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0 (de) vizualizări7 paginiTransformation in Image Processing - Gorakh Raj Joshi

Mar 04, 2018

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Transformation in Image Processing - Gorakh Raj Joshi

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Transformation in Image Processing - Gorakh Raj Joshi

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General transform

can be rewritten as

If P and Q are both symmetric (M=M^T), real, and orthogonal (M^T M = I),

then

Hadamard transform

The Fourier Transform consists of a projection onto a set of orthogonal

sinusoidal waveforms.

The FT coefficients are called frequency components and the waveforms are

ordered by frequency.

The Hadamard Transform consists of a projection onto a set of square waves

called Walsh functions.

The HT coefficients are called sequence components and the Walsh functions

are ordered by the number of their zero-crossings.

The Walsh functions are real (not complex) and take only the values +1 or -1.

A Hadamard matrix H_jj is a symmetric JxJ matrix with elements +1 and -1.

The Hadamard matrix of second order is given by

A Hadamard matrix of order 2J can be written as

Hadamard matrices of orders other than powers of 2 exist, but they are not

widely used in image processing.

Inverse Hadamard matrices are easily computed as

Hadamard transformation, and further, only additions are computed during it.

The Hadamard transform is sometimes called a Walsh-Hadamard transform,

since the base of the transformation consists of Walsh functions.

There are four definitions of the discrete cosine transform, sometimes denoted

DCT-I, DCT-II, DCT-III, and DCT-IV.

The most commonly used discrete cosine transform in image processing and

compression is DCT-II - using equation (11.2) and a square N x N image, the

discrete transform matrix can be expressed as

In the two-dimensional case, the formula for a normalized version of the

discrete cosine transform (forward cosine transform DCT-II) may be written

Note that the discrete cosine transform computation can be based on the Fourier

transform - all N coefficients of the discrete cosine transform may be computed

using a 2N -point fast Fourier transform.

Wavelets

Wavelets represent another approach to decompose complex signals into sums

of basic functions.

Fourier functions are localized in frequency but not in space, in the sense that

they isolate frequencies, but not isolate occurrences of those frequencies.

Small frequency changes in a Fourier transform will produce changes

everywhere in the time domain.

Wavelets are local in both frequency (via dilations) and time (via translations)

and therefore are able to analyze data at different scales or resolutions better

than simple sines and cosines.

Sharp spikes and discontinuities normally take fewer wavelet bases to represent

than if sine-cosine basis functions are used.

These types of signals generally have a more compact representation using

wavelets than with sine-cosine functions.

In the same way as Fourier analysis, wavelets are derived from a basis function

called the Mother function or analyzing wavelet.

The simplest Mother function is the Haar Mother function shown below.

Haar wavelet coefficients. The coefficients in the upper left corner are related to a low

resolution image while the other panels correspond to high resolution features.

Wavelets are often used for data compression and image noise suppression.

Haar wavelet

which together form a wavelet family or basis. Wavelet analysis is similar to Fourier

analysis in that it allows a target function over an interval to be represented in terms of

an orthonormal function basis. The Haar sequence is now recognized as the first known

wavelet basis and extensively used as a teaching example.

The Haar sequence was proposed in 1909 by Alfréd Haar. Haar used these functions to

give an example of an orthonormal system for the space of square-integrable functions on

the unit interval [0, 1]. The study of wavelets, and even the term "wavelet", did not come

until much later. As a special case of the Daubechies wavelet, the Haar wavelet is also

known as Db1.

The Haar wavelet is also the simplest possible wavelet. The technical disadvantage of the

Haar wavelet is that it is not continuous, and therefore not differentiable. This property

can, however, be an advantage for the analysis of signals with sudden transitions, such as

monitoring of tool failure in machines.

The Haar wavelet's mother wavelet function can be described as

Its scaling function can be described as

Many other orthogonal image transforms exist.

Hadamard, Paley, Walsh, Haar, Hadamard-Haar, Slant, discrete sine transform,

wavelets, ...

computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron

emission tomography (PET), astronomy, holography, etc., where image

formation is based on the Radon transform.

Many filters used in image pre-processing were presented - the convolution

masks in most cases were used for image filtering or image gradient

computation.

In the frequency domain, such operations are usually called spatial frequency

filtering.

(term-by-term multiplication, not a matrix multiplication)

The filtered image g can be obtained by applying the inverse Fourier transform

to G.

Some basic examples of spatial filtering are linear low-pass and high-pass

frequency filters.

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