the fundamentals of electro-pneumatics as well as the function and use of electro-pneumatic
equipment. Simple electro-pneumatic control systems can be set up with the equipment set.

The TP202 advanced level is targeted at vocational training in the field of electro-pneumatic control
technology. The two equipment sets can be used to set up extensive combinatory circuits with linking of the
input and output signals, as well as programme control systems.

A permanent workstation equipped with a Festo Didactic profile plate is a prerequisite for setting up the
control systems. The profile plate has 14 parallel T-slots at 50 mm intervals. A power supply with short-
circuit protection is used as a direct voltage source (input: 230 V, 50 Hz, output: 24 V, max. 5 A). A portable
compressor with silencer (230 V, max. 8 bar = 800 kPa) can be used for compressed air supply.

Working pressure should not exceed 6 bar (600 kPa).

Ideal reliability can be achieved by operating the control system at a working pressure of 5 bar (500 kPa)
without oil.

All the control systems for the 12 exercises are set up using the equipment set for the TP201 basic level. The
theoretical fundamentals for understanding this collection of exercises are included in the textbook:

• Basic principles of pneumatics and electropneumatics

Data sheets for the individual components are also available (cylinders, valves, measuring instruments etc.).

© Festo Didactic 541090 VII


Safety precautions and work instructions

General
Trainees should only work with the control systems under the supervision of a trainer.
Observe specifications included in the data sheets for the individual components and in particular all safety
instructions!

Mechanical
• Mount all of the components securely onto the profile plate.
• Limit switches may not be actuated frontally.
• Danger of injury during troubleshooting!
• Use a tool to actuate the limit switches, for example a screwdriver.
• Only reach into the set-up when it’s at a complete standstill.

Electrical
• Electrical connections must only be established and interrupted in the absence of voltage!
• Use connector cables with safety plugs only for electrical connections.
• Use low-voltage only (max. 24 V DC).

Pneumatics
• Do not exceed the maximum permissible pressure of 6 bar (600 kPa).
• Do not switch on the compressed air until all the tubing connections have been completed and secured.
• Do not disconnect tubing while under pressure.
• Danger of injury when switching compressed air on!
Cylinders may advance and retract automatically.
• Danger of accident due to tubing slipping off!
Use shortest possible tubing connections.
Wear safety glasses.
In the event that tubing slips off:
Switch compressed air supply off immediately.
• Pneumatic circuit set-up:
Connect the components using plastic tubing with an outside diameter of 4 or 6 mm. Push the tubing
into the push-in connector as far as it will go.
Switch compressed air supply off before dismantling the circuit.
• Dismantling pneumatic circuits:
Press the blue release ring down, after which the tubing can be pulled out.

VIII © Festo Didactic 540671


The mounting boards for the components are equipped with mounting variants A through D:

Variant A, snap-in system


Lightweight components that are not load-bearing (e.g. directional control valves). Simply clip the component
into the slot on the profile plate. Release the component from the slot by actuating the blue lever.

Variant B, bolt system


Components with medium load capacity (e.g. drives). These components are clamped to the profile plate
using T-head bolts. The blue, knurled nut is used for clamping and loosening.

Variant C, screw system


For components with high load capacity and components which are seldom removed from the profile plate
(for example on-off valve with filter regulator). These components are secured with socket head screws
and T-head bolts.

Variant D, plug-in system


Lightweight components with locking pins that are not load-bearing (e.g. indicators). These are secured
using plug adapters.

Observe specifications in the data sheets regarding the individual components.

© Festo Didactic 540671 IX


Technology module for electro-pneumatics (TP200)

The TP200 technology packet consists of a multitude of training materials and seminars. The subject matter
is entirely focused on electro-pneumatic control systems. Individual components included in the TP200
technology module can also be included in any of the other modules.

Important elements of the TP200:


• Permanent workstation with Festo Didactic profile plate
• Compressor (230 V, 0.55 kW, max. 8 bar = 800 kPa)
• Equipment sets or individual components
• Optional training materials
• Practical training models
• Complete laboratory set-ups

Training documentation

Textbooks TP201 basic level


Fundamentals of pneumatic control technology
Maintenance of pneumatic equipment and systems

Workbooks TP201 basic level


TP202 advanced level

Optional courseware Set of transparencies and overhead projector


Magnetic symbols, drawing template
Electro-pneumatics WBT, pneumatics WBT
Electrical engineering WBTs 1 and 2, electronics WBTs 1 and 2
Set of cutaway models with storage case
FluidSIM® pneumatic simulation software

Seminars

P100 Basic pneumatics knowledge for machine operators

P111 Fundamentals of pneumatics and electro-pneumatics

P121 Maintenance and troubleshooting for pneumatic and electro-pneumatic systems

P-OP Tracking down waste – economic use of pneumatics

P-NEU Pneumatics refresher and update

IW-PEP Repair and maintenance in the field of control technology – pneumatic and electro-pneumatic systems

P-AL Pneumatics for further education

P-AZUBI Pneumatics and electro-pneumatics for trainees

Please refer to the current seminar planner for locations, dates and prices.

You’ll find further training materials in our catalogue and on the Internet. The training system for automation
and technology is continuously updated and expanded. Transparencies, videos, CD ROMs and DVDs, as well
as textbooks, are offered in several languages.

X © Festo Didactic 540671


Learning objectives for the basic level (TP201)

• Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a single-acting cylinder.
• Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a double-acting cylinder.
• Be able to calculate piston forces based on specified values.
• Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a 3/2-way solenoid valve.
• Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a double solenoid valve.
• Be able to select solenoid valves based on the specified requirements.
• Be able to recognise and sketch the various types of actuation for directional control valves.
• Be able to convert solenoid valves.
• Be able to explain and set up direct actuation.
• Be able to explain and set up indirect actuation.
• Become familiar with logic operations and be able to set them up.
• Become familiar with various types of end-position control and learn to select the appropriate type.
• Be able to calculate characteristic electrical values.
• Become familiar with latching circuits with varying performance features.
• Be able to explain and set up an electrical latching circuit with dominant shutdown signal.
• Be able to set up a pressure-dependent control system.
• Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of magnetic proximity switches.
• Become familiar with displacement-step diagrams and learn to create them for specific problems.
• Be able to implement sequence control with two cylinders.
• Be able to detect and eliminate errors in simple electro-pneumatic control systems.

© Festo Didactic 541090 XI


Overview of learning objectives per exercise

Exercise 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Learning objectives

Become familiar with the set-up and mode of


operation of a single-acting cylinder.

Become familiar with the set-up and mode of


operation of a double-acting cylinder.
• • •

Learn to calculate piston forces based on specified


values.

Become familiar with the set-up and mode of


operation of a 3/2-way valve.

Become familiar with the set-up and mode of


operation of a double solenoid valve.
• •

Be able to select solenoid valves based on the


specified requirements.

Be able to recognise and sketch the various types of


actuation for directional control valves.

Be able to convert solenoid valves. •


Be able to explain and set up direct actuation. • •
Be able to explain and set up indirect actuation. • • •
Become familiar with various types of end-position
control and learn to select the appropriate type.
• •

Become familiar with logic operations and be able to


set them up.
• •

Be able to calculate characteristic electrical values. •


Become familiar with latching circuits with varying
performance features.
• •

Be able to explain and set up an electrical latching


circuit with dominant breaking signal.

Be able to set up a pressure-dependent control


system.

Become familiar with the set-up and mode of


operation of magnetic proximity switches.

Become familiar with displacement-step diagrams and


learn to create them for specific problems.

Be able to implement sequence control with two


cylinders.

Be able to detect and eliminate errors in simple


electro-pneumatic control systems.

XII © Festo Didactic 541090


Equipment set for the basic level (TP201)

The equipment set has been put together for basic training in the field of electro-pneumatic control
technology. It includes all the elements that are necessary for mastering the specific learning objectives and
can be supplemented with any other equipment sets. A profile plate, an electrical power supply unit and a
source of compressed air are also required in order to set up functional control systems.

Equipment set for the basic level (TP201)

Designation Order no. Quantity

2 x 3/2-way solenoid valve, normally closed 567198 1

5/2-way double solenoid valve 567200 2

5/2-way solenoid valve 567199 1

Blanking plug 153267 10

Double-acting cylinder 152888 2

One-way flow control valve 193967 4

Pressure sensor 572745 1

Single-acting cylinder 152887 1

On-off valve with filter regulator 540691 1

Limit switch, electrical, actuated from left 183322 1

Limit switch, electrical, actuated from right 183345 1

Plastic tubing, 4 x 0.75, 10 m 151496 2

Proximity switch, electronic 540695 2

Proximity switch, optical 572744 1

Relay, 3-way 162241 2

Signal input, electrical 162242 1

Push-in sleeve 153251 10

Push-in T-connector 153128 20

Distributor block 152896 1

© Festo Didactic 541090 XIII


Equipment set symbols

Designation Symbol

Relay, 3-way
12 14 22 24 32 34 42 44
A1

A2 11 21 31 41

12 14 22 24 32 34 42 44
A1

A2 11 21 31 41

12 14 22 24 32 34 42 44
A1

A2 11 21 31 41

Signal input, electrical


13 21

14 22

13 21

14 22

13 21

14 22

13 21

14 22

5/2-way double solenoid


valve 14 4 2

1M1
5 1 3

1M1

XIV © Festo Didactic 541090


Designation Symbol

3/2-way solenoid valve, Internal design of the valve


normally closed 4 2
14 12

1M2 1M1

1 5 3
Representation in circuits
12 2

1M1
1 3

1M1

5/2-way solenoid valve


14 4 2 12

1M1 1M2
5 1 3

1M1 1M2

Proximity switch, electronic


1
4

Pressure sensor
1
4
p
U
2
3

Proximity switch, optical


1
4

Electrical limit switch


2 4

© Festo Didactic 541090 XV


Designation Symbol

One-way flow control valve


1 2

Single-acting cylinder

Double-acting cylinder

On-off valve with filter


regulator

2
3

Distributor block

Connectors

XVI © Festo Didactic 541090


Allocation of equipment per exercise

Exercise 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Components

Cylinder, single-acting 1 1 1 1

Cylinder, double-acting 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

One-way flow control valve 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3

3/2-way solenoid valve, normally closed 1 (1) 1 1

5/2-way solenoid valve 1 1 1 1

5/2-way double solenoid valve 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Pressure sensor 1

Limit switch, electrical 1 2

Proximity switch, normally open 2 2 1 2

Proximity switch, optical 1 1

Pushbutton, electrical, normally open 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Pushbutton, electrical, normally closed 1 1

Relay 1 1 2 2 3 1 3 3 3 3

Distributor block 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

On-off valve with filter regulator 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Power supply unit, 24 V DC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

5/2-way solenoid valve 1 1 1 1

© Festo Didactic 541090 XVII


Practical tools for the trainer

Learning objectives
The basic learning objectives for the exercises in this module are the systematic sketching of circuit
diagrams as well as the practical set-up of a control system on the profile plate. This direct interaction
involving both theory and practice ensures faster, long-term learning. Each exercise has its own individual
learning objectives; the specific learning objectives are documented in the matrix.

Required time
The time required for the exercises depends on the trainee’s previous knowledge of the subject matter. For
training a skilled labourer in metalworking or electrical installation: approx. 2 weeks. For training a
technician or engineer: approx. 1 week.

Equipment sets
The exercises and the equipment sets match each other. For all the exercises you’ll only need the
components included in the equipment set for the TP201 basic level.
Each exercise in the basic level can be set up on a profile plate.

Structure of the exercises


All 12 exercises in part A have the same structure and are broken down into:
• Title
• Learning objectives
• Presentation of the problem
• Layout
• Parameters
• Project assignment
• Worksheets

The solutions for all the 12 exercises are included in the trainer’s manual.

Designations of the components


Pneumatic components are designated in circuit diagrams to DIN ISO 1219 2. All the components included
in any given circuit have the same primary identifying number. Letters are assigned depending on each
respective type of component. Consecutive numbers are assigned if several components of the same type
are included within a single circuit. Pressure lines are designated with a P and are numbered separately.

Drives: 1A1, 2A1, 2A2 ...


Valves: 1V1, 1V2, 1V3, 2V1, 2V2, 3V1 ...
Sensors: 1B1, 1B2 ...
Signal input: 1S1, 1S2 ...
Accessories: 0Z1, 0Z2, 1Z1 ...
Pressure lines: P1, P2 ...

XVIII © Festo Didactic 540671


CD ROM contents

The CD ROM provides you with additional media. The contents of parts A (exercises) and C (solutions) have
been saved as PDF files.

The CD ROM has the following structure:


• Operating instructions
• Data sheets
• Demo
• Festo catalogue
• FluidSIM® circuit diagrams
• Industrial applications
• Presentations
• Product information
• Videos

Operating instructions
Operating instructions for various components included in the technology module are available. These
instructions are helpful when using and commissioning the equipment.

Data sheets
The data sheets for the components included in the technology module are available as PDF files.

Demo
A demo version of the FluidSIM® pneumatics software package is included on the CD ROM. Even this demo
version is suitable for testing control systems developed by the user.

Festo catalogue
The relevant pages from the Festo catalogue will be provided with selected components. The
representations and descriptions of the components are intended to demonstrate how the components are
presented in an industrial catalogue. Additional information regarding the components is also included.

FluidSIM® circuit diagrams


The FluidSIM® circuit diagrams for all 12 exercises included in the technology module are contained in this
directory.

Industrial applications
Photos and graphics representing industrial applications are made available. These can be used to illustrate
individual tasks. Project presentations can also be supplemented with these illustrations.

Presentations
Contains short presentations of the components included in the technology module. These can be used, for
example, to create project presentations.

© Festo Didactic 541090 XIX


Product information
This directory contains product information and data sheets from Festo AG & Co. KG for the components
included in this technology module. This is intended to demonstrate which information and data are
available for industrial components.

Videos
Several videos of industrial applications complete the media provided with the technology module. Short
clips demonstrate the applications in their actual industrial environments.

XX © Festo Didactic 540671


Equipment set for the advanced level (TP202)

The equipment set for the advanced level has been put together for vocational training in the field of electro-
pneumatic control technology. The two equipment sets (TP201 and TP202) include components that are
necessary for mastering the predefined learning objectives and can be supplemented as required with other
equipment sets from the training system for automation and technology.

Equipment set for the advanced level (TP202, order no. 540713)

Quantity Designation Order no.

2 Relay, 3-way 162241

1 Signal input, electrical 162242

1 Time relay, 2-way 162243

1 Preset counter, electrical 1677856

1 Proximity switch, inductive 548643

1 Proximity switch, capacitive 548651

1 Emergency-stop button 183347

1 Valve terminal with 4 valve slices (MMJJ) 540696

2 Non-return valve, piloted 540715

© Festo Didactic 541090 XXI


Learning objectives for the advanced level (TP202)

• Describe the structure and application of valve terminals


• Implement sequence controls with overlapping signals – solution according to group method
• Implement sequence controls with overlapping signals – solution with step sequence using spring
return valves
• Implement sequence controls with overlapping signals – solution with step sequence using double pilot
valve (with control step)
• Describe and set up modes of operation (single/continuous cycle)
• Describe the function and application of a preset counter
• Explain and implement the emergency stop function with spring return valves
• Implement special emergency stop conditions: actuators must come to a standstill during an emergency
stop
• Explain function and use of a 5/3-way solenoid valve
• Describe and set up the “Set” operating mode
• Execute troubleshooting in complex electro-pneumatic circuits

XXII © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a single-acting cylinder.
• You’ll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a 3/2-way solenoid valve.
• You’ll be able to recognise and sketch the various types of actuation for directional control valves.
• You’ll be able to explain and set up direct actuation.

Presentation of the problem


Beverage cases are inspected for completeness with a test device. Incomplete cases are pushed off of the
roller conveyor by pressing a pushbutton. Develop a control system with which this process can be
executed.

Layout

Test device

© Festo Didactic 541090 1


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Parameters
• A single-acting cylinder is to be used.
• The cylinder will be actuated using a pushbutton.
• In the event of a power failure, the cylinder’s piston rod should move to the retracted end position.

Control sequence
1 After pressing a pushbutton, the piston rod of a single-acting cylinder pushes the beverage case from
the conveyor.
2 When the pushbutton is released, the piston rod moves to its retracted end position.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Create an equipment list.
4 Set up the pneumatic and electrical circuits.
5 Check the circuit sequence.

2 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Function of pneumatic power components


Pneumatic power components can be subdivided into two groups:
• Power components with straight motion
• Power components with rotary motion

– Describe the power components shown below, as well as their functions.

Symbol Function

Single-acting cylinder, reset spring in piston chamber, return stroke by means of compressed air,
forward stroke by means of reset spring.

Function
The piston rod of this single-acting cylinder moves to its retracted end position by activating the
compressed air. After deactivating the compressed air, the piston moves to its advanced end
position by a reset spring in the piston chamber (2 operating positions).

Single-acting cylinder, reset spring in piston chamber, forward stroke by means of compressed air,
return stroke by means of reset spring.

Function
The piston rod of the single-acting cylinder moves to its advanced end position when the
compressed air has been activated. After deactivating the compressed air, the piston moves to its
retracted end position by a reset spring (2 operating positions).

Pneumatic quarter turn actuator (rotary drive) with limited swivel angle

Function
This swivel cylinder is double-acting and reverses by alternately activating the compressed air at
either end (2 operating positions).

© Festo Didactic 541090 3


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Complete the symbols for solenoid valves

– Complete the individual symbols with the help of the descriptions of the respective components.

Description Symbol

Directly actuated 3/2-way solenoid valve, normally open,


with manual override

Pilot actuated 3/2-way solenoid valve, normally closed,


with manual override

4 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Normal positions of directional control valves


An electrically actuated 3/2-way solenoid valve has two switching positions. It can be in the normal position
(unactuated) or the switched position (actuated). The valve can be either closed or open in its normal position.
The single-acting cylinder depicted below is controlled by an electrically actuated 3/2-way solenoid valve.

– Describe how the two different normal positions affect the motion sequence of the cylinder shown below:

3/2-way solenoid valve, normally closed 3/2-way solenoid valve, normally open

The solenoid valve used is reversed by applying voltage to the The solenoid valve used is reversed by applying voltage to the
solenoid coil; flow is enabled from supply port 1 to working port solenoid coil; supply port 1 is closed, thus stopping flow. After
2. After the signal has been stopped, the valve returns to its stopping the signal, the valve returns to its normal position by a
normal position by a reset spring and supply port 1 is closed, thus reset spring and flow from supply port 1 to working port 2 is
stopping flow. If the directional control valve’s solenoid coil is de- enabled. If the directional control valve’s solenoid coil is de-
energised, the cylinder chamber is vented via exhaust port 3 at energised, the cylinder chamber is pressurised via the directional
the directional control valve. The piston rod is retracted. When control valve. The piston rod is advanced. When the solenoid coil is
the solenoid coil is energised, the directional control valve energised the directional control valve switches and the cylinder
switches and the cylinder chamber is pressurised. The piston rod chamber is exhausted via exhaust port 3 at the directional control
advances. When the solenoid coil is de-energised, the valve valve. The piston rod is retracted. When the solenoid coil is de-
switches back again. The cylinder chamber is exhausted and the energised, the valve switches back again. The cylinder chamber is
piston rod is retracted. pressurised and the piston rod is advanced.
The motion sequence is thus as follows: 1A1+ 1A1-. The motion sequence is thus as follows: 1A1- 1A1+.

© Festo Didactic 541090 5


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Direct and indirect actuation


An electrically actuated solenoid valve can be directly or indirectly actuated.

– Describe the difference on the basis of the following example: electrical actuation of a 3/2-way solenoid
valve with spring return using a pushbutton.

Direct actuation Indirect actuation

When the pushbutton is activated, current flows through the In the case of indirect actuation, current flows through a relay coil
valve’s solenoid coil. The solenoid is energised and the valve when a pushbutton is activated. The relay’s contacts are closed
switches to the actuated position. and the valve switches. The valve remains in this switching
The flow of electrical current is interrupted when the pushbutton position as long as electrical current flows through the solenoid
is released. The solenoid is de-energised and the valve switches coil or the relay coil. The relay drops out when the flow of
to the normal position. electrical current through the relay coil is interrupted and the
valve switches to its normal position.
More complicated indirect actuation is used when the control
circuit and the primary circuit use different voltages, when current
flowing through the directional control valve’s solenoid coil is
greater than permissible current for the pushbutton, when
several valves are switched with a single pushbutton or pressure
switch or if extensive logic operations are required amongst the
signals from various pushbuttons.

6 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Design and function of electrical switches


In principle, switches are subdivided into two types, namely pushbuttons and control switches and function
as NC contacts, NO contacts or change-over contacts.

– Describe the design and function of the switches depicted below.

Symbol Design / function

Design:
Pushbutton with normally open contacts

3 Function:
In the case of a pushbutton, the selected switching position is only retained as long as the pushbutton is
activated. The pushbutton shown here has a normally open function. With normally open contacts, the electrical
4
circuit is interrupted when the pushbutton is in its normal position, i.e. in the unactivated state. When the
control stem is actuated, the electrical circuit is closed and current flows to the consuming device. When the
control stem is released, the pushbutton is returned to its normal position by means of spring force and the
electrical circuit is interrupted.

Design:
Control switch with normally closed contacts

Function:
Control switches are mechanically locked into the two switching positions. The respective switching position is
retained until the switch is once again activated. The control switch shown here has a normally closed function.
In the case of normally closed contacts, the electrical circuit is closed when the control switch is held in its
normal position by means of spring force. When the control switch is activated, the electrical circuit is
interrupted and reactivation closes the circuit again.

Design:
Pushbutton with change-over contacts
2 4
Function:
In the case of a pushbutton, the selected switching position is only retained as long as the pushbutton is
1
activated. The pushbutton shown here has a change-over function. In the case of change-over contacts, NC and
NO functions are combined into a single component. An electrical circuit is closed and another is interrupted
with a single switching operation. Both circuits are briefly interrupted during switching.

© Festo Didactic 541090 7


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Mode of operation of various valve types


Electrically actuated directional control valves are switched by means of solenoids. In principle, they can be
subdivided into two groups:
• Solenoid valves with spring return
• Double solenoid valves

– Explain the difference between the two groups with regard to function and performance in the event of a
power failure.

Valve type Mode of operation

Solenoid valve with spring The actuated switching position is only retained as long as electrical current flows through the solenoid
return coil. The normal position is clearly defined by the reset spring. If there is no electrical power, the valve
returns to its normal position by the spring. This may cause dangerous machine motion.
For example, the piston rod of a pneumatic cylinder could be returned to its normal position, thus
releasing a previously clamped workpiece.

Double solenoid valve Only a brief signal is required in order to reverse the valve and the last switching position is retained
even in the de-energised state as the result of static friction. All solenoid coils are de-energised in the
normal position and the normal position cannot be clearly defined. The valve stays in its last switching
position in the event of a power failure. No dangerous machine motion can be triggered as a result.
For example, the piston rod of a pneumatic cylinder is kept in its operating position and workpiece
clamping is thus retained.

8 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Identifying valve ports


In order to prevent incorrect tubing connections at directional control valves, the valve ports (working and pilot
lines) are identified in accordance with ISO 5599-3 on the valves themselves, as well as in the circuit diagram.

– Explain the meanings and functions of the port designations listed below.

Port identification Meaning and function

3 Exhaust port

Pilot line, function for pilot actuated or pneumatically actuated directional control valves when
12
actuated: supply port 1 and working port 2 are connected

Pilot line, function for pilot actuated or pneumatically actuated directional control valves when
10
actuated: supply port 1 is closed

© Festo Didactic 541090 9


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Complete the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams for the sorting system.

+24 V 1

13
S1
14

1M1

0V

Pneumatic circuit diagram Electrical circuit diagram

10 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, single-acting

1 One-way flow control valve

1 3/2-way solenoid valve, normally closed

1 Pushbutton (normally open)

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

© Festo Didactic 541090 11


Exercise 1: Inspecting beverage cases

12 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a double-acting cylinder.
• You’ll be able to explain and set up direct actuation.

Presentation of the problem


Numerous pipes have to be opened and closed in a water treatment system with the help of shut-off
components. During the test set-up an actuation option for the shut-off valve will be sought.

Layout

Shut-off device

© Festo Didactic 541090 13


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

Parameters
• A double-acting cylinder will be used.
• The cylinder will be actuated using a pushbutton.
• In the event of a power failure, the cylinder’s piston rod should move to its retracted end position.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Simulate the electro-pneumatic circuit diagram and test it for correct functioning.
4 Create an equipment list.
5 Set up the pneumatic and electrical circuits.
6 Check the circuit sequence.

Control sequence
1 The gate is opened when a pushbutton is pressed.
2 When the pushbutton is released, the gate is closed again.

14 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

Comparing directly actuated and pilot actuated valves


With regard to the type of valve piston actuation, differentiation is made between directly actuated and pilot
actuated solenoid valves.

– Compare these two valve types and list their respective advantages and disadvantages.

Directly-actuated valve Pilot-actuated valve

Flow to the consuming device is enabled by the solenoid’s Flow to the consuming device is switched by the primary stage. The
armature. A relatively large armature is required in order to valve piston is set into motion by means of an air duct from supply
ensure an adequately large cross section for the opening, thus port 1.
allowing for sufficient flow. Hence a correspondingly powerful This only requires minimal flow so that a relatively small armature
reset spring is required and the solenoid must also generate with minimal actuating force can be used. Only minimal supply
considerable force. The solenoid is thus large and has high power pressure is required in order to actuate the piston against the
consumption. force of the spring.
A smaller solenoid can be used than that required for a directly
actuated valve.
Power consumption and heat emission are less.

© Festo Didactic 541090 15


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

Identify valve ports


In order to prevent incorrect tubing of directional control valves, the valve ports (working and pilot lines) are
identified in accordance with ISO 5599-3 on the valves themselves, as well as in the circuit diagram.

– Explain the meanings and functions of the designations listed below.

Designation Meaning and function

4 Working line, consumer port

Pilot line, function for pilot actuated or pneumatically actuated directional control valves when
14
actuated: supply port 1 and consumer port 4 are connected

Pilot line, function for pilot actuated or pneumatically actuated directional control valves when
82/84
actuated: auxiliary pilot air exhaust

16 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

Mode of operation of a solenoid valve


A valve symbol indicates how the valve functions, i.e. how many ports it has, its switching positions and the
type of actuation, but it says nothing about its constructional design.

– Describe the mode of operation of the directional control valve shown above.

The valve is a pilot actuated 5/2-way solenoid valve with manual override and spring return.
Mode of operation:
The piston is at the left-hand limit stop when the valve is in its normal position and ports 1 and 2 (supply
port and consumer port), as well as ports 4 and 5 (consumer port and exhaust port), are connected. If the
solenoid coil is energised, the valve piston moves to the right-hand limit stop. In this position, ports 1
and 4, as well as 2 and 3 (exhaust port) are connected (the internal pilot line for pilot control is
designated 14, function when actuated: supply port 1 and consumer port 4 are connected).
When the solenoid coil is de-energised, the valve piston is returned to its normal position by means of
spring force and pilot air is vented. In the de-energised state, the valve can be switched by means of
manual override.

© Festo Didactic 541090 17


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

IP designation
Depending on installation circumstances and ambient conditions, electrical operating equipment is
protected by housings and covers. The required degree of protection against dust, moisture and foreign
matter must be specified.

The designation IP 65 appears on a solenoid coil.

– Explain the meaning of this designation.

The designation for a degree of protection in accordance with DIN-VDE 470-1 consists of the two letters IP
(International Protection) and two numbers.
The first number indicates the degree of protection against the ingress of foreign matter and the second
number specifies the degree of protection against moisture and water.
And thus the designation IP 65 means protection against the ingress of dust (i.e. complete protection
against contact with energised components and internal moving parts, protection against the ingress of
dust) and water jets (i.e. water jets sprayed at the housing from all directions should not cause any
damage).

18 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

Symbols for pneumatic cylinders


Cylinders with piston rods which move in straight lines can be subdivided into two groups.
• Single-acting cylinders
• Double-acting cylinders

– Explain the meanings of the cylinder symbols shown below.

Symbol Meaning

Symbol 1
Double-acting multi-position cylinder, reversed by alternately pressurising the
respective ends with compressed air.
Travel to 3 positions is made possible by connecting 2 cylinders with the same piston
diameter but different stroke lengths. Direct travel to the third position is possible from
the first position, or it can be approached via the intermediate (second) position.
However, the downstream cylinder stroke must always be larger than the upstream
stroke. During the return stroke, travel to an intermediate position is only possible with
corresponding actuation (3 operating positions). The shorter stroke length is half the
length of the longer stroke.

Symbol 2
Double-acting cylinder, reversed by alternately pressurising the respective ends with
compressed air, adjustable end-position cushioning (2 operating positions).
If large loads are moved by a cylinder, cushioning is used in the end position. Before
reaching the end position, a cushioning piston prevents exhausting the air directly into
the atmosphere. The trapped exhaust air reduces piston speed during the last part of
the stroke.

© Festo Didactic 541090 19


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

Complete the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams for the sorting system.

+24 V 1

13
S1
14

1M1

0V

Pneumatic circuit diagram Electrical circuit diagram

20 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

Sequence description

– Describe the control system’s operating sequence.

Initial position
The cylinder is in the retracted end position.

Step 1-2
After activating pushbutton S1 (NO contact), solenoid coil 1M1 at 5/2-way solenoid valve 1V1 is
energised. Valve 1V1 is reversed. The piston end of cylinder 1A1 is now filled with compressed air and the
piston rod end is exhausted. Cylinder 1A1 advances.

Step 2-3
As soon as pushbutton S1 (NO contact) is no longer actuated, coil 1M1 is de-energised, valve 1V1 is
returned to its initial position by the reset spring, the piston end of cylinder 1A1 is exhausted and the
piston rod end is filled with compressed air. The cylinder returns to its retracted end position.

© Festo Didactic 541090 21


Exercise 2: Opening and closing a supply pipe

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, double-acting

2 One-way flow control valve

1 5/2-way solenoid valve

1 Pushbutton (normally open)

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

1 Cylinder, double-acting

Equipment list

22 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of double-acting cylinders.
• You’ll be able to make use of indirect electrical actuation.

Presentation of the problem


At a filling system plastic cans with wall and ceiling paint. After filling, lids are pressed onto the plastic
buckets.

Layout

Can filling

© Festo Didactic 541090 23


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

Parameters
• A double-acting cylinder will be used.
• The cylinder will be actuated indirectly and using a pushbutton. In the event of a power failure, the
cylinder’s piston rod should move to its retracted end position.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Create an equipment list.
4 Set up the control system, both pneumatically and electrically and describe the control sequence.
5 Double check the control sequence.

Control sequence
1 The press-on stamp is advanced after pressing a pushbutton and the lid is pressed into place.
2 When the pushbutton is released, the stamp is returned to its initial position.

24 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

Mode of operation of a relay


Relays are part of the units in the signal processing section. Their essential components include:
• Coil with core
• Coil winding
• Set of contacts
• Retracting spring
• Armature
• Terminal lugs

The following graphic is a sectional view of a relay.

2 3

A1 A2 4 2 1
7 6

Sectional view of a relay

– Match up the numbers in the above graphic to the components in the table below.

Number Component

7 Terminal lugs

3 Coil winding

5 Set of contacts

2 Retracting spring

4 Armature

6 Terminal lugs

1 Coil with core

© Festo Didactic 541090 25


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

Set-up and mode of operation of a relay

– Describe the mode of operation of a relay.

A relay is an electromagnetically actuated switch. An electromagnetic field is generated when the coil is
energised. This in turn draws the moving armature towards the core.

The armature acts on the relay’s contacts, which are then opened or closed depending on the relay’s
configuration. When the flow of electrical current to the coil is interrupted, a spring causes the armature
to return to its initial position.

26 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

Set-up and mode of operation of a relay


One or more contacts can be switched with a single relay coil. Depending on the required function, relays
with normally closed, normally open or change-over contacts are used.

– Describe the layouts, contact types and functions of the relays shown in the table.

Description Symbol

Layout, contact type:


Relay with two NC contacts and two NO contacts
Function:
When the relay is energised, up to two current paths are interrupted and up to
two additional current paths are closed by the four relay contacts.

Layout, contact type:


Relay with four change-over contacts 12 14 22 24 32 34 42 44
A1
Function:
When the relay is energised, up to four current paths are opened or closed by
A2 11 21 31 41
the four relay contacts.
Great flexibility and a wide variety of contact combinations are possible.

© Festo Didactic 541090 27


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

Set-up and mode of operation of a relay

– Write down the different ways in which relays can be used in electrical and electro-pneumatic control
systems.

Signal multiplying
Voltage and current amplification
Delaying and conversion of signals
Linking of information
Interruption of the control circuit and the primary circuit
Interruption of DC and AC circuits in strictly electrical control systems

28 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

Complete the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams for the lid press by completing the circuit
diagram below and adding the component and port designations.

+24 V 1 2

13 12 14
S1 K1
14 11

A1
K1 1M1
A2

0V 12
11 14 .2
22
21 24
32
31 34
42
41 44

Pneumatic circuit diagram Electrical circuit diagram

© Festo Didactic 541090 29


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

Sequence description

– Set up the control system and describe its operating sequence.

Initial position
Cylinder 1A1 is in the retracted end position.

Step 1-2
After activating pushbutton S1 (NO contact) relay K1 is energised, change-over contact K1 (connected as
an NO contact) is closed and solenoid coil 1M1 at 5/2-way valve 1V1 is energised. Valve 1V1 is reversed.
The rear chamber of cylinder 1A1 is now filled with compressed air and the front chamber is exhausted.
Cylinder 1A1 advances.

Step 2-3
As soon as pushbutton S1 (NO contact) is no longer activated, relay K1 is de-energised and change-over
contact K1 (connected as an NO contact) is opened. Coil 1M1 is de-energised as a result and valve 1V1 is
returned to its initial position by the reset spring. The rear chamber of cylinder 1A1 is exhausted and the
front chamber is filled with compressed air. The cylinder returns to its retracted end position.

30 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components and their quantities in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, double-acting

2 One-way flow control valve

1 5/2-way solenoid valve

1 Pushbutton (normally open)

1 Relay

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

© Festo Didactic 541090 31


Exercise 3: Sealing plastic cans

32 © Festo Didactic 540671


Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be able to set up indirect actuation.
• You’ll be familiar with logic operations.
• You’ll be able to select solenoid valves based on the specified requirements.
• You’ll be able to convert solenoid valves

Presentation of the problem


Plastic pellets need to be packed from a storage silo. The silo is opened and closed with a flap. The process
will be started from two locations.

Layout

Packing plastic pellets

© Festo Didactic 541090 33


Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets

Parameters
• A single-acting cylinder is to be used.
• The cylinder will be actuated indirectly and using a pushbutton.
• In the event of a power failure, the cylinder’s piston rod should advance to the advanced end position.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Simulate the electro-pneumatic circuit diagram and test it for correct functioning.
4 Create an equipment list.
5 Set up the pneumatic and electrical circuits.
6 Check the circuit sequence.

Control sequence
1 The flap is opened by pressing either one of two pushbuttons and the material slides out of the
container.
2 When the pushbutton is released, the flap is closed.

34 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets

Converting solenoid valves


A great many demands are placed on valves in actual industrial use. If a valve with all of the desired
characteristics is not available, a valve with a different number of ports can often be used in order to fulfil
the specified function. The following table shows a selection of directional control valves which are
frequently used in industrial applications.

– Describe the valve types depicted in the table below.


Tick off all the solenoid valves which can be replaced by a 5/2-way valve of the type shown above. If
conversion is required in order to fulfil the required function, complete the symbols in the right column
of the table below.

Symbol Description: valve type Replacement Description: required conversion


possible

Pilot actuated 2/2-way solenoid


valve with manual override

Pilot actuated 3/2-way solenoid


valve with manual override,
normally closed
X

Pilot actuated 3/2-way solenoid


valve and manual override,
normally open
X

Pilot actuated 4/2-way solenoid


valve with manual override

Note
The term “conversion” includes even very simple measures, for example closing consumer port 2 or 4
with a blanking plug.

© Festo Didactic 541090 35


Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets

Selecting solenoid valves


A valve is selected on the basis of the following criteria:
• Task
• Required performance in the event of a power failure
• Lowest possible overall costs

The following valves are available for actuating a single-acting cylinder.


• A pilot actuated 3/2-way solenoid valve with spring return and manual override
• A pilot actuated 5/2-way solenoid valve with spring return and manual override

– Select a valve and justify your decision.

Valve type Reason

Pilot actuated 5/2-way 5/2-way solenoid valves can be used in a broad range of applications. In practice, this means that only
solenoid valve with spring one valve type is required for a variety of requirements or applications. This, in turn, results in
return and manual override considerable cost reductions as larger quantities lead to more favourable valve procurement and
stocking of spare parts.
Compared with maintenance for a single valve type, servicing a variety of valves is considerably more
expensive. 3/2-way valves can only be used to actuate single-acting cylinders, but 5/2-way valves can
be used with single as well as double-acting cylinders. That is why the 5/2-way valve is the right choice.
The fact that a 3/2-way valve is usually about 5% less expensive than a 5/2-way valve is not decisive
due to the above mentioned advantages of the 5/2-way valve.

Note
In addition to the costs mentioned above, the overall costs of a valve also include expenses for
installation and maintenance, as well as warehousing costs for replacement parts.

36 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets

Logic operations – the OR function


It should be possible to make the piston rod of a cylinder advance using two pushbuttons, namely S1 and
S2. When at least one of the two pushbuttons is activated solenoid coil 1M1 is energised, solenoid valve
1V1 switches to the actuated position and the piston rod advances. When both pushbuttons are released,
the valve is switched to its normal position and the piston rod is retracted.

– Create the associated functions table and the logic symbol.

S1 S2 1M1 1V1

0 0 (not actuated) 0 (not actuated) 0 (not actuated)

0 (not actuated) 1 (actuated) 1 (actuated) 1 (actuated)

1 (actuated) 0 (not actuated) 1 (actuated) 1 (actuated)

1 (actuated) 1 (actuated) 1 (actuated) 1 (actuated)

Functions table

1
S1
1M1
S2

Logic symbol

Note
0 means that the pushbutton is not activated and the piston does not advance.
1 means that the pushbutton is activated and the piston advances.

© Festo Didactic 541090 37


Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets

Complete the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.

+24 V 1 2 3

13 13 12 14
S1 S2 K1
14 14 11

A1
K1 1M1
A2

0V 12
11 14 .3
22
21 24
32
31 34
42
41 44

Pneumatic circuit diagram Electrical circuit diagram

38 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets

Sequence description

– Set up the control system and describe the operating sequence.

Initial position
In its normal position, cylinder 1A1 is in the advanced end position and the rear chamber is filled with
compressed air.

Step 1-2
By activating pushbutton S1 or S2 (both laid out as NO contacts) relay K1 is energised, change-over
contact K1 (connected as an NO contact) is closed and solenoid coil 1M1 at 5/2-way valve 1V1 is
energised. Valve 1V1 is reversed. The rear chamber of cylinder 1A1 is exhausted and the spring forces the
cylinder into its retracted end position.

Step 2-3
As soon as pushbutton S1 or S2 (both laid out as NO contacts) is no longer activated, relay K1 is de-
energised and change-over contact K1(connected as an NO contact) is opened. Coil 1M1 is de-energised
as a result and valve 1V1 is returned to its initial position by the reset spring. The rear chamber of
cylinder 1A1 is filled with compressed air; the cylinder returns to the advanced end position.

© Festo Didactic 541090 39


Exercise 4: Packing plastic pellets

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, single-acting

1 One-way flow control valve

1 5/2-way solenoid valve

2 Pushbutton (normally open)

1 Relay

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

40 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a double-acting cylinder.
• You’ll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a double solenoid valve.

Presentation of the problem


Packages will be diverted from one conveyor belt to another by means of a diverting device.

Layout

Diverting device

© Festo Didactic 541090 41


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

Parameters
• A double-acting cylinder will be used.
• The cylinder will be controlled indirectly and using a pushbutton. In the event of a power failure, the
cylinder’s piston rod should remain in its current end position.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Simulate the electro-pneumatic circuit diagram and test it for correct functioning.
4 Create an equipment list.
5 Set up the pneumatic and electrical circuits.
6 Check the circuit sequence.

Control sequence
1 The diverting device is advanced when one of the pushbuttons is activated. The package is transferred
and transported further.
2 The diverting device is returned to its initial position when another pushbutton is activated.

42 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

Using solenoid valves


Two factors need to be taken into consideration when deciding which type of valve will be used for a specific
application.
• Duration or timeframe
• Number or frequency of required switching operations

In order to make the best possible use of a directional control valve, it must be decided on a case-by-case
basis which is more economical for the respective application:
• A double solenoid valve or
• A directional control valve with spring return

– Decide whether a double solenoid valve or a solenoid valve with spring return is more economical for
each of the applications listed below and give reasons for your decision.

Application 1
The clamping cylinder in a milling station must clamp a workpiece for the duration of the milling process
(approx. 10 minutes with 60 clamping operations per day).

Valve type Reason

Double solenoid valve The signal must be stored for switching operations of long duration. In the case of double solenoid
valves, this is accomplished by means of static friction and in the case of directional control valves with
spring return by continuously energising the solenoid coil. Clamped workpieces must not be released in
the event of an emergency stop, which is why solenoid valves with spring return must not be used for
this application.

Application 2
The ejecting cylinder in a sorting system needs to push defective workpieces off a conveyor belt (duration of
approx. 1 second, 600 push-out operations per day).

Valve type Reason

Solenoid valve with spring The signal need not be stored for switching operations of short duration. Solenoid valves with spring
return return have the following advantage: only one solenoid coil needs to be actuated, i.e. energised, in
order to switch the valve.

© Festo Didactic 541090 43


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

Mode of operation of a solenoid valve

4 2

1M1 1M2
5 3
1

– Describe the mode of operation of the directional control valve shown above.

Pilot actuated 5/2-way double solenoid valve with manual override


When the piston is at the left-hand limit stop, ports 1 (supply port) and 2 (consumer port), as well as
ports 4 (consumer port) and 5 (exhaust port), are connected. If the left-hand solenoid coil is energised,
the piston moves to the right-hand limit stop and ports 1 and 4, as well as ports 2 and 3 (exhaust port)
are connected (pilot line, 14 and 12, function when actuated: supply port 1 and consumer port 4 or 2 are
connected). If the valve needs to be switched back to its initial position, it’s not enough to simply
interrupt electrical power to the left-hand solenoid coil. In fact, the right-hand solenoid coil must also be
energised. If neither of the solenoids is actuated, the piston remains in its last position (signal control in
the power section) due to friction. This is also the case when both solenoids are energised at the same
time, because they work against each other with identical force.
In the de-energised state, the valve can be switched via the manual override.

44 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

Calculating the current consumption of a solenoid coil


A solenoid valve with spring return needs to be switched with pushbutton S1.

– Calculate current and power consumption for solenoid coil 1M1 based on a 24 V DC power supply and a
coil resistance of 48 Ω (Ohm).

Current consumption at 1M1

In accordance with Ohm’s law, U= R ⋅ I , current consumption of 0.5 A (ampere) is calculated as follows:
U 24 V
=I = = 0.5 A
R 48 W

Power consumption at 1M1

Power consumption of 12 W (watt) is calculated as follows: P = U ⋅ I = 24 V⋅ 0.5 A = 12 W

© Festo Didactic 541090 45


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

Calculating the current consumption of a solenoid coil

– If the solenoid coil in question were connected to 24 V AC, would power consumption at 1M1 be higher
or lower? Give reasons for your answer.

Equal Higher Lower Reason

The magnetic fields caused by alternating current generate an induction voltage in


the coil’s windings which counteracts the applied voltage and increases coil
X resistance. This resistance in the AC coil (impedance) is made up of Ohmic
resistance and so-called inductive reactance. As a result, effective current is
reduced.

46 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

Complete the circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the diverting device.

Pneumatic circuit diagram

– Complete the electrical circuit diagram for the diverting device.

+24 V 1 2 3 4

13 13 12 14 12 14
S1 S2 K1 K2
14 14 11 11

A1 A1
K1 K2 1M1 1M2
A2 A2

0V 12 12
11 14 .3 11 14 .4
22 22
21 24 21 24
32 32
31 34 31 34
42 42
41 44 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram

© Festo Didactic 541090 47


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

Sequence description

– Set up the control system and describe the operating sequence.

Initial position
In its initial position, cylinder 1A1 is in the retracted end position.

Step 1-2
After activating pushbutton S1 (NO contact) relay K1 is energised, change-over contact K1 (connected as
an NO contact) is closed and solenoid coil 1M1 at 5/2-way double pilot valve 1V1 is energised. Valve 1V1
is reversed. The rear chamber of cylinder 1A1 is now filled with compressed air and the front chamber is
exhausted. Cylinder 1A1 advances.

As soon as pushbutton S1 (NO contact) is no longer activated, relay K1 is de-energised and change-over
contact K1 (connected as an NO contact) is opened. As a result, coil 1M1 is also de-energised.

Step 2-3
After activating pushbutton S2 (NO contact) relay K2 is energised and change-over contact K2 (connected
as an NO contact) is closed. Coil 1M2 is energised as a result and valve 1V1 is switched back to its initial
position. The front chamber of cylinder 1A1 is filled with compressed air and the rear chamber is
exhausted. Cylinder 1A1 returns to its retracted end position.

As soon as pushbutton S2 (NO contact) is no longer activated, relay K2 is de-energised and change-over
contact K2 (connected as an NO contact) is opened. As a result, coil 1M2 is also de-energised.

48 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, double-acting

2 One-way flow control valve

1 5/2-way double solenoid valve

2 Pushbutton (normally open)

2 Relay

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

© Festo Didactic 541090 49


Exercise 5: Diverting packages

50 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be able to make use of double-acting cylinders.
• You’ll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a double solenoid valve.
• You’ll be familiar with one option for end-position sensing in cylinders.

Presentation of the problem


Wooden boards need to be pushed out of a stacking magazine and into a mounting device.

Layout

Stacking magazine

© Festo Didactic 541090 51


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Parameters
• The cylinder’s advanced end position needs to be sensed.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Create an equipment list.
4 Set up the control system, both pneumatically and electrically.
5 Double check the control sequence.

Control sequence
1 A wooden board is pushed out of the stacking magazine with a slide after pressing a pushbutton.
2 After reaching the advanced end position, the slide is returned to its initial position.

52 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Components included in an electro-pneumatic system


The components included in an electro-pneumatic system are represented in the pneumatic and/or the
electrical circuit diagram.

– Tick off the type of diagram in which the following components need to be represented.

Component Pneumatic circuit diagram Electrical circuit diagram

Manually operated pushbutton X

Cylinder X

Valve X

Solenoid coil X X

Relay X

Electromechanical limit switch X X

Electronic proximity switch X X

Indicator X

© Festo Didactic 541090 53


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Components included in an electro-pneumatic system


The purpose of sensors in electro-pneumatic control systems is to acquire information and forward it to
signal processing.

– Which function(s) can an electromechanical limit switch in an electro-pneumatic control system carry
out?

Sensing piston rod end positions in cylinder drive units


Detecting the presence or the position of a workpiece

54 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Representation of limit switches


Limit switches can be actuated in different ways. They function as NC, NO or change-over contacts and can
be actuated or unactuated when the system is in its neutral position.

– Describe the design and function of the symbols shown below. Enter the descriptions to the table.

Description: design/function Symbol

1
Roller actuated limit switch with NC function, unactuated

2
3
Roller actuated limit switch with NO function, unactuated

© Festo Didactic 541090 55


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Creating a switching elements table


One way of recording the contacts controlled by a relay is to list them in a switching elements table.

– Create switching elements tables for relays K6 and K9.

+24 V 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
...

12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 32 34 32 34
K5 K6 K2 K7 K4 K8 K3 K9 K6 K7
11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 31 31

12 14
K1
11

22 24 22 24 22 24 22 24 32 34 32 34
K9 K6 K7 K8 K9 K8
21 21 21 21 31 31

A1 A1 A1 A1
K6 K7 K8 K9 1M1 2M1
A2 A2 A2 A2
...
0V

Electrical circuit diagram

Switching element Description

K6 Relay K6 actuates the following switching elements:


1 NO contact in current path 11
1 NO contact in current path 12
1 NO contact in current path 18

K9 Relay K6 actuates the following switching elements:


1 NO contact in current path 17
1 NC contact in current path 10
10 17 1 NC contact in current path 18
18

Switching elements table

56 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Creating a switching elements table


Another way of recording the contact sets controlled by a relay is shown in the following circuit diagram.

+24 V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 25 27

21 12 14 22 24 32 34
K11 K11 K11
NOT-HALT 22 11 21 31
12 13 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26

12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 12 14 22 24 12 14 32 34 32 34 32 34 32 34 22 24
1B1 1 1B2 1 2B1 1 2B2 1 13
K5 K6 K7 K4 K8 K3 K9 K1 K10 K6 K7 K8 K9 K3
S1
4 4 4 4 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 21 11 31 31 31 31 21
Start 14
12 14
3 3 3 3
K1
11

22 24 22 24 22 24 22 24 22 24 42 44 42 44 42 44 32 34
K10 K6 K7 K8 K9 K7 K8 K9 K10
21 21 21 21 21 41 41 41 31

A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 1M1 2M1 2M2 1M2


K11 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8 K9 K10
A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2

0V 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
1A1+ 2A1+ 2A1- 1A1-
11 14 .11 11 14 .12 11 14 .14 11 14 .18 11 14 .16 11 14 .12 11 14 .13 11 14 .15 11 14 .17 11 14 .19 11 14 .21
22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22
21 24 .25 21 24 .20 21 24 21 24 .27 21 24 21 24 21 24 .14 21 24 .16 21 24 .18 21 24 .20 21 24 .12
32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32
31 34 .27 31 34 31 34 31 34 31 34 31 34 31 34 .22 31 34 .23 31 34 .24 31 34 .26 31 34 .26
42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42
41 44 41 44 41 44 41 44 41 44 41 44 41 44 41 44 .22 41 44 .23 41 44 .24 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram

– Complete the entries for the relays listed in the table beneath. Designate the current path within which the
respective contact is used, as well as the function fulfilled by the set of contacts (normally open or
normally closed).

Relay Current path Function: NO Function: NC

Relay K9 Current path 19 X

Current path 20 X

Current path 24 X

Current path 26 X

Relay K10 Current path 12 X

Current path 21 X

Current path 26 X

© Festo Didactic 541090 57


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Complete the circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic circuit by adding the valve actuation and designating it.

1A1
1B2

1V2 1 1 1V3

2 2

1V1 4 2

1M1 1M2
5 3
1

Pneumatic circuit diagram

– Complete the electrical circuit diagram.

+24 V 1 2 3 4

13 2 4 12 14 12 14
S1 1B2 K1 K2
14 1 11 11

A1 A1
K1 K2 1M1 1M2
A2 A2

0V 12 12
11 14 .3 11 14 .4
22 22
21 24 21 24
32 32
31 34 31 34
42 42
41 44 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram

58 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Sequence description

– Set up the control system and describe the operating sequence.

Initial position
In its normal position, cylinder 1A1 is in the retracted end position

Step 1-2
By activating pushbutton S1 (NO contact) relay K1 is energised, change-over contact K1 (connected as an
NO contact) is closed and solenoid coil 1M1 at 5/2-way solenoid valve 1V1 is energised. Valve 1V1 is
reversed. The rear chamber of cylinder 1A1 is now filled with compressed air and the front chamber is
exhausted. Cylinder 1A1 advances.

When pushbutton S1 (NO contact) is no longer activated, relay K1 is de-energised and change-over
contact K1 (connected as an NO contact) is opened. As a result, coil 1M1 is also de-energised.

Step 2-3
When the cylinder reaches its advanced end position, the piston rod actuates electrical limit switch 1B2.
Change-over contact 1B2 (connected as an NO contact) is closed and relay K2 is energised. Change-over
contact K2 (connected as an NO contact) is closed and solenoid coil 1M2 is energised. Valve 1V1 is
returned to its normal position.

The front chamber of cylinder 1A1 is filled with compressed air and the rear chamber is exhausted. The
cylinder returns to the retracted end position.

As soon as electrical limit switch 1B2 (change-over contact, connected as an NO contact) is no longer
actuated, relay K2 is de-energised and change-over contact K2 (connected as an NO contact) is opened.
As a result, coil 1M2 is also de-energised.

© Festo Didactic 541090 59


Exercise 6: Pushing wooden boards out of a stacking magazine

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, double-acting

2 One-way flow control valve

1 5/2-way solenoid valve

1 Pushbutton (normally open)

1 Limit switch (normally open)

2 Relay

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

60 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 7: Sorting packages

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be able to calculate piston forces based on specified values.
• You’ll be able to calculate characteristic electrical values.
• You’ll be able to make use of indirect actuation.
• You’ll be familiar with the logic AND operation and be able to set it up.

Presentation of the problem


Packages are directed past workstations on a roller conveyor. The packages can be diverted by means of
deflectors at specific points.

Layout

Conveyor for packages

© Festo Didactic 541090 61


Exercise 7: Sorting packages

Parameters
• A double-acting cylinder will be used.
• The cylinder will be controlled indirectly using pushbuttons and electromechanical limit switches.
• The cylinder can only advance when the piston rod is in the retracted end position.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Create an equipment list.
4 Set up the control system, both pneumatically and electrically.
5 Double check the control sequence.

Control sequence
1 The cylinder’s piston rod should advance automatically as soon as pushbutton S1 is activated.
2 When the pushbutton is no longer activated, the piston rod must return to the retracted end position.

62 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 7: Sorting packages

Calculating piston force


The piston of a double-acting cylinder has a diameter of 20 mm and the piston rod has a diameter of 8 mm.
Friction loss in the cylinder amounts to 10%.

– Calculate the effective piston force for both the forward and the return stroke at an operating pressure
of 6 bar (600 kPa).

Calculate for: Solution

Forward stroke F = 169,66 N

Return stroke F = 142,43 N

© Festo Didactic 541090 63


Exercise 7: Sorting packages

Calculating characteristic electrical values


The coil in a relay has a power rating of 1 W. Measurement of resistance between terminals A1 and A2
resulted in a value of 580 Ω.

– Calculate the relay’s operating voltage.

The following applies to electrical power:


U2
P= U ⋅ I or P= or = I2 ⋅R
P
R

As power and resistance are known:

U2
P= U 2= P ⋅ R
R

U2 =
1 ⋅ 580 =
580

U = 580
U = 24.083189157584590960256482060757
Umax ~ 24 V

64 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 7: Sorting packages

Basic principles
It should be possible to make the piston rod of a cylinder to advance using two pushbuttons, namely S1 and
S2. When both pushbuttons are activated simultaneously, solenoid coil 1M1 is energised, solenoid valve
1V1 switches to the actuated position and the piston rod advances. When one of the two pushbuttons is
released, the valve is switched to its normal position and the piston rod is retracted.

– Create the associated functions table and draw the logic symbol.

Note
0 means that the pushbutton is not activated and the piston does not advance.
1 means that the pushbutton is activated and the piston advances.

S1 S2 1M1 1V1

0 (not actuated) 0 (not actuated) 0 (not actuated) 0 (not actuated)

0 (not actuated) 1 (actuated) 0 (not actuated) 0 (not actuated)

1 (actuated) 0 (not actuated) 0 (not actuated) 0 (not actuated)

1 (actuated) 1 (actuated) 1 (actuated) 1 (actuated)

Functions table

S1 & 1M1
S2

Logic symbol

© Festo Didactic 541090 65


Exercise 7: Sorting packages

Complete the circuit diagrams

– Set up the pneumatic control system in accordance with the circuit diagram.

Pneumatic circuit diagram

– Complete the electrical circuit diagram.

+24 V 1 2 3 4 5

13 2 4 2 4 12 14 12 14
S1 1B1 1 B2 K1 K3
14 1 1 11 11

12 14
K2
11

A1 A1
K1 K2 K3 1M1 1M2
A2 A2

0V 12 12 12
11 14 .4 11 14 .4 11 14 .5
22 22 22
21 24 21 24 21 24
32 32 32
31 34 31 34 31 34
42 42 42
41 44 41 44 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram

66 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 7: Sorting packages

Sequence description

– Set up the control system and describe the operating sequence.

Initial position
In its initial position, cylinder 1A1 is in the retracted end position.

When cylinder 1A1 is in its retracted end position, electrical limit switch 1B1 is actuated (change-over
contact, connected as an NO contact), change-over contact 1B1 is closed and relay K2 is energised.

Step 1-2
After activating pushbutton S1 (NO contact) relay K1 is energised, change-over contact K1 (connected as
an NO contact) is closed and solenoid coil 1M1 at 5/2-way solenoid valve 1V1 is energised. Double
solenoid valve 1V1 is reversed. The piston end of cylinder 1A1 is filled with compressed air while the
piston rod end is exhausted. Cylinder 1A1 advances.

As soon as cylinder 1A1 leaves its retracted end position, limit switch 1B1is no longer actuated and
change-over contact 1B1 is opened. NO contact K2 is opened as a result and solenoid coil 1M1 is no
longer energised. The double solenoid valve remains in the right-hand switching position.

Step 2-3
When the cylinder reaches its advanced end position, the piston rod actuates electrical limit switch 1B2
(change-over contact, connected as an NO contact). Change-over contact 1B2 is closed. Relay K3 is
energised. Due to the fact that change-over contact K3 is closed (connected as an NO contact), solenoid
coil 1M2 is also energised. Valve 1V1 is reversed.

The piston rod end of cylinder 1A1 is pressurised with compressed air while the piston end is exhausted.
The cylinder returns to the retracted end position.

As soon as electrical limit switch 1B2 (change-over contact, connected as an NO contact) is no longer
actuated, relay K3 is de-energised and change-over contact K3 (connected as an NO contact) is opened.
As a result, coil 1M2 is also de-energised. The cylinder remains in the retracted end position.

© Festo Didactic 541090 67


Exercise 7: Sorting packages

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, double-acting

2 One-way flow control valve

1 5/2-way solenoid valve

1 Pushbutton (normally open)

2 Limit switch (normally open)

3 Relay

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

68 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be familiar with logic operations and be able to set them up.
• You’ll be able to explain and set up an electrical latching circuit with dominant breaking signal.

Presentation of the problem


Wooden boards are put onto a sliding platform manually. The boards are pushed under a belt sander by a
pneumatic drive.

Layout

Sliding platform

© Festo Didactic 541090 69


Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards

Parameters
• A double-acting cylinder will be used.
• The cylinder will be actuated indirectly.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Simulate the electro-pneumatic circuit diagram and test it for correct functioning.
4 Create an equipment list.
5 Set up the pneumatic and electrical circuits.
6 Check the circuit sequence.

Control sequence
1 The piston rod of a cylinder must advance when pushbutton S1 is activated.
2 The piston rod is retracted when pushbutton S2 is activated.

70 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards

Signal storage
If the piston rod of a cylinder also needs to be advanced when the pushbutton is pressed only briefly,
activation of the pushbutton must be stored. The signal can be stored either in the power section or in the
signal control section of the circuit.

– Described how signal storage is implemented in the power section or the signal control section.

Signal storage location Description: signal storage

Signal storage in the power A double solenoid valve is used for storage.
section
As a result of the piston’s static friction, the double solenoid valve is retained in is position, even
when the respective solenoid coil is no longer energised.

Signal storage in the signal By means of a solenoid valve with spring return and a relay with self-latching loop
control section
The relay coil is energised and a contact closes. When the on pushbutton is released, current
continues to flow through the coil via the closed contact, the relay is retained in the activated position
and thus the solenoid valve with spring return remains in the actuated position. The electrical circuit
is interrupted when an off pushbutton is activated. Depending on how the two pushbuttons are
arranged, we differentiate between dominantly setting and dominantly resetting self-latching loops.

© Festo Didactic 541090 71


Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards

Analysing circuits

– Describe the performance of the specified circuit (piloted 5/2-way solenoid valve with spring return,
double-acting cylinder) in the event of a power failure and pressure failure.

Electrical power supply failure Pressure failure

The solenoid valve with spring return is switched to its normal The solenoid valve returns to its normal position due to a lack of
position and the double-acting cylinder returns to the retracted adequate operating pressure.
end position.
The double-acting cylinder is unpressurised and assumes an
The solenoid valve and thus the cylinder as well, can be switched undefined position.
by means of manual override.

72 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards

Logic operations
Lamp P1 should always light up when pushbutton S1 is not activated.

– Create the associated functions table and the logic symbol.

S1 P1

0 (not actuated) 1 (actuated)

1 (actuated) 0 (not actuated)

Functions table

Logic symbol

Note
0 means pushbutton S1 not activated or lamp 1 off.
1 means pushbutton S1 activated or lamp 1 on.

© Festo Didactic 541090 73


Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards

Complete the circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the sliding table.

Pneumatic circuit diagram

– Complete the electrical circuit diagram for the sliding table.

Electrical circuit diagram

74 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards

Sequence description

– Set up the control system and describe the operating sequence.

Initial position
In its initial position, cylinder 1A1 is in the retracted end position.

Step 1-2
When pushbutton S1 (NO contact) is activated, relay K1 is energised and change-over contact K1
(connected as an NO contact) in current path 2 closes and activates the self-latching loop in relay K1.
Furthermore, change-over contact K1 in current path 3 closes and solenoid coil 1M1 at 5/2-way solenoid
1V1 is energised. Valve 1V1 is reversed. The piston end of cylinder 1A1 is now filled with compressed air
and the piston rod end is exhausted. Cylinder 1A1 advances.

Step 2-3
When pushbutton S2 (NC contact) is activated, self-latching at relay K1 is terminated. Change-over
contact K1 (connected as an NO contact) in current path 3 opens and relay K1 is de-energised. Valve 1V1
is reset by the reset spring.

The piston rod end of cylinder 1A1 is filled with compressed air while the piston end is exhausted. The
cylinder returns to the retracted end position.

© Festo Didactic 541090 75


Exercise 8: Sanding wooden boards

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, double-acting

2 One-way flow control valve

1 5/2-way solenoid valve

1 Pushbutton (normally open)

1 Pushbutton (normally closed)

1 Relay

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

76 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be familiar with various types of end-position control and learn to select the appropriate type.
• You’ll be familiar with latching circuits with varying performance features.

Presentation of the problem


Bottles need to be diverted from a conveyor belt with a diverting device to another conveyor belt in a
linearly indexed fashion. Once switched on, the system should run continuously. It should not be switched
off until a stop signal is generated.

Layout

Diverting device for bottles

© Festo Didactic 541090 77


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

Parameters
• The latching circuit used should demonstrate dominant off characteristics.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Simulate the electro-pneumatic circuit diagram and test it for correct functioning.
4 Create an equipment list.
5 Set up the pneumatic and electrical circuits.
6 Check the circuit sequence.

Control sequence
1 The sequence is started by pressing a pushbutton. If 3 bottles are present, the diverting cylinder’s
piston rod is advanced.
2 The bottles are diverted and transported to a second conveyor belt.
3 The sequence is stopped by pressing a second pushbutton.

78 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

Latching circuits
A relay circuit with self-latching loop is required in order to store a signal in the signal control section.
The relay coil is energised when pushbutton S1 is activated.

+24 V 1 2

13 12 14
S1 K1
14 11

A1
K1
A2

0V 12
11 14 .2
22
21 24
32
31 34
42
41 44

– Complete the electrical circuit diagram so that the relay is self-latched after releasing pushbutton S1
and describe the circuit’s function.

When pushbutton S1 is activated, coil K1 is energised and activates the change-over contact. Current
path 2 is closed as a result, the coil remains energised and the change-over contact is retained in its
current switching position. The circuit is self-latching as long as power supply is available.

© Festo Didactic 541090 79


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

Latching circuits
In order to terminate self-latching, the power supply to the coil must be interrupted. A separate NC contact
is required to this end.
Depending on how this NC contact is arranged, we differentiate between two types of self-latching.
• Dominantly setting self-latching
• Dominantly resetting self-latching

– Complete the following electrical circuit diagram so that self-latching is reliably terminated when
pushbutton S2 is activated.

+24 V 1 2 +24 V 1 2

13 12 14 13 12 14
S1 K1 S1 K1
14 11 14 11

31 31
S2 S2
32 32

A1 A1
K1 K1
A2 A2

0V 12
0V 12
11 14 .2 11 14 .2
22 22
21 24 21 24
32 32
31 34 31 34
42 42
41 44 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram, left: dominantly resetting self-latching, right: dominantly setting self-latching

80 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

Latching circuits
Different signal storing circuits have different characteristics:
• For simultaneous occurrence of setting and resetting conditions
• In the event of failure of electrical control energy or broken wire

– Complete the table by indicating how each respective valve responds.

Signal storage via an electrical latching circuit combined with


Signal storage via a double spring return valve
solenoid valve
Dominantly setting Dominantly resetting

Simultaneous setting and Valve position remains The valve is actuated. The valve returns to its normal
resetting signal unchanged. position.

Electrical power supply failure Valve position remains The valve returns to its normal The valve returns to its normal
unchanged. position. position.

© Festo Didactic 541090 81


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

Limit switches and proximity switches


The purpose of limit switches and proximity switches is to acquire information and forward it to signal
processing.
They include:
• Mechanical position switches (limit switches)
• Magnetic proximity switches
• Inductive proximity switches
• Optical proximity switches
• Capacitive proximity switches

– Match the terms with the corresponding circuit symbols in the table.

Circuit symbol Designation

1 Magnetic proximity switch


4

1 Optical proximity switch


4

1 Inductive proximity switch


4

Mechanical position switch (limit switch)


2 4

1 Capacitive proximity switch


4

82 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

Complete the circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic circuit.


– Complete the electrical circuit diagram.

1A1
1B1 1B2

1V2 1 1 1V3

2 2

1V1 4 2

1M1 1M2
5 3
1

Pneumatic circuit diagram

+24 V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1B1 1 1B2 1
13 12 14 12 14 12 14
4 4
S1 K1 K2 K3
14 11 11 11
3 3
22 24
31 K1
S2 21
32

A1 A1 A1
K1 K2 K3 1M1 1M2
A2 A2 A2

0V 12 12 12
11 14 .2 11 14 .7 11 14 .8
22 22 22
21 24 .7 21 24 21 24
32 32 32
31 34 31 34 31 34
42 42 42
41 44 41 44 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram

© Festo Didactic 541090 83


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

Sequence description

– Describe the control system’s operating sequence.

Initial position
In its initial position, cylinder 1A1 is in the retracted end position.
When cylinder 1A1 is in its retracted end position, magnetic proximity switch 1B1 is actuated (NO
contact), relay K2 is energised and change-over contact K2 (connected as an NO contact) in current path 7
closes.

Step 1-2
When pushbutton S1 (NO contact) is activated, relay K1 is energised and change-over contact K1
(connected as an NO contact) in current path 2 closes and activates the self-latching loop in relay K1.
Furthermore, change-over contact K1 (connected as an NO contact) in current path 7 closes and solenoid
coil 1M1 at 5/2-way double solenoid valve 1V1 is energised. Double solenoid valve 1V1 is reversed. The
rear chamber of cylinder 1A1 is now filled with compressed air and the front chamber is exhausted.
Cylinder 1A1 advances. As soon as cylinder 1A1 leaves its retracted end position, proximity switch 1B1 is
no longer actuated (NO contact). Change-over contact K2 (connected as an NO contact) in current path 7
is opened as a result and solenoid coil 1M1 is no longer energised. The double solenoid valve
nevertheless remains in the right-hand switching position.

Step 2-n
When the cylinder reaches the advanced end position, magnetic proximity switch 1B2 is activated (NO
contact) and relay K3 is energised. Change-over contact K3 (connected as an NO contact) in current path
8 is closed and solenoid coil 1M2 is energised. As a result, valve 1V1 is returned to its normal position
and cylinder 1A1 is returned to its retracted end position. As soon as proximity switch 1B2 (NO contact) is
no longer activated, relay K3 is de-energised and change-over contact K3 (connected as an NO contact) in
current path 8 is opened. As a result, coil 1M2 is also de-energised.

As the electrical latching circuit at relay K1 is still active, solenoid coil 1M1 once again receives a
switching signal when the retracted end position is reached, so that cylinder 1A1 advances again
immediately.

Step n-(n+1)
Oscillating motion of cylinder 1A1 can be interrupted by activating pushbutton S2 (NC contact). Self-
latching at relay K1 is terminated as a result. The cylinder returns to the retracted end position and
remains there.

84 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components and their quantities in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, double-acting

2 One-way flow control valve

1 Double solenoid valve, 5/2-way

1 Pushbutton (normally open)

1 Pushbutton (normally closed)

3 Relay

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

© Festo Didactic 541090 85


Exercise 9: Diverting bottles

86 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be able to set up pressure-dependent reversing.
• You’ll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of magnetic proximity switches.

Presentation of the problem


Taper keys are required for the production of door frames. The keys will be stamped with a stamping system.

Layout

Stamping system

© Festo Didactic 541090 87


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Parameters
• Stamping pressure should be 5.5 bar (550 kPa).

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
3 Create an equipment list.
4 Set up the control system, both pneumatically and electrically.
5 Double check the control sequence.

Sequence description
1 The stamping tool is advanced after pressing a pushbutton and a taper key is stamped.
2 After stamping pressure is reached, the stamping tool is advanced to its starting position.

88 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Magnetic proximity switches


As opposed to limit switches, proximity switches are contact-free and require no external actuating force.

– Describe the set-up and function of a magnetic proximity switch (reed switch).

Description: design and function Circuit symbol Schematic drawing

Reed switches are magnetically actuated proximity switches.


They consist of two contact reeds which are located in a glass
tube which is filled with inert gas. When a magnetic force is
applied, the two reeds make contact enabling electrical current
to flow.

In the case of reed switches, which function as NC contacts, the


contact blades are preloaded with small magnets. This 1
preloading is overpowered by the significantly stronger 4
switching magnet.
Reed switches have a long service life and minimal switching
3
times (approx. 0.2 ms).
They’re maintenance free, but they should not be used in the
presence of strong magnetic fields (e.g. close to resistance
welding units).

© Festo Didactic 541090 89


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Magnetic proximity switches


As regards the polarity of the output signal, there are two different types of electronic proximity switches:
PNP and NPN.

– Explain the difference between these two different designs.

PNP NPN

In the case of negative switching proximity switches, power In the case of positive switching proximity switches, zero voltage
supply is present at the output when there are no parts within the is present at the output when there are no parts within the
switch’s response range. When a workpiece or machine switch’s response range. When a workpiece or machine
component approaches the switch, the output is switched to 0 V. component approaches the switch, the output is switched and
power supply is present.

24 V 24 V

B 1 B 1
4 4

3 3

90 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Pressure switches
Pressure-sensitive sensors, so-called pressure switches, are used in order to measure and monitor pressure
within the system.

– Describe the mode of operation of a pressure switch.

A pneumatic pressure signal switches an electrical signal generator (usually laid out as a change-over
contact) in the pressure switch, i.e. a pneumatic input signal is read out as an electrical signal.

Pressure switches are available with fixed, as well as adjustable switching pressures.

© Festo Didactic 541090 91


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Pressure switches
Pressure sensors can be subdivided into two groups. Differentiation is made between:
• Pressure sensors with mechanical contact (mechanical mode of operation)
• Pressure sensors with electronic switching (electronic mode of operation)

– Describe the task and function of the pressure switch depicted below.

Description: task and function Circuit symbol Schematic drawing

Pressure switches are used in order to Electrical


generate an electrical output signal when
1
a specified pressure is reached. 4
p
In the case of this mechanical pressure U
2
1
switch, pressure acts on the surface of a 3
4
piston. If the force generated by prevailing
2
pressure exceeds the force of the spring
used, the piston moves and actuates the Pneumatic
X
change-over contact points. Switching
pressure can be adjusted by preloading
the spring, which is why this pressure
p
sensor is called a pressure switch.

92 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Selecting proximity switches


The end positions of a cylinder drive are to be sensed with proximity switches. The proximity switches must
fulfil the following requirements:
• The piston rod’s end positions must be sensed in a contactless fashion.
• The proximity switches must be insensitive to dust.
• The cylinder’s piston rod and trip cam are made of metal.

– Make your selection and indicate which proximity switches fulfil the specified requirements. Enter your
selection in the table below and justify your choice.

Proximity switch Reason

Inductive proximity switch Both proximity switches are contactless and require no mechanical actuation. Due to the fact
that the trip cam is made of metal, the inductive proximity switch can be used.
It functions in a contactless manner and is insensitive to contamination.

© Festo Didactic 541090 93


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Complete the circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic circuit by drawing in the pressure sensor and the associated compressed air
line.

1A1
1B1 1B2

1V2 1 1 1V3

1B3 1 2 2
4

U
2
3

1V1 4 2

1M1 1M2
5 3
1

Pneumatic circuit diagram

94 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

– Complete the electrical circuit diagram.

+24 V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1B1 1 1B2 1 1B3 1


4 13 12 14
4 4 p
S1 K2
U
2 14 11
3 3 3
12 14 12 14
K1 K3
11 11

A1 A1 A1
K1 K2 K3 1M1 1M2
A2 A2 A2

0V 12 12 12
11 14 .7 11 14 .8 11 14 .8
22 22 22
21 24 21 24 21 24
32 32 32
31 34 31 34 31 34
42 42 42
41 44 41 44 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram

© Festo Didactic 541090 95


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Sequence description

– Set up the control system and describe the operating sequence.

Initial position
In its initial position, cylinder 1A1 is in the retracted end position.
When cylinder 1A1 is in its retracted end position, magnetic proximity switch 1B1 is actuated (NO
contact), relay K1 is energised and change-over contact K1 (connected as an NO contact) in current path 7
is closed.

Step 1-2
After activating pushbutton S1 (NO contact), solenoid coil 1M1 at 5/2-way double solenoid valve 1V1 is
energised. Double solenoid valve 1V1 is reversed. Cylinder 1A1 advances. As soon as cylinder 1A1 leaves
its retracted end position, proximity switch 1B1 is no longer actuated (NO contact). Change-over contact
K1 (connected as an NO contact) in current path 7 is opened as a result and solenoid coil 1M1 is no
longer energised. The double solenoid valve remains in the right-hand switching position.

Step 2-3
When the cylinder reaches the advanced end position, magnetic proximity switch 1B2 is activated (NO
contact) and relay K2 is energised. Change-over contact K2 (connected as an NO contact) in current path
8 is closed. In the meantime, pressure sensor 1B3 measures pressure at cylinder 1A1. If pressure is equal
to or greater than the selected setpoint, the pressure sensor is switched, relay K3 is energised and
change-over contact K3 (connected as an NO contact) in current path 8 is closed. Solenoid coil 1M2 is
now energised. As a result, valve 1V1 is returned to its normal position and cylinder 1A1 is returned to its
retracted end position.

As soon as proximity switch 1B2 (NO contact) is no longer actuated, relay K2 is de-energised and change-
over contact K2 (connected as an NO contact) is opened.

If the selected setpoint is fallen short of, the pressure sensor (programmed as an NO contact) is switched
off, relay K3 is de-energised and change-over contact K3 (connected as an NO contact) in current path 8 is
opened. As a result, coil 1M2 is also de-energised.

96 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, double-acting

2 One-way flow control valve

2 Proximity switch, electronic

1 5/2-way double solenoid valve

1 Pressure sensor

1 Pushbutton (normally open)

3 Relay

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

© Festo Didactic 541090 97


Exercise 10: Stamping taper keys

98 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be able to make use of an optical sensor.
• You’ll be familiar with displacement-step diagrams and learn to create them for specific problems.
• You’ll be able to implement sequence control with two cylinders.

Presentation of the problem


Stacks of roof tiles are strapped together. The resulting sets are then transported to a pallet loading station
where they’re transferred to Euro pallets.

Layout

Pallet loading station

© Festo Didactic 541090 99


Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles

Parameters
Adjust the one-way flow control valve so that both cylinders are retracted at the same speed.
The advanced end position of the single-acting cylinder will be detected with an optical sensor.

Project assignment
1 Answer the questions and complete the tasks for the learning topics.
2 Draw the displacement-step diagram.
3 Create the associated function diagram and the function chart.
4 Draw the pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams.
5 Simulate the electro-pneumatic circuit diagram and test it for correct functioning.
6 Create an equipment list.
7 Set up the pneumatic and electrical circuits.
8 Check the circuit sequence.

Control sequence
1 When pushbutton S1 is activated, cylinder 1A1 is advanced. An individual set is transported to the
loading station as a result and sensor 1B2 is actuated.
2 Cylinder 2A1 is advanced, actuates sensor 2B2 and pushes the individual set onto the pallet.
3 If 2B2 is actuated and S1 is unactuated, cylinder 1A1 is retracted, 1B2 is no longer actuated and cylinder
2A1 is retracted.
The overall sequence is thus as follows:
1A1+ 2A1+ 1A1–
2A1–

100 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles

Optical proximity switch, technical data

– Describe the mode of operation of the included optical proximity switch by entering its technical data in
the table below. Use the respective data sheet to this end.

Technical data

Switching voltage 10 to 30 V DC

Residual ripple Max. 10%

Nominal switching distance 0 to 100 mm (adjustable)

Switching frequency Max. 200 Hz

Output function Normally open, positive switching

– Write down what needs to be observed when setting up the circuit with regard to the position of the
sensor.

The sensor must be positioned so that only the cylinder’s trip cam is detected.
There shouldn’t be any other objects within the sensor’s sensing range.

© Festo Didactic 541090 101


Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles

Optical proximity switch, connection

– Sketch the power supply into the drawing shown below and connect the terminals at the optical sensor
to the power supply. Enter the connections in the table.

24 V

Circuit diagram, optical proximity switch

Socket Connection

Red 24 V

Black Relay (coil)

Blue 0V

102 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles

Creating a displacement-step diagram


When pushbutton S1 is activated, cylinder 1A1 is advanced. An individual packet is transported to the
loading station as a result and sensor 1B2 is actuated. Cylinder 2A1 is advanced, actuates sensor 2B2 and
pushes the individual packet onto the pallet. If 2B2 is actuated and S1 is unactuated, cylinder 1A1 is
retracted, 1B2 is no longer actuated and cylinder 2A1 is retracted.

The overall sequence is thus as follows:


1A1+ 2A1+ 1A1–
2A1–

– Draw a displacement-step diagram for the task described above.

Displacement-step diagram

© Festo Didactic 541090 103


Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles

Complete the circuit diagrams

– Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the pallet loading station.
– Complete the electrical circuit diagram for the pallet loading station.

Pneumatic circuit diagram

+24 V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1B2 1 2B2 1
13 12 14 12 14 12 14
4 4
S1 K3 K2 K1
14 11 11 11
3 3

A1 A1 A1
K1 K2 K3 1M1 1M2 2M1
A2 A2 A2

0V 12 12 12
11 14 .8 11 14 .7 11 14 .6
22 22 22
21 24 21 24 21 24
32 32 32
31 34 31 34 31 34
42 42 42
41 44 41 44 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram

104 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles

Sequence description

– Set up the control system and describe the operating sequence.

Initial position
In their initial position, cylinders 1A1 and 2A1 are in the retracted end position.

Step 1-2
When pushbutton S1 (NO contact) is activated, relay K3 is energised. Change-over contact K3 (connected
as an NO contact) is closed and solenoid coil 1M1 at 5/2-way double solenoid valve 1V1 is energised.
Double solenoid valve 1V1 is reversed. Cylinder 1A1 advances. As soon as pushbutton S1 (NO contact) is
no longer activated, relay K3 is de-energised and change-over contact K3 (connected as an NO contact) is
opened.
As a result, coil 1M1 is also de-energised.

Step 2-3
As soon as cylinder 1A1 reaches the advanced end position, magnetic proximity switch 1B2 (NO contact)
is switched and relay K1 is energised. Change-over contact K1 (connected as an NO contact) in current
path 8 is closed and solenoid coil 2M1 at 3/2-way solenoid valve 1V2 is energised. Valve 2M1 is reversed
and cylinder 2A1 advances.

Step 3-4
When cylinder 2A1 reaches the advanced end position, optical proximity switch 2B2 is activated (NO
contact) and relay K2 is energised. Change-over contact K2 (connected as an NO contact) in current path
7 is closed. Solenoid coil 1M2 is now energised. As a result, valve 1V1 is returned to its normal position
and cylinder 1A1 is returned to its retracted end position.

As soon as cylinder 1A1 has left its advanced end position, relay K1 is de-energised. NO contact K1 in
current path 8 opens and solenoid coil 2M1 is de-energised. Valve 1V1 is returned to its normal position
by the reset spring and cylinder 2A1 is returned to its retracted end position.

© Festo Didactic 541090 105


Exercise 11: Palletising roof tiles

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

– Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity Designation

1 Cylinder, double-acting

1 Cylinder, single-acting

3 One-way flow control valve

1 5/2-way double solenoid valve

1 3/2-way solenoid valve

1 Proximity switch, electronic

1 Proximity switch, optical

1 Pushbutton (normally open)

3 Relay

1 Distributor block

1 On-off valve with filter regulator

1 Compressed air source

1 Power supply unit, 24 V DC

Equipment list

106 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
• You’ll be able to detect and eliminate errors in simple electro-pneumatic control systems.

Presentation of the problem


The pallet loading station comes to a standstill during operation. A malfunction has occurred and must be
eliminated. Afterwards, the pallet loading station must be restarted.

Layout

Pallet loading station

© Festo Didactic 541090 107


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Parameters
A malfunction has occurred.

Project assignment
1 Describe the control system’s performance. Compare this with the correct performance. Make use of the
displacement-step diagram.
2 Narrow down possible causes of the malfunction. Make use of the pneumatic and electrical circuit
diagrams.
3 Pinpoint the malfunction at the control system and eliminate it.
4 Put the control system back into service.

Control sequence
1 When pushbutton S1 is activated, cylinder 1A1 is advanced. An individual set is transported to the
loading station as a result and sensor 1B2 is actuated.
2 Cylinder 2A1 is advanced, actuates sensor 2B2 and pushes the individual set onto the pallet.
3 If 2B2 is actuated and S1 is unactuated, cylinder 1A1 is retracted, 1B2 is no longer actuated and cylinder
2A1 is retracted.
The overall sequence is thus as follows:
1A1+ 2A1+ 1A1–
2A1–

108 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Troubleshooting simple electro-pneumatic circuits


The following error occurs in the control system depicted below:
The piston rods in cylinders 1A1 and 2A1 advance and remain in the advanced end position.

– Describe the possible causes of this error.

Pneumatic circuit diagram

© Festo Didactic 541090 109


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

+24 V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1B2 1 2B2 1
13 12 14 12 14 12 14
4 4
S1 K3 K2 K1
14 11 11 11
3 3

A1 A1 A1
K1 K2 K3 1M1 1M2 2M1
A2 A2 A2

0V 12 12 12
11 14 .8 11 14 .7 11 14 .6
22 22 22
21 24 21 24 21 24
32 32 32
31 34 31 34 31 34
42 42 42
41 44 41 44 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram

List of possible causes

Sensor 2B2 at cylinder 2A1 is incorrectly adjusted, defective sensor

Current path 3 is interrupted (e.g. broken wire or loose connection)

The signal cable from sensor 2B2 is interrupted, current path 4 (e.g. broken wire or loose connection)

Earth cable 1M2 is interrupted, current path 7 (e.g. broken wire or loose connection), solenoid coil 1M2 is defective

Earth cable at relay K2 is interrupted, current path 4 (e.g. broken wire or loose connection), relay K2 is defective

Interruption of current path 7, supply line to relay contact 14 (relay K2) or supply line to relay contact 11 (relay K2) downstream from
solenoid coil 1M2 (e.g. broken wire or loose connection)

110 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Troubleshooting simple electro-pneumatic circuits


Conductors are interrupted at the points identified in the circuit shown below.

– Explain which effects a broken wire would have on the circuit’s function at each of the identified points.

+24 V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1B2 1 2B2 1
13 12 14 12 14 12 14
4 4
S1 K3 K2 K1
14 11 11 11
3 3

A1 A1 A1
K1 K2 K3 1M1 1M2 2M1
A2 A2 A2

0V 12 12 12
11 14 .8 11 14 .7 11 14 .6
22 22 22
21 24 21 24 21 24
32 32 32
31 34 31 34 31 34
42 42 42
41 44 41 44 41 44

Electrical circuit diagram

Error Effects of the error

Broken earth wire at relay Piston rod in cylinder 1A1 advances, sensor 1B2 is actuated => relay K1 is not picked up => relay
K1, current path 2 contact in current path 8 (change-over contact, connected as NO contact) does not switch => piston rod
in cylinder 2A1 does not advance to the advanced end position (remains retracted), sensor 2B2 is not
actuated => piston rod in cylinder 1A1 remains advanced because 1M2 is not actuated.

Broken signal wire at Piston rod in cylinder 1A1 advances, sensor 1B2 is actuated => piston rod in cylinder 2A1 advances to
sensor 2B2, current path 4 the advanced end position, sensor 2B2 is actuated => relay K2 is not picked up => relay contact in
current path 7 (change-over contact, connected as NO contact) does not switch => piston rods in
cylinders 1A1 and 2A1 remain in the advanced position.

Broken supply line to relay Current path 5 is not closed, relay K3 is not picked up, no reaction to start signal => piston rods in
K3, current path 5 cylinders 1A1 and 2A1 remain in the retracted position.

Broken supply line to relay Piston rod in cylinder 1A1 advances, sensor 1B2 is actuated => piston rod in cylinder 2A1 advances to
contact 14 (relay K2), the advanced end position, sensor 2B2 is actuated => relay K2 is picked up, relay contact in current
current path 7 path 7 (change-over contact, connected as NO contact) switches, but solenoid coil 1M2 is not energised
due to broken wire => piston rods in cylinders 1A1 and 2A1 remain in the advanced position.

Earth wire 2M1 broken, Piston rod in cylinder 1A1 advances => sensor 1B2 is actuated => relay K1 is picked up, relay contact in
current path 8 current path 8 (change-over contact, connected as NO contact) switches, but solenoid coil 2M1 is not
energised due to broken wire => piston rod in cylinder 2A1 remains retracted, piston rod in cylinder 1A1
remains advanced.

© Festo Didactic 541090 111


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Error list for possible error simulation by the trainer


The following is a list of errors which you can incorporate into a control system. The corresponding printed
forms for troubleshooting are in the student workbook.

Error simulation Cause of error Effects of the error

Push sensor 1B2 at cylinder 1A1 towards Sensor 1B2 at cylinder 1A1 is incorrectly Piston rod in cylinder 1A1 advances,
the retracted end position. adjusted. sensor 1B2 is briefly actuated => piston rod
in cylinder 2A1 does not advance into the
advanced end position, sensor 2B2 is not
actuated => piston rod in cylinder 1A1
remains advanced because 1M2 is not
actuated.

Disconnect the signal cable from sensor Broken signal cable at sensor 1B1 or Piston rod in cylinder 1A1 advances => no
1B2 or push the sensor beyond the incorrectly adjusted sensor. sensor signal or sensor 1B2 is not actuated
advanced end position. => piston rod in cylinder 2A1 remains
retracted, piston rod in cylinder 1A1
remains advanced.

Disconnect the signal cable from sensor Broken signal cable at sensor 2B1 or Piston rod in cylinder 1A1 advances,
2B2 or push the sensor beyond the incorrectly adjusted sensor. sensor 1B2 is actuated => piston rod in
advanced end position. cylinder 2A1 advances into the advanced
end position, no sensor signal or sensor
2B2 is not actuated => piston rods in
cylinders 1A1 and 2A1 remain in the
advanced position.

Interrupt current path 2 (e.g. earth wire Broken earth wire 2M1, K1 and supply Piston rod in cylinder 1A1 advances => 2A1
from relay K1), signal line or current path 8, lines to relay contact 11 and 14 (relay K1) remains retracted because current paths 2
e.g. disconnect supply lines to relay and 8 are interrupted.
contact 14 or 11 (relay K1) and earth wire
2M1.

For example, interrupt earth wire from Broken earth wire 1M2, K2 and supply The piston rods in cylinders 1A1 and 2A1
relay K2 and current path 4 or 7, or lines to relay contact 11 and 14 (relay K12) advance and remain in the advanced end
disconnect relay K2 and supply lines to position.
relay contacts 14 and 11 (relay K2) and
earth wire1M2.

Interrupt earth wire from relay K3, current Broken earth wire 1M1, K3 and broken No reaction to start signal => piston rods in
path 5 or 8, 1M1, or disconnect K3 and supply lines to relay contact 14 to K3 cylinders 1A1 and 2A1 remain in the
supply lines to relay contact 14 and K3. retracted position.

Notes for the trainer

It’s advisable to carry out this task after setting up the control system, because correct set-up of the
control system has then been completed and tested. The error can be directly incorporated into the
control system by the trainer (see error simulation list). It’s important to make sure that the trainees
proceed in an orderly fashion during troubleshooting.

112 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Alternative

If a fully set-up control system is not available, troubleshooting can also be conducted theoretically.
The trainer explains the malfunction (“cylinder 1A1 advances and then the control system jams”).
The trainees narrow down the possible errors based on the function chart.
The trainees prepare a list of possible causes of the error and describe how they will proceed during
troubleshooting (where must measurements be performed, what must be tested).

Determine target status

– Create a displacement-step diagram of the target status with the help of the necessary documentation.

Displacement-step diagram

© Festo Didactic 541090 113


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Troubleshooting: actual versus target status comparison

– Determine the actual status of the system on the basis of the following documentation:
Layout with description of the problem
Graphic representation
If correct functioning is not ensured (actual versus target status comparison), clearly mark the point in
the diagram where the error occurs.

Displacement-step diagram

114 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Troubleshooting: description of the error


You marked the point at which the error occurs in the diagram on the worksheet for the actual versus target
status comparison.

– Describe in a few words the sequence up to the point that the station or system comes to a standstill.

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Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Troubleshooting: pinpointing pneumatic errors


After having determined the system’s actual status, think about what might have caused the error. In which
pneumatic tubing connections might the error be located?

– Enter all possibilities. Specify elements at the beginnings and ends of tubing connections in order to
ensure clear identification.

Error possibility Tubing connection, Tubing connection,


no. beginning end

Possible errors

116 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Troubleshooting: pinpointing electrical errors


After having determined the system’s actual status, think about what might have caused the error.
In which current paths might the error be located?
What is the function of the current path?

– Enter all possible errors in the table.

Error possibility Current path no. Function of the current path


no.

Possible errors

© Festo Didactic 541090 117


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Troubleshooting: narrowing down pneumatic errors


Examine the possible pneumatic causes of error which you have discovered. Use the same error numbering
you used on the worksheet for pinpointing pneumatic errors. Document the procedure used for inspecting
the tubing connections.

– Enter the results of your inspection in the following table.

Measuring and test report

Error possibility Tubing connection, Tubing connection,


Inspection Results
no. beginning end

Measuring and test report

118 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Troubleshooting: narrowing down electrical errors


Examine the possible electrical causes of error which you have discovered. Use the same error numbering
you used in the worksheet for pinpointing electrical errors.

– Document the procedure used for inspecting the wiring connections by entering your results in the
table.

Measuring and test report

Error possibility Current path no. Measuring points Inspection Results


no.

Measuring and test report

© Festo Didactic 541090 119


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Error elimination
After pinpointing the error, document the procedure for eliminating the error on this worksheet.

– Describe each step as completely as possible.

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Note
If the system does not fulfil the desired function, go back to the first worksheet and repeat the
troubleshooting process.

Use new worksheets for this.

120 © Festo Didactic 541090


Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

Commissioning
After having detected, localised and eliminated the error or errors, re-start the system in accordance with
the target status. Reset the specified setpoint times.

– Describe your procedure in a few words.

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Exercise12: Eliminating a malfunction at a pallet loading station

122 © Festo Didactic 541090