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02 RE in Malaysia

MEHB503 Renewable Energy


 Energy Scene
 Energy Mix
 Energy Demand
 CO2 Emission
 Carbon Footprint Targets
 National Energy Policies
 National RE Strategies
 Small Renewable Energy Programme
 Renewable Energy Act
 Net Energy Metering Programme
Malaysia’s Energy Scene

 Increasing
demand as still
 Major power
plants - fossil
 Reserve margin
higher than

BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016

𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 − 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 Surhanjaya Tenaga
𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛 = × 100%
𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
Malaysia’s Energy Mix

 Moving away from

gas intensive
 Coal will play
bigger role - cheap
 Return to a larger
hydro share
 Nuclear?

National Energy Balance 2014

Surhanjaya Tenaga
Malaysia’s Energy Demand

 Transportation &
industrial sectors
are major
consumers of

National Energy Balance 2014

Surhanjaya Tenaga
Power Generation Sector and
GHG Emissions
•The power generation sector makes easy targets
•Visible, highly concentrated & heavily regulated
•Electricity can be generated from a variety of sources, including many
with low or no carbon
•The power sector is likely to be asked to do more than its share by
assisting other sectors of the economy to reduce their GHG emissions
•Prime example: Transportation sector
•As substitute for IC engines in private cars (mass transit & EV’s)
Demak Eco3
•As substitute for medium-length flights (high speed rail)

Tesla Model S on lease by MGTC

KL – Ipoh in < 2 hrs Japan Shinkansen trains
World record speed 581km/h

Renault ZOE
Malaysia: Economy TARGET in 2020

2020 CO2
Annual GDP Growth emissions

With business as usual

on energy supply
Annual GDP Growth
and consumption!!!!
Malaysia’s CO2 Emissions
“I would also like to announce here in
Copenhagen that Malaysia is adopting an
indicator of a voluntary reduction of up to
40% in terms of emissions intensity of GDP by
the year 2020 compared to 2005 levels”.

“Malaysia is aiming to cut greenhouse

gas emissions for each unit of
economic growth 35% from 2005 levels
by 2030. With international support,
that could increase to 45%.”
GHG Emission Projected to 2020
Khazanah Study: Opportunities and risks arising from
climate change for Malaysia, 5 March 2010
Malaysia: Carbon Footprint TARGET
CO2 level in 2020
328 millions tonnes

CO2 level in 2005

Difference of 228
188 millions tonnes millions tonnes

40 %
Target CO2 level in 2020
100 millions tonnes

Total CO2 emission in Malaysia. (Ting 2010, EIA Data).

Examples of initiatives on low
carbon power sector
New Zealand China
U.S.A. White paper on a clean energy
ban the construction of new energy consumption cap of
standard (CES), March 21, 2011
fossil-fired baseload generation, 5 Gtce; and a target of 15 %
80 % of the nation’s electricity to come
and aim for a target of 90 % share of non fossil-based
from clean energy technologies by 2035
renewable in electricity by 2025 energy by 2020

EU Japan
Canada 25 % reduction from 1990 levels
reducing its greenhouse gas 20% GHG emission reduction achievable
by 2020, but revising it to 30 % for 2020 to pledged at COP15; revised 2020
emissions by 30 per cent GHG emissions reduction target
below 2005 levels by 2030 achieve 80 % renewable in 2050
Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 of 3.8 % from 2005 levels
Development of the National Energy Policies
National Energy 4 Fuel Strategy 5 Fuel Strategy Renewable
Depletion Policy
Policy (1979) (1981) (2001) Energy Policy
• Toensure adequate, • Toprolong lifespan of • Topursue balance • REis recognized as • Enhance utilisation of
secure and cost-effective Malaysia’s oil reserves utilisation of oil, gas, the fifth fuel in indigenous RE resources to
energy supplies using for future security and hydro and coal energy supply mix contribute towards national
both non-renewable and stability in fuel supply electricity supply security
renewable energy sources and sustainable
socioeconomic development.
• Topromote efficient
Source: Ministry of Energy,
utilisation of energy Green Technology and Water

• To
minimise negative
impacts on the
environment in the
energy supply chain
Development of National RE Strategies
8th Malaysia Plan (2001 – 2005)
RE as the fifth fuel
Target: 5% RE in energy mix (500 MW grid-connected)
Small Renewable Energy Programme, 2001

9th Malaysia Plan (2006 – 2010)

Target: 300 MW grid-connected RE in Pen. Malaysia
Target: 50 MW grid-connected RE in Sabah

10th Malaysia Plan (2011 – 2015)

New RE Policy and Action Plan
Target: 985 MW of RE by 2015 (~5.5% of energy mix)
Renewable Energy Act (2011) & SEDA (Act 2011)

11th Malaysia Plan (2016 – 2020)

Pursuing Green Growth for Sustainability and Resilience
Net Energy Metering Programme, 2016

VISION: Enhancing the utilization of indigenous renewable energy resources to contribute

towards National electricity supply security and sustainable socio-economic development
Source: Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water, Energy Commission
TNB Renewable Energy Plan
“Enabling and supporting Government initiatives in driving RE in Malaysia
through implementation of Feed in Tariff (FiT) and Net Energy Metering
(NEM) programmes.”

“TNB is actively pursuing local and international opportunities towards a

target of total renewable energy generation portfolio of 1,700MW by 2025
under Reimagining TNB plan.”
TNB Annual Report 2016

Pulau Perhentian wind-solar hybrid FTJ Biomass Jengka Sungai Labu floating solar
Renewable Energy Potential in Malaysia
Harnessing the potential of Renewable
• Biomass & biogas (3,700MW)
• Solar (6,500 MW)
• Mini hydro (500 MW)
• Solid waste (400 MW)
• Wind (limited)
Totalling to approximately 11,000 MW by 2030, that
can tap a portion of annual RM 300 mil Feed-in Tariff
MEGTW, 2010
Status of SREP Projects Approved
by SCORE (August 2005)
Approved Grid-connected
No RE Type Energy Source %
Applications Capacity, MW
• EFB 22 165.9 52.5
• Wood Residues 1 6.6 2.1
1 Biomass • Rice Husk 2 12.0 3.8
• Municipal Solid Waste 1 5.0 1.6
• Mix Fuels 3 19.2 6.1

Landfill 5 10.0 3.2

3 Mini Hydro 26 97.4 30.8

4 Wind 0 0 0
60 316.1 100.0
Non-SREP Renewable Energy Projects

•Mini Hydro: 13,643 kW, involving 44 sites

in Peninsular Malaysia, with unit capacities
in the range of 48 – 1,100 kW.
•Solar PV (Suria 1000 - MBIPV): 168.515
kW, involving 16 sites, with unit capacities
in the range of 3.06 – 92.01 kW.
•Solar PV (TNB Mini Grid): 1,231 kW,
involving 25 sites in Peninsular Malaysia
and Sabah, with unit capacities in the range
of 10 – 250 kW.
•Wind (TNB Mini Grid): 200 kW, at Pulau
Perhentian Kecil, Terengganu.
Grid-connected Power Generation
Capacities from Renewable Energy in
Peninsular Malaysia (by April 2008)
No Type Capacity, kW %
1 Mini-Hydro 22,443 33.6
2 Biogas (Landfill) 2,000 3.0
3 Biomass (Palm Oil Mill Solid Wastes) 35,750 53.5
4 Municipal Solid Waste 5,000 7.5
5 Solar PV (BIPV) 169 0.3
6 Solar PV (TNB Mini-Grid) 1,231 1.8
7 Wind (TNB Mini-Grid) 200 0.3
TOTAL 66,793 100.0
Challenges in Renewable Energy
Power Generation

SREP (Period 2001 – 2010) has not been successful for

a number of reasons;
•Fuel security (especially with biomass – project
developers not able to secure long-term supply contracts with
biomass suppliers)

•Electricity sale price (17 – 21 Cent/kWh)

•Subsidy for Conventional Energy System –
disadvantage to SREP developers

•REPPA does not provide a robust cash flow for

bankers to be comfortable
Renewable Energy Act, 2010 and
Feed-in Tariff
Regulatory framework to achieve the government’s Renewable
Energy (RE) Policy vision
“Enhancing the utilization of indigenous renewable energy resources
to contribute towards National electricity supply security and
sustainable socio-economic development.”

Planned increase in renewable energy

Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff rates capacity (MW)

Source /RM per kWh

Biogas (POME, landfill,
0.32 – 0.43
sewage, etc.)
0.29 – 0.45
Small hydro
0.23 – 0.24
Solar PV
0.85 – 1.53
Source : KeTTHA
Installed RE capacity under Feed-in Tariff
Operational RE Plants (until Oct 2017)

Biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME)

Planned RE Capacity

Solar farm on closed landfill site

RE generation under FiT (until Oct 2017)

𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑀𝑊ℎ

𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = × 100%
𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑀𝑊 × 8760 ℎ Sg Perting mini hydropower plant

Landfill gas power generation Biomass energy from empty fruit bunch (EFB) Apas Kiri geothermal site
Net Energy Metering Programme 2016
• Initially to replace FiT when cost of RE reach grid-parity
• for RE generated outside of FiT scheme (e.g. exhausted
quota or above installed capacity limit)
Net energy metering for solar (until Oct 2017)
• Better suited for
larger schemes

• Only solar PV as
quota is filled

 Energy demand increasing and will continue to achieve

develop status and high income economy
 Energy mix mainly fossil fueled thus rising set to continue CO2
 National Energy Policies and renewable energy strategies in
place to support Carbon Footprint Targets
 Issues and challenges slows growth of renewable energy
 Growth expected to continue at a faster rate towards 2020