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Form 4 Mathematics

Chapter 2: Quadratic Expressions and Equations


2.1 Quadratic Expressions

1) Form: ax2 + bx + c, where a, b and c are constants, a≠0 and x is an unknown.

Example: 4x2 + 2x - 1 and 4x2 – 9

2) The highest power of quadratic expressions is 2 which is the power of the unknown.

3) (x + a)(x + b) = x2 + ax + bx + ab

Example: (x + 2)(x + 3) =

2.2 Factorisation of Quadratic Expressions

x2 + ax + bx + ab = (x + a)(x + b)

Example: x2 + 5x + 6 Example: 6x2+4x+3

When the second sign is positive, both signs When the second sign is negative, the signs in
in bracket are same. both bracket are different which one is
positive, the other negative.
x2 + 5x + 6 2x2 + 3x - 20

x2 - 4x + 4 4x2 - 2x - 1

Chapter 2: Quadratic Expressions and Equations


Form 4 Mathematics

a2x - b2 = (ax + b)(ax – b)

Example: 4x2 - 9 =

2.3 Quadratic Equations

Example: x2 + 5x = -6

Example: 2p2 + 3 = p – p2

2.4 Roots of Quadratic Equations

x2 + 5x + 6 = 0

Chapter 2: Quadratic Expressions and Equations