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Nature for Water

The theme for World Water Day 2018 is ‘Nature reservoir at only 13% capacity. As per World Water
for Water’. Activities focused on it will be organized Council, their 4 million residents must reduce their
world over to explore and discuss the nature-based water usage to just 50 liters per day. The magnitude of
solutions to the water challenges which we are facing this drought in Cape Town’s is a once in every 300
in the 21st century. According to UN Water, currently, years event.
2.1 billion people are living without safe drinking water What is even more frightening is the fact that
- which is not only a serious concern for their health - Cape Town is not the only city facing the threat of
but their education and livelihood as well. such a water crisis. Cities in India, Brazil, Indonesia,
In this issue, we have also explored the impact of Mexico, Australia, USA, and Italy are currently facing
nature on water, and their relation. Restoring urban severe water shortages and could even be the next in
wetlands should be one of the priorities to balance line if we do not change the way we see water - as an
our water cycle and avoid flood-like situations. Cre- abundant and unlimited source to waste away. If we go
ating a green water and wastewater infrastructure is by the predictions of WWC, by 2030, the world will
another priority which should seamlessly merge with face a 40% global water deficit under the business-
the grey infrastructure wherever possible. The rejuve- as-usual climate scenario, and by 2050, over 40% of
nation and restoration of our rivers, lakes, ponds, and the world population will be subject to severe water
other natural water resources are also significant. stress.
Reconnecting our rivers to the floodplains is also nec- The most important and simple lesson for us then
essary. is to stop neglecting our ecosystem and start mak-
Although the clock is ticking, there is still some ing amends for whatever we have done till now.
time left to do our bit, so that our next generations As we gear up for our first event in the water sec-
would not inherit the cities like Cape Town (South tor - Express Water ‘Jal Sabha’ (8-10 March, Pune) - a
Africa) which could be the world’s first city to run out forum exclusively for the heads of the water supply
of the water. This would mean that the city’s popula- and sewage departments of Municipal Corporations
tion of 4 million people will not have access to run- “All the lessons are in - a gathering of 50 delegates from municipal organiza-
ning water anymore this year. The day has been nick- tions across India has confirmed their participation.
named as ‘Day Zero’ and is being discussed
nature.You look at the way It will be a unique platform for the audience to come
everywhere. rocks are formed - the wind together to debate and discuss issues faced by the
Only four years ago, Cape Town’s six major water and the water hitting them, corporations around water supply and sewage, 24x7
reservoirs with a capacity of 230 billion gallons were water supply, smart metering, and STPs (their fi-
full. But three consecutive years of low-rainfall (a shaping them,making nancing, and decentralized STPs), among others.
third of normal levels) with continuously increasing them what they are.Things MAYUR SHARMA
population, have dramatically reduced the water lev-
els of dams. As of January 29, 2018, NASA reported
take time,you know?” Editor
that the reservoirs are at just 26%, with the largest - Diane Lane @TheExpressWater

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EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 3

Vol 01 No 3 February 2018 Pages 52 COLUMNS
Chairman of the Board

Viveck Goenka
Sr Vice President - BPD
By Robert Brears

Neil Viegas WATER WISE

Editor 11 By WaterAid
Mayur Sharma*
DESIGN 12 By Australian Water
Partnership (AWP)
National Design Editor

Bivash Barua
Assistant Art Director

Pravin Temble OUT OF THE BOX

Chief Designer

Prasad Tate
Senior Designer


Gauri Deorukhkar


Head of Internet

Viraj Mehta
Web Developer


Senior Executive - Online


Pushkar Worlikar
Executive - Online EFFICIENT
Salil Sule Bentley’s 3D technology
reduces wastewater treat-
SCHEDULING & COORDINATION ment plant design costs by 30
Santosh Lokare percent.
Photo Editor
Exploring the theme of this year’s World Water Day (22
Sandeep Patil March)…how we can use nature to overcome the water 44 TREATMENT PLANT IN

challenges of the 21st century. GERMANY ENJOYS

Mohan Varadakar
17-34 Besides the four central STPs,
Sonneberg Waterworks also
operate eight small biological
PRODUCTION plants, and thereby cover an
General Manager THE SECOND OPINION: IMPACT OF GST area of around 150 square
B R Tipnis

Bhadresh Valia
RNI NO. MAHENG-14351. Printed by The
Indian Express (P) Ltd. and published by
Ms Vaidehi Thakar on behalf of The TO TURN OFF TAPS
Indian Express Press, Plot No. EL-208,
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Mumbai - 400710 and Published from
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Copyright © 2017
The Indian Express (P) Limited. All rights reserved throughout the world. Reproduction in any manner, electronic or otherwise, in whole or in part, without prior written permission is prohibited.
*Responsible for selection of news under PRB Act

4 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


TATA Projects and Israel's Watergen Enter

an MoU to Extract Drinking Water from Air
The partnership will run a pilot program to provide solution for clean and safe drinking water in India

EW Staff operations and manufacture Dr. Michael Mirilashvili

India Watergen units in India. This explained, "Watergen is proud
process will provide local and to be a partner in the long-
I S R A E L - B A S E D regional drinking water sup- standing and fruitful co-oper-
WATERGEN and India's ply when needed, as well as ation between Israel and
TATA Projects Limited have the deployment of a distrib- India. We thank TATA
signed a memorandum of uted water grid chain across Projects and TATA Trusts for
understanding. The intent of the country. their commitment to improv-
the MoU is to help solve Watergen's revolutionary ing the quality of life for the
India's drinking water chal- technology is an immediate, citizens of India. Together,
lenge, by providing safe, clean quick, permanent, low cost, Watergen and TATA Projects
and cost-efficient drinking energy efficient, accessible, AWG unit produces up to up to 600 liters of water every can now provide clean and
water across India. The MoU clean and safe drinking 'water 6,000 liters of water from the day. A pilot program is safe drinking water from the
seeks to create a mutual enti- from the air' solution for air every day, while the medi- planned to utilize the mid-size air, immediately and perma-
ty in India, to manage local India. Watergen's large-scale um scale AWG unit produces GEN-350G unit. nently.”

AquaVenture Holdings to Acquire PUB Drives Innovations

Majority Interest in Desalination for Water Sustainability
Plant in Ghana EW Staff
The first RFP targets spe-
cific technologies in enhanc-
ing energy efficiency of water
SINGAPORE’S NATIONAL and used water treatment
EW Staff The base purchase price for in completing the various con- WATER Agency PUB has process. For water treatment,
USA this interest is approximately ditions to closing and becom- launched three Requests for it aims to reduce energy con-
$26 million, subject to adjust- ing a long-term partner to the Proposals (RFPs) to invite sumption of desalination and
A Q U AV E N T U R E ment in accordance with the Government of Ghana for industry technology providers NEWater through biomimicry.
HOLDINGS Limited has purchase agreement. water treatment and servic- and researchers to develop The second RFP aims to
entered into a binding agree- Completion of the purchase, es." solutions that will improve the enhance water efficiency in
ment with Abengoa Water, which is expected to occur by The company has also effectiveness of water treat- industries through water
S.L.U. to purchase a majority the end of the second quarter entered into an agreement to ment processes and opera- recycling or reducing water
interest in a desalination plant of 2018, is subject to the satis- purchase an SWRO desalina- tions, and ensure water sus- consumption. Proposals are to
in Accra, Ghana. The plant faction of certain conditions tion plant in Long Island, The tainability. be submitted by the industrial
has the capacity to deliver precedent. Bahamas for a purchase price Water demand is expected or commercial host, in collab-
approximately 18.5 million gal- Doug Brown, Chairman, of approximately $3.0 million, to double by 2060, with the oration with an identified
lons (60,000 m3) per day of and CEO of AquaVenture subject to adjustment in non-domestic sector making technology provider.
potable water to Ghana Water Holdings, commented: "We accordance with the purchase up 70% of demand then. More The third RFP looks at
Company Limited under a are excited about this project. agreement. The plant has the energy-intensive sources such enhancing operational effi-
long-term, U.S. dollar-denomi- This will be our first desalina- capacity to deliver approxi- as NEWater and desalinated ciency by leveraging on smart
nated water purchase agree- tion plant in Africa. The acqui- mately 200 thousand gallons water will meet up to 85% of technologies such as robotics,
ment. The facility has been sition will expand our base of per day of potable water to the Singapore’s water needs then drones, automation, data ana-
operational since 2015 and, facilities that provide WAAS Water and Sewage too. It is important to maxi- lytics and informatics, and
through its customer, supplies solutions to our customers. Corporation of The Bahamas mize water efficiency and video analytics, to minimize
water to approximately We look forward to working under a long-term water pur- lower energy use in water and manpower required for opera-
500,000 residents of Accra. with the project stakeholders chase agreement. used water treatment. tions and maintenanc

6 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


SPML Infra JV Secures Order for Irrigation

Project in Ghana
Mayur Sharma The scope of work includes are delighted with the new help us in delivering the proj-
Kolkata modification of existing sup- order from Ghana. This is the ects on time with excellence in
ply canal, main canal, cross second order from African execution and EPC services.
SPML INFRA LIMITED regulators and installation of countries after we received an We are committed to a long-
with its joint venture partner new distribution structures. order from Rwanda last year. term association with African
OM Metals Infraprojects has This World Bank funded proj- It is an opportunity for both countries to provide complete
secured an international ect has a timeline of 18 months SPML Infra and OM Metals to EPC solutions for water and
order from Ministry of Food to complete. The Letter of become a reliable partner for power projects combining
and Agriculture, Republic of Intent (LoI) received by the the sustainable infrastructure customized engineering, pro-
Ghana for the work related to JV last week and the projects development in Ghana and curement, project manage-
rehabilitation and completion will be executed within the other African countries. We ment using modern technolo-
of Kpong left bank irrigation given period. are sure that our rich experi- gies, meeting timelines and
project in Ghana, Africa for Subhash Sethi, Chairman, ence in drinking water man- conforming to international
Rs. 205 crore. SPML Infra, commented, “We agement and irrigation will safety standards.”

SPML Infra Q3 Profit ACCIONABuilds Largest Desalination

Rises to 2376% to Plant for Industrial Use in the
8.39 Crore Mediterranean,in Italy
Mayur Sharma consolidation of our finances The plant will be operated by ACCIONA Agua for the
Kolkata with prudent strategies and
resource optimization meas- next six years, with an estimated daily production of
SPML INFRA LIMITED has ures have helped us in focus- 12,000 m3.
declared the financial results ing more on project execution
for the Q3 period ended and winning new projects. We and maintenance for six years, ronmental impact, costs and
December 31, 2017. Q3 Net expect the next wave of with a possible three-year installation times, and
Profit Rises to 2376% to 8.39 growth will be coming from extension. improve efficiency in overall
Crore on a Net Sale of INR water, irrigation and power The plant has a daily pro- operation by reducing pres-
344 Crore. transmission & distribution duction capacity of 12,000 m3 sure losses and significantly
The consolidated EBITDA sector with the government of demineralized water optimizing energy consump-
for Q3FY18 stands at INR targeting to achieve 100% through such processes as tion, among other factors.
75.67 Cr against INR 49.47 Cr electrification within 2018. We ultrafiltration, reverse osmo- ACCIONA Agua currently
in Q3FY17, up 53%. The con- are focusing to complete our EW Staff sis and electrodeionization. has a portfolio of more than 40
solidated Q3FY18 net profit up 40 ongoing projects in water Italy The treated water will be used projects in Italy, including
2376% at INR 8.39 Cr against and power segments and in industrial processes carried drinking water, desalination,
loss of INR -0.37 in Q3FY17. enhancing the order book in ACCIONA AGUA HAS com- out by the Italian energy com- and wastewater treatment
And the consolidated net prof- these two areas. We are also pleted the construction of a pany at its refinery near plants. It provides services to
it margin stands at 2% expecting a number of arbitra- desalination plant that will Cagliari (Sardinia), one of the more than 2.5 million people
Q3FY18. For 9MFY18 vs tion awards in next quarter provide high-quality deminer- largest and most complex in Italy and has 345 employees
9MFY17, the consolidated and in next fiscal that will fur- alized water to the Sarlux facilities of its type in Europe. in the country. The company
9MFY18 Net Profit up 592% at ther consolidate our finan- refinery (part of the Italian With a total footprint of was recently awarded a con-
INR 23.53 Cr against INR -4.78 cials. I am hopeful that the energy group Saras Spa), approximately 1,260 m2, it is tract to maintain and upgrade
Cr in 9MFY17, and the consol- next quarter will be much bet- located in Sarroch, near the largest desalination plant water and sewage networks in
idated net profit margin ter in terms of sales, improved Cagliari, in Sardinia (Italy). for industrial use in the several municipalities . Recent
stands at 3% in 9MFY18. profitability, project gains and The contract, worth 22 mil- Mediterranean. In the design landmark projects include
Subhash Sethi, Chairman, we will be in a better position lion euros, includes design and and construction of the plant, upgrading the Florence drink-
SPML Infra commented, “Our to declare good benefits to our construction of the desalina- ACCIONA Agua incorporated ing water treatment plant
concentrated efforts towards shareholders.” tion plant as well as operation solutions that minimize envi- (one of the largest in Italy).

8 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


ANDRITZ to Supply Gradiant Corporation’s

Irrigation Pumps for Egypt Momentum Continues with
EW Staff the ANDRITZ pumps as well


an order from CONCORD for
as the many years of experi-
ence that ANDRITZ has in
this sector, with numerous ref-
erences in the Middle East
Asia Expansion
Engineering and Contracting, and Africa. ANDRITZ first
Cairo, Egypt, to supply 17 ver- supplied irrigation pumps and The water treatment innovator secures new partner to
tical line shaft pumps, includ- equipment to these regions
ing a set of spare parts, for a back in the 1960s.
expedite commercialization.
pumping station providing the
water supply to the Nubaria
irrigation canal, located south
of the city of Alexandria. The EW Staff form complex waste streams removes harmful pollutants to
start-up is scheduled for 2018. USA from power generation and tex- recover clean water. This evap-
The pumps supplied will be tile manufacturing into fresh, orator alternative mimics
individually adapted to the GRADIANT CORPORATION, reusable water. nature’s rain cycle to reduce the
customer’s specifications and PROVIDING solutions for Gradiant has now announced cost of treatment by as much as
achieve an aggregate flow rate industrial wastewater treat- their latest collaboration with 50 percent. Gradiant first
of 11.7 m3/second. Each pump ment and desalination, has Hong Kong based Esquel Group, demonstrated the process at
achieves a head of 28 meters unveiled significant milestones the world’s largest woven shirt full-scale in 2013 treating pro-
at a shaft power of 222 kW. achieved in 2017 that set the manufacturer. With production duced water from North
Decisive in the award of the stage for continued growth and facilities in China, Malaysia, American oil and gas explo-
contract to ANDRITZ were expansion throughout 2018. Mauritius, Sri Lanka and ration and production.
the special technical features Last year, Gradiant focused its Vietnam, the Esquel Group is “At Gradiant, we help indus-
and the low life-cycle costs of attention on the growing $500 one of the most dynamic global- trial water users minimize their
million wastewater desalination scale textile and apparel manu- cost of treatment and their
and zero liquid discharge mar- facturers. The partnership will impact on the environment,”
ket in Asia. The company allow Gradiant to expedite com- said Anurag Bajpayee, CEO of
secured contracts in China and mercialization of their advanced Gradiant Corporation. “We look

Grundfos India Launches ‘SmArt India using their patented

humidification - dehumidifica-
tion (HDH) process to trans-
water treatment solutions with-
in the textile market.
Gradiant’s HDH system
forward to working with the
Esquel Group to support their
Serv’, a Mobile App to Enhance
Customer Service
Mayur Sharma viding remote assistance. For
Black& Veatch and EMS Cognito Join Forces to

Grundfos India has

other pumps, the service
provider will deploy one of the
service engineers to the site.
Deliver UtilityAsset ReliabilityProgrammes
launched a mobile application Normally, the complaints/
called ‘SmArt Serv’. This requests will be resolved with- EW Staff every point in the lifecycle of to mitigate those factors; cre-
service app provides an effec- in three days. UK utilities' assets. Becoming an ating a condition-based
tive way of getting service Throwing light on such a authorized provider of EMS regime for asset maintenance.
support for any Grundfos customer-centric app, WELL MANAGED ASSETS Cognito's IMPACT "Our IMPACT
product. Saravanan Panneer Selvam, are central to reduced risk, Masterclass™ Lean RCM Masterclass™ Lean RCM
Through this app, one can Chief Sales Officer, Grundfos and outperformance of opera- Programme extends our Programme has been adopted
locate the nearest service India, said “The philosophy tional and financial targets. To reach further into the asset across many industries. This
provider, fill in the details of behind Grundfos Service has help utilities achieve world- management sphere," com- agreement with Black &
the complaint/request, attach always been to provide a little class asset management Black mented Scott Aitken, Veatch is an opportunity to
a picture of the pump/system extra.” & Veatch and EMS Cognito Managing Director, Black & introduce our accredited
and raise a service request. “The launch of the SmArt have teamed-up to offer Veatch Europe. process improvement pro-
An acknowledgment of the Serv app is yet another effort bespoke Lean Reliability Lean RCM focusses on gramme to additional water
request will be received within to strengthen our commit- Centred Maintenance (RCM) what a process is intended to and energy companies,"
four hours. For digital pumps, ment to providing fast and programmes and training. do, identifying factors that according to Richard Kelly,
the service provider will try to transparent service support "What sets Black & Veatch stop the process from deliver- Managing Director, EMS
fix the problem online by pro- to our customers”. apart is the ability to support ing, then implementing steps Cognito.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 9


Smart Water,Smart Metering

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), or ‘smart meters’, is a two-way solution in which a
network is created between the meters and the utility’s Information System. In this network,
smart meters not only allow for remote meter reading but also allow high-resolution
consumption data to be sent to the customer.
By Robert C Brears
supply. Specifically, demand appliances, and performance water consumption. Overall, identify every cubic foot of
management promotes water indicators. From the cus- DEWA aims to have 1.2 million water used each hour (where
conservation both in times of tomer’s side, smart meters smart meters installed by one cubic foot is equal to
normal and atypical condi- can provide information on 2020, covering the whole around 28 liters). The reliable
tions through changes in peo- when/where is water being Emirate and replacing all and frequent water usage
ple’s practices, culture, and used, comparisons of own mechanical and electro- information allows customers
attitudes towards water water use against other cus- mechanical meters. to monitor their use and
resources. tomers, and quick leak detec- detect leaks faster than possi-
tion. Smart apps can also be Smart Meter Trials in Sin- ble compared to the manually-
Smart Meters are Key developed for customers, so gapore read meters. SFPUC has also
A key part of the ICT net- they can, for example, com- Singapore’s Public Utilities created the web portal My
work is smart meters, which pare their water usage with Board (PUB) is trialing a Account in which account
enable water utilities to con- neighbours in the same street smart water network in which holders can download detailed
duct regular meter reads of or suburb, compare water the utility will collect detailed daily and monthly water
customers throughout the consumption with standard data on household water con- usage data and learn ways to
Robert C Brears day, provide customers with profiles (consumers with the sumption to build customer conserve water. SFPUC also
real-time water consumption same socio-demographic fac- consumption profiles and uses the hourly water con-
WITH RAPID URBANIZA- data, as well as quickly detect tors), compare their water identify consumption patterns sumption data to notify resi-
TION and growing water water losses in the system. consumption with the most and trends. The data will then dential single-family cus-
scarcity from climate change, Currently, many cities are efficient users in the city, or be analyzed and provided to tomers when they have three
cities are being challenged to using Automatic Meter forecast their next water bill. customers enabling them to days of non-stop, 24/7 water
deliver water as efficiently as Readers (AMR), which are Some leading examples of monitor their water usage use, which could mean they
possible as well as balance ris- ‘one-way’ automated meter cities implementing smart patterns and better manage have a plumbing leak. Leak
ing demand with limited sup- readers that send water usage meters to ensure the efficient water consumption. PUB will alerts are provided via email,
plies. To manage limited data back to the utility. In con- management of scarce water also customize its engagement mobile phone text, phone call,
water supplies efficiently, trast, Advanced Metering include Dubai, Singapore, and strategy by incentivizing cus- or letter and will indicate the
cities and their water utilities Infrastructure (AMI), or San Francisco. tomers to conserve water, for dates and amounts of continu-
are turning to Information ‘smart meters’, is a two-way instance, setting water saving ous usage.
and Communication solution in which a network is Smart Dubai goals and tracking efficiency Faced with rapid urbaniza-
Technologies (ICT). created between the meters To ensure the rational use of their water usage based on tion and increasing water
There are two beneficial and the utility’s Information of water, Dubai Electricity and their consumption profiles. scarcity from climate change,
aspects of turning to ICT solu- System. In this network, Water Authority (DEWA) is This is part of an experiment cities can turn to smart
tions to ensure the efficient smart meters not only allow installing smart meters across to see if elements of game meters to ensure the efficient
use of precious supplies. First, for remote meter reading but the Emirate enabling cus- playing are more effective at use of existing water supplies
ICT can reduce water losses also allow high-resolution con- tomers to receive real-time engaging and motivating cus- before plans are made to fur-
in the system - non-revenue sumption data to be sent to information on water con- tomers to conserve water ther increase supply. Smart
water - which is the difference the customer. This data can be sumption. In addition to pro- than increasing tariffs. meters can be used to provide
between what is pumped, used to raise awareness of viding current data, DEWA’s customers with historical data
treated, and supplied to the water consumption and allow smart meters will provide cus- San Francisco’s Auto- as well as a breakdown of con-
distribution system compared customers to develop their tomers will historical data as mated Water Meters sumption processes that use
to what reaches customers: in own strategies to reduce well as a breakdown of con- San Francisco Public water, helping customers
many cities around the world, water usage. sumption processes that use Utilities Commission identify water efficiencies in
non-revenue water can be up water. This will help cus- (SFPUC) has installed auto- homes; help customers set
to 20% or more of the total. On Benefits of Smart Meters tomers identify water efficien- mated water meters in more water saving goals, and alert
the demand side, ICT can be From the water utility’s cies in their homes. The smart than 96% of San Francisco’s customers of possible leaks.
used to enhance demand man- side, smart meters provide meter data is delivered to cus- 178,000 water accounts. The Robert Brears is the Author
agement strategies, where multiple benefits including tomers via DEWA’s Smart smart meters transmit hourly of Urban Water Security,
demand management involves leak detection, energy reduc- App, allowing them to view water consumption data to Founder of Mitidaption, and
the better use of existing tion, demand forecasting, billing information, graphs to the utility’s billing system by a Young Water Leaders.
water supplies before plans enhanced awareness cam- check and compare consump- wireless network. The meter
are made to further increase paigns, promotion of efficient tion, as well as set caps for readings received by SFPUC @Mitidaption

10 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


CommunityParticipation is the Key

have access to piped water eases like fluorosis, which can right boxes, long argued by
supply. And according to lead to permanent disability. water sector experts like
MDWS (as on 25 February Lastly, but most crucially, ensuring community partici-
2018), the current coverage of the poorest and those on the pation in planning and imple-
habitations is just around margins - the economically mentation, operations and
34.8% including all sources poor, women-headed house- maintenance of the infrastruc-
(improved or unimproved). So holds or those with disabled ture, taking up water conser-
clearly, we are far behind the people, the elderly and land- vation and recharge measures
targets. less families - fall way behind for source strengthening as
In communities, the num- the general population in well as including an element
ber of existing handpumps terms of access to safe water. of cost sharing by the commu-
and their dependence on them This also underlines a larg- nity.
as a primary source of water er point that there is a long- However, the major con-
is predictably high. The aver- term need for identifying local straints faced during the
age users per handpump are water sources, which can be implementation of
in the range of 50-90 despite managed by the community. Swajaldhara was that the
the national norm of 250 peo- Additionally, as the groundwa- executive arm of the state
ple per handpump. ter level is falling at an alarm- caught in the tussle between
While the handpump user ing speed, there is a strong the bureaucracy and the elect-
Avinash Kumar numbers may not be an exact need to diversify water sources ed officials. More crucially, the
representation of the national rather than the continued panchayats lacked finances
scenario, it is evident that dependence on groundwater. and skills to take up the
IN THE NATIONAL panchayats in 10 cities across increasingly, governments’ It is interesting that the responsibility.
RURAL DRINKING Water 27 districts and 10 states cov- new investments should be on strategy paper prepared by Though the recent years
Programme’s strategy plan ering 5.37 lakh households, ensuring O&M for the existing the government recognizes have seen a rapid slide in
(2011-22), the Ministry of 2,409 schools, 2,625 anganwa- water points and improving most of the problems faced by financial allocations for the
Drinking Water and di centers and 224 public the service standards. the water sector. For example, programme against the rising
Sanitation (MDWS) has set a healthcare facilities. Moreover, more than 50% of the paper recognizes a new tide of Swachh Bharat
goal to ensure that every rural In total, the survey the surveyed functional water category called ‘Slipped Back’, Mission, there is a clear
person has enough safe water mapped 20,360 water points points (mainly handpumps) reflecting the habitations, opportunity coming via the
for drinking, cooking and and analyzed them on the are in unsanitary conditions which have moved from fully financial devolution to states
other domestic needs as well basis of technology, function- with stagnant pools around covered to not covered/par- through 14th Finance
as livestock throughout the ality, and accessibility. The them, which has the potential tially covered category. It also Commission recommenda-
year including during natural survey also captured addition- to not only contaminate recognizes the reasons behind tions, which has given
disasters. al information in terms of groundwater but also the it, such as the increase in pop- increased financial share to
For 2017, the stipulated tar- quality, quantity, inclusion drinking water during the col- ulation, increase in the num- gram panchayats. Many
gets aim to ensure that at along with operations and lection and carrying process. ber of habitations, drinking states like Odisha have issued
least 55% of rural households maintenance (O&M) of the In institutional settings, 6% water supply systems having guidelines that 30% of these
are provided with piped water water points. More than 85% of the schools surveyed do not outlived their life spans or budgets should be utilized on
supply; at least 35% of rural of the water points surveyed have any water source and 11% becoming defunct, poor main- creating water infrastructure
households have piped water were handpumps. About 7.5% have their primary water tenance of infrastructure, (with O&M money being col-
supply with a household con- of the water points included source located outside the drinking water sources lected from the users). While
nection; less than 20% use other improved sources such school. Children mostly bring becoming quality affected, the increased amount of
public taps and less than 45% as borewell power pumps, water from home - 0.5 to 1 liter water going dry or lowering of money available at the local
use handpumps or other safe mini piped water scheme, bottles - but will this be the groundwater table and so level will hopefully address
and adequate private water mini water tank, piped water enough for a stay of not less on. Clearly, source sustainabil- the long pending demands of
sources. Additionally, all serv- supply, public stand posts, RO than 7 hours? Also, 37% ity and lack of adequately schemes like Swajaldhara, it is
ices should meet set stan- (Reverse Osmosis) plant and schools do not have any water designed O&M systems are also evident that panchayats
dards in terms of quality and sanitary protected well. storage facility and so chil- the key challenges to deal need to also focus on their
number of hours of supply Some of the key findings dren have to drink directly with. own capacity building to
every day and that all house- that emerged from the sample from the source, which ham- Further, government’s own develop gram panchayat
holds, schools, and angan- survey were that 3.2% of the pers the consumption of earlier programmes like development plans and to be
wadis in rural India have points mapped were unim- deworming tablets. ‘Swajaldhara’ (launched in able to oversee their imple-
access to and use adequate proved water sources. Only In the anganwadis, 30% did 2002) piloted in 67 districts mentation satisfactorily.
quantity of safe drinking about 2.4% households sur- not have any water source and across 21 states recognized Avinash Kumar is Director -
water. veyed have access to piped an additional 30% did not have that users of water are its best Programme, and Policy at
In late 2017, WaterAid water connections. With storage systems. In water managers. While creating the WaterAid India.
India conducted a survey to regard to habitation, 31% of quality affected locations, chil- strategy document, the gov-
map water points in 636 gram the 2,378 habitations surveyed dren were also exposed to dis- ernment has ticked all the @Avinashkoomar

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 11


Underlying Causes of Non-Revenue Water Losses

and Whyit is Important
By Simon Ross, IWC for the Australian Water Partnership (AWP)

Detect and Respond to helps us understand the type

Non-Revenue Water Losses of role needed to be filled by
NRW losses are the differ- an NRW ‘champion’ to main-
ence between water that is tain improved sustainable and
pumped by public utilities and equitable access to the water.
what is distributed, used and NRW problems are symp-
paid for. These values are dif- tomatic of how some functions
ferent for a number of rea- of water management have
sons: traditionally been under-
• Piping infrastructure is resourced with low recogni-
expensive to maintain and tion and why this should
replace. change.
• Illegal connections and Technical professionals are
unreported leaks. required who also understand
IN A RECENT INTERAC- • Poor information and man- the social relationships
TION with Kini, Will agement systems. required to change behavior
Spitzenberg, the Chief Water Will said, that as a general for:
Engineer of ASPA in rule, well-performing water • Maintaining existing infra-
American Samoa, discussed utilities might lose around These losses reduce the and more money comes in, structure;
the problem of non-revenue 20% of their water to non-rev- revenue but not the costs of problems can begin to be • Promoting co-operation
water (NRW) losses of up to enue streams, but in the American Samoa Power addressed.’ Will also refers to and shared benefits;
60% in the small island nation. American Samoa and the Authority (ASPA), a com- the importance of targeted • Negotiating the equitable
This column unpacks the Pacific, in general, this figure bined power and water utility. long-term efforts by dedicated and targeted distribution of
problem, which is particularly can be up to 60% or even high- Inefficiencies in water local teams as being essential scarce resources; and
troublesome in developing er, which is exacerbated by resource management signifi- to the process of improving • Communicating effectively
regions, where an estimated limited maintenance budgets cantly affect ASPA, who is high NRW losses. ‘It is not to respond to priority
45 million m3 of water is and poor institutional capaci- reliant on increasing rates for something that someone can needs.
pumped, but then ‘lost’ ty. local residents, loans or feder- walk in solve and walk away’
through leaks, illegal connec- For example, in his Kini al grants for the ultimate goal A recent benchmarking Considering integrated so-
tions, or other inefficiencies. Interview, He also described of financing the replacement summary from the Pacific lutions to NRW loss
In developing countries, the scenario of finding ‘two of US$100 million worth of Water and Wastewater Benchmarking supported
this loss represents an eco- hundred gallons per minute aging pipes and expanding Authority highlighted the ben- by accurate and transparent
nomic value of US$3 billion leaks that did not surface, and access to the water supply. efits of learning together information should be used to
per annum, which is equiva- just poured into the lava rock’ through benchmarking activi- learn about where NRW loss-
lent to providing water to an in parts of the piped water ‘Benchmarking’ is the Way ties to deal with the challeng- es are occurring as well as
additional 180 million people. network in American Samoa. to Drive Local Demand for ing issues of: their underlying causes and
While performance bench- The reality is that these issues Change and Share Results • Attracting resource-poor potential solutions.
marking for water utilities is need patience as they take Will reinforced the need customers to pay for their Most important is knowing
unlikely to attract a celebrity time to resolve. for efficient, incremental water supply how to respond collaborative-
endorsement, The scale of investment improvements to water sup- • Replacing aging infrastruc- ly, or as Will says: ‘Just pro-
Will suggests that it is a required to address these ply systems driven by quality ture ducing more water is not the
growing area that developing problems is very large in information. • Recovering operating costs best solution. When water is
countries in the Asia-Pacific American Samoa and Benchmarking tools such and attracting donors being lost, saving water is
region will increasingly need includes: as the AWWA water balance • Setting equitable tariff much better than developing
help with and has important • Human resource develop- spreadsheet can provide moti- structures new infrastructure.’
sustainability and equity con- ment for local leak detec- vation to address these prob- The Australian Water
siderations. tion teams; lems and enable knowledge Sustainability and Equality Partnership (AWP) is an
With this in mind, it is • Investment in automated sharing. are the Real Reasons for Australian Government devel-
important to reflect on how metering and real-time ‘Really good baseline infor- Addressing Non-Revenue opment initiative enhancing the
these issues can best be monitoring equipment; and mation to map the results is Water Losses sustainable management of
‘championed’. • Developing a systematic important to understand Will’s message becomes water across the Indo-Pacific.
approach to reduce NRW where to allocate resources. more evident when reflecting
Need for Local Capacity to losses. When results are achieved on these challenges and this @WaterPartnersAU

12 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Implications of GSTon Water Projects

By Rajiv Menon and Sandeep S Sisodia

covered under water projects, become “nil” when the project is subject to tax at a the introduction of GST,
for which concessional bene- value of goods supplied rate of 18 percent. This will however, pure services -
fits under taxation shall be in under the Work contract lead to overall increase in such as architect services,
general available. services shall not exceed the capital expenditure consulting engineer servic-
Any activity, undertaken more than 25 percent of cost for the client. es, manpower services, etc
by the central government, the total value of work con- 2) Under the old tax system, - are exempted from GST,
state government or Union tract services. counter vailing duty (CVD) if provided in relation to
Rajiv Menon Sandeep Sisodia Territory or local authority in 5) Any other construction and Special additional duty activity of a water project.
relation to function entrusted services shall be charge- (SAD) were exempted on This is a cost advantage to
What Does the GST Mean to Panchayat or municipality able at a rate of 18 percent. the imported equipment the client under the new
for Water Projects? are eligible for tax conces- 6) Imported equipment and and machinery required tax regime.
The Goods & Services Tax sions, The details of activity plant required for setting- for water projects. The 5) GST provides for free flow
(GST) is the single biggest tax and tax outlook are as below. up drinking water projects water project falls under of Input Tax Credit (ITC)
reform undertaken since (for desalination, deminer- category of “project for construction services.
Independence. GST will be Activity Undertaken in alization or purification of imports” and special privi- However under the old tax
levied on the supply of goods Broader Terms water or any similar lege was given by way of regime, if goods were pro-
or services or both in India. 1) Water supply for domestic, process) shall be subject to exemption from tax by the cured from other states for
GST has come in to existence industrial and commercial nil rate of customs duty. government. Under GST the construction services,
with the intent of “One Nation, purpose However Integrated GST regime, however, any sales tax become a cost to
One Market & One Tax”. As 2) Minor irrigation, water shall be applicable at a rate import under Project the contractor. In some
such GST will subsume a management and water- of 18 percent on the men- import category shall be cases excise duty also
number of existing indirect shed development tioned imports. subject to tax at a rate of 18 becomes cost at the time of
taxes being levied by the cen- 3) Provision of drinking water 7) All equipment and plant percent. This will lead to procurement of goods -
ter and state governments. 4) Maintenance of community required for setting-up overall increase in the cap- cement, steel, etc - from
GST brings benefits to all assets drinking water projects ital expenditure cost for traders instead of manu-
stakeholders: industry, gov- will be subject to GST at a the client. facturers by the contrac-
ernment and the citizens. The Tax Outlook Under GST rate of 18 percent when 3) Services provided in rela- tors for the purpose of con-
tax is expected to lower the 1) Any services provided to procured domestically; the tion to the construction, struction works. Due to the
cost of goods and services, the local authority, state or same shall become a cost erection, commissioning, change in tax regime there
boost the economy and make central government in rela- for the project. installation, completion, is marginal increase in the
product and services globally tion to the above-men- 8) In case, where the output fitting-out, repairs, mainte- cost saving available to the
competitive. GST is a destina- tioned activity by a consult- services are exempted nance, renovation or alter- contractor and client.
tion-based consumption tax ant or contractor is exempt from GST, proportionate ation, etc., are now subject GST is a new born baby
system and it prevents cas- from the GST. Input Tax Credit (ITC) to GST at a rate of 12 per- which replaces a 60-year-old
cading of taxes by providing 2) Services provided in rela- attributable to exempted cent in general. However, tax regime in India. Once the
comprehensive Input Tax tion to the above-men- services shall be disal- under the old tax regime Act becomes more mature
Credit (ITC) mechanism tioned activity by the local lowed and become a cost construction services were with clearer understanding,
across the entire supply chain. authority, state or central for the consultant/contrac- exempt from services tax the entire industry is going to
Implementation of new tax government to the society tors, due to which, the but were subject to Sales benefit from the new tax
system brings out some /end-user shall also exempt overall cost of services will Tax/VAT in the range of 4 regime. The Indian
advantages and some disad- from the GST. increase. percent (under composi- Government is currently
vantages over the old tax sys- 3) Work contract services fall Here is a summary of the tion), or 5 percent - 15 per- refining the GST Act and, on
tem. under the Composite sup- overall impact of the changes cent VAT (under the nor- the basis of industry represen-
In relation to water proj- ply and includes activity in in the tax laws: mal scheme) on the materi- tation, lots of amendments
ects, there are certain tax relation to construction, 1) Under the old tax regime, als supplied under the con- have been made in the last six
benefits available under the erection, commissioning, specific tax concessions struction services activity. months. On a positive note, we
Central Excise Act, Service installation, completion, were available in relation to This change shall lead to a can expect that over time the
Tax and the Customs Act fitting-out, repairs, mainte- excise duty on procure- marginal increase in tax overall cost for the infrastruc-
under old tax regime in India. nance, renovation, etc. ment of equipment and cost as compare to the old ture projects will decline.
With the introduction of GST, Such activities shall be plant required for water tax regime. About the Authors
these have been captured subject to GST at a rate of projects in India. However, 4) Any services other than Rajiv Menon is the
under a single act. 12 percent and shall under the GST regime, cost construction services were Managing Director of Black &
Before continuing, it is nec- become the cost of project in relation to procurement subject to Service tax at a Veatch India.
essary to understand the to the local authority. of domestic equipment and rate of 15 percent under Sandeep S. Sisodia is Sr.
nature of the activity, to be 4) However rate of GST will plant for setting up a water the old tax regime. After Tax Manager at B&V, India.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 13


Water Management: Re-invigorating

Inclusive Growth with GST
By Koichi Matsui

turn, automation of compli- tracts, which has typically for reduction in GST rate and/
ance processes would reduce sparked differences between or continuation of exemp-
error, redundancy and Central and State indirect tax tions/concessions.
improve efficiency. authorities, would now be put For export business, we
In the pre-GST era, there to rest with the legislation, hope that the government
was a dichotomy in the appli- classifying works contracts as smoothens the mechanism to
cable indirect tax regime rele- the supply of services, unam- grant Letter of Undertaking
vant to EPC contracts and biguously. Other contracts (LUT)/ Bond facilities to per-
Operation & Maintenance which do not result in immov- mit export of goods without
contracts. While the central able property could be regard- payment of GST or it could
laws provided exemptions and ed as composite supplies, and results into huge cash flow
concessions, different state depending on the principal mismatch.
Value-Added Tax (VAT) rules supply, tax liability would Concluding, GST, in cur-
provided for different com- arise either as a supply of rent forms - as it is today,
pounding scheme, making goods or services. Thus, con- seems to be a mixed bag for
compliance a bit challenging. tractors and suppliers could the sector. Although pre-
Further, the cascading look forward to a simpler and dictability and efficiency pose
effect of Central and State efficient tax regime. as being the key advantages,
Indirect Taxes was a concern, For project owners, howev- the higher rate of GST/ with-
due to a high base for levy of er, the new legislation may not drawal of exemption (if not
respective taxes. Litigation at lead to a conducive future. addressed) may temporarily
the Central and state levels on Credit restrictions on works create cash flow mismatch
the classification of contracts, contracts resulting in an and may result into increase
Koichi Matsui, Chairperson and Managing Director - UEM India valuation, the jurisdiction of immovable property coupled in government spending in
state on inter-state works con- with the increase in GST rates some cases.
Access to safe drinking of Sustainable Water Sector tracts and other issues added could increase cost outlay. About the Author
water is a fundamental human by initiating policy action, to the list of concerns of the Already, exemptions and con- Koichi Matsui is the
right. On 28 July 2010, accompanied by enhanced sectors that made achieving cessions in some cases have Chairperson and Managing
through Resolution 64/292, efforts to bring investment in operational efficiency a chal- been partially withdrawn. Director of UEM India. He
the United Nations General the sector through various lenge. This could also lead to had joined UEM India as
Assembly explicitly recog- schemes. In the backdrop of GST being a concurrent increased working capital Chairperson and MD in
nized the human right to past reforms culminating into tax on supply of goods and requirements. Project cost September 2015. During his
water and sanitation and early green shoots for policy services is expected to bring could rise due to an increased two years in India, he has
acknowledged that clean action, a credible rise in focus in predictability in multiple burden of indirect taxes. spearheaded developing, driv-
drinking water and sanitation on Water and Wastewater projects being executed pan However, this aspect is fur- ing and implementing busi-
are essential to the realization management sector is reiter- India. There are some ther examined considering ness strategies and solutions
of all human rights. The reso- ated with the Goods and changes that would have an the base rate reduction for UEM, along with Krishan
lution calls to provide finan- Services Tax (GST) which will impact on indirect taxation - expected to be achieved with Kshetry, Promoter-UEM, to
cial resources, help capacity- give a boost to the industry by taxability of works contracts GST implementation. expand the Company’s busi-
building and technology lowering transaction cost and being one. As works contracts For municipal/ govern- ness in India and abroad.
transfer to help countries, in avoiding any cascading effect are limited to only immovable ment projects, there are UEM India, a part of
particular developing coun- on the taxes. properties, turnkey contracts exemptions which are under Toshiba Group, is an interna-
tries, to provide safe, clean, With a simplified compli- which do not result in the discussions and hopefully ear- tional multi-disciplinary envi-
accessible and affordable ance procedure resulting in a immovable property would lier concessions/exemptions ronmental services company,
drinking water and sanitation rationalized tax structure, now be treated as composite shall be restored without headquartered in India that
for all. accompanied by removal of supplies. adversely impacting the seg- specializes in providing turn-
The Government of India is duplication of taxes results in Further, valuation of goods ments. Representations are key services in water and
focusing on the development reducing compliance cost. In and services in works con- being made to the government wastewater management.

14 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Astrea purifying bottles, posed-off safely.

marked as a step in technolog- Biznustek Systems’ innovative Bentley
ical innovation, is available in AKVAZEN 40L Zero Liquid
India. Discharge System treats the
The bottle features a dispos- process water to obtain fresh/
able cartridge that offers 3 clear/ distilled water which
stage purification which kills can be reused in the industrial
more than 99.9 percent virus- process, thus lowering the
es and bacteria. Each car- cost of fresh/ clear/ distilled
tridge provides up to 100 days water replenishment.
or 375 liters of clean, safe
drinking water with an LED
indicator which tracks and Endress+Hauser
Air Springs alerts users for the replace- Endress+Hauser now offers Bentley Systems has connected data environ-
Rapid and reliable actuation of ment of a cartridge. Heartbeat Technology with its announced new capabilities ment to ensure utilities can
gate valves is becoming more Astrea Mobi-Pure bottle aqua Liquiline CM44 and CM44R for OpenUtilities for own- leverage their network and
and more critical to liquid and comes under the form of bot- transmitters for use with ers and operators of utility engineering information
gas handling applications as tles, which represent a Memosens pH and conductivi- infrastructure. These capa- throughout their opera-
industries face the twin marked step forward in ty sensors. bilities will better support tional workflows.
demands of production design, quality, and technolog- Heartbeat Diagnostics’ contin- global utilities seeking to Vonnie Smith, VP of Utility
automation and pressure to ical innovation. The product uous analysis of incorporate renewable Asset Performance, Bentley
produce without production transmitter/sensor system energy sources and provide Systems, said, “We are very
interruptions for mainte- health status during operation new opportunities for excited about the possibili-
nance. deployment as a cloud serv- ties these new capabilities
These flexible-wall, bellows- ice. introduce for our users as
type Airstroke® Actuators - The incorporation of they strive to excel in a
manufactured by Firestone sisNET capabilities builds changing marketplace.
and distributed throughout on Bentley’s leading Bentley OpenUtilities
Australia by Air Springs OpenUtilities solution, enables utilities around the
Supply Pty Ltd - are, in which provides utility-spe- world to align their engi-
essence, tough, fabric rein- cific geospatial network neering and design process-
forced rubber balloons of dif- management integrated es and deliverables to
ferent shapes engineered to can be used as a standalone with Bentley’s mapping and exceed required engineer-
perform different tasks. The solution to ensure that drink- enables recognition of related engineering design applica- ing accuracy, to implement
simple single, double and ing water is germ-free – at events when they occur. tions. OpenUtilities will best practice mapping and
triple-convoluted airbags home, at school and student Heartbeat Diagnostics follows interoperate with enter- geospatial standards, and to
operate without seals, shafts dorms, when traveling, or the NE-107 standardized prise asset management streamline operational
or internal moving parts to anywhere portability is NAMUR-compliant message (EAM) systems through a workflows.”
provide ultra-reliable actua- required. The bottle features structure for categorized
tion alternatives for materials disposable cartridges that event severity level with clear
handling technology exposed offer three-stage purification, remedy instructions provided Conductivity Monitoring tower water control, waste-
to grime, debris, and waste, using HaloSource's patented for operations or maintenance. System. The system combines water treatment, brine analy-
which can disrupt the seals HaloPure® water purification Heartbeat Monitoring mini- a Sensorex TCS3020 probe, sis, desalination, chemical pro-
and shafts of convention pneu- technology to kill more than mizes the probability of a sud- capable of reliable conductivi- cessing,, etc.
matic and hydraulic cylinders. 99.9 percent of viruses and den breakdown or failure of ty measurements in even the The TCS3020 probe used in
The globally proven Airstroke bacteria, including E. coli the measurement point and harshest of environments, SensoPro system measures
range comprises single, double and Norovirus. helps define when mainte- with the company’s new conductivity using toroidal
and triple convoluted models nance may be needed. EX2000RS transmitter, fea- sensing technology, which is
with strokes up to 300mm. Verification results are provid- turing Modbus communica- more stable and reliable com-
They suit applications requir- Biznustek ed via an audit safe report pared to traditional contacting
ing clean actuators that don’t Industries such as electroplat- automatically generated by conductivity sensors.
need lubrication, but which ing, vibratory grinding, match- the transmitter. The report is Sensorex’s SensoPro Toroidal
can also cope effortlessly with ing, spray painting, etc gener- saved in PDF format and can Conductivity Monitoring
dirt and grime. be preserved on an SD card System is backed by a one-
for transfer to a computer. year limited warranty.
These reports can be used for This system, as whole, fea-
Halosource regulatory, quality or safety tures a conductivity measur-
Halosource has launched documentation. ing range of 0.0 μS/cm-2000
Astrea, its first consumer-fac- mS/cm, percent concentration
ing brand, to the Indian mar- tion for robust system integra- measurements for NaCl, HCI,
ket. It has been selling its Sensorex tion. Monitoring with HNO3, NaOH, H2SO4, H3PO4,
patented HaloPure disinfec- To meet conductivity control SensoPro can prevent scaling and automatic or manual tem-
tion technology to consumer needs in online water quality and corrosion, reduce exces- perature control. The result is
product companies such as and process applications, sive water usage, and optimize a reliable conductivity and
Eureka Forbes in India since ate enormous process waste- Sensorex has introduced the processes in a range of appli- concentration monitoring sys-
2007. water which needs to be dis- Sensorex SensoPro Toroidal cations including cooling tem, in one simple package.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 15


both companies now will focus

on all markets with joint CST Wastewater
clogging and permits auto-
matic continuous operation
IDEC that handles oily and fibrous
IDEC Corporation announces material with ease.
the release of its WindEDIT The two-stage system on
Lite app for iOS and Android Lord Howe uses a combina-
Berson & Hanovia devices, providing two-way
access to its family of Sensorex tion of coarse and fine
screening and advanced
Berson and Hanovia have MicroSmart FC6A PLCs. The The new SensoLab benchtop KDS dry compaction tech-
jointly launched a new low- app provides much quicker, meter series from Sensorex A clog-free automatic liquid- nology to produce a more
pressure UV disinfection sys- simpler and easier connection offers researchers a complete to-solid waste KDS hygienic and more compact
tem for the treatment of as compared to browser-based sensing system with its Separator is introduced by output that is easy to handle
municipal, re-use and waste- access. pH/ORP/conductivity meters CST Wastewater Solutions and transport.
water. The easy-to-install With the WindEDIT Lite app, and kits. The new PM1000 and for industrial and municipal Applications, for which the
AmaLine R UV range has users can monitor any PLC CM1000 meters pair with wastewater applications separator is designed,
been third-party validated, in parameter, and change set Sensorex’s laboratory sensors, such as remote and environ- include: food processing
line with US EPA and NWRI points and other values. Data which include basic, advanced mentally sensitive mining, waste, including canteen,
guidelines. It provides effec- register, input, output, timer and research-grade options to energy and oil and gas work- kitchen and community
tive treatment while reducing and counter values can be maximize measurement accu- sites and far-flung communi- waste, raw wastewater (pri-
lifecycle costs through being monitored and controlled racy and sensor lifetime in ties. mary screening) sewage
simple to maintain and using the standard Dialog applications from hydroponics The compact KDS multi-disc treatment, including raw
extremely energy efficient. Interface. The WindEDIT Lite to biomedical and pharmaceu- roller separator - which is wastewater (primary
Unlike other similar systems, app also has a custom Dialog tical research. Configurable being used on pristine Lord screening) and sludge to
the AmaLine has been Interface which the user can kits simplify the product selec- Howe Island, 600 km off landfill. It can also be used to
designed to simplify mainte- configure to allow only certain tion process. Australia’s East Coast, for process barrel polishing
nance, which can be per- PLC parameters to be moni- The SensoLab meters provide example - features a unique water, water-based paint
formed by a single operator tored and controlled. accurate, reliable measure- self-cleaning dewatering and wastewater, grease trap
rather than a crew, and with- Trending is supported by the ment. An intuitive interface conveying system with oval waste, dyeing wastewater,
out requiring external lifting app, with users able to plot guides users through set up, plate separation and trans- waste oil, and plastic recy-
equipment. multiple register points for calibration and measurement, fer structure that prevents cling.
The AmaLine range is applica- graphical views. with easy-to-read prompts
tion-optimized in terms of its and results displayed on its
design and operation, with a integrated screen.
flow range of 1-30 MGD (mil- A small footprint saves valu- sensors and a set of three sure around the clock to
lions of gallons per day). The able desktop space. The color-coded buffer solutions. reduce water loss, save money
AmaLine R has a U-shaped meters can be powered either An optional electrode stand and prevent unwanted pres-
chamber that optimizes flow by the included AC adapter or can be added for hands-free sure spikes that contribute to
to cater for low UV light trans- with AA batteries to eliminate and continuous measurement. premature pipe failure. Built
mittance (UVT) water quality. cords. on the Singer 106PGM or 206-
This makes it ideal for re-use The SensoLab PM1000 PGM main valve, a simple field
and wastewater applications. pH/ORP meter covers the Mueller retrofit is possible using the
Also available is the AmaLine The WindEDIT Lite app runs range -2.00 to 16.00 pH with Mueller Water Products has paddle style orifice plate.
D range, designed specifically on any iOS or Android mobile +/- 0.01 pH accuracy and - introduced the Singer 106/206 Here’s how it works: The valve
for municipal drinking water, device, typically a smartphone 1999.9 to 1999.9 mV with +/- PGM-2PR-630-SM Pressure switches between high and
which has a coaxial flow L- or tablet. Once the app is 0.05%FS accuracy for ORP. Its Management Valves with low-pressure pilots based on
shaped chamber, and optimis- downloaded to the device, it optional AUTOLOCK feature Integral Backup. Designed for flow rate. The pressure reduc-
es flow to deliver the most interfaces to the MicroSmart ensures repeatable and reli- applications where failure is ing pilots independently adjust
effective disinfection for FC6A PLC via wireless able pH and mV measure- not an option, this valve to suit the optimal down-
drinking water applications. Bluetooth or Wi-Fi Ethernet ments. The SensoLab CM1000 hydraulically manages pres- stream pressure. The valve
AmaLine has been designed for two-way local or remote TDS meter analyzes conduc- requires no electrical power or
using the latest computational access. Bluetooth is an ideal tivity or total dissolved solids independent flow signal, as it
fluid dynamics (CFD) model- solution for local, limited- in samples, and works with takes its flow signal from an
ling. A highly efficient cham- range connections where an probes across four different orifice plate installed on the
ber and optimized lamp posi- Ethernet network may not be cell constants. valve inlet. The integral back-
tioning ensure maximum available, such as within an Its intelligent auto-ranging up system protects against
energy efficiency. Optimum industrial plant or facility. Wi- capability automatically diaphragm or pilot failure,
distribution of UV intensity Fi has more range and can be selects the best conductivity reducing the need for immedi-
throughout the chamber pro- used for communications over measurement unit based on ate service.
vides effective water treat- longer distances. the sample type. The valve is available in sizes
ment. The WindEDIT Lite App is Sensorex’s SensoLab kits pro- 4-12 inches (DN100-DN300)
Where Berson has been available for free download in vide ready-to-use options, with a minimum pressure at
focused on the municipal mar- the Apple App Store or at packaging the SensoLab the valve inlet of 29 PSI
ket and Hanovia on industrial, Google Play. meter with a choice of four (200kPa/2 barg).

16 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 17


554 Million Asians Do Not Have

Access to Safe Drinking Water
Benedito Braga is the President of
the World Water Council (WWC).
He is the Secretary for Sanitation
and Water Resources for the state of
Sao Paulo and professor of Civil and
Environmental Engineering at
Escola Politecnica of University of
Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil. He is the
author of 25 books and chapters of
books, and more than 200 scientific
articles. He is also the recipient of
2002 Crystal Drop Award, given by
International Water Resources
Association (IWRA) in recognition
for his lifetime achievements in the
area of water resources
management. In 2009, Prof. Braga
was awarded the honorary
membership of American Water
Resources Association (AWRA) for
his eminence in the field of water
resources. Mayur Sharma talked to
him about the upcoming World
Water Day (22 March) and other
issues like Cape Town going to be
the first major city in the world to
run out of the water.

How will you define the overcome the water chal- How do you think the world contribute a relevant part of lenges’ of the 21st century
theme of World Water Day lenges of the 21st century. The leaders can help in pro- their budgets to projects, in your opinion? How can we
2018 - ‘Nature for Water’ - water-related crises we see moting the concept of na- whether it be built or green use nature to overcome
for our readers? around the world, like floods, ture for water? infrastructure, that make safe them? Can we practically
Benedito: The theme of drought and water pollution, Benedito: The World water available to all on the reduce floods, droughts and
this year’s World Water Day are all exacerbated by degrad- Water Council strives for gov- planet. water pollution by using the
‘Nature for Water’ explores ed vegetation, soil, rivers, and ernments to focus on water solutions from nature?
how we can use nature to lakes. issues and encourages them to What are the ‘water chal- Benedito: The ‘water chal-

18 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


lenges’ of the 21st century Cape Town, what are your ecosystems, which address water. With the implementa- many different initiatives, for
include: thoughts on it? Can other societal challenges effectively tion of the State Council’s example on #ClimateIsWater
• Push for the availability by world cities avoid a similar and adaptively, simultaneous- Water Pollution Prevention or on Integrated Water
2030 of safe, clean and reli- situation? ly providing human well-being and Control Action Plan in Resources Management.
able drinking water and Benedito: Even though and biodiversity benefits.” April 2015, the Plan states These all help in raising
access to sanitation for all, this is an unfortunate crisis, it An example of a successful that by 2020, 70% of the water awareness for specific water-
in line with the SDGs - cur- has increased awareness implementation of a nature- in the major watersheds and related issues.
rently, 1.8 billion people about the global water short- based solution for water man- 93% of the drinking water
around the world use a age. agement would be Rwanda: sources in major cities are to How does the World Water
source of drinking water At least 11 other cities have Forest Landscape Restoration meet Grade III or higher stan- Council influence policy-
contaminated with faeces, experienced or are experienc- as a national priority. Rwanda dards. If countries in the Asia- making, as it would be an
putting them at risk of con- ing problems related to the made a pledge to restore two Pacific region introduce plans integral part of the shift in
tracting cholera, dysentery, water supply - Sao Paulo, million hectares of degraded such as China’s, they may be how countries see and use
typhoid, and polio. Unsafe London, Tokyo, Bangalore, and deforested land, in order able to improve their water their water resources?
water, poor sanitation and Beijing, Cairo, Jakarta, to “improve ecosystem quality resources management and Benedito: The World
hygiene cause around Moscow, Istanbul, Mexico and resilience, provide new overcome this concern. Water Council has around 300
842,000 deaths each year City, and Miami. opportunities for rural liveli- member organizations from
(WHO/UNICEF 2014/WHO According to Eco Business, hoods, while securing ade- As per a release by World more than 50 different coun-
2014). three steps can be taken by quate water and energy sup- Water Council (WWC), tries. Through events such as
• Help increase water securi- cities around the world, to plies and supporting low car- there will be a 50% in- the World Water Forum, we
ty at large - there is an avoid being in a similar situa- bon economic development” crease in the demand for are able to bring together
absolute necessity to tion as Cape Town, and to (Ministry of National energy & water by 2030. As heads of state, ministers, may-
increase water security - in boost water security and Resources, 2014, p. 1). this will require three ors, parliamentarians, high-
other words ensuring resilience. The first step is to The COP23 Side Event: times the current level of level decision makers, water
enough good quality water understand the risk - each city Nature-based solutions for capital investment in wa- experts and professionals and
to sustain multiple needs, has their own unique risk, and water and adaptation to cli- ter infrastructure, how will not only raise awareness
including those for ecosys- must carefully measure and mate change centered on the it impact the economy and about water-related issues,
tems. This is needed to forecast climate change, pop- role of nature-based solution water cycle? but also influence policy-mak-
overcome the challenges ulation growth and competing for water and adaptation to Benedito: With the rise in ing and catalyze collective
brought on by climate demands on their water sys- climate change focusing on water demand and its limited action to support the cause.
change and human influ- tems. The second step is to the inter-linkages of water, availability, efficiency, recy-
ence. This can be achieved manage their water budget - biodiversity and climate cling, and reuse will become Finally, what would you say
by strengthening institu- city planners and water utili- change. much more important. is the one most important
tions, increasing financing, ties need to be proactive in Innovative technical solutions thing for the world to con-
and reinforcing capacity to creating and implementing Asia-Pacific region is will offer better and cheaper sider on World Water Day?
develop adequate infra- integrated urban water man- home to nearly two-thirds solutions that drive global Benedito: Since water is a
structure and resource agement strategies. These of the global population water security. common good, taking care of
management. strategies would consider all but only uses one-third of our water resources is, there-
• Population growth, migra- water-related issues such as the world’s water re- How do you see the role of fore, the shared responsibility
tion towards urban areas drinking water, wastewater, sources. This is a serious World Water Council in the of everyone on the planet. If
(most of which are in the and urban drainage, as well as concern. How can it be ad- evolution of water aware- actions are taken sooner
coastal regions), and cli- energy, food and industrial dressed? ness? rather than later and decision-
mate change are all pres- needs. The final step is to Benedito: 554 million Benedito: The World makers invest in water securi-
sures that will be increas- invest more in resilience. Asians do not have access to Water Council has a very ty, communities may be better
ingly encountered in the Cities must become more pre- safe drinking water. important role in the evolu- prepared to deal with crises,
21st century. pared for the unexpected, for Unfortunately, the Asia- tion of water awareness. such as the Cape Town
• Solutions from nature example, by identifying oppor- Pacific region faces many Global events such as the drought, and costs can actual-
include planting trees, tunities to build and develop threats to water resources, World Water Forum and ly be averted. These actions,
replenishing forests, recon- water storage and ways to including poor access to water World Water Day are funda- including the introduction of
necting the river to flood- treat and reuse wastewater, and sanitation, limited water mental to raising water nature-based solutions, can be
plains and restoring wet- while also investing in water availability, deteriorating awareness in different parts of used to overcome the water
lands. These are sustain- efficiency and natural infra- water quality, and increased the globe. The WWC drives challenges of the 21st century.
able and cost-effective structure for protection. exposure to climate change
measures that can be used and water-related disasters.
to rebalance the water Can you provide us with a To be able to address these The World's Cities by 2030
cycle, which in turn would few examples of success- issues and concerns, it is • More than 40% of the world’s population will live in river
help reduce floods and ful implementations of na- important to raise awareness basins under severe water stress.
droughts and so reducing ture-based solutions for and improve water resources • 50% increase in demand for energy and water, requires a
the effects of climate water management? management, and focus on the water infrastructure capital investment, 3 times the cur-
change. Benedito: World Water sustainable development of rent level.
Council member, the this, as well. • 20% of the population will be at risk from floods.
The media has largely been International Union for China, for example, is now • 60% of urban settlements remain to be built.
focused on Cape Town go- Conservation of Nature focusing on their issue of • 2 million people will have migrated to cities, placing
ing to be the first major (IUCN) defines nature-based water pollution within the unprecedented pressure on infrastructure and resources,
city in the world to run out solutions as “actions to pro- country and is taking particularly those related to water.
of the water by this April. tect, sustainably manage, and increased measures to (Source: World Water Council)
As the ‘Day Zero’ looms on restore natural or modified improve the quality of their

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 19


Urban Wetland Systems: Green

Infrastructure for Sustainable
Water Management
As cities expand and become densely populated, there is a respectively growing demand for
improved sanitary and ecological conditions and a more intelligent way to exploit urban
By Dr. Alexandros Stefanakis

way to exploit urban space. pended solids. Management of

One of the main fields this water volume is impor-
where GI can play an impor- tant to prevent any damages
tant role is water manage- to public infrastructure and
ment, mainly stormwater private properties and to pro-
management and wastewater tect human health and the
treatment services. health status of the ecosys-
Stormwater runoff manage- tems.
ment is a major issue in mod- Another example where GI
ern cities. Often, stormwater can be beneficial is waste-
contributes to combined water treatment within the
sewer overflow in cities, urban and peri-urban environ-
where domestic/ municipal ment. The established solu-
wastewater, urban runoff, and tion today is the centralized
stormwater are collected in approach, i.e., the implemen-
the same pipe network that tation of large end-of-the-pipe
GREEN INFRASTR- gas emissions. GI represents Current problems have to do routes the collected volume to centralized treatment plants
UCTURE (GI) is today a mod- today a wide set of solutions with the aging of existing an end-of-the-pipe centralized using conventional waste-
ern approach to the urban aimed at increasing the infrastructure, shifts in pre- wastewater treatment plant. water treatment technologies.
environment and an attractive resilience of urban environ- cipitation patterns with more The occurring overflow vol- However, these facilities are
alternative to traditional ments to deal with the frequent and intense storm ume can be higher than the not environmentally friendly
infrastructure made of con- increasing risks that modern events, watershed deforesta- capacity of the treatment since they are heavy installa-
crete (often called grey infra- cities face due to the frequent tion, degradation of natural plants, which means that the tions made of non-renewable
structure). GI initially appearance and intensity of wetlands, extensive use of excess wastewater volume is materials (e.g., concrete,
referred to open urban green extreme events. Today, it is impervious surfaces (e.g., discharged into surface water steel), consume large amounts
areas, usually connected to realized that ecosystem serv- roadways, parking lots) that bodies (streams, rivers, lakes of energy and have high oper-
each other to provide various ices, i.e., all services and goods result in urban floods and pol- or see) to avoid overloading of ational and maintenance
services and/or to create a that nature provides to lution of water sources. As cli- the existing treatment plants costs. In the urban environ-
new ecosystem. Typical appli- humans, represent a tremen- mate change is expected to and creates flood incidents in ment, installing a convention-
cations of GI solutions are the dous value, which should not further enhance these phe- urban areas. Another conse- al wastewater treatment plant
urban runoff and stormwater be neglected. Thus, GI is nomena, adoption of GI could quence is further contamina- usually downgrades the sur-
management, reducing the strongly related to sustain- make a more beneficial use of tion of surface waters and rounding area as it is not a
effects of urban heat islands, ability. the multiple ecosystems serv- damage of the receiving place where people want to
improving air quality etc. Rapid urbanization and ices and could help in impact ecosystem, considering that live. Hence, an alternative eco-
However, the content of that continuous expansion of mod- mitigation. As cities expand during flood events water friendly solution, what would
term has been expanded to ern cities are only a few of the and become densely populat- from the first flush of roads combine effective treatment
include, e.g., provision of challenges that local authori- ed, there is a respectively and concrete surfaces, sewer with added ecological values,
ecosystem services, the cre- ties and governments face growing demand for improved washout and sanitary waste- is desirable.
ation of new wildlife habitat related to urban runoff and sanitary and ecological condi- water carries high loads of It is clear that there is the
and reduction of greenhouse stormwater management. tions and a more intelligent organics, nutrients, and sus- necessity for new infrastruc-

20 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


gy, they provide a new habitat water streams by providing

for animals and plants, while clean water while protecting
treating water, improving downstream areas of the city
water quality and reducing from flooding. The provision
pollution. Given that these of additional green space with
systems are dominated by aesthetic values is a way for
dense clusters of reeds, they the community to feel con-
act as a cooling island, regu- nected with nature and to
late the microclimate of the increase psychological well-
surrounding areas and mod- being. In summary, the multi-
erate the strong winds. In this ple benefits of Constructed
way, they act as aesthetically wetlands should be further
ture that will meet the and landscape architects. The urban environment, e.g., the pleasant urban green spaces, exploited and realized in
requirements for effective main functions of CWs are use of wetlands as green roofs. which contribute to the well- order to include these green
treatment and sanitation of flood protection, water stor- The concept deals with the being of the community and systems in current and future
the generated water streams age, and water quality construction of roofs with a provide options for recre- urban plans.
and, at the same time, create improvement. vegetated surface. Studies ational activities. It is also About the Author
green spaces in the urban In the urban context, wet- have shown that this practice known that the contact with
environment, which could also land technology applications can regulate the temperature green spaces in the urban con-
partially compensate the lack are rare, mainly due to space inside the building, reduce the text, supports the physical
of sufficient green areas. The limitations. However, continu- urban heat-island effects, and and psychological health. In
eco-friendly technology of ous research and state-of-the- act as a carbon sink while pro- this frame, Wetland technolo-
Constructed Wetlands (CWs) art designs developed over the viding a range of ecological gy represents a key solution
is an attractive solution with last 10-15 years gradually close services. for the increased resilience of
added values to ecosystem this gap between land avail- In urban and suburban modern cities to existing
services. It is known that wet- ability and area demand. The areas, the lower infiltration stressors regarding water and
lands are able to remove wider use of decentralized rate, the limited evapotranspi- wastewater management.
and/or transform various pol- systems offers a better man- ration due to the extended Distribution of several
lutants (organics, nutrients, agement option for the gener- land coverage with building CWs throughout a green infra-
trace elements, etc.) through a ated volumes and minimizes infrastructure, roads etc. and structure network allows the Dr. Alexandros Stefanakis
series of natural, biological, the required quantity and size the limited green spaces usage of treated effluents to is a Wetlands Expert at Bauer
and chemical processes, and of centralized facilities. Use of result in significantly higher create wetlands for habitat Resources GmbH. He has
therefore improving water constructed wetlands in runoff volumes, up to 50% enhancement, irrigation, and graduated from the
quality. Human-made wetland urban suburbs, for example, is higher compared to natural open space uses. The main Department of Environmental
ecosystems exploit these puri- today feasible. In suburban land. For example, it has been advantage of large construct- Engineering, Democritus
fying functions of natural wet- areas, the land is usually estimated that 1 acre of park- ed wetland systems for waste- University of Thrace, Greece
lands, which have been used cheaper, the population densi- ing lot generates 16 times water treatment is the signifi- with the Diploma of
for the disposal and treatment ty is smaller and the building higher stormwater volume cantly lower operating costs Environmental Engineer in
of secondary and tertiary volumes are not that massive than 1 acre of meadow. The and external energy use. The 2005. His Master in Science in
wastewater effluents for many as in the main urban areas. modern approach of building economic value of the ecosys- 2007 focused on Hydraulic
years. Nowadays, the use of The technical developments GI takes into consideration tem services provided by CWs Engineering and the
natural wetlands for treat- and improvements in con- multiple issues such as water justifies their construction to Environment. His Ph.D. (2011)
ment purposes is not allowed, structed wetland design make quality improvement, realize the wide range of pro- focused on Ecological
since this could cause irre- it easier to adopt this treat- resources protection, flow vol- visioning, regulating, and cul- Engineering and Technology
versible damage. The basic ment solution, even in areas ume control and cost-effective tural benefits. investigating several pilot con-
concept of CWs is to replicate with relatively limited avail- long-term operation and When connected to urban structed wetland units for
the various wetland processes able space. Intensified CW maintenance. CWs are ecological corridors, the wastewater treatment and
under controlled conditions systems, e.g., aerated wet- increasingly viewed as an eco- ecosystem services provided sludge dewatering. His expert-
for a beneficial outcome. This lands where artificial aeration logical solution to the manage- by CWs promote the creation ise lies in water engineering
means that CWs are designed is applied to further improve ment of stormwater and CSO of large-scale multifunctional and specifically on natural
in such a way to mimic and the oxygen availability in the providing a series of advan- landscapes, altering this way waste treatment systems. He
enhance the functions of natu- bed, are an example. The tages, such as reduction in the characteristics of urban- is an expert on sustainable
ral wetlands. Although CWs increased treatment capacity runoff volumes, peak flows ized development. Being one and decentralized treatment
offer in general the same val- of these systems is translated and duration, protection of of the most productive habi- systems, mainly Constructed
ues and functions with natural to reduced area demands, downstream water resources, tats on the planet, Wetlands. As an
wetlands, they appear as a while the amount of energy reducing the risk of flooding, Constructed Wetlands built Environmental Engineer, he
more ecologically endowed required for the air blowers is water quality improvement, for wastewater treatment or has designed, managed and
system. It has been shown minimum and can be covered increase of runoff infiltration, stormwater control offer a constructed wastewater
that CWs possess a higher by renewable energy sources, creation of wildlife habitat and series of environmental and treatment facilities using
value in terms of flood and e.g., solar or wind energy. options for recreation activi- social benefits, enhance biodi- Wetland Technology in many
stormwater control, water Hence, there is the strong ties. versity and habitat, create countries in Europe, Middle
quality improvement and bio- potential of using of wetland Overall, the use of corridors for wildlife and East, USA, and Africa.
diversity restoration. Their technology in suburban and Constructed Wetlands in become part of the regional Currently, Bauer Nimr LLC
nature makes them more eas- urban areas. urban and peri-urban areas recreational network. Their employs him, and he is based
ily adopted and integrated Innovative ideas can also can offer multiple benefits and integration in the urban envi- in Oman working on projects
into the built environment by be applied for the successful services to the residents. As a ronment supports a healthier in the Middle East and around
urban planners, engineers, integration of CWs in the multi-purpose green technolo- ecological balance of existing the world.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 21


Women Save Village byReviving

Dying River
By The Art of Living

feminine strength. The pabilities to do more and now want all

women too decided that it was Most women were appre- the neighbouring villages to
time they took matters in hensive of the fact that they benefit. Also, now they not
their hands and came forward would have to dig such deep only have enough water to
to work wholeheartedly for wells, but once they finished drink, but also have enough to
the cause. digging a well, they felt irrigate the village.
enthused to proceed further. Amsaveni says, “Now I do
Capacity Building Pro- The women also feel a not have to ask my husband
grams renewed sense of empower- and wait for him to give me
The Art of Living team ment and inspiration to money to buy basic goods for
started with conducting Rural explore their capabilities. “We the household, myself or my
Happiness courses - a self- were asked to dig wells up to a children. I can buy them on
empowerment and personal depth of 20 feet. We didn’t my own.”
development program. It believe we could do it. But, Working for the river reju-
equipped the women with the once we began, there was no venation project has trans-
necessary capacity tools to stopping us till the job was formed the underprivileged
create success for themselves done!” beams Anandi, a local wives, mothers and sisters of
and inspire others to join village woman working for the the region into self-dependent
them. project. women.
The program instilled in Chitra says, "When I stand The involvement in the
the women a newfound sense back and observe what we projects has given the women
Women Leaders Working for River of confidence and dignity, and have done - all we women - I in the region a sense of accom-
Rejuvenation in Tamil Nadu they then started to work to feel proud of all the hard work plishment, worth and motiva-
solve the water crisis in the done." tion to be further involved in
THE WOMEN OF village. During the Construction Geeta says, "I feel so community initiatives. Having
Kammavaanpettai village responsible that we ourselves found their own footing, they
have scripted an incredible Empowered Women Begin revive the Naganadhi River. have come together, made can now move forward confi-
tale of success. Work They worked at all stages of groups of 10-15 ladies, got dently to ignite the flame of
This place in Tamil Nadu Naganadhi rejuvenation the project - right from dig- down to work and completed inspiration in the hearts of
was a picture of misery with needed cement rings that are ging the wells, placing the the task. Now we have abun- other rural women, both in
acute shortage of water, no placed at a depth of 20 feet in cement rings, putting the dant water, and all due to our the region and throughout
agriculture and frustrated vil- which the rainwater runoff stones to finally closing the own efforts.” India.
lagers. collects. well with a cement lid.
The Naganadhi River in The requirement created The women make around Profits from the Small
the village was facing major an opportunity for employ- 2000 rings per month and it Scale Business
water problems for the last 15 ment. The women decided to brings them a profit of 40 per- This activity has not only
years, and no efforts were do the work themselves cent, which is equally shared helped in the rejuvenation
being done to revive it. A large instead of procuring cement among the members of the project, but also made the
majority of the men there had rings from outside. An idea self-help groups. women generate a substantial
given up all hope and had was mooted to form a women Each group usually con- amount of profit and turn it
taken to drinking, making self-help group under the tains 5-6 women. There are into a small scale business.
things worse. MGNREGA scheme to pro- four teams working on this This gave them a lot of confi-
The dire state of affairs in duce cement rings on their project and a total of 85 peo- dence and made them self-
the village encouraged the Art own. ple are now gainfully reliant and able to stand on
of Living Water Projects team Under the employment employed. The project is set their feet.
to do something for the vil- generation scheme of the gov- to expand this fiscal year and The enthusiasm and the
lagers. ernment, the women strived the women are fully motivated happiness of having accom-
They decided to focus on physically to achieve what had to achieve more and achieve plished a task shine on the
the womenfolk in the area and once seemed an impossible their targets. faces of these simple rural
urge them to work, and feat. folks. Women Working in
become living symbols of the They started working to Surprised at Their Own Ca- They are now all enthused Kammavapettai Village

22 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Wastewater Treatment with Solar

Detoxification Technology
By Dr. Mritunjay Chaubey

cause oxidation of the surface For low solute concentrations, K2C Ko = Experimental reaction rate con-
absorbed specie while the electrons is usually much smaller than one, stant
cause reduction. Both reactions must which means the denominator in the I = Actual UV intensity at field
take place in order to maintain elec- L-H expression equal to one. This Io = Experimental UV intensity (50
troneutrality. Thus, if the objective is reduces the L-H expression to a pseu- w/m2)
the oxidation of organics, the electrons do-first order expression. A = Constant, 0.88
must be consumed in a reduction reac-
tion such as absorption by oxygen mol- dC It has been investigated that the
ecules to form superoxide, in order to - ------ = K1 K2 C = KC--------- Eq. (1) kinetic of solar detoxification process
keep the holes available for oxidation. dt in wastewater treatment follows the
On the other hand, if the objective is first order reaction. The reaction rate
the reduction and recovery of metals, Typically, the industrial wastewater constant play very important role in
all other reducible species such as oxy- pollutant levels are on the order of this reaction and it has been found that
gen must be eliminated or kept away. parts per million (ppm), which are low the reaction rate constant is different
IN RECENT YEARS, it has been The following equations describe the enough for the reaction rate to follow for different pollutants of wastewater.
demonstrated that solar detoxification oxidation and reduction reactions: the pseudo first-order kinetics. The reaction rate constant is higher
has great potential for the elimination of For the first order kinetic reaction, for killing of E-coli bacteria and mini-
toxic elements, organic compounds and the reaction rate constant ‘K’ is calcu- mum for COD reduction. It has been
biological contamination in wastewater. lated by using equation (1) as also investigated that the reaction rate
The solar detoxification is the process constants for BOD and COD are high
of treatment of wastewater in which Cf at tertiary stage of treatment in com-
catalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2) is ----- = e-kt parison of secondary stage treatment
exposed to the sun, the catalyst absorbs Ci and hence the solar detoxification
the high energy photons light from the Oxidation of Organics process will be most effective when
UV portion of the solar spectrum and t = (ln Ci/Cf ) / K used at tertiary stage of wastewater
reactive chemicals known as hydroxyl treatment.
radicals are formed. These radicals are Reduction of Metals ln(Ci/Cf)
powerful oxidizer and disinfectant. K = ------------ ------------- Eq. (2) Application of Solar Detoxification
t Solar detoxification technology is
Reaction Pathways capable of reducing organic, biological
The possible reaction pathways for Solar Detoxification Kinetic Where, K = Reaction rate constant contamination. This technology is also
solar detoxification mechanism are as The rate of photocatalytic degrada- Ci = Initial concentration of contami- effective in removing heavy metals &
follows: tion of organic, biological and toxic ele- nant of wastewater colour from wastewater. In a single
When a photon with an energy ments depend on the several factors Cf = Final concentration of contami- reactor we can achieve reduction of
equal to or more than the band-gap of including catalyst concentration, oxy- nant of wastewater organic impurities, biological impuri-
TiO2 is absorbed on its surface, it gen concentration, pH, the presence of T = Residence time ties, heavy metals & colour from
causes excitation of an electron from inorganic ions and the concentration of wastewater. Among several available
the valence band (vb) to the conduc- organic matters. Typically in many The reaction rate constant deter- fouling prevention technique of
tion band (cd), forming a “positive photo-assisted reactions, the effect of mined herein, is based on certain par- reverse osmosis systems, solar detoxi-
hole” in the valence band. Both the temperature is small. ticular intensity of the UV radiation in fication is the latest and advance tech-
hole and the electron are highly ener- To study the kinetics of solar detox- laboratory. As we know that the inten- nology for fouling prevention of
getic and hence highly reactive. The ification Langmuir - Hinshelwood (L- sity of the UV radiation cannot be con- reverse osmosis systems. In this tech-
excited electron and the positive hole H) kinetics seem to describe many of trolled, therefore the experimentally nology chemical consumption is negli-
either re-combine and release heat, or the reactions fairly well. The rate of determined reaction rate constant gible and energy consumption is very
migrate to the surface, where they can destruction is given by: must be adjusted for the actual field less as compared to other convention-
react with adsorbed molecules and UV intensity according to the follow- al methods.
either causes a reduction or oxidation dC K1 K2 C ing equation. About the Author
of the adsorbate. Since recombination - ----- = --------------- K I Dr. Mritunjay Chaubey is sustain-
in the bulk or on the surface is the dt 1 + K2C ---- = a ----- ------ Eq. (3) ability, environment, water & waste-
most common reaction, the quantum Where, C = Bulk solute concentration Ko Io water treatment technology expert.
yields (molecules reacted/photons K1 = Reaction rate constant He is currently working as Global Vice
absorbed) of most photocatalytic reac- K2 = Equilibrium adsorption constant Where, K = Actual reaction rate con- President - Environment &
tions are low. The “positive holes” t = Residence time stant at the field Sustainability at UPL Limited.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 23


Water Management: APolicy

Water calls for a proactive and not reactive state policy with a primary aim to reduce its
commoditization and make it equally and freely available.
By Ajitabh Sharma

much heavier oxygen atom conditions requiring high lakes, destroyed the life-sus-
should consequently have energy interaction. It is taining wetlands and killed
made H2O a gas. Implying, astounding to learn that the the uncountable biodiversity.
water on earth should have water we daily drink, wash We failed to understand
existed mostly in form of hands with, bath with, irrigate water as a ‘resource’ and
vapour. The similarity of the our farms with, extract from exploited it like any other nat-
water molecule is with the the wells, the snow, the ice and ural resource without an inte-
like-sized hydrogen sulphide the rain which falls from the grated policy for its conserva-
(H2S), ammonia (NH3) and sky is many billions of years tive and efficient use on sus-
hydrogen chloride (HCl) old. Only, it keeps changing its tainable basis.
which are all gases. Hydrogen form in the hydrologic cycle. Increasing global popula-
Sulphide molecule despite Water is essential for all tion is making this resource
being twice the weight of ecosystem services. Sixty per- scarcer. The competing
water molecule exists in cent of human body is water. demands for drinking, agricul-
gaseous state. Human brain and heart both ture, industrial, commercial
This unique characteristic are seventy-three percent and environmental require-
of water is because of the V water. The energizer of life, ments is putting immense
shape of the water molecule, the plasma which is about fifty pressure on this limited
and the hydrogen bond which percent blood is ninety-two resource.
is very weak when compared percent water. The burgeoning urban
with the covalent bonds of the Despite the feats of requirement, and sanitation
molecule. As a result, the advancement achieved in var- and quality issues are coming
whole H2O molecule, even ied fields, food is yet not pro- to the fore aggressively. The
after being electrically neu- duced in lab. Human has to trans-boundary water con-
tral, is polar in nature. still grow food in the most flicts are increasing by the day
This formation of the primitive and only manner by in almost all regions of the
water molecule makes it a culturing land, and least to world.
unique substance in nature say that needs water. Finding solutions by allow-
which provides it the perfect Such a treasure the water ing free market forces to
‘stickiness’ to be the basic is. determine the water prices,
building block of life on earth. keeping in tandem the idea of
The sticky nature of water Water - The Challenges water as a human right is
enables it to dissolve most of Water has coexisted with becoming increasingly chal-
the compounds within itself, nature since eons in harmony, lenging. Attracting capital for
which makes it possible to and human has survived and new projects of the water util-
play the role of a medium of evolved in this coexistence. ities and retrofitting the old
transport at the cellular level But, off-late this balance has water infrastructure calls for
Water - A Treasure anomalous behaviour. It is this in living beings, and hence been disturbed by the anthro- innovative financial products.
Water is called ‘elixir of anomalous behaviour which making it the foundation of pogenic activities to a level In the changed scenario
life’. The first life form on makes water the only natural- the life support system. No that the impending water cri- and the rising water conflicts,
earth was created in water. ly occurring substance whose other liquid carries this sis has become a cause of seri- the existing regulatory regime
Under the basic scientific solid-form ice is less dense remarkable quality in such ous concern. in water sector has rendered
classification of solid, liquid than its liquid form water, abundance like water does.- The careless human itself insufficient and ineffec-
and gaseous states of matter, which makes ice float on Because of its very compo- actions have polluted our tive.
water though falling in the liq- water. sition at the molecular level resources, emptied the The scenario has become
uid state has historically The water molecule con- water can neither be aquifers some of which would more critical because of the
intrigued the scientific com- sisting of two very light hydro- destroyed nor created except take centuries to recharge, threat which the climate
munity for its widely studied gen atoms and a relatively under extreme laboratory ran the rivers dry, shrunk the change poses on our water

24 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


resources. Hence, it is a high Management (IWRM) con- Different users intercept groundwater management firstly, that the watershed on
time we start deliberating and cept are the vital need of the water at different stages in the policy is essential as it is the the surface and the aquifers
implementing the water man- time. water cycle for their use. common precipitation which under the ground do not nec-
agement plan keeping all The Dublin principles of As per the Global Water changes its form as surface essarily overlap, and neither
these aspects in perspective. 1992 recommended IWRM as Partnership, “Integrated water or groundwater at dif- do they match with the admin-
a participatory planning and Water Resources ferent times in the water istrative units like districts
Integrated Water Re- implementation protocol, the Management is a process cycle. and blocks. Hence, it is essen-
sources Management foundation of which lies on the which promotes the coordi- Excessive drawl of ground- tial for the policymakers to
(IWRM) framework of Social equity, nated development and man- water from aquifer may recast all programs and
Water is intricately linked Economic efficiency and agement of water, land and impact the rivers run dry schemes for water conserva-
with environment, ecology, Ecological sustainability. related resources in order to because of reduced base flow. tion considering the water-
nature and human. In the era IWRM tackles the water man- maximise economic and social Consequently, this may shed, which is a river basin at
of anthropocene, human activ- agement and development welfare in an equitable man- adversely affect the water the macro level, and the spa-
ity has severely impacted the issue taking into account how ner without compromising the storage in dams and other tial, temporal and hydrogeo-
manner in which the climate water interacts with land and sustainability of vital ecosys- water bodies downstream. logic characteristics of the
and the biophysical environ- its other biophysical environ- tems and the environment.” Also, the reduced surface flow groundwater aquifer in per-
ment interact with the ment of which human is an The water resources policy of will reduce the recharge of the spective.
humans. Not only the water overpowering part. Role of the nation needs to be endeav- groundwater aquifer. Secondly, the groundwater
has been so far handled as an community is at the helm of ouring more for achieving this Groundwater management is a dynamic entity and is an
entity in seclusion from the IWRM practices. goal. is crucial for integrated plan- integral part of the whole
whole ecosystem, but it has Water is a trans-discipli- ning. Of the total fresh water water ecosystem. It interacts
also been further broken nary subject. It traverses the Unsplittable Surface and available on earth 68.7 percent with the surface water system
down into silos like surface disciplines of engineering, Groundwater is in form of ice caps and gla- whenever it spatially comes
water, groundwater, rivers, sociology, polity, water eco- IWRM is a vast subject to ciers, 30.1 percent is ground- across a river stream, a lake
lakes, glaciers, snow, ice, rain, nomics, gender aspects as deal with. One important water and only remaining 1.2 or the sea. Over drawl of
sea and many others, to its well issues like community aspect is the role which the percent is surface water and aquifers reduces the base flow
peril. participation. There are var- surface water and groundwa- water in other forms. This and brings the river level
Since the late twentieth ied uses and users of water ter play in the overall water breakup is self explicit as to down than the normal levels.
century the direction of scien- which makes it a multi-stake- management plan, they being why groundwater is of prime Infiltration of surface runoff
tific research has been guided holder subject too. To name a the major sources to obtain importance. into the aquifers depends on
by the reductionist approach few- irrigation, drinking water water for variety of uses. For Over sixty percent of water the nature of its geological for-
of breaking the research sub- for human and livestock, the reason of limitation of requirement for irrigation in mation. For example, in allu-
ject endlessly into smaller domestic requirements, space, only this particular country is fulfilled by ground- vial aquifer the water would
segments to study them in industrial & commercial uses, aspect of IWRM is being dis- water, and remaining is infiltrate and travel fast as
detail. This has made us spe- ecological requirements and cussed hereinafter in this arti- sourced from surface water. compared to the hard starata
cialists, but in some contexts need for recreational purpos- cle. The strong roots of food secu- aquifer. Hence, the contribu-
it has unconsciously made our es where water is an integral Any water management rity are embedded in the suffi- tion of groundwater as base
understanding of issues blink- part of human life. policy has to deal with each cient availability of water for flow to the surface water
ered as well. We fail to appre- Various academic disci- and every aspect of the water irrigation. Since the major streams is determined by the
ciate the holistic perspective plines intersect with the water cycle by defining the water area under irrigation is served type of the aquifer.
of many common natural phe- sector like, hydrology, hydro- balance equation at every by groundwater, the criminal For the government agen-
nomena. It is something like geology, hydraulics, meteorol- stage of flow of water in the pace at which it is being cies it is necessary to appreci-
missing the wood for the ogy, geology, environmental ecosystem. Water balance extracted will put the goal of ate that a water harvesting
trees. Waking up late to the sciences, ecology, oceanology, equation is the dynamics of food-security-for-all-citizens structure above a hard strata
most severe challenges of the climatology, social science and inflow and outflow of water under jeopardy. aquifer, in comparison to the
twenty-first century like envi- many more. into and out of a system. The Sixty percent of rural and one above the alluvial aquifer,
ronmental degradation and Water appears in different most important is the under- forty percent of urban drink- will add less to the groundwa-
climate change is, to some forms on earth, like-rain and standing, that the surface ing water needs are still met ter table through recharge
extent, a result of this reduc- snowfall, ice peaks, in lakes water infiltrates into the by groundwater. and will lose more water as
tionist approach only. and ponds, in flowing rivers, ground to get stored as soil Precipitation falling on evaporation. Whereas, a
Water also didn’t remain as groundwater, as moisture moisture, groundwater and earth traverses the water- water harvesting structure on
immune to this approach of in soil and air, and last but not return as base flow to the shed. Part of it gets collected an alluvial aquifer, if built
human development and sci- the least, within living organ- river streams, and also, when in surface water bodies, and close to the discharge points
entific endeavours. And, this isms to sustain life. But, once the water balance is tilted in part infiltrates and recharges of a river stream, will lead to
has landed us in a situation it falls on earth’s surface, it the opposite, the stream water the aquifers. Some part of relatively faster percolation of
where water management has moves in the hydrologic and enters into the aquifer as the groundwater adds to the river water to join the river stream
become an arduous task for hydrogeologic cycle, common- groundwater. streams as base flow, and the as base flow.
sustainable survival of the ly known as water cycle. Most An isolated treatment of surplus falls into the sea. In both of the above cases
present and the future genera- simple water cycle is from either the groundwater or the Conjunctive water the public money spent would
tions. precipitation (rainfall) to sur- surface water will not yield to resource management of sur- not accrue the desired results.
Experts across the world face water (lakes, ponds, efficacious outcome of any face and groundwater necessi- So, the criterion of site selec-
after studying the theory and water bodies and flowing water policy. Unfortunately in tates the understanding of tion for the water harvesting
evaluating the practices of rivers), to infiltration (ground- our country we are yet to see a hydrology and hydraulics of structures is not only the
water management have con- water), evapotranspiration, regulatory framework dealing the surface water, and hydro- availability of surplus surface
cluded that the policy inter- net baseflow from groundwa- with both in an integrated geology of the groundwater water, but also the character-
ventions based on Integrated ter to river streams, and back manner. aquifer systems. istics of the aquifer. This is
Water Resources to sea to restart the cycle. Integrated surface and Few important aspects are, hardly followed in field.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 25


Advance knowledge and data pool more and before the efficiency initiatives.
availability about the water weaker ones. Reuse of treated water
balance equation should be an This very nature mandates provides ample water for
essential component for plan- stricter regulatory mecha- most non-drinking use in the
ning of any water project, nism with community partici- sprawling urban areas. Use of
small, medium or large. pation for sustainable man- onsite treated water for land- Experts across the world after studying
Thirdly, groundwater agement of groundwater scaping, toilet flushing, make- the theory and evaluating the practices of
extraction at greater depths is resource. up water for cooling towers
dependent on diesel or elec- and irrigation is being now water management have concluded that
tricity charged pumps. Irrigation Water Use practised aggressively in the policy interventions based on
Declining water table is chal- Agriculture sector is the many cities of EU, US and
lenged by stronger pump biggest and the most ineffi- Australia. Many cities in these
Integrated Water Resources
capacities involving higher cient water user. The water countries in last decade have Management (IWRM) concept are the
investment and enhanced transmission efficiency of brought down their water con-
operation charges, which large irrigation projects is sumption up to forty to fifty
vital need of the time.
slowly becomes out of reach of sometimes as low as sixty per- percent. Proper regulations
the small and marginal farm- cent. Major quantity is lost and sanitary codes are to be number of works completed, given in devising long-term
ers. This causes further during the transfer of water put in place to make these as water conservation is a plans for incentivizing conser-
inequity in exercising of their from the storage dam to the strategies acceptable in complex subject involving vation and efficiency meas-
right of groundwater usage. field. On field water applica- Indian cities also. multiple stakeholders and ures in all sectors agriculture,
To the contrary the surface tion efficiency is in the range Water saved by conserva- varied disciplines. Success of domestic, industrial as well as
water schemes which have of thirty to forty percent. tion and efficiency measures any program can be assessed commercial usage.
topographical limitations to Water-logging and increas- is the extra water made avail- and evaluated majorly on the Support programs for
carry water should be more ing salinity in cropped areas able at a very less cost. A new basis of effectiveness of inter- industry are vital for promo-
iniquitous than the groundwa- indicates the acute and crimi- dam costs 8500 times more ventions on the water cycle, tion of innovative conserva-
ter which is a common pool nal apathy towards the issue than the investment in water the impact on water balance tion and efficiency technology.
resource and the aquifer is of efficient water application conservation activities. equation, the manner in which Human has to prove smart
geographically more extend- practices for cultivation. Eighty percent of urban the water from different por- enough by creating an anthro-
ed. The defective policy provi- Vision for conjunctive use of water supply is for non-con- tions of water accounts is pogenic water use cycle tak-
sions and poor regulatory groundwater along with sur- sumptive uses. Meaning, it being appropriated and used ing cue from the nature’s
framework has led us to such face water for cultivation can be reused after treatment. by different users, and its effi- hydrologic cycle for using
a situation. should be made abundantly Policy efforts are to be cacy in making water avail- same water again and again in
Fourthly, as explained ear- clear in policy terms to obvi- focussed for transforming the ability more and more fair and a closed loop.
lier, in any country, there is a ate salinity situations in com- urban water supply from open equitable. Mere construction Last but not the least,
strong nexus between the mand areas. loop to closed loop. of water harvesting struc- water in all its form in the
groundwater extraction and Efforts are needed to Prudent water pricing tures or diverting water from water cycle being an integral
the energy policy regarding transform agricultural prac- mechanism to enforce water one place to another cannot part of the ecosystem is essen-
energizing of pumps. tices, promote the use of conservation and its efficient be counted as a success of any tial for rendering of ecosys-
Fifthly, appropriate policy treated sewage water and use is the most critical aspect water policy. Water is a natu- tem services in a sustainable
environment and regulatory pressure irrigation, make needing radical change in the ral resource and hence calls manner. The umbrella princi-
framework with prudent man- pressure irrigation mandato- policy environment. The block for a proactive and not reac- ples of maintaining minimum
agement are must for more ry for all new medium and rate mechanism practiced in tive state policy with a pri- environmental flow in rivers
equitable use of water, and to major irrigation projects, put the developed world is a good mary aim to reduce its com- and not discharging untreated
combat the quality issues in place a farmer participato- model to emulate. moditization and make it water lower than the bench-
which have arisen from ry regulatory mechanism for equally and freely available to marked standards into the
geogenic leaching by over- prioritizing cropping pattern Conclusion all sections of society both environment are to be
draw of groundwater. based on agro-climatic zones The solution to the water horizontally and vertically. adhered with zero tolerance.
Lastly, groundwater is an and the water account for the crisis in the twenty-first cen- An overarching institution- Lest the lines of the 1798 poem
open-access common pool region. tury lies in IWRM approach al and regulatory framework ‘The Rime of The Ancient
resource which is least regu- with emphasis on groundwa- has to be created to cover all Mariner’ by Samuel Taylor
lated. The owner of the land is Conservation, Efficiency ter and surface water man- aspects related to groundwa- Coleridge, ‘Water, water,
treated as the owner of the and Reuse Measures agement through community ter and surface water as dis- everywhere, nor any drop to
water below the land, this The policy-makers have to participation by creating an cussed above. Particularly drink…’ might become true on
makes it open access. Over appreciate the fine distinction Institutional framework incorporating more spatially the land also.
drawl by one person impacts between the conservation and involving all stakeholders and temporally distributed About the Author
the availability to the others, efficiency interventions for all where government agencies data for program formulation. Ajitabh Sharma, IAS, is
which makes it a common pool kinds of water uses. Using less have a limited and niche role Extensive aquifer mapping currently working as
resource. This very nature has water for shower is conserv- of being a facilitator rather program is needed, and the Secretary to Government in
made the groundwater, as oft- ing water, and using low flow than a manager keeping com- characteristics of dynamics of Animal Husbandry, Dairying,
quoted, ‘the tragedy of the shower heads and faucets is mand and control on the each aquifer has to be mapped Fisheries and Gopalan
commons’. an efficiency measure. Both water resources. to understand its behaviour Department with the State
Groundwater being an interventions need extensive Government agencies are towards the hydrologic and Government of Rajasthan,
open-access common pool education and community to be sensitized to refrain hydrogeologic cycle, so that India. He has done B. Tech.
resource has led to it iniqui- sensitisation programs. from being hasty in evaluating the government projects and from IIT Delhi, and has seven
tous distribution. Rich and Countries like Australia and the success of their water con- spending can be accordingly years’ experience in the water
powerful remain a step ahead Israel are far ahead than most servation programs and cam- fine-tuned. and natural resources man-
and dig deeper to claim the countries in conservation and paigns by merely counting the More attention needs to be agement.

26 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 27


AClearer View
The flow data will help steer recovery of Silver Springs - one of the largest artesian springs
ever discovered.
By SonTek

Hydrographers with the St. John River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Geared up Quarterly for an Extensive Study of a Six-Mile Reach of Florida’s Silver River.

SINCE THE 1870S, the crys- threatened by Florida’s grow- year study. Invasive plants, Springs. Now he is collecting two years, he has carefully
tal clear waters of Silver ing population. Spring flows including hydrilla, have upset data that will help inform measured velocity and flow
Springs have provided mil- have declined due to a combi- the ecological balance of the restoration efforts for the eight times in a six-mile
lions of visitors a glimpse into nation of climate, surface plant community. And algae, springs. stretch of the Silver River,
primeval Florida, a world of drainage alterations, and fueled by nutrient-enriched “As a kid in the early ‘60s, I which connects Silver Springs
buried caverns, bubbling groundwater pumping. High flows, coats native eelgrass remember how clear it was,” to the Ocklawaha River, build-
springs and cruising alliga- levels of nitrates and other and floats on the water’s sur- Wainwright says. “I’ve seen a ing a database of flow and veg-
tors, manatees and long-nosed nutrients flow into the aquifer face, dulling the system’s sap- difference in my lifetime. It’s etation characteristics that
gar. Florida’s oldest tourist that feeds the springs from phire glow. amazing.” will help scientists under-
attraction, Silver Springs is lawns, farms, septic systems, Mitch Wainwright, a stand the dynamics of the
one of the largest artesian faulty sewers and urban Hydrographer for the St. Go With the Flow river and build a model to pre-
springs ever discovered. runoff - background concen- Johns River Water Wainwright’s exploration dict its behavior.
But the once-pristine trations of nitrates in the river Management District (SJR- of the springs goes far beyond One of the biggest chal-
springs and the Silver River jumped 20-fold, from 0.05 WMD) in Palatka, Florida, childhood memories and casu- lenges in collecting data, he
that flows from them are mg/l to 1 mg/l, during a 50- grew up visiting Silver al observation. Over the past says, is the thick, submerged

28 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Mitch Wainwright of the St. John River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Figures He Paddled More 200 to 300 Miles While Measuring Depth, Flow and Velocity of a Six-Mile Reach of the
Silver River in 2015 and 2016.

aquatic vegetation - some nat- couple of inches to four or five it. It can alter the velocity pat- “Basically, we’re getting a ings by divers and surveyors
ural, some invasive - that feet high,” Wainwright notes. tern and changes where the picture of the top of the along four lateral transects in
grows in the river and can “It changes by the season, but velocity is in the channel.” canopy,” he explains. the river, analysts will be able
alter water movement. there are times when it gets so Several years ago, during Comparing canopy depth to calculate the waxing and
“The vegetation can be a thick you can’t paddle through an extremely hot summer, the data with true-bottom read- waning of the submerged veg-
lower river surface was com-
pletely covered with vegeta-
tion. Wainwright and his col- Mysterious Foundations
leagues were not able to docu- Silver Springs - a network of two dozen or more springs
ment whether the thick mats in central Florida - bubble up through central Florida’s
of plants had dammed the Karst formations, limestone beds that have been carved by
river’s flow that season, but acidic groundwater and rain into baroque networks of
the situation alerted them to caves, channels, domes, and tunnels. Channels in the matrix
the need for an in-depth study flow with underground rivers and provide quick conduits
of the physics and biology of between surface water and shallow groundwater. As the
the river. The timing was per- domes collapse and sinkholes form, ancient paths are
fect: the SJRWMD was rerouted beneath the surface.
launching a comprehensive That makes flow studies incredibly complex and makes
springs research effort with the once-pristine Silver Springs and Silver River system
the University of Florida, and highly sensitive to pollution.
the State of Florida initiated “The Karst geology is a great transporter of water from
significant funding to help surrounding areas,” says Mitch Wainwright, the
implement restoration proj- Hydrographer for the St. Johns River Water Management
ects. Understanding the vege- District. “The underground ‘rivers’ efficiently move water
tation dynamics would be a throughout the aquifer. Rainfall is a constant contributor,
critical step. but it also has the effect of washing nutrients and other
“The aquatic vegetation is potential pollutants into the upper Floridian aquifer.”
a very good indicator of water In fact, that effect can take place much more quickly than
quality,” Wainwright says. scientists once assumed. Wainwright describes a dye test in
“Seasonal changes are impor- the aquifer near Silver Springs to track the travel time of a
tant due to the variation of marked sample of water through the landscape.
sunlight and discharge pat- “It’s really quite amazing - they were expecting it to take
terns.” six months, but it got there in two weeks,” he says. “It can
Submerged aquatic vegeta- move a lot faster than we thought.”
tion does more than alter With that in mind, Wainwright and his colleagues at the
water flow—it also interferes district - and research collaborators at the University of
Using Four Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), the SJRWMD Team with Wainwright’s ability to Florida - are working to find ways to protect Silver Springs
Gathered Extensive Data on the Height of Underwater Vegetation and the measure flow and velocity all and the Silver River from nutrients and other pollutants
Flow of Water in the Silver River - Insight That will Help Managers Protect the way to the bottom of the that are coursing through hidden channels to threaten these
the Pollution-Prone System. river. unique ecosystems.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 29


Mitch Wainwright Designed a Lightweight PVC Linkage to Connect RiverSurveyor Hydroboards to Boats and Kayaks, Ensuring Reliable Positioning of the ADCPs in the Water. The Alligator
in the Background Seems Impressed.

etation from season to season. hydroboard on one end and a User-Friendly Instruments to measure flow and velocity the Silver River a challenging
GPS-pinpointed permanent kayak on the other, which Wainwright says the at depths of a few centimeters place to profile.
markers hammered into the allows a hydrographer to RiverSurveyor M9 - which to 40 meters - is ideally suited “The RiverSurveyor has
riverbed provide fixed refer- steer the instrument without uses nine transducers and for the complex bathymetry been extremely reliable dur-
ences for river bottom reading interfering with how it floats. multiple acoustic frequencies and dense forests that make ing all conditions,” he says. “I
sites, with surveys providing
bed angles and the slope of the
bank. They also guide the
divers and kayak-paddling
hydrographers along the tran-
sect paths.
In total, Wainwright con-
ducts 11 transects across the
Silver River every three
months to profile flow, velocity
and canopy depth using
RiverSurveyor M9 systems
produced by SonTek, a Xylem
brand. The RiverSurveyor
systems are equipped with a
hydroboard floating platform
and a power and communica-
tions module that includes an
integrated GPS system.
Wainwright and his team
from the district also conduct
12 longitudinal transects every
quarter, profiling flow, veloci-
ty, direction and canopy depth
along a six-mile reach. The
district uses four
RiverSurveyors in the mas-
sive data-gathering effort.
Wainwright designed a light-
weight PVC frame that attach- The M9 ADCP in the RiverSurveyor Switches Acoustic Frequencies Automatically to Provide Seamless, Accurate Data as Depth and Conditions
es to each RiverSurveyor’s Change.

30 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


water quality parameters and

pollution to provide a deep
look into this fascinating envi-

Data Visualization
The immense amount of
data collected during the
SJRWMD’s quarterly tran-
sects was processed through
WaterCube, which combines
data sets from multiple
ADCPs and filters the data to
yield highly accurate visual-
izations of the Silver River.
Wainwright and his team
capture details in cells as
small as two centimeters in
area and velocity measure-
ments accurate to 0.001
meters per second, providing
WaterCube with high-defini-
tion (HD) data to create pin-
sharp graphics.
“WaterCube processing
has been a giant plus,”
Wainwright says. “They are
Data from 12 Longitudinal and 11 Latitudinal Transects of the Silver River Yields High-Resolution Data that Helps Hydrographers Visualize the able to screen out the ques-
Contours the River as well as Flow Velocity and Direction on a 6-Mile Reach. 3D Velocity Stream Traces Through a Portion of the River, tionable data that is generated
Demonstrating Both Speed and Direction of the Flow Within Cubeit™ Software by WaterCube. from situations like side lobe
interference, GPS multipath
was especially amazed to see With its multiple acoustic fre- figures in the field. Calibration harnessed the capabilities of from dense tree canopy, and
the integrated GPS system quencies, the system will takes five minutes - it’s a sim- the RiverSurveyor’s bottom-tracking issues when
pick up numerous satellites switch from measuring in ple self-test. SmartPulse system to auto- dealing with subsurface
through heavy tree canopies shallow water to deep water “You can teach just about matically select the optimum aquatic vegetation. For me to
during the summer season. automatically, and it autocon- anyone how to operate the frequency, ping rate and pro- do that manually would take
RiverSurveyor,” Wainwright cessing techniques to provide 10 years. And their 3-D and
adds. “You just need a very valuable data as the river’s cross-section velocity visuali-
experienced ADP data collec- depth and velocity change in a zation helps us explore the
tion technical person on hand very challenging application. dataset rapidly.”
to ensure that everybody’s col- Working in a heavily forested Ultimately, SJRWMD’s
lecting data properly.” environment, they rely heavily Silver River flow data will
Wainwright says he uses on the RiverSurveyor teleme- form the basis of a hydrody-
the RiverSurveyors in tandem try and GPS package. namic model that will allow
with a SonTek CastAway “The tool works well, but scientists to predict the flow
CTD, a baseball-sized conduc- nothing works perfectly in an of water. That insight will be
tivity, temperature and depth environment like this,” Jones combined with research cur-
instrument that provides adds. “Mitch and his team rently being conducted by col-
instant insight into salinity have overcome many obsta- laborators at the University of
and temperature conditions cles through hard work, cre- Florida on water quality, ecol-
that can impact acoustic sig- ativity, ingenuity, and collabo- ogy and aquifer transport to
nals. ration with other experts. The provide a clearer view of the
SonTek product manager insight they are providing on workings of the mysterious,
Isaac Jones says Wainwright flow and detailed channel bot- complex and compellingly
and the SJRWMD team have tom features will complement beautiful world of Florida’s
tapped into the versatility and the growing understanding of spring-fed rivers.
performance features of the
RiverSurveyor M9 in a clut-
tered, complex environment.
“Mitch and his colleagues
provide an amazingly detailed
A Survey Line Plan (Top Left) in SonTek HydroSurveyor Software Guides look at the characteristics of
SJRWMD Hydrographers with RiverSurveyor M9 Systems as They the channel - dominated by
Paddle Florida’s Star Lake (Top Right) to Gather Highly Detailed Data on vegetation, logs and a maze of
Water Depth, Flow, Direction and Velocity (Lower Left). HydroSurveyor cypress tree roots - and their
Interpolates the Data to Yield Easy-to-Interpret Graphics (Bottom Right) impacts on flow through the Interpolated Bathymetry Along the Silver River Reach Showing
from the Data. river,” Jones says. “They have CastAway CTD Cast Locations.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 31


Projects for Water Resources,

River Development,and Ganga
Rejuvenation: AReview
one year, works on two STP projects (50 MLD in Water Quality Monitoring: Based on water quali-
Varanasi and 82 MLD in Haridwar) have been start- ty monitoring being carried out at 124 locations
ed under Hybrid Annuity PPP mode (HAM). Other through manual as well as sensors based real-time
projects sanctioned under HAM are Naini, Jhusi, system, it has been observed that water quality trend
Phaphamau, Unnao, Shuklaganj and Farrukhabad in on tributaries of Ramganga river viz., Bahela,
Uttar Pradesh, Digha, Kankarbagh and Bhagalpur in Dahela, Kosi and Ramganga itself before its conflu-
Bihar, Howrah, Bally and Tolly’s Nallah in Kolkata. ence with Ganga has shown improvements during
36 Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring Station the last two years.
(RTWQMS) are operational under Namami Gange
programme. Water Resources & River Development
For abatement of industrial pollution, the survey Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana
of all 1109 Grossly Polluting Industries (GPIs) was (PMKSY) has been formulated amalgamating ongo-
conducted. Out of 1109 GPIs, 333 were closed and clo- ing schemes viz. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit
sure notices were given to non-complying GPIs. Programme (AIBP) of the Ministry of Water
For River Front Development, works at 111 ghats Resources, River Development and Ganga
and 46 crematoria are in progress and expected to be Rejuvenation (MoWR, RD & GR), Integrated
completed by 2018. For river surface cleaning, 11 Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of
trash skimmers have been deployed at Haridwar, Department of Land Resources (DoLR) and the On
The Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways, Garh Mukhteshwar, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Farm Water Management (OFWM) of Department
Shipping and Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Patna, Sahibganj, Nabadwip, Kolkata, Delhi, and of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC). Under
Rejuvenation, Nitin Gadkari Mathura-Vrindavan. PMKSY, Ninety Nine (99) ongoing Accelerated
On rural sanitation front, all 4464 villages on the Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP)
Major Activities Under National Mission for bank of river Ganga have been made Open Major/Medium projects along with their Command
Clean Ganga Defecation Free (ODF) and 12, 74, 421 Individual Area Development & Water Management (CADWM)
Under Namami Gange programme, a total of 187 Household Toilets have been constructed.Five State works having a potential of 76.03 lakh ha. and an esti-
projects worth Rs. 16565.34 crore have been sanc- Ganga Committees and 34 District Ganga mated cost of Rs. 77595 cr. have been identified in
tioned for various activities such as sewage infra- Committees constituted for effective monitoring of consultation with States, for completion in phases up
structure, ghats and crematoria development, river- projects and activities. to December 2019. Funding mechanism through
front development, river surface cleaning, institu- Six public outreach programmes were organised NABARD has been made by the Government for
tional development, biodiversity conservation, in five main stem Ganga basin States. They are both central and state share for timely completion of
afforestation, rural sanitation, and public participa- Ganga Swachhta Pakhwada, Ganga Sankalp Divas, 99 prioritized projects.
tion. Ganga Nirikshan Yatra, Ganga Dusshera, Ganga
93 projects out of 187 were sanctioned for the cre- Vriksharopan Saptah, and Swachhta Hi Seva No. Item Funds Released
ation of 2205.08 MLD new Sewage Treatment Plants Pakhwada. (Rs. In cr.)
(STPs), rehabilitation of 564.3 MLD of existing STPs The participation of corporates in Namami Gange 2016-17 2017-18
and laying/rehabilitation of 4762.4 km sewer network programme grew stronger with successful comple- 1 AIBP (C.A.) 3308 905.62
for abatement of pollution in river Ganga and tion of two road shows - London and Mumbai. 2 Polavaram Project 2514 979.36
Yamuna. Commitments of participation in NMCG activities 3 State Share from LTIF 3334 3318.85
Within a year of reconstitution of NMCG as an have been made by several corporates. Funds Released for AIBP Component During 2016-2017 &
Authority (October 07, 2016 to October 07, 2017), 44 Projects have also been taken up for biodiversity 2017-18 (up to December 05, 2017)
projects worth Rs 7,547.87 crore were approved by conservation, conservation of fish and fisheries,
the Executive Committee. These projects pertain to Dolphin conservation, afforestation activities. Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) of three priority
the creation of adequate sewage treatment capaci- Countries like Australia, United Kingdom, links have been completed viz. Ken-Betwa link proj-
ties in Ganga basin States - Uttarakhand (17) Uttar Germany, Finland, and Israel have shown a keen ect (KBLP) Phase-I and II, Damanganga-Pinjal link
Pradesh (10), Bihar (11) Jharkhand (1) West Bengal interest in collaborating with the Indian government project and Par-Tapi-Narmada link project. Various
(3) and Delhi (2). Total STP capacity of 1402.26 MLD for river Ganga cleaning. Statutory Clearances have been obtained for KBLP
will be created with the approval of these projects NMCG has signed an MoU with OISCA Phase-I and the project report is ready for imple-
and sewer network length of 1429.24 km will be laid International, a leading NGO of Japan to collaborate mentation. Union Minister WR, RD & GR has dis-
down. in specific activities for pollution abatement and cussed KBLP Phase-I with Chief Ministers of U.P.
In a paradigm shift in sewage sector in the past river rejuvenation. and M.P. and MoU for water sharing and implemen-

32 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


tation is expected to be signed with World Bank Assistance of understanding between week was “Water and Energy Project Management of
shortly. Further, Union to the tune of 50% of the proj- India and the Netherlands for Inclusive Growth”. There Haryana and Madhya
Minister for Water Resources, ect cost. It has pan India cov- was signed on June 27, 2017 on was also an exhibition running Pradesh.
River Development and erage with 49 Implementing cooperation in the field of in parallel supporting the
Ganga Rejuvenation has dis- Agencies (IAs) (including 10 Water Management by collab- theme and showcasing the Major Activities in 2017 by
cussed Damanganga-Pinjal from Central Government and orating and sharing of experi- technologies, latest develop- Peninsular River Wing
link and Par- Tapi-Narmada 39 from States). The project ence and expertise in the ments, and solutions available In the year 2017 Dam
link projects with Chief has a total duration of eight areas mutually agreed upon, for the areas in, water and Break Analysis works were
Ministers of Gujarat and years from 2016-17 to 2023-24. including technique in river energy. conducted on 64 Dams for
Maharashtra and shortly the The project objective of NHP basin management planning/ Ministry of Water preparation of Inundation
MoU for water sharing is is to improve the extent, qual- integrated water resources Resources, RD & GR has com- maps. Emergency Action
expected to be signed in this ity, and accessibility of water management, pollution abate- pletely operationalized the Plans (EAPs) prepared by
regard. resources information, deci- ment for river including river eOffice. This Ministry has State IAs have been reviewed
Since April 2017, the cen- sion support system for floods Ganga, decision support sys- more than 90% electronic and commented upon by
tral assistance of approxi- and basin level resource tems, delta management- Files usage in eOffice and the CPMU.
mately Rs. 150 crore has been assessment/planning and to water safety including flood percentage of Physical Files Total of 109 NITs worth Rs.
released for Flood strengthen the capacity of tar- management along rivers, being used is less than 10% 600 Cr were issued since
Management to the States. geted water resources profes- water management, water only. The MIS / Dashboard for January 2017 and works of 145
Rs. 199.96 crore (Approx) sionals and management insti- quality issues and wastewater monitoring the Physical and packages worth Rs. 373 Cr
Central assistance released to tutions in India. recycling, and re-use through financial achievement of 99 were awarded till date. During
different states Since April NWM has focused on innovative concession projects under PMKSY has this period, within a period of
2017, under river Management improving water use efficien- arrangement. been developed and launched 11 months, an expenditure of
Activities & Works related to cy. During 2016-17, 21 Baseline The programme named in public domain. The work Rs. 596 cr. was incurred.
Border Areas (RMBA). Studies and during 2017-18, National Aquifer done in the development of One Dam Safety
Total CA released to state five baseline studies for Management (NAQUIM) for PMKSY Dashboard has been Conference was organized in
Govt. under SMI scheme was improving water use efficien- mapping of water-bearing appreciated by Principal Roorkee in which 466 delegate
Rs. 232.879 crore during the cy for irrigation projects have aquifers has been planned Secretary to PM as well. organizations showcased their
period FY – 2017-18 (till date). been taken up in with an aim to enhance the Several measures have products, technology, and
Total CA released to state Major/Medium Irrigation capacity of states in Ground been adopted by this Ministry services there.
Govt. under RRR scheme was projects located in Assam, Water Management and to increase the grievance dis- Four Draft Guidelines on
Rs. 17.3026 crore during the Manipur, Telangana, Andhra Development. Total targeted posal rate lodged on various aspects of dam safety
period FY – 2017-18 (till date). Pradesh, Kerala, and area for National Aquifer CPGRAMS Portal as well as have been prepared under the
Rs. 155.92 crore Maharashtra. Mapping and Management received physically resulting project and in the process of
released/expended to the The mediation efforts of Programme was 8.89 lakh sq. in 98% disposal from 88% in finalization.
States and central implement- Ministry of Water Resources, km including 5.25 lakh previous year. Third Party Evaluation
ing agencies under NHP for RD&GR have helped the prioritized area (during 2012- The following projects Study of DRIP scheme has
the year 2017-18. states of J&K and Punjab 17) against 24 Lakh sq. km completed successfully by been carried out by the IIT
Dam Rehabilitation and reach an agreement under its area identified for mapping in WAPCOS, MoWR, RD & GR:- Roorkee.
Improvement Project has aegis to resume works of the country. By the end of • Afghan-India Friendship Proposal for DRIP-II cov-
been taken up with loan assis- Shahpur Kandi Dam project March 2017, aquifer maps and Dam Project, Herat ering 684 dams of 18 States
tance from the World Bank for in Punjab/J&K. Both the management plans were Province, Afghanistan and two central agencies
rehabilitation and improve- Governments have ratified the developed for an area of 6.31 Development of Six grossing to amount Rs. 9070
ment of about 223 dams in agreement and construction lakh sq. km. During April 2017 Irrigation Schemes in Crore prepared and sent to
seven States (namely of the project to be resumed to October 2017, an additional Champassack Province, Lao MoWR, RD & GR for in-prin-
Jharkhand, Karnataka, shortly. area of 1.38 lakh sq. km has PDR. cipal approval.
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, MI (Stats) Wing conducts been covered under aquifer • Project Management for Two special Dam Safety
Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and quinquennial census of minor mapping and management Augmentation of Water Review Panels have been con-
Uttarakhand) and irrigation structures in the plan taking the total coverage Supply Scheme in Dar-Es- stituted under DRIP for com-
Institutional Strengthening of Country which throws light on to 7.69 lakh sq. km, which is Salaam and Chalinze, prehensive dam safety review
Central Water Commission important parameters like shared/would be shared with Tanzania, Stung Tasal Dam Kadana and Bheema and
(CWC) and other number of Minor Irrigation the respective State Project, Cambodia. interim report submitted to
Implementing Agencies. structure, type of lifting Governments agencies. • Preparation of Feasibility MoWR, RD &GR.
DRIP was originally planned devices, source of energy, The two-day event ‘Jal Report and Detailed Project The project “Protection of
to be implemented over a peri- source of finance, Irrigation Manthan-4’ was organized on Report on Sewerage and Majuli island from flood and
od of six-years starting from Potential Created, Irrigation July 28-29, 2017 at New Delhi Sewage Treatment for erosion” was approved by the
April 18, 2012. The project has Potential Utilized, Culturable by National Water Bhopal City. MoWR, RD & GR for a value
now been extended for two command area etc. which Development Agency • Project Management of Rs 237 crores. Out of the
additional years with an have important bearing on (NWDA) with the technical Consultancy for Madhya total amount, funding of Rs
extended completion date to policy formulation of irriga- support of Central Water Pradesh Urban 207 crores has been provided
be June 30, 2020. tion Sector. 5th Minor irriga- Commission. Development Project, by DONER. Brahmaputra
National Hydrology tion Census has been complet- The fifth edition of India Bhopal (World Bank Board has awarded the work
Project (NHP) has been taken ed with the reference year Water Week was observed Funded). which is presently in progress.
up with the assistance of 2013-14 and the same has been during October 10-14, 2017 • Project Development and The successful conclusion of
World Bank with the total out- put on the website of the New Delhi. It was inaugurated Management Consultant this project will provide suc-
lay of Rs.3679.7674 crore. NHP Ministry in November 2017. by President of India Shri (PDMC) for Atal Mission for cor to Majuli, which is the
is a Central Sector Scheme, MoU Signed in 2017: India- Ram Nath Kovind. The theme Rejuvenation and Urban largest river island in the
with 100% grant to the States Netherlands: A memorandum for this year’s India Water Transformation including world, from flood and erosion.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 33


Biological Treatment Plant in

Russia - World's Largest Industrial
FacilityUsing MBR & EDR
Bashneft and SUEZ have put into operation a complex of biological treatment facilities with
the world’s largest industrial Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR)

ic pores of membranes, operating costs and deliver that enable cities and indus-
removing impurities and better business outcomes. tries optimize their resource
microorganisms. Further “This plant is a shining management and strengthen
treatment is performed with example of how advanced their environmental and eco-
SUEZ EDR, RO and ion water treatment technologies, nomic performances, in line
exchange technologies to combined with superior serv- with regulatory standards. To
ensure treated wastewater ice and system performance, meet increasing demands to
compliance with the toughest serve the interests of society, overcome resource quality
discharge and reuse regula- the environment and busi- and scarcity challenges,
tions and to minimize the ness,” said Heiner Markhoff, SUEZ is fully engaged in the
waste streams disposal. the Chief Executive Officer for resource revolution.
“Environmental care is an SUEZ Water Technologies & With the full potential of
absolute priority for the com- Solutions. “This is a signifi- digital technologies and inno-
pany,” said Igor Sechin, the cant project for the country, vative solutions, the Group
• Bashneft-Ufaneftekhim (EDR) technologies. Chief Executive Officer of the region, and the water recovers 17 million tons of
Biological Treatment Plant The facilities, located in PJSC Rosneft. “We solve this industry, and we look forward waste a year, produces 3.9 mil-
will treat up to 84 million the Russian city of Ufa, will problem at all stages of the to working for the next 15 lion tons of secondary raw
liters of wastewater per day treat up to 84 million liters of production chain: from geo- years to help to optimize materials and 7 TWh of local
using SUEZ industrial wastewater per day, which logical prospecting to pro- processes and meet water renewable energy. It also
wastewater treatment tech- makes them unprecedented cessing and distribution. I sustainability goals.” secures water resources,
nology. for industrial wastewater believe that commissioning of With 90,000 people on the delivering wastewater treat-
• The equipment is being treatment, employing the a modern biological treatment five continents, SUEZ is a ment services to 58 million
serviced and maintained by most advanced technologies plant - a large-scale environ- world leader in smart and sus- people and reusing 882 million
SUEZ as part of a 15-year and enabling water reuse. mental protection facility tainable resource manage- m3 of wastewater. SUEZ gen-
agreement. SUEZ supplied its using the world best technolo- ment. We provide water and erated total revenues of 15.3
• SUEZ remote monitoring ZeeWeed MBR membranes, gies for water treatment - will waste management solutions billion Euros in 2016.
and diagnostic solutions EDR and Reverse Osmosis be a significant event not only
will help maximize the per- (RO) equipment to the for the company and the
formance and lower operat- Bashneft-Ufaneftekhim bio- Republic of Bashkortostan
ing costs. logical treatment plant and but for the whole country.”
Bashneft-Ufaneftekhim will provide services as part of As part of the long-term
refinery, a Rosneft-affiliated a 15-year long-term service service contract for the waste-
company, has recently inaugu- contract to ensure reliable water treatment plant, SUEZ
rated its biological treatment operation of equipment and is providing advanced asset
plant, Bashneft key nature an uninterrupted guaranteed performance management
protection facility, which replacement of membranes. with its InSight platform.
secured its spot as the world's The SUEZ MBR technolo- InSight combines data and
largest industrial facility using gy significantly improves analytics to maximize per-
Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) treatment efficiency by pass- formance, minimize
and Electrodialysis Reversal ing water through microscop- unplanned downtime, lower

34 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Do We KnowOur Water?
The larger public is made to believe that TDS (Total Dissolved Salts/Solids) is the most
important (or dreaded) word today when it comes to checking water quality.
By Chandrasekaran J

ples ranging from 1500 years Limited, which stands on tried to check the water I that they exist and we forgot
old to 300 years old, all lying these firm verticals of making drank all these years, had I them?
as bare testimony to the fact water purifiers for the bottom not come across this purifier The larger public is made
that our science and engineer- of the pyramid and to make or filtering machine? As a to believe that TDS (Total
ing is more complicated yet toilets, the quicker way with- school boy, I used to run Dissolved Salts/ Solids) is the
long-standing than anything out using sand, water and across the road end to hit most important (or dreaded)
the world knows. cement, I have learnt and upon the hand pump, and me word today when it comes to
But that’s not what I am unlearnt a lot on understand- being too small a size, used to checking water quality. The
going to write about, but the ing water and still am yet to literally fly up and down cling- forced launch of innumerable
other startling revelation get the right answers. Hope ing on to the handle of the Reverse Osmosis machines
Chandrasekaran J which happened while visiting elite and bright readers of this hand pump but hit it so many (RO machines, as they are
these structures to document column, doctors, water spe- times that the water which popularly called) have made
SOUNDS LIKE A silly ques- them is that most of them lie cialists or any person who has gushes out of the spout is good this word a mandatory quality
tion to many, for both in the in villages, those villages a scientific temperament to enough to satiate my thirst, or oriented word, but sadly, I
water industry as well as the which are devoid of two basic look into things, ‘scientifically’ just get drowned in a big pond personally am not convinced
users. Indeed not, as I under- needs - Water and Sanitation. please clarify my doubts. where my swimmer friends of why TDS* should have any
stand and am trying to under- The villagers, caring for us, Let’s talk about water, used to throw me in and see impact on the potability of
stand how w(h)at er(r) exists! would suggest that we buy a again ‘potable’ water... me gasp for my breath and water!
Having been in designing, mineral water bottle or to The regular representative drink mouthful of water and TDS is anything - other
development, and manufac- book a room in an adjacent who sells water purifiers usu- become red eyed! Or for that than the pure H2O - in water
turing for almost three town or city where we can ally pulls out a pen which he reason on the road-side shops that you cannot see. This
decades, it was destiny which relieve ourselves during our declares as the TDS meter when my bus halts for Tiffin could include any salt, metal
made me pursue heritage morning hours, instead of and thrusts it into the water in when I used to travel from or mineral, no definition on
restoration. Since 2006, after going out in dark with an open question and he will declare, Madurai to Madras (now what are the salts or minerals
settling in Chennai, I hap- bucket and open our loins! “High TDS, more than 600, Chennai) while studying or metals which are detrimen-
pened to be one of the founder This became the turning not good, so better use our Plastics? Never! Then what tal to your health and at what
members of REACH point in my life. The more I blah, blah, blah...” and imme- changed now? levels. Why the parameter
Foundation, which identifies thought about water and sani- diately fits an octopus like Indiscriminate pumping of 500 ppm was fixed as a good
and restores heritage build- tation and solutions thereof, gadget, with so many columns water through bore has count for TDS, by most of the
ings. Unfortunately for me, I the more intrigued and inquis- and wires and tubes which brought all the metals and ele- standards, including our own
think we opened a Pandora’s itive I became! Having started makes the terrified user ments which have mixed with BIS (Bureau of Indian
box! Later it dawned to me making electricity free water almost be convinced that so water creating complex salts Standards), God knows! (Are
that more than 1.25 lakh her- purifiers since 2009, as a pro- complicated a water can only and minerals which are hard may be the RO machine man-
itage structures are lying in a prietary firm, later making it be ‘purified’ by this monstrous to digest and create health ufacturers’ know?)
ruined condition, mostly tem- as Watsan Envirotech Private machine and he thanks his hazards. But again, another Surprisingly I came across
holy spirits for bringing this question arises. The water an article written by one of
good Samaritan in. looks almost clear and where those authorities from the
After that starts the are these unwanted elements, World Health Organization
ordeal. Down the line, say be it a salt or mineral, and out (WHO) which produced a
after few months, the water of those which are bad and report in 2004 titled “Health
again tastes bad, the water which are good? As a science Risks from Drinking
The regular representative who sells ‘machine’ guy re-appears, student in school, we were Demineralised Water”. In it,
says that he can undertake an taught that many dissolved they state the following:
water purifiers usually pulls out a pen AMC (annual maintenance salts and minerals act as a “It has been adequately
which he declares as the TDS meter and contract) and he can get rid of trigger to build immunity and demonstrated that consuming
those anxious moments of the bone building which are dosed water of low mineral content
thrusts it into the water in question and user and his watery blues! (All into our system only through has a negative effect on home-
he will declare,“High TDS, more than said and done but one might the water as a medium, as ostasis mechanisms, compro-
be not aware that his purse they cannot be added as food mising the mineral and water
600, not good, so better use our blah, strings should loosen up so supplements! What happened metabolism in the body.”
blah, blah...”and immediately fits an wide to maintain that mainte- to those good salts and miner- Why would consuming
nance costs!) als? Why are they not there water with a lower mineral
octopus like gadget. I was wondering, had I ever anymore or heard of? Or is it content have a negative effect

36 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER

fewer districts of Tamilnadu making the groundwater filter for a given geography
are affected by high levels of more and more saline in days and not simply or blindly fall
Fluoride which causes fluoro- to come? To generate more into the RO(GUE) trap!
sis and or chalking or thinning sales of RO plants, through To conclude, I would say
The consumers or users should first of teeth and bones! Sadly, such tenders which almost the consumers or users
recent field test by us in describe any water filtration should first understand what
understand what their water is, what is Assam for arsenic and iron plant to be RO, in most of the their water is, what is the con-
the contamination in it, if any. yielded new findings of Government tenders, to make tamination in it, if any, then
Fluoride in many places, sur- more money for the greedy decide upon buying what they
on our health? drink a gulp of sea water. High prisingly in the main pockets pockets? feel fit and best to work in
The WHO article gives 5 TDS, someone may warn me! of Guwahati itself. Many Forget land, imagine the their specific region or geog-
points as detailed below: Not tedious, though, I would regions of North East are not desalination plants running raphy. This can be done in
• Direct effects on the intes- say, if not a single E.coli bacte- even approachable by converting sea water to drink- testing the water in many of
tinal mucous membrane, ria is present in the gulp, motorable road but there are ing water! The huge land is the primary health-centers or
metabolism and mineral which could have entered reports of many parts having covered for the plant, which jal-board (water board) run by
homeostasis or other body through the faecal material water contaminated with dumps all solid and liquid all State Governments, than
functions. that could come from the arsenic! No surprise that waste on earth, consumes hell blindly following the actresses
• Little or no intake of calci- nearby fishermen slum! many hospitals in India have a lot of energy and costs or sports persons posing as
um and magnesium from Or the other extreme! cancer patients mostly from another bomb for mainte- doctors of water or experts in
low-mineral water. Another glassful of water, North East, West Bengal or nance and up keeping of the water! Pay good money, they
• Low intake of other essen- carefully filtered through an Bangladesh. plant, finally dumping the may the next day disown that
tial elements and microele- RO plant, with very less TDS In India, no RO plants are most concentrated salt back purifier or may be in their own
ments. as 20, bottled and delivered at required for most of the into the sea! No wonder if homes drink water from their
• Loss of calcium, magnesium your doorstep, is taken by regions, as salinity is seen only after say 20 years the sea native Matka (earthen clay
and other essential ele- your maidservant, with an in pockets of few regions, becomes dead-sea, making pot). What say?
ments in prepared food. unclean hand and a villainous mostly close to the sea, in the the place unfit for any marine *According to Wikipedia,
• Possible increased dietary bacteria, the same E.coli Southern region. Statistics biosphere or any marine life in Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is
intake of toxic metals. enters the water and to your reveal that TDS is almost less- and around the sea! We are defined as “the combined con-
In simpler words: system creating Diarrhea! So er than 500 in most places of creating more dead seas and tent of all inorganic and organic
• It affects the body’s metabo- now tell me is TDS is harmful the country, wherein only another catastrophe in wait- substances contained in a liquid
lism or regular functioning, or that bacteria? select contamination through ing to further kill the lives of that are present in a molecular,
• Basic minerals essential to The real ingredients which bacteria or elements as many fishermen whose lives ionized or microgranular sus-
our health are removed, cause diseases are of course, described above are to be depends on marine life! pended form.” The article goes
• Minerals essential in food the pathogens, primarily removed. So the easiest solu- Simple affordable, electric- on to state that “total dissolved
for its healthy ingredients E.coli, coli-form bacteria tion is microfiltration, which ity-free micro filters using solids are differentiated from
and flavor is lost which dreadful bacteria, lead, has multiple advantages. No nano-clay filters are good total suspended solids (TSS) in
• The free radicals present iron, arsenic, fluoride, high electricity, no wastage of enough! They are tested to be that the latter cannot pass
reacts with the plumb lines phosphate, and nitrates. water, no replacement costs, in use for almost 6-7 years through a sieve of two microme-
and corrode iron, copper Why should one ever talk hence more value for money, without changing candles or ters but are indefinitely sus-
etc., creating another set of about the total dissolved eventually the filtered water cartridges and can reach any pended in solution.”
direct heavy metals passing solids, and do we ever asked almost costs NIL as compared last man/woman in the last About the Author
through our system without the question, how much of to the water sold through bot- mile of water affected area in Chandrasekaran. J, often
our knowledge. those solids or salts are good tles and bubble tops by many the country. As it does not called as REACH Chandra or
The irony or anomaly is and how many are bad? big MNCs. Is water not a basic need electricity and is made WATSAN Chandra is one of
that even though it is dem- So naturally, we conclude need, is it not the necessary standalone to cater each the founders of the Reach
ineralized, this water from the that to have good water, pri- commodity or consumable the household, it can penetrate Foundation, through which
RO machines is called as min- marily bacteria should be rid- Government should be giving the bottom of pyramid easily. they restore dilapidated tem-
eral water! Some mark it as den off, which can be done free to all its citizens irrespec- Region-specific allevia- ples using traditional methods
‘natural’ mineral water or using a porous medium which tive of their affordability? tions like removal of arsenic, and materials. Through this
‘mineral enriched’ water! Iron cannot allow the pathogens to Why is there an anomaly that fluoride, iron, high nitrates journey of documenting her-
in dissolved form in minuscule pass through! Out of the met- the RO machines running to and phosphates (through fer- itage structures, he happened
level and the permissible level als, iron causes stomach ache, few lakhs in costs are also sold tilizers) and high lead or ura- to visit many villages where he
is good for the fortification of pain in the abdomen, rupture in the market and micro-fil- nium, seen surprisingly in found both water and sanita-
our body but it cannot be and also kidney failure. Most ters, lower than a thousand of some parts of India, are sel- tion lacking and hence started
added in mineral form as a north-eastern states and rupees exist? This cannot be dom focussed by any big play- his social enterprise WAT-
supplement, as claimed by Bihar, Orissa, Karnataka and compared to that of afford- ers in the filtration business SAN which makes electricity
this ‘mineral enrichers’! First, West Bengal are affected with ability or purchasing power of and filters are not tailor-made free, maintenance free natural
I ask them, why remove and iron and unfortunately few a consumer. The prices are a to cater these people. We, at water purifiers and also
then why add? What is that states also with arsenic, a slow yo-yo but for style and com- Watsan, are simply trying to turnkey solutions to make
you are removing and what is poison! Arsenic is also a car- fort, like we do for an automo- do this. It would be a welcome ready to fit toilets. He is a
that you are adding? cinogenic agent, it is con- bile, but drinking water is an sign if some experts throw national consultant for
Let’s take some easy exam- firmed by all, and be it the pri- essential need for all citizens. light on what are all the solids UNIDO ICAMT, and has won
ples. Suppose I run in our mary health department, the Why discriminately deploy in water which are by and two national awards for inno-
famous Chennai Marina water board or the doctors of RO plants usurping so much large available in Indian vation, and is a life fellowship
beach and forgot to carry my that region. Major parts of of power, wasting water and waters, region wise, so that researcher in water, from the
water bottle. I gasp for breath Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, dumping the high saline that could make us work Royal Academy of
due to thirst and am forced to Telangana, Karnataka and residue into our soil, thereby towards making the perfect Engineering, London.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 37


Australia…The Possible
Imagine a drought-proof Australia
where we brought life back to
country towns, provided farmers
with water security, etc.
By Warwick Lorenz

A FEW YEARS ago I picked Australia, he points out, is

up a book at a second-hand 2.9 million² miles with a popu-
bookshop called “Australia lation of 7 million. Of that 7
Replanned”. Thumbing million approximately 1 mil-
through it I noted that it was lion are in uniform or working
written in 1944 and published 100% in the war effort.
in January 1945. What drew Luscombe also points out
me to the book was a fold-out that in the years of the 2nd
map of Australia that showed World War we tripled the pro-
an inland sea in North East ductivity of the country and of
South Australia with rivers course asked the obvious
draining into it, fed from the question…. what next?
northeast sectors of Northern
Queensland. The Dead Heart
The book was written by a Luscombe, who of course
gentleman writing under the was writing long before cli-
name of Veritas. Veritas was a mate change, refers to the cen-
pseudonym for a journalist tral regions of Australia as the
called Luscombe who also, as I ‘Dead Heart’. He points out
recall as a kid, was writing for that this was once fertile land
The Truth newspaper in covered with dense and luxu-
Sydney. rious vegetation, evidenced by
The book is a call to arms, the fossilized remains found in
warning Australians that they the Diamantina and Lake Eyre
need to get with it and do districts.
something with this wonderful
huge country of ours. Here are Why Not Build an Inland
the key points he makes: Sea that Becomes a Vast
“Live Heart”?
Our Opportunities It should be pointed out
Luscombe points out that that Luscombe wrote at a time
in 1944, the war is effectively when horse-drawn graders
over and that we need to start were not that uncommon and
thinking about what to do with crawler dozers used cable con-
our country. He draws a paral- trols to raise and lower tractor
lel with the United States, a blades.
country of 3 million² miles and In spite of that, he dared to
a population of 130 million. dream that the parched and

38 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER

cultural industries and to fos- was astonishment that some- of benefits that we will get
ter population growth is body had thought on this scale from employment, not the
beyond dispute. seventy years ago. I got excit- least of which is lower taxes
ed at the possibility of a vision for the rest of us.
Why Bother? that would change the country
In a world where forever. I got one hundred per- Lets’ Go!
Australians appear to enjoy cent unqualified support of Luscombe prefaced his
higher wages than just about the vision. book with the comment that if
anybody else on the planet, we Of course, the question he was wrong in his ideas, he
are sitting on the biggest piece everybody asks is “who is would welcome correction.
of an unused real estate in the going to do it?” He also stated three princi-
world. It is also possibly the Gina Rinehart would do it! ples that appear to be just as
greatest opportunity to pro- Barnaby Joyce would do it! relevant today as they were in
vide food resources for a Most of the people I talk to in 1944. Here they are:
growing world population. It the pump industry would cer- 1) Think clearly...without prej-
seems that there is plenty of tainly not only support it but udice
Drought Proofing Australia Map good reasons to provide farms would happy to be deeply 2) Think fearlessly...with
and cities with water security. involved. regard for nothing but the
arid ‘Dead Heart’ of Australia in Australia? Ion Idriess, one From a political perspec- Would it rebirth our pump truth, and
could be brought to life. of the great Australian writers tive, governments of either manufacturing industry? 3) Think big...with the knowl-
The vision was an inland of the 20th Century, used the persuasion are and will be Maybe it would. edge of the almost limitless
sea of approximately 50,000 slogan ‘Water is Life’ in a num- faced with financial challenges Think about these statis- possibilities of technology.
m² miles. This sea would be ber of his books. that must be addressed. The tics: As a simple pump man, I
fed by Northern and North In Luscombe’s plan, an country clearly can’t rely • China had the same sized welcome the comments of my
Eastern rivers and the flood inland sea would be created purely on commodity prices to economy as Australia in peers. Copies of Luscombe’s
waters diverted back across and connected to the Great maintain our lifestyle, create 1990. map are freely available from
Southern Ocean by a canal employment or sustain our • Twenty-six years later, their Australian Pump Industries
from the head of Spencer Gulf welfare programs. In other economy is sixteen times and may serve to inspire some
via Lake Torrens. The canal words, something has got to ours and they are number of the readers of this article.
would be up to half a mile wide give. two in the world. Bring it on!
by a depth of around 25 feet! Imagine a drought-proof • They have 1.3 billion people,
The bed of Lake Torrens Australia where we brought we have 24 million people. About the Author
The question we might be excavated and locks life back to country towns, We produce approximately Warwick Lorenz is the
and pumping stations would provided farmers with water 60 million people’s worth of Managing Director of
have to ask be required in order to pro- security, built processing food per year (my rough cal- Australian Pump Industries.
ourselves is, are we vide the shipping passage sim- plants to value-add raw prod- culation) and they produce Lorenz is a veteran of water
ilar to the Panama Canal. uct and at the same time pro- 1.3 billion. In other words, industry having been drafted
ready to carry out Luscombe, of course, is vide the Greens with an envi- they produce 22 times more out of an advertising and jour-
projects like that in writing at a time when the ronmental wonderland. food than we do but from nalist’s career at what was the
greatest civil engineering Dropping back to about the same landmass. old Tutt Bryant Group into
Australia? Ion feats the world has seen were Luscombe’s dream, he saw Let’s assume that we managing its water pump
Idriess, one of the considered to be the Panama forests throughout the center drought-proof Australia and manufacturing division,
and Suez Canals. of Australia and he wasn’t can produce 5 times more Pacific Pump. He has lived
great Australian He must have been con- even bothered about green- food than we do at the through the destruction of
writers of the 20th scious of the Hoover Dam, house gases. moment, i.e., 300 billion dol- Australia’s industrial manu-
Century, used the draining approximately lars worth. facturing sector, experienced
1000sq miles across 7 states Is There a Market for What Wow, that’s bigger than the the challenges of “recession
slogan ‘Water is and capturing up to 740 billion We Produce? iron ore business. Not only we had to have” and tasted the
Life’in a number of cubic feet of water from the When Luscombe wrote his that but it’s a much bigger temporary delights of
Colorado River each year. book in 1944 the world popula- employer and there are loads Australian mining boom.
his books. When you consider that tion was three billion. Now we
the Hoover was built in are seven billion and heading
the Dividing Range to flow around 4-5 years and think of for ten so it’s highly likely
along the dry central river the primitive equipment and there will be a market for top
beds to the Inland Sea. methods used at the time, quality food and agricultural
Luscombe’s plan, or some- produce for at least the next
Let’s Examine This Hare- thing like it, seems absolutely thousand years.
In a world where Australians appear to
Brained Scheme? achievable. Whether the The Prime Minister enjoy higher wages than just about
In 1944 almost 90% of the drought proofing of the coun- preaches jobs and growth.
total land area of Australia try or large sections of it, can Well here’s a package that will
anybody else on the planet, we are sitting
was put to very little use. be achieved with an inland sea deliver both big time. on the biggest piece of an unused real
Those huge areas of land, is questionable in today’s Okay, I have been talking
mainly arid, barren and use- world and with our 70 years of this up with civil contractors,
estate in the world. It is also possibly the
less, needed water security. additional knowledge. farmers, irrigation specialists, greatest opportunity to provide food
The question we have to That water storage and water well drillers and a whole
ask ourselves is, are we ready water security are essential wide range of folk to test the
resources for a growing world
to carry out projects like that for the progress of our agri- water. What I got in return population.”

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 39


Standardizes 3D Collaborative
Design of Water Projects,
Becoming 50% More Efficient
Bentley’s 3D technology reduces wastewater treatment plant design costs by 30 percent.
By Marie Telepneff

China and HydroChina

Corporation, POWERCHINA
Zhongnan is an award-win-
ning EPC contractor for water
resource, hydropower, wind
power, environmental, and
municipal, industrial, and civil
projects throughout China
and the world.
Despite being one of the
premier design institutes in
Zhongnan suffered from a lag
in new technology adoption
that caused inefficiencies in
several practice areas. The
company had improved
design efficiency by 75 per-
cent with a Bentley
Enterprise License
Subscription in the hydropow-
er practice area. However, in
water resources project
teams were spending 30 per-
cent of design time coordinat-
The Project Team Developed Optimal Solutions Using Bentley’s 3D Design Applications, which Reduced Inaccuracies in the Prepared Project Designs ing disciplines and 40 percent
by 90%. of construction time commu-
nicating with contractors.
New Method to Meet De- ing design institutes to keep water projects 50 percent Education West Urban The need to update
mand pace with demand for water more efficient. Bentley 3D District sewage treatment became urgent when China’s
China’s 12th Five-Year Plan pollution prevention and con- design technology provided plant, then applied the model 12th FYP accelerated con-
(FYP) (2011-2015) allotted 20 trol projects. the capabilities and on 13 subsequent projects. struction of water pollution
percent more funds for Zhongnan Engineering ProjectWise enabled a 3D col- The new method reduced control projects. In 2012,
municipal wastewater treat- Corporation Limited (POW- laborative design platform. design time and costs by China set aside nearly CNY 2
ment projects to address the ERCHINA Zhongnan) POWERCHINA Zhongnan approximately one-third. trillion for wastewater treat-
pervasive pollution caused by responded by adopting a new used Bentley solutions to ment infrastructure, planning
rapid urbanization and inade- methodology that made the standardize its approach to Lagging Technology to build facilities in some 300
quate sewage disposal. The process of designing, con- the CNY 75.8 million A subsidiary of Power cities by 2015. By the end of
initiative put pressure on lead- structing, and operating the Qingzhen Vocational Construction Corporation of the 12th FYP period, China

40 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


expected to increase treat-

ment rates from 77.5 percent
to 85 percent in urban areas,
60 percent to 70 percent in
counties, and 20 percent to 30
percent in townships.
These advances in waste-
water treatment would not
only reduce pollution but also
protect and improve water
quality for the critically short
supply of drinking water.
estimated the average design
period for water projects to be
180 days, which was too long
to meet the timetable for the
slate of 14 immediate projects.
To accelerate the process
while maintaining quality, the
company needed to imple-
ment the Bentley solution for
water and wastewater treat-
ment plant design. OpenPlant’s 3D Plant Design Environment Enabled Multi-discipline Modeling of Piping, HVAC, and Electrical.
The 20,000-cubic-meter-
per-day (m3/d) Qingzhen for optimizing and integrating The project team devel- duced an intelligent plant communications among the
Vocational Education West project design, construction, oped optimal solutions for model that could be used design disciplines as well as
Urban District sewage treat- and operations. ProjectWise modularization and standard- throughout the plant lifecycle. with other project partici-
ment plant project presented was implemented as the ideal ization using Bentley software pants. Coordination review
an opportunity to try a more collaboration platform to including AECOsim Building Introducing Design Effi- and clash detection with
advanced methodology that enhance communication and Designer, GEOPAK, ciencies Bentley Navigator quickly
would introduce the 3D tech- coordination among the 10 OpenPlant, and Bentley Information mobility revealed collision points and
nologies to the practice group design disciplines as well as Substation. Each application through all phases enhanced rapidly resolved issues. This
and improve overall efficiency. the parties involved in con- produced the anticipated ben- project participation and efficient review-and-refine
struction and operations. The efits. For example, using reduced time-consuming face- process decreased design
3D Collaborative Environ- platform pushed a standard- GEOPAK’s 3D modeling capa- to-face meetings. Project data time from three months to
ment ized user workspace and pro- bilities to develop plans, pro- was published to i-models, two months.
POWERCHINA Zhongnan vided a common data environ- files, and cross-sections took which were accessible from Handing over the digitized
adopted a portfolio of Bentley ment (CDE) that became the 60 percent less time than pre- desktop, laptop, and mobile 3D information models upon
products that would create a single source of truth for proj- vious methods. More impor- devices while maintaining all project completion provided a
standardized 3D environment ect information. tantly, the selected scheme the original attributes. multi-view display and 3D
minimized land use, reduced The 3D information models roaming video of the plant
water head loss, saved energy, and visualizations simplified that became an indispensable
Project Summary and facilitated maintenance -
saving the client CNY 11.2 mil-
Organization: lion. Fact File
• Zhongnan Engineering Corporation Limited The 3D collaborative envi- • Bentley’s 3D design applications prepared an intuitive design
Solution: ronment invited an iterative scheme for the project bid with 90 percent fewer errors.
• Water and Wastewater Plants approach that significantly • Throughout the project, collaboration, and coordination
Location: improved design quality. among disciplines using Bentley’s 3D design environment
• Qingzhen, Guizhou, China AECOsim Building Designer’s reduced design errors by 90 percent.
Project Objectives: parametric modeling capabili- • POWERCHINA Zhongnan’s standardized design and project
• Design Phase I of the CNY 75.8 million Qingzhen Vocational ties enabled the team to methodology included new design standards, specifications,
Education West Urban District sewage treatment plant, explore alternative building and technical manuals that will benefit water projects
including process, architecture, structure, and electric/auto- geometries. The 3D plant throughout China.
matic controls for all buildings and structures. design environment in ROI:
• Implement Bentley’s 3D collaborative design technology for OpenPlant allowed multi-dis- • POWERCHINA Zhongnan reduced the design time on this
the integrated design, construction, and operation of the cipline modeling of piping, project from three months to two months, saving about CNY
sewage treatment plant. HVAC, and electrical. 200,000 in design costs.
• Develop a standardized design and project methodology that And the integrated model- • Information mobility promoted collaboration and reduced
would shorten the time required to deliver 13 additional ing of the physical and electri- communication time by 50 percent, saving about CNY
water projects. cal designs in Bentley 500,000.
Products Used Substation reduced errors • Subsequent water projects will benefit from the standard-
• AECOsim Building Designer, Bentley Substation, GEOPAK, and omissions. Together, the ized design and project methodology, which will decrease
MicroStation, Bentley Navigator, OpenPlant, and interoperable software accel- design time by 30 percent and increase project team efficien-
ProjectWise erated design review and pro- cy by 50 percent.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 41


Based on Bentley’s
standardized design,
the clash detection of
the system can help
us find out more than
100 clash points
quickly, with a design
error rate decreased
by 90 percent.The
design period was
reduced to two
months from three
months, increasing
the design efficiency.
management capability dur- with construction contractors input than prior plants, serving nearly 47 million peo- Yin Xiaowei
ing operations and mainte- and reduced rework. Overall, enabling virtual operations ple, and totaling an invest- Chief Engineer, Qingzhen
nance. By integrating project the project achieved CNY that could save roughly CNY ment of CNY 6.4 billion. Vocational Education West
design, construction, and 300,000 in savings for the 800,000 per year. The P O W E R C H I N A Urban District Sewage
operations, POWERCHINA client. automation also lowered the Zhongnan used Bentley soft- Treatment Plant
Zhongnan instituted efficien- risk of human error, reduced ware to explore new avenues
cies across the lifecycle of the Exemplary Plant Model management risk, and height- in water project design and
sewage treatment plant, to the The Qingzhen Vocational ened safety. compile relevant design stan- with Bentley Systems, respon-
ultimate benefit of the client Education West Urban With a capacity of 20,000 dards, specifications, and sible for building/structural,
and customers served. District sewage treatment m3/d, Qingzhen Vocational technical manuals that plant/electrical, and
The standardized design plant exemplified advances in Education West Urban advance the practice within water/wastewater demand
system implemented for the wastewater treatment tech- District’s new tertiary treat- the industry. As a result, generation campaigns and
Qingzhen Vocational nology, deploying an intelli- ment plant protects the down- water projects may be devel- program delivery within the
Education West Urban gent water management sys- stream water that supplies oped more quickly, with high- design modeling advancement
District sewage treatment tem that unified the process the 4.5 million people of er quality designs, and at unit. She previously worked in
plant achieved the goal of under one control system. The Guiyang City. lower cost - all to advance marketing and communica-
reducing design time by 35 system provided intelligent This successful project China’s initiative to control tions with ABB and Aspen
percent and design costs by scheduling, automatic opera- now serves as the model for water pollution and protect its Technology where she gained
30 percent. The collaborative tion management, and busi- POWERCHINA Zhongnan’s drinking water supply. a background in plant design
environment also reduced ness process management. subsequent work on 13 other About the Author and engineering. Telepneff
errors by 90 percent, which The efficient systems water projects representing Marie Telepneff is a Senior holds a master’s degree in
shortened communications required 60 percent less labor 1.3 million m3/d in capacity, Product Marketing Manager marketing management from
Heriot Watt University and
UC Berkeley.

Marie Telepneff

42 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Sonneberg Sewage Treatment Plant in

GermanyEnjoys Greater Planning
Reliabilityfor its Belt Press
Besides the four central STPs, Sonneberg Waterworks also operate eight small biological
plants, and thereby cover an area of around 150 square miles.
By GKD - Gebr. Kufferath AG

were introduced following mer East into Bavaria. treatment plant was designed
Germany's reunification. However, the minimum dis- to deliver a disposal rate of
According to this regulation, charge values of the sewage 48.375 PE and handle a maxi-
municipal districts with up to treatment plant in Sonneberg mum wastewater volume of
10,000 residents had to be no longer complied with the 393 l/s. The average is 220 l/s.
connected to a sewage treat- Municipal Wastewater Around 20% of the waste-
ment plant by 2006. Treatment Directive in force water comes from agricultur-
While the Directive meant since 1997 in terms of nitrogen al operations and around 20%
that Steinach, Schalkau and and phosphorus, so a new from commercial discharge.
Lauscha municipalities each facility had to be constructed. Beside companies from the
required a sewage treatment As three sewage plants were field of plant engineering, the
plant for the first time, being constructed simultane- plastic, glass, and metal sec-
Sonneberg already had a ously, it was possible to use a tors, as well as the supply
sewage treatment plant with a similar design and equipment industry, the industrial land-
collector and multiple rain for all three. Due to the diffi- scape also includes a brewery.
overflow basins that was com- culties of the location, Sonneberg also employs a
pleted in 1988. This was actu- Lauscha was developed sepa- combined sewer system, so
ally a condition of the loan rately and only integrated into the usual retained volume
issued by the Federal the WAZ Association in 2009. needed to be doubled when
The Belt Press is Fed Directly from the Thickener, so Around 160 Cubic Republic to the former 2 East The plant in Sonneberg was designing the new plant. This
Meters of Sludge is Dewatered Per Day. Germany, which was negotiat- constructed first and has been was achieved by remodeling
ed by the then Bavarian Prime in operation since 2004, while the old mechanical prelimi-
S O N N E B E R G sewage plants - Sonneberg- Minister Franz Josef Strauß the three others followed by nary purification area into a
WATERWORKS IN South Heubisch, Steinach, Schalkau, in 1983 to halt the introduction 2006. rain overflow basin. One spe-
Thuringia, located just a few and Lauscha - Sonneberg of wastewater from the for- The Sonneberg sewage cial regional characteristic
miles from the Bavarian bor- Waterworks also operate
der, operate four sewage treat- eight small biological plants
ment plants for around 50,000 and thereby cover an area of
residents. The Sonneberg- around 150 square miles. The
Heubisch sewage treatment operations are managed eco-
plant has been using a Type nomically under the umbrella
1003 filter belt with integrated of the Sonneberg Water
wear indicator from GKD - Supply & Wastewater
Gebr. Kufferath AG (GKD) to Treatment Association
dewater sewage sludge since (WAZ). Three of the four
January 2016. Beside efficient plants are largely identical in
dewatering and a reliable PAD terms of design and process-
seam, the key factor that ing. This rather unusual con-
spoke in favor of the belt was stellation is due to the new
its increased planning reliabil- rules of EU Directive 91/271
ity for belt changing intervals. governing water supply and Besides Efficient Dewatering, the Key Factor of the GKD-Belt Type 1003 with Integrated Wear Indicator is a
Besides the four central wastewater disposal which Reliable PAD Seam.

44 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


serves as a reserve unit and is by the 4 sewage treatment

also used to cover peak loads. plant's feed volume - via the
The blowers are operated selector basin and back into
intermittently. The organic the aeration tank.
carbon is removed and the Some 800 cubic meters are
nitrogen nitrified during the removed from the return
ventilation phases. sludge as surplus sludge each
Denitrification is per- day and then fed to the
formed in the non-ventilated mechanical thickening area.
phases. To stabilize it, lime Here, two belt thickeners with
hydrate must be added to the continuously circulating Type
wastewater in the second 5060 GKD filter belts increase
phase of the selector basin the solids content of the sur-
due to the very soft nature of plus sludge from 0.75% TS to
the water in Sonneberg. It is around 5% TS through the
metered from a 70 cubic addition of flocculant. If nec-
meter lime silo that is heated essary, it can then be tem-
in winter. For chemical clean- porarily stored in two sludge
ing, a precipitating agent is silos, as sludge dewatering at
added to the wastewater the Sonneberg sewage treat-
stream both upstream and ment plant is performed on
Working with Sludges that are Difficult to Dewater, Belt Speed is Always Adjusted in Such a Way that the downstream of the aeration the basis of the disposal vol-
Entire Width of GKD-belt is Used for Dewatering Process. tank to remove the phosphate ume and cycle of the external
in the wastewater. The waste- disposal company. A 400
that impacts the treatment sludge thickening and dewa- sewage 3 sludge with a dry water treated in this way cubic meter sheltered storage
process is the fact that the tering processes of the other matter content of around 23%, flows from the aeration tank area was therefore construct-
water coming from the slate central sewage treatment which is processed externally. via a distributor structure ed for the dewatered sludge,
mountains is very soft in its plants in the WAZ into two final clarification where it can be temporarily
untreated state (4-5 degrees Association. This produces Identical Plant Design basins which are equipped stored until collection.
German hardness (dH)) and around 5.5 million cubic At the four plants, mechan- with a return sludge pumping
has a low pH value. meters of wastewater and ical cleaning is initially per- unit. This then pumps 80% of Strong Woven Seam
The Sonneberg sewage 20,000 cubic meters of fecal formed using a rake system the return sludge - measured The belt press is generally
treatment plant is also sludge per year, as well as with screw compactor for
responsible for the sewage around 3,500 tonnes of dewatering the raked materi-
al. In the ventilated sand trap
with sand washer, any sand in
the material is released,
washed and dewatered, allow-
ing it to be used as backfill
material in ditch and trench
digging operations. At the
same time, light substances
such as oils and greases are
removed here. For biological
cleaning, a selector basin
divided into two cascades is
positioned upstream of the
aeration tanks. Its task is to
minimize the growth of fila-
mentous bacteria and associ-
ated formation of bulking
sludge stimulated by the large
volume of fecal sludge. In two
aeration tanks, designed as
circulation basins measuring
95 meters in length and boast-
ing an effective volume of
13,540 cubic meters, the nitro-
gen contained in the waste-
water is removed and the
sludge aerobically stabilized.
A blower station with five
rotary piston blowers guaran-
tees pressure ventilation of
In Pressing Area, Sludge Passes through Eleven Rollers Between the the basin. Two blowers supply The Wear Indicator Integrated into the GKD-Belt Type 1003 Allows
Upper and Lower Belt with Belt Pressure of 8 bar. each basin, while the fifth Distinct Conclusions Regarding the Service Life to be Drawn.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 45


The Wastewater Flows from Aeration Tank into Two Final Clarification Basins which are Equipped with a Return
Sludge Pumping Unit.

which then transports it to the downtimes. we have been using this belt
pressing area. Here, the Plant manager Bernd type, we have not had a single
sludge passes through eleven Hubner remembers: "The belt fail and therefore not
Mechanical Cleaning is Initially Performed Using a Rake System with rollers between the upper and most important part of the experienced any further
Screw Compactor for Dewatering Raked Material. lower belt with belt pressure belt is the seam. With the old downtimes," he comments,
of 8 bar. The belts are subject- belts, the sudden failure of full of praise. "With an aver-
fed directly from the thicken- adjusted in such a way that ed to high loads as a result of these seams led to a great deal age running time of 4,000
er, so around 160 cubic meters the entire width of the belt is the forces applied. The woven of work and costs caused by hours per year, this is clearly
of sludge is dewatered per day, used for the dewatering seams, in particular, were, the sludge that was still in the significantly better perform-
whereby the belt speed is process. Beside fluctuating therefore, a much-feared press. Yet despite the higher ance than we were able to
based on the grade of the wastewater temperatures, a weak point in Sonneberg for a personnel costs associated achieve with the previous
sludge. With easily drainable slightly higher proportion of long time. This was because with this work, the significant- belts." The dewatering per-
sludges, approximately twelve biological sludge can, for the belts previously used at ly longer downtime in com- formance and particle reten-
cubic meters per hour are fed example, also influence the the Sonneberg sewage treat- parison with a scheduled belt tion of the GKD belts also
and then remain in the system quality of the sludge. After the ment plant regularly suffered change was what actually had meet the high expectations of
for around half an hour. When thickened sludge has been 5 from damaged seams due to the greatest negative impact." the Sonneberg sewage treat-
working with sludges that are deposited in the belt press the loads they must handle. In Toralf Thiemann, head of ment plant.
difficult to dewater, the vol- infeed area, two scrapers dis- fact, these belts were repeat- the sewage plant, adds: "For Yet, for Bernd Hubner, the
ume of sludge fed is reduced. tribute it evenly across the edly torn apart in an uncon- us, it is important to detect key benefit of this belt type is
The belt speed is always Type 1003 GKD filter belt, trolled way, causing costly wear early on so that we can the flat, reliable PAD seam.
see when the belt has reached "This continues to hold out,
the end of its useful life. We even when the belt is worn,"
can then plan its replacement he comments. "Since making
in good time. If this timing the switch to the GKD belt,
passes by unnoticed, the belt our operational reliability has
is likely to break unexpected- seen a significant and wel-
ly." While searching for a solu- come increase." It should,
tion, he came across GKD and therefore, come as no surprise
its Type 1003 filter belt with that staff in Sonneberg were
patented PAD seam. "Since also keen to test the new Type

In Two Aeration Tanks, Designed as Circulation Basins Measuring 95

Meters in Length and Boasting an Effective Volume of 13,540 Cubic
In Sand Trap, Any Sand in the Material is Released, Washed and Dewatered, Allowing it to be Used as Backfill Meters, Nitrogen Contained in Wastewater is Removed and Sludge
Material in Ditch and Trench Digging Operations. Aerobically Stabilized.

46 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


ed to our control system,

where all operating data is
captured," explains Toralf
Thiemann. Runtime, mainte-
nance frequency, and
patrols/inspections are all
registered on the system. On
this basis, the operating per-
sonnel are informed via SMS
of an impending failure based
on the threshold values
defined. The head of the
sewage plant hopes that this
early warning system offered
by the GKD belt with wear
indicator will provide addi-
tional information, from
which characteristic values
can be derived for the control Plant Manager Bernd Hubner is Completely Satisfied with the
system. A key question for Collaboration with GKD.
him during the test was there-
fore to what extent conclu- ship between belt and clamp tant planning reliability in our
sions regarding seam wear wear along the seam. His sum- day-to-day operations." The
can be drawn from belt wear. mary is therefore clear: collaboration with GKD is also
If this belt allowed conclu- "From now 7 on, we only want good: "We generally do not
sions to be drawn regarding belts with wear indicator!" hear from one another very
the remaining useful life of the Plant manager Bernd Hubner often, which is a good sign. In
seam for the first time based agrees with him: "This belt other words: we are complete-
on visual pointers of how wear type provides us with impor- ly satisfied."
is progressing, this would also
represent another important
Lime Hydrate Must be Added to Wastewater Due to the Very Soft Nature reliability gain for him.
of Water in Sonneberg. Volker Meuser, Senior
Sales & Application Manager
1003 belt with integrated wear tires. This allows damage at GKD, is also keen to point
indicator. caused by defective plant 6 out a further benefit of the
components or process-relat- wear indicator. This revolves
Early Warning System In- ed wear to be detected early around the fact that increas-
cluded on. The Sonneberg sewage ing wear on filter belts gener-
The yellow inner core of treatment plant has been ally also has an effect on their
the 15.25 meter long and 2.50 using the new belt type since dewatering performance.
meter wide GKD polyester January 2016 and thereby "When values start to deterio-
belt displays the degree of supplementing its existing rate, many plants engage in
mechanical wear - similarly to process control. complex and costly research
the wear indicators on car "The belt press is connect- to determine the cause.
However, nobody ever seems
to consider the belt here, " he
explains, based on his own
experience. The wear indica-
tor integrated into the GKD
belt allows distinct conclu-
sions regarding the dewater-
ing performance to be drawn.
The first visible signs of
wear in Sonneberg have not
yet resulted in any impair-
ment of the dewatering
process, although Toralf
Thiemann and his team are
obviously keeping a close eye
on this. After 22 months, he is
happy to confirm that the
Type 1003 GKD belt with inte-
Two Belt Thickeners with Continuously Circulating Type 5060 GKD Filter grated wear indicator passed
Belts Increase the Solids Content of Surplus Sludge from 0.75% TS to the test with flying colors. He Toralf Thiemann, Head of Sewage Plant Gets Additional Information for
Around 5% TS Through Addition of Flocculant. also understands the relation- the Control System from GKD-Belt 1003 with Integrated Wear Indicator.

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 47


Day Zero Looms for Cape Town as South

African City Prepares to Turn Off Taps
- Magnitude of drought Cape Town’s is a once every 300 years event
- By 2030 the world will face a 40% global water deficit under the business-as-usual climate scenario
- By 2050, over 40% of the world population will be subject to severe water stress
By World Water Council

experts from more than 50 tion uses more efficient meth- the Brazilian capital, Brasilia, multi-stakeholder platform
countries to rally for action on ods. Managing demand in this between the 18th and 23rd of organization, the founder, and
water-related issues. way will enable us to use our March 2018, and will be guid- co-organizer of the World
Together, the global authority water resources more effi- ed by the over-arching theme Water Forum. The World
on water uses their expert ciently and effectively,” of “Sharing Water,” in light of Water Council’s mission is to
voices to mobilize govern- explains World Water Council water’s role in uniting commu- mobilize action on critical
ments, institutions, associa- President, Benedito Braga. nities and tearing down barri- water issues at all levels,
tions and high-level decision- Climate variability and ers. The Forum brings togeth- including the highest decision-
makers on critical water change continues to have dev- er heads of state, ministers, making level, by engaging peo-
issues. astating effects globally. high-level decision makers, ple in debate and challenging
Water vulnerability, exac- Droughts and flooding have water experts and profession- conventional thinking. The
erbated by climate variability increased worldwide and are als to raise awareness about Council focuses on the politi-
and change, needs climate- projected to worsen by 2030 water-related issues, local cal dimensions of water secu-
smart solutions implemented when 40% of the world’s popu- authorities and academics. rity, adaptation, and sustain-
worldwide. S?o Paulo, Brazil, lation will live in river basins Founded by the World Water ability, and works to position
endured a two-year drought, under severe water stress, Council, the World Water water at the top of the global
Benedito Braga their worst in the last 80 while 20% will be at risk of Forum places water firmly at political agenda.
years. The drought empha- floods. The World Water the heart of global develop- Headquartered in Marseille,
WATER, OUR WORLD’S sized the unpredictability of Council understands that ment and puts the spotlight on France, and created in 1996,
most precious, and yet under- water sources, and the chal- securing global water supplies climate change and a call to the World Water Council
protected, resource, will soon lenges surrounding the means demanding more fund- action to ensure water’s and brings together over 300
be a scarcity for the citizens of increasing need for water ing for water infrastructure, our future. member organizations from
Cape Town, South Africa as security. reinforcing governance and The World Water Council more than 50 different coun-
“Day Zero” looms. Today, The realities faced by S?o management practices and (WWC) is an international tries.
their 4 million residents must Paulo and Cape Town, rein- developing knowledge and

reduce their water usage to force the reality that water is capacity. As is evident sur-
just 50 liters per day, 7 times at the heart of mitigating and rounding the current
less than the average US citi- adapting to climate change drought crisis in Cape Town,
zen. Important variability in impacts. “Drought is directly citizens around the world are Drought is directly linked to climate
rainfall patterns has dried up linked to climate variability extremely concerned about
6 crucial dams that supply and water security. There are water security. In fact, 63% of
variability and water security.There are ways
Cape Town with water. ways to address the problem: cities foresee a risk to their to address the problem: first, to increase
Without rain, by this April, first, to increase availability water supply from climate availability and resilience through securing
“Day Zero” will become a real- and resilience through secur- change.
ity and all taps will be turned ing our water resources. This The overwhelming need
our water resources.This involves the
off. Homes and businesses will involves the construction of for action on global water construction of dams, reservoirs and
need to adapt to rationing dams, reservoirs and repair- issues means the time to repairing water mains. In addition, there
water provisions and to a life ing water mains. In addition, implement cohesive solutions
without running water. there must be a rational use of is now. The upcoming World
must be a rational use of water, which means
The World Water Council’s water, which means all sectors Water Forum will be the glob- all sectors must share sources fairly and
core mission is to promote at must share sources fairly and al gathering point for water encourage citizens to be efficient with water
all political levels the availabil- encourage citizens to be effi- issues. Here, the conversation
ity of safe water for all and cient with water use in their will ignite and fuel the journey
use in their own homes.
increase water security at own homes. The industry towards ensuring the future of Benedito Braga
large. The World Water needs to recycle and reuse water security. President - World Water Council (WWC)
Council is a platform for water water and ensure that irriga- The Forum will be held in

48 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER


Water Utilities Capitalize on Hydraulic

Modeling to Minimize TOTEX, Reduce Risk,
and Mitigate Water Loss
Water utilities are faced with meeting a myriad of challenges ranging from disaster
preparedness to environmental conservation to driving down total expenditures (TOTEX), at
the same time as they are expected to improve service. Three examples from the 2017 ‘Be
Inspired Awards’ nominations demonstrate the key role hydraulic modeling applications play
in achieving water utility goals.
By Bentley Systems

Units (LGU). The NDRRMC calamity is a race against

and LGU provided the emer- time. Bentley WaterGEMS
gency response plan as well as helped Manila Water mini-
locations of evacuation sites mize the amount of its invest-
that will be used in the event ment while maximizing the
of a catastrophe. resiliency and contingency of
Manila Water must ensure its facilities, both being highly
that these identified sites will beneficial to the customers it
have a secure and reliable serves.”
supply of water in case of Prolagos, a concessionaire
emergency. WaterGEMS was of AEGEA, provides water
used to identify and prioritize and sanitation services to five
critical assets requiring municipalities in the Região
resiliency and contingency dos Lagos, in Rio de Janeiro,
measures by simulating the Brazil serving 400,000 inhabi-
effect of losing one or several tants in low season and more
components of the water sys- than 2 million in the high sea-
tem and seeing how intercon- son. Currently, 93 percent of
nected systems would react. the residents have access to
With the application of the the water supply and 76 per-
resiliency and contingency
measures, a reassessment
Prolagos Treatment Plant was made of the RBI study
that estimated property dam-
MANILA WATER IS a water tim to this circumstance, able in the event of such natu- age and business interruption
utility concessionaire in the being geographically transect- ral disasters. The study indi- would be reduced by USD 380
Philippines that provides ed by several fault systems, cated that significant dam- million in the event of a
water and wastewater servic- including the dangerous West ages amounting to approxi- calamity. Also, looking at a
es for 24 cities and municipal- Valley Fault System. The mately USD 520 million in more immediate benefit of the
ities and operates more than Philippines is also ravaged by water infrastructure are master plan, Manila Water
100 facilities serving 6 million an average of 20 typhoons per inevitable. Consequently, the saved a total of USD 30 mil-
customers both in water dis- year. Natural Calamity Risk lion on insurance through the
tribution and wastewater To address the great level Resiliency and Mitigation concession period.
treatment. The Philippines of risk, Manila Water conduct- Master Plan was developed in Diogenes Adelbert Voltaire
sits on the Pacific Ring of Fire ed a Resiliency and Business collaboration with National B. Evangelista, water system
where earthquakes and vol- Interruption (RBI) study to Disaster Risk Reduction and analysis and planning engi-
canic eruptions frequently determine the systems and Management Council (NDR- neer, said, “Mitigation of the Thematic Map of Critical Assets
occur. Metro Manila falls vic- facilities that are most vulner- RMC) and Local Government adverse effects of a natural Near the West Valley Fault System

EXPRESS WATER February, 2018 49


ed sewage collecting system

helps mitigate environmental
impacts in the lagoon by stop-
ping untreated discharges
when sanitary sewers over-
flow from stormwater inflow
or groundwater is infiltrated
through the concrete drainage
pipes. The model estimates a
reduction of 6 million cubic
meters of untreated dis-
charges. Through integration
with the operational control Prolagos - Graph of the Evolution of Biochemical Oxygen Deman in
center, it was possible to easi- Araruama Lagoon
Network Model in WaterGEMS Overlaying the Risk Areas of West Valley ly simulate the effects of alter-
Fault System native investments scenarios comprehensive model facili- with the reduction of CO2 due
in the networks operational tated by field measurements. to decreased pumping. Using
cent to sewage collection and drainage systems for environ- efficiency. The model was the basis for WaterCAD, Hidroing fulfilled
treatment. Prolagos strives to mental, social, and economic Wagner Oliveira de applications that included tight schedule demands and
improve the sewer collection gains. SewerGEMS “scenarios Carvalho, senior project man- water demand analysis, pres- finished the project in 12
and treatment services with comparisons” were instru- ager, Prolagos, said, “Bearing sure management, and water months, with an estimated
the highest possible ROI while mental in engaging AEGEA’s in mind the shortage of avail- loss analysis based on the 600 resource-days in savings
seeking complete decontami- management team in the face- able funds for infrastructure International Water attributed to the use of
nation of the Araruama to-face meetings. investments in Brazil, Association (IWA) Water Loss WaterCAD. A significant chal-
lagoon to bring back social, An initial comparison of SewerGEMS can really make Specialty Group (WLSG) lenge was scheduling the field
environmental, economic, and the master plan preliminary a difference in the optimiza- methodology, SCADA devel- work for GIS mapping and
tourism benefits to the region. results with previous official tion of investments bridging opment, District Metered field measurements to meet
The Araruama lagoon is the studies showed a reduction of the existing gap in sewage Area (DMA) zoning, cost-ben- project timelines. WaterCAD’s
largest mass of hypersaline approximately 60 percent on infrastructure, thus promot- efit analysis, and feasibility capability to add sub-models
water in a permanent state in the necessary investment to ing social inclusion and studies. Hidroing Ltd. devel- saved Hidroing three months
the world. In 1998, the lagoon achieve the same rate of increasing people’s living oped the model and imple- of time since it was possible to
was completely polluted lead- sewage coverage – 90 percent. standards.” mented these applications for work on many tasks simulta-
ing to the death of aquatic Moreover, the plan enables Varkom is a utility provid- Varkom. neously.
plants and animals. This significant annual cost sav- ing water services to seven The project enabled “Bentley WaterCAD capa-
large-scale pollution raised ings due to the decrease of the townships and 20 municipali- Varkom to make informed bilities in combining different
the unemployment rate in the systems’ energy consumption. ties in Varazdin County in decisions for investing in input database formats
fishing industry, severely These savings would result Croatia. Varkom sought to water loss reduction with a enabled us to make a precise
reduced trade and tourism from a decrease of 35 percent implement a major water loss final goal of reducing water hydraulic model and obtain
activities, and increased risks of the volume treated in the program that would enable loss by 2 million cubic meters accurate results, thus
to human health. wastewater plants. The saving cost savings and increase per year. enabling Varkom to make
For the Sewerage Master resulted from plan’s separa- service quality for the county. As Varkom pumps water valid decisions for its water
Plan 2041, Prolagos integrated tion of sewage and drainage The project included the from underground wells, supply network development,”
data from GIS, CAD, SCADA, flows, which reduced the num- development of an accurate water usage, and energy said, Igor Dundovic, project
and drones in a planimetric ber of sewage lifting stations network map in a GIS and a usage will be reduced along manager, Hidroing Ltd.
survey using SewerGEMS. and improved the efficiency of
They developed the models to the pumping systems, with
analyze “what-if” scenarios, some individual pump sta-
and to determine the best tions demonstrating gains of
long-term hydraulic combina- over 20 percent. Moreover,
tion of both sewerage and the expansion of the separat-

Prolagos Operational Control Center Prolagos Model Supporting Sewerage Master Plan

50 February, 2018 EXPRESS WATER