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NE W Y O R K

T HE N O R MA N W . H E NL E Y P UB LI S H I NG C O M PA NY
9. WEST 4 5m STREET
PREFA C E

IN co mpi l i n g t h i s bo o k of f o r mul a s, r ec i pe s
d pr o ce s se s, t h e E d i
an

to r ha s en d e a v or ed t o mee t th e pr a ct i ca l r e qu i r e me n t s o f t h e h o me a n d
w o r k sh o p— th e me ch a n i c , the ma n u f a ctu r e r , th e ar t i sa n , t h e h o u se wi f e ,

an d t h e g e n e r a l h o me wo r k e r .

I n a dd i ti o n t o ex e r c i si n g th e ut mo st ca r e in g h i s ma t e r i a l s
sel e cti n

fr o m co mpe t e n t so u r ce s , th e E d i t o r h a s a sol mo d i fi e d f o r mul a s whi ch


wer e o bv i o u sl y ill a d a pt e d f o r h i s n ee d s, bu t w e r e l
v a ua bl e i f a lt e r e d .

P r o cesse s f qu e st i o n a bl e me r i t h e h a s di sc a r d ed
o B y a dh e r i n g t o thi s .

pl a n t h e E d i t o r t r u st s t h a t h e h a s su c cee d e d i n pr e pa r i n g a r e po s
i t o r y o f u se f ul k n o w l e d ge r e pr esen t i n g t h e expe r i e n c e o f e xper t s i n
e ve r y br a n ch o f pr a ct i ca l a ch i e v e me n t M uch o f t h e ma tt er h a s be e n .

speci a l l
y t r a n sl a t e d f o r t hi s w o r k f r om f o r e i gn t e ch n o l o gi c a l pe r i o d
i ca l s a n d bo o k s I n th i s w a y th e E d i t o r h a s e mbo d i e d mu ch pr a cti ca l
. .

i n fo r ma t i o n o t h er w i se i n a c c e ssibl e t o mo st E n gl i sh -spe a k i n g peo pl e .

E a ch r e ci pe i s t o be r e ga r d e d as a ba si s o f e xpe r i men t , t o be mo d i
fi ed to su i t th e pa r t i cu l a r pu r po se i n h a n d , or t h e pe culi a r c o n d i t i on s
whi ch ma y a ff e c t t h e e xper i me n te r . C h e mi c a l s a r e n o t a l wa y s o f un i

fo r m r e l a t i v e pu r i ty an d st r e n gth ; hea t or c o ld ma y ma r k edly i n fl ue n ce


th e r e su lt obt a i n ed , an d l a ck of sk i l l i n t h e h a n dl i n g of u t en si l s an d
i n st r umen t s ma y so me t i me s c a u se f a i lu r e . I n a smu ch as a pa r t i cul a r
fo r mul a ma y n ot a l w a y s be ppl i ca bl e , t h e E d i t o r h a s
a th o u g h t i t a d
i
v sa bl e t o g i v e a s ma n y r eci pe s a s h i s spa ce w o u l d a ll o w un d e r e a ch
h e a din g I n so me
. i n st a n c e s a se r i e s o f fo r mul a s i s gi v e n w h i ch a ppa r
e n t ly diff e r bu t li gh tl y i n t h e i r i n g r e d i e n t s
s T hi s h a s be en d o n e o n .

th e pr i n ci pl e t h a t o n e o r mo r e ma y be c h o se n f o r th e pu r pose i n h a n d .

R e co gn i zi n g t h e fa ct th a t wor ks o f a s i mil a r c h a r a ct e r a r e n ot un

k n o wn , th e E d i t o r h a s e n d e a vo r e d t o pr e sen t i n t h e se pa g e s th e mo st
mo d er n me th o ds a n d for mul a s N a t u r a ll y , o l d r e ci pes a n d so —ca ll e d
.

t r a d e sec r e t s w h i ch h a v e pr o v en th e i r va l u e by l o n g u se a r e a l so
i n cl u d e d , pa r ti cul a r l y wh e r e n o n ot e w o r th y a d v a n ce h a s be e n ma d e ;
but th e pr i ma r y a i m h a s been t o mode r n i ze an d br i n g th e en ti r e wo r k
up t o th e pr e sen t d a t e .

TH E E D I TO R .

MA Y , 1 91 6 .
P A RTI A L L I S T OF A UT H O RIT I E S C ONS ULT ED

A pothecary , Th e . M aler Zei tung .

B erliner D r og Zei tung . . M etal larbei ter .

Br a ss Wor l d . M ining and S cientific Press .

Bri tish Journal o f Photograph y ,


N euest e E r fi n d u n gen un d Erfahrungen .

C hemical N ews . N ouvel les S ci en t i fi qu e s .

Chemiker Zeitung Repertorium . Oi ls , Colors , a n d D rysal teries .

C hemi sch Techni sche Fabrikant . Papier Zei tu n g


-
.

Chemi sche Zeitung . Parfumer D e r ,


.

C hemist —D ruggist . Ph a r ma ceu t i sch e Zei t u ng .

C omptes Rendus . Ph a r ma ceu t i sch e Cen tr a l h a l l e .

Cooley s Re ceipts Ph a r ma ceu t i sch e Era



. .

C osmos . Ph a r ma ceu t i sch e J ou rnal .

D ekorationsmaler D er , . Ph a r ma ce ut i sch e Journal Formulary .

D eutsche1 D r o g Zei tung . . Photo Ti mes .

D eutsch e Gol d schmiede Zei tung . Po l yt ech C en t r a lbl a t t


. .

D eutsche Handwerk . Pol yt N otizbl att


. .

D eutsche M a ler Zeitung . Popular S cience N ews .

D eutsche Topfer u n d Z i efl er Zeitung . Pottery G azette .

D i n gl er s Polytechnic J ournal Pract i cal D ruggist



. .

D rogi sten Zei tung . Revue C h r o n o me tr i qu e .

D ruggists Ci rcular R evue de l a D roguerie



. .

Engl ish Mechanic . Revue d e s P ro d ui ts Chimi ques .

F arben Zeitung . Revue In d ustrielle .

G ummi Zeitung . S cience , A rts a n d N ature .

Journal der Goldschmiedekunst . S cience Pratique .

J ournal of A pplie d M icroscopy . S eifensieder Zei tung , D er .

J ournal of the Franklin Institute . S eifenfabrikant , D er .

Journal S ociet y of Chemical Industry . S patula .

Journal S uisse d Ho r l oger i e S tei n der Weise n , D er



. .

K erami sche Rundschau . S udd A poth Zeitung


. . .

La N ature . Techni sch es C en t r a l bl a tt .

La S cience en Fami lle . Tech ni sche Run d sch au .

La V i e S ci en ti fi qu e '
. U hlan d s Techni sche Rundschau

.

Lack u n d Farben In d ustrie . Verzinnen V erzinken V ernickeln , D a s .

Legierungen . Werkmei ster Zeitu n g .

Le Genie Civi l . Wiener D rogi ste n Zei tung .

Le Praticien . Wiener Gewerbe Zeitung .

Leipziger Farber un d Z eugd r uck er Zei Zeitsch rift f i r d i e Ge sa mmt e K ohlen


tung . saure In d ustrie .
HENLEY S B OO K O F REC IPES

ABRAS I ON R E ME D Y
S e e C osmetics and O i ntments . Anili ne .

H d
m m
S ee Wines an d Li qu ors .

Anili ne hydrochl or a te 1 5 parts


Acid-Pr oofi n g Water q s , . 1 00 parts

An A ci d-Proof Table To p .
S ol uti on No 2 has not been cha n ged
.
,

1
except to arrange the parts per h un dred .

T h e method of a ppl i cati on is the same


.

Copper s ul phate 1 part except that after s ol ution N o 1 has dri e d .


,

Potassi um chlorat e . 1 part the excess o f th e sol uti on whi ch has dried
8 parts upon the s urface of the wood is thor
Boil until salts are dissolved . o ughly rub bed off before th e a p pli c a tion
'

o f s ol ut i o n N o 2 T h e black c ol or does
.

2
.

not a ppear at once but usually req u ires ,


Anil ine hydrochl orate parts . 3 a few hours before becom i n g eb ony
2 0 parts black . T h e linseed oil m ay be d il uted
O r if more readily procurable :
,
with turpe nti n e with out dis ad va nt a ge ,

6 parts and after a few a p l i ca ti o n s the s urface


Hydrochl oric aci d 9 parts will take on a d u l a nd n ot d i s pl ea s
50 parts “ i ng polish . T h e ta bl e tops a re e a sily
cleaned by washi ng with water or suds
By the use of a brus h two coats of so after a course of work is com pleted a n d ,

the a pli cati on of anoth er coat of o il


puts them i n excell ent ord er for a nother
uti o n N o 1 are a ppli ed while hot ; th e sec
.

ond coat as s oon as the first is dry T hen .

t w o coats of s ol uti on N o 2 a nd the wood .


,
course of work S trong aci ds or al kalies
.

allowed to dry thoroughly Later a .


,
when s pill ed if s oon wi pe d o fi’ h ave
, ,

coat of ra w li nseed oil is to be applied ,


scarcely a percepti bl e e ffect .

usi ng a cl oth i nstea d of a brus h i n order ,


A slate or til e top is expensi ve n ot only
to et a thi n ner coat of the oil i n its origi nal cost but als o as a d estroyer
,

Wood tops when pai nted


.

writer i n the J ou r n a l of A pl i ed of glassware


Mi cr osco py sta tes that he has us e d this
.
,

oil ed or pa r a ffi n e d have obj ecti ona bl e


,

method upon s ome ol d lab oratory tabl es features the latter es pecially i n warm
,

which had been finished i n the usual way ,


weather . O l d table tops after th e pa int ,

t h e wood havi ng been filled oil ed an d ,


or oil is scraped o ff down to the w ood ,

varnis hed After scra pi ng o ff the varnis h


.
take th e above finis h nearly as w ell as
down to the wood th e s ol uti ons were a p
,
the new wood .

plied a nd the res ult was very sa ti sfa c


, To Mak e Woo d Aci d a n d Ch lo rine
tory.
Proof — T ake 6 pounds of w ood tar and
After som e ex e r i me n ta ti o n s the for
.

1 9 pounds rosi n and melt them together


,

mula was m odi ed Wit hout materially i n an i ron kettl e after which sti r i n 8 ,
a ff ecti ng the cost and a pparently i n
, ou nds finely powdered brick dust .

creasi ng the resi stan ce o f the wood to the be da maged parts m ust be cl ea n ed
acti on of strong aci ds a nd al kalies The .
perfectly a nd dried w h er e u on th ey ,

modi fied formula foll ows : may be pai nted over with t e warm
reparati on or filled up and dra w n o fi’
1
heavi ng the fil m on the i nside
.
,

I ronsul phate
.

C opper s ul phate Protecti n g Ceme nt Aga i nst Aci d — A .

Potassi u m permanga pai nt to r o t e ct cem ent against aci d is


obtai ned b y mixi n g pure asbestos very
Water
,

,
q.s finely powdered with a th i ck sol ut i on o f
,
10 A D HESI VE S

s odi um s ilicate Th e s odium silicate .

m ust be as al kal ine as o ss i bl e T he .

asbestos is first r ubbe with small a.

q ua ntity of the sili cate until c ake i s , a

obtai ne d and then kept i n well cl osed -

vessels .For use this cake is si m pl y


thi nned with a s ol uti on of the silicate ,
Adh esi ves
which furnishes a ai nt two or three a p
pli cati ons of w hi c protect the walls of GLUE S
reservoirs etc aga i nst any acid solid . Ma nufa cture of Gl ue usual .
— I — The .
, ,

or li qui d T his mass may also b e em r o c e s s of removi ng the phos hate of


p
ii me from bones for l ue-mak i n g pur
.

pl oyed for ing a coati ng of sand


stone . poses by means o f di ute hydrochl ori c
aci d has the disadvantage that th e aci d
To Ma k e Cork s I mpermeable a n d cann ot b e regenerated Attem pts to u se
Aci d -Proof — Ch oose your corks care
.

.
sul phurous acid i nstead have s o far
fully T hen pl unge them i nto a s ol utio n
.

roved unsuccessful as even wit h the


of gelati n or com m on gl ue 1 5 parts i n , ,
arg e quanti ti es used the process is very
, ,

1 parts of glyceri ne a nd 5 0 0 parts of


,
2-
° ° sl ow According t o a G erma n i nventi on
water heated to 4 4 or 4 8 C ( 1 1 2 — 1 2 0 ° ° .

,
.

this di fficult with s ul phurous aci d ca n


a nd keep th em there for several be avoided y usi ng it i n aqueous s ol u
h ours . O n removing the corks which .

ti on under press ure T h e s ol ution of


s houl d be wei h te d d own i n the sol uti on
.

d ry the m i n t E t h e li me goes on ver


,
ra pi dl y it is
e s hade u ntil they are free
,

clai med and n o trou l es o me pr e c i pi


from all s urpl us m oisture T hey are n ow .
,

t a ti o n of cal ci um s ul phite takes pl ace


perfectly tight r e ta i n i n at the sam e
.

,
B oth ph os phate of li m e a nd sul h u r o u s
t i me the greater porti on 0 thei r e lasti city
aci d are re e n e r a te d from t he yes by
a nd s up l cn ess T o render them aci d
proof t e y shoul d be treated with a
.

si m l e d i sti lia ti o n .

,
I - B ones may be treated w ith suc
mi xture of vaseli ne 2 parts and pa r a fi i n e , ,
c e ssi ve quantities of c om bi ne d sul phur
7 parts heated to about 1 0 5 °
1 T his 4

ous acid and wate r from whic h the heat


.
,

second o peration may be avoi ded by of combi nation has been previ ous ] dis
,

a ddi ng to the gelati n sol uti on a littl e s i pa t e d the s ol uti on being r e m ove after
a mmoni um di chromate and afterwards ,

exposing the corks to the light each treatment before t he b one salts,

dissol ved therei n preci pitate a nd before


.

Li n i n g for A ci d Re ceptacles — Pl ates . the tem perature rises ab ove 74 F °


.

are forme d of 1 par t of brown sl ate 2 , U S Pat


. . .

of powdered lass a nd l of Portland , III — A patent rel ati ng t o th e process


.

cement the w ol e worked up with sili


, for treati ng ani mal si news preparato ry ,

cate of soda mol ded a nd d ri ed M ake


, . for the gl ue factory has been granted to .

a cement com o se d of grou nd slate and Fl orshe i m Chicago an d consi sts i n i m


, ,

silicate of s o a and smear the s urface mersin g ani m al si news s uccessi vely i n
for the li nin ; then while it is still pl astic , , petrol eu m or benzi ne to rem ove the outer
a pply the ates prepared as above de fleshy a n i mal ski n ; i n a h a r d e n i n or
scri bed n ste a d of these plates
. sla bs , preservi ng bath as boric a ci d or a u m
, ,

of glass or porcel ai n or similar substances or copper s ul phate ; a nd i n a n al kali ne


may be e mpl oyed with the sa me cement . bath to re move fatty matter from t h e
fi brous part of the si news T h e si news
ACACIA MUCILAGE OF are afterwards tanned a nd disi ntegrated
.

S ee A dhesives u nder M ucilages


.
.

Test for Gl u e — T h e m ore w a ter th e


ACID -PR OOF GLASS .

gl ue takes up s wel li ng it th e better it


S e e G lass , ,
.
is
. Four ounces of the gl ue to be exa m
ACI D -R E S IS TING PAINT i n e d are s oaked for about 1 2 h ours i n a
S e e Pai nt . cool lace i n 4 pounds of col d water If .

the g u e has dissol ved after this ti m e it


ACI D S SOLD ERI NG is of bad quality and of littl e val ue ; but if
,

S e e Sol ders .
it is coherent gelati nous a nd wei ghi ng
, .

ACI D S TAI NS FROM THE S K I N, TO d oubl e it is good ; if it weighs u p to 1 6


,

RE MOVE ounces it is very good : if a s m uc h a s


,

S e e C l ea n i n g Preparati ons an d M eth 20 ounces it may be call ed excellent


, .

o ds
To Pre vent G l ue fr om Cr a ck i n g — T o
.

ACID TEST F OR VI NEGAR prevent gl ue from cr a ck i u which i r e


S ee Vi negar .
quen tl y occ urs when gl ue a r ti cl es are
ADHESI VES ll

ex os ed to the he a t of a stove a little V — S oak 1 of good l ue i n a


o un d
ch p
.
,

oride of potassi um is added T his . uar t of water or a few h ours t e n m el t ,

prevents the l u e from becomi ng dry t e gl ue b heati ng it together with the


e nough to cracg
,

G l ue th us treated will u n a bso r be water then stir i n poun d ,

adhere to glass m etals etc a nd may , , .


, d ry white l ead an d whe n that i s well ,

also be used for pasti ng on l abels . mixed pour i n 4 fl ui d o u n c es of al cohol


Pre venti ng the Putrefactio n of S tron g and continue the boili ng 5 mi nutes l onger .

VL — S oak 1 poun d of good gl ue i n 1 15


Glu es — T h e fatty matter al ways e xisti ng
i n small quantity i n s heets of ordi nary pints of c ol d water for 5 h ours t he n a d d ,

3 ounces of zi nc sul phate and Q fl u i d


lue affects the adhesive properti es a nd
facilitates th e devel opment of bacteria ,
ounces of hydrochl oric acid a nd kee p
the mixture heated for 1 0 or 1 2 h ours at
,

and c o n se q u e n tl putrefactio n and de 1 7 5 to 1 9 0 F T h e gl ue rem ai ns l iqui d


° °

compositi on T e se i nconveniences are .

an d may be used for sticki ng a variety of


.

remedied by addi ng a s mall ua n ti ty of


caus tic soda to the diss ol ved g u e T h e materials .

VI I —A very inexpensi ve liq ui d gl ue


.

soda r e ve n ts decom positi on abs ol utely ; .

with t e fatty matter i t forms a hard s oa p m ay be prepared by first soaki ng a n d


which renders it harmless then d i ss o l vmg gel ati n i n twice its ow n
wei ght of water at a very e n tl e hea t ;
.

Li qu i d Gl u es . then add l a ci a l acetic a c i f i n wei ght


I
. 3 ou nces equal to t e weight of the dry gelatin .

G elati n s o un ce s I t s h ould be remembered however that , ,

Acetic aci d 4 ounces all aci d glues are not ge nerally a pplica
2 0 unces bl e.

Alum 3 0 grai ns VI II .
— G l ue parts 2 00
He a t together for 6 h ours ski m a nd , , D il ute
acetic aci d parts 4 00
ad d : D issol ve by the ai d of h eat a nd add :
I I — Alcoh ol l flui d o u n c e
Alcoh ol 2 5 parts
.

Brown gl ue N O 2 2 pound s
o o o o o o o o o o

, . .

Alum 5 parts
S odium carbonat e 1 1 ou nces
Water 3 5 pi nts I X —G l ue
. 5 parts
O il of cl ove 1 6 0 mi nims Calci um chl orid e 1 part
Water
.

1 part
D issol ve the s oda i n the water pour
the s ol u ti on over the dry l ue l et stand
,
X — S ugar of lead
. drach ms
,
Al um l } drach ms a

over ni ght or till th orough y s oa ked and drach ms


G u m arabi c
swell ed then heat carefully on a water Wheat flour c c c c c c c 1 av l b
When nearl y col d
,

bath until dissol ved


. .

stir in the oil of cl oves


.

.
Water q s , . .

By using white gl ue a fi ner articl e fit , , D issol ve the um i n 2 quarts of warm


for fancy wor k may be made ,
. water ; wh en co ( 1 mi x i n t h e flour an d ,

I l l — D issol ve by heating 6 0 parts of add the sugar of l ead and al um dissol ved
borax i n 4 2 0 par ts of water ad d 4 8 0 , i n water ; h eat the wh ol e over a sl ow fire
parts dextri n ( pal e yell ow ) and 5 0 parts ’

until it shows signs of ebullition L et it .

of gl ucose and heat carefully with con c ool a nd add e nough gum water to bri ng
,

ti n n ed stirring to com pl ete s ol uti on ;


, it to the proper consistence .

repl ace the eva porated water an d pour XI — D il ute 1 part of o fficial hos
ph o r i c aci d with 2 parts of water a n f n e u
.

t hr ough flannel .

T h e gl ue made in this W a y remai ns t r a li z e the s ol uti on with carb onate of


cl ea r quite a l ong ti me and o sse sses , am m oni um Add to the li qui d an equal
.

great adhesive power ; it als o ries very quantity of water warm it on a water ,

q uickl y but upon careless and extended


, bath a nd diss ol ve i n it su ffici ent gl ue to
,

heati ng ab ove 90 C ( 1 94 it is apt °


.
°
form a thick syrupy li qui d K eep i n .

to turn brown and brittl e . well stop ered bottles


- .

I V — Pour 5 0 parts of warm ( not h ot )


. XI I i sso l v e 3 parts of gl ue i n small
.

water over 5 0 parts of C ol o n e gl ue and i e ce s i n 1 2 to 1 5 of saccharate of li me .

all ow to s oak over night ext day the . y heati ng the gl ue dissol ves rapidly
,

s well ed gl ue is dissol ved with m oderate and remai ns li qui d whe n col d with out , ,

heat a nd if still too thi ck a littl e m ore


, , l oss of adhesi ve power A n d esi ra bl e .

water is added When this is done ad d


. , consistence ca n be secured y va r yi n
from 2 5 to 3 parts of crud e nitric aci d , the am ount of saccharate of li me T h i c .

sti r well and fill the li qui d gl ue in well


, gl ue retai ns its m u ddy col or whil e a thi n ,

corked bottles T his is a good li qui d


. s ol uti on becomes cl ear on sta ndi ng .

ste am gl ue . T h e saccharat e of li me is prepared by


12 A D HE S I VES

dissolvi ng 1 part of s ugar i n 3 parts of arts and water 1 5 parts Heat for 4-
,
8 .

°
water and after adding
, part o i the ours on the water bath to 8 0 C ( 1 7 6 °
.

wei ght of the sugar of slaked li me heat , T hus a syrupy li qui d is obtai ne d ,

i ng the wh ole from 1 4 9 to 1 8 5 F all ow ° °


.
, which is al l owe d to settle a nd is then
i ng it to macerate for several days s haki ng , decanted T his gl ue has n o u npl easa nt
.

it fre quently T h e sol uti on which has .


, odor and d oes n ot m ol d
,
.

the properties of m ucilage is then de , XI X — A gl ue possessi ng the adhesive


.

canted from the sedi ment . qualities of ordinary j oi ners gl ue but ’


,

XIII — I n a sol uti on of borax i n water


. constituti ng a pale yell ow li qui d which is
soak a o o d quantity of gl ue until it h a s rea dy for use without requ i ri ng heati ng
t h o r o u g l y i mbi bed the li quid Pour off . and possesses great r e sistance to da mp
the s urpl us s ol uti on a nd then put on ness is produced by treati ng dry cas ei n
,

the water bath and melt the gl ue C ool . with a dil uted b orax s ol uti on or wi th
down until the gl ue begins to set then , en o u h ammonia solution to ca use a
add drop by drop with agitation
, , , fai nt y al kali ne reacti on T h e prepara .

enough acetic acid to check the tendency ti on may be em pl oyed al one or mi xed
to soli di ficati on If after becoming .
, with li quid starch i n a ny proporti on .

quite col d there is still a tendency to


Glue for Cel l ul oi d — I — T w o pa r ts
,

s oli di ficati on add a few dro s m ore of . .

the aci d T h e li qui d s houl


,

be of the s hellac 3 parts 5 i r i t s of cam h e r and 4


, ,

parts strong alco o l dissol ve i n a warm


.

consistence of ord i nary m ucilage at a l l


ti mes place gi ve a n excellent gl uing agent to fix
,

wood tin and other bodi es to cell ul oi d


.

.
, ,
XI V — G elatin
. 1 00 parts .

T h e glue m ust be kept well corked up .



Cabi netma kers gl ue 1 00 parts .
II — A coll odi on sol utio n may be used
.
,
Alcohol 2 5 parts .
or an al coholic s ol uti on of fi ne cell ul oi d
Al um 2 parts s havi ngs .

Acetic acid 2 0 per


cent 8 00 parts Gl ue to Form Paper Pa d s .

S oak the gelatin and gl ue with the .I —G l ue 3 5 ounces


acetic aci d a nd heat on a water bath until G lyceri ne 8 ou nces
flui d ; the n add the al u m and alcohol .
Water a su fficient quantity , .

X V — G lue
. 1 0 parts Pour upon the gl ue m ore tha n en ough
1 5 parts water to cover it and let stand for several
S odi um salicylate 1 part .
hours then decant the greater o r ti o n of
,

the water ; a ply heat u ntil t e gl ue is


diss ol ved a n dadd the glyceri n If the
X VI — S oak 5 parts of Col ogne gl ue
.

in a n aqueous cal ciu m chl oride sol uti on , .

and heat on the water bath until mixt ure is too thick add m ore water
(1 ,

dissol ved replacing the evaporating ,


I I — G l ue
.

water ; o r slack 1 00 parts of li me with 1 5 0 Alu m o o o o o o o o o o o o

parts of h ot water diss ol ve 6 0 parts of ,


Acetic acid o o o o o o o 5
s ugar i n 1 80 parts of water a nd add 1 5 Alcohol 1 } ounces 1

Water
,

arts of the slacked li me to th e sol ution ,


6 5 ounces
eati ng the whol e to 7 5 C ( 1 67 °
.
°
M i x all b ut the al cohol digest on , a

Place asi de for a fe w days shaking from , water bath till the gl ue is diss olved all ow ,
ti me to ti me I n the cl ear s ugar li me .
-
to cool and add the alcohol
s ol uti on coll ected by decanting soak 6 0 I I I — G l ue
. 5 ounces
parts of gl ue and assist the s ol ution by Water 1 ounce
m oderate heati ng .
Calci um chl ori de 1 ounce
X VII — M olasses 1 00 parts diss ol ved
D issol ve the calciu m chl ori de i n the
.
, ,

i n 3 0 0 parts of water 2 5 parts of quick ,

li me (slaked to powder ) bei ng then water add the glue macerate until it is
, ,
,

sti rred in an d the mi xture heated to 1 67 ° thoroughly s oftened a nd then heat until ,

F on
. water bath with frequent stir
a
completely diss ol ved .

ri ngs . After settling for a few days a I V — G l ue


. . 2 0 ounces
.

large porti on of the li me will have dis G lycerine 5 ounces .

s ol ved a nd th e cl ear white thick s ol u


, , ,
S yrupy gl ucose 1 ounce .

ti on when deca nted behaves like rubber


, ,
T a nni n 5 0 grai ns .

s ol uti on a nd makes highly adherent a. C over the gl ue with col d water and let ,

c o a ti n stand over n i ght I n the mo r n i n pour


f
.

X V II bone gl ue 250
.
— D iss ol ve ,

o fl superfluous water throw the g u e on ,

parts by ,heating i n arts of water , m usli n and mani pulate s o as to get ri d


,

a nd ad d to the sol ution a r i u m pe r o x of as m uch m oisture as o ssi bl e then ut ,


i d e 1 0 parts s ul phuric acid (6 6 B ) 5 °
, .
i n a water bath a nd me t Add th e g yc .
A D H ESIVES 18

erine a nd syr a a nd sti r well i n Fi . mass has become quite uni f orm i nto fla t ,

nally dissol ve t e ta nni n i n the s malles t


, molds i n whi ch it s oli difies i nto very hard
,

quantity of water possi ble a nd add . ta blets of dark brown or blac k c ol or .

T his mixture must be used hot . For use these gl ue tablets are first s oa ke d
,

V . 1 5 ounces i n boili ng water a nd the n heated over a


G lycerine 5 ounces free fla me until the mari ne glue has be
Li nseed oil 2 ounces .
come thi nly li qui d T h e pieces to be .

l o un c e
gl ued are also warmed a nd a very durabl e
uni on is obtai ned
S oak
the glue as before melt ad d the
.

, ,

sugar and glyceri ne conti nui ng the heat I I I — C ut caoutchouc i nto s mall pieces
.

, ,

and finally ad d the oil grad ually under a nd dissol ve i n coal na phtha by heat and
constant stirri ng .
agitati on Ad d to this s ol ution pow .

T his must be used h o t .


d ered s hellac a nd heat the whol e con , ,

st a n t l y stirri ng until c om bination takes


Glue for Tablets place the n our it on metal plates to form
s heets Whe n us ed it m ust be heated to
.
,

I . Bl o u n ce s .

24 8 F a nd applie d with a brus h


°
G lycerine ounces 8 .
,
.

Water a s u ffi cie nt quantity


, .
Water -Proof G lues — I — T h e gl ue is . .

Pour upon the gl ue more tha n e nough put i n water till it is s oft a nd subse ,

water to cover it and let stand for several quently melted i n li nseed oil at moderate
hours then decant the greater portion of
, heat T his gl ue is a ffected neither by
.

the water ; apply heat until the gl ue is water nor by va pors .

diss ol ved a nd add the l yce r i n e I f th e


, .
I I — D iss ol ve a s mall quantity of sa n
.

mixture is too thick a d m ore water , .


darac and mastic i n littl e alcohol and a ,

II . 6 ounces a dd a littl e turpentine T h e s ol uti on is .

Al um 3 0 grai ns boile d i n a kettle over the fi re a nd a n ,

Acetic acid } ounce


4 equal qua ntity of a strong h ot sol ution of
Alcoh ol 1 } ounces 1 gl ue and isi nglass is ad ded T hen filter .

6 } ounces 7 through a cl oth while h ot .

M i x all but the alcohol digest on a ,


I I I — Water -proof gl ue ma
. als o be
water bath till the gl ue is diss ol ved all ow roduced by the si m ple a diti on of
p
,

to cool and a dd the alcoh ol i ch r o ma te of potassium to the li quid gl ue


III — G l ue
. .
sol uti on a nd s ubsequent expos ure to the
,

air.

Calci um chl oride .


IV .
— M i x gl ue as usual a nd the n a dd ,

D iss ol ve the calciu m chl ori de i n the


li nseed o il i n the r o po r ti o n of 1 art oil
water add the gl ue m acerate until it is t o 8 parts gl ue f it is desired t at the .

thoroughly s oftened an d then a pply heat


,
mixture remai n liqui d 5 ounce of nitric ,

until com l et e l y diss ol ved


,
aci d s houl d be added to every poun d of
I V — G u e 1 pou nd ; glyceri ne 4 oun ces ;
.

l ue T his will als o prevent the gl ue


.

rom souring
.
, ,

lucose syr u 2 tabl es poonfuls ; ta nnin .

g
1 0 ounce se warm and gi ve a n hou r
,
V In
. parts of rectified al cohol
-

to dry and set on the pads T his ca n be


,
diss ol ve 60 parts of sa ndarac a nd as
much mastic whereupon add 60 parts of
.

col ored with a ny anil i ne dye


white oil of turpentine N ext prepare a
.

.
,

Mari ne G lue M ari ne glue is a rod


.
-
rather strong gl ue s ol uti on a nd add about
uct consisting of shellac a nd ca o ut c o n e , the li ke qua ntity of isi nglass heating the ,

which is mi xed di ff erently a cco r d i n to sol uti on until it commences to b oil ; the n
.

the use for which it is re quire d he . sl owly add the h ot l ue sol uti on till a thi n
qua ntity of be nzol used as sol vent o v paste forms w h i c can still be filtered ,

erns the hard ness or s oftness of the g ue . through a cl oth Heat the s ol ution be .

I — O n e part Para ca outchouc is dis



. . fore use an d em pl oy li ke ordi nary glue .

sol ved i n 1 2 parts benzol ; 2 0 parts pow A con necti on effected with this l ue is
dered she l lac a re added to the s ol uti on , not dissolved by col d water an even
and the mi xture is carefully heated . resists h ot water for a l ong ti me .

I L —S tronger gl ue is obtai ned by dis


L
VI — S oa k . arts of C ol ogne gl ue
solvi ng 1 0 parts good crude caoutchouc i n col d water for 1 2 ours a nd i n a nother
in 1 20 parts benzi ne or naphtha which vessel for the sam e length of time 1 50
sol ution is poured sl owly and i n a fine parts of isi nglass i n a mi xture of la m
stream i nto 20 parts asphaltu m melted spirit a nd water T he n dissolve bot .

i n a kettle sti rri ng consta ntly a nd heat


, masses together on the water bath i n a
in Pour the finis hed gl ue after the suitabl e vessel thi nning i f necessary
sog
.
, , , ,

vent has al m ost eva porated a nd the with some hot water N ext add 1 00 .
14 AD H ESIVE S

parts of linseed oil varnish a nd filter hot stam s good gl ue is s oaked for 2 4 hours
,

t h r o u h li nen
v . i n so t water T h e water is poured o ff
. ,

VI P— O rdi nary gl ue is kept i n water


.

a nd the s wollen gl ue is melted a nd m i xe d .

until it s wells up without l osing its shape . with glyceri ne and a little sali cyl i c aci d .

T hus s oftened it is placed i n a n iron a nd cast i nto mol ds T h e d ura bility i s l n .

cruci ble without addi ng water ; the n add creased by pai nting the mass with a s ol u
li nseed o il according to the qua nti ty of ti on of ta nnin or better of bichromate , , ,

the g l ue a nd l eave this mixture to b0 1 l of potassium Pri nti ng rol l ers requ i re
.

over a sl ow fire until a gelati nous mass greater firm ness a nd elasti city T h e .

results S uch glue unites materials i n a


. mass for them once consiste d s ol ely of
very durable man ner It adheres firmly . gl ue and vinegar a nd their ma nufacture ,

a nd hardens quickly I ts chief a d v a n . was very di fficult T h e use of glyceri ne .

tage however consists i n that it neither


, , has re medi ed this a nd gives great elas ,

a bs orbs water nor all ows it to pass ti ci t y without adhesiveness and has r e ,

through whereby the connecti ng places


, m oved the liability o f m oldiness S w o l .

are of te n destroyed A little borax will . len l ue which has been su perficially
,

prevent putrefacti on . dri e is fuse d with glyceri ne and cast


VIII — Bi chromate of potassium 4 0
. i nto oil m ol ds S imilar mi xt ures are .

parts ( by weight ) ; gelatin gl ue 5 5 parts ; , used for casti n plaster orna ments etc , .
,

al um 5 parts
, D i ss olve the gl ue in a . a nd gi ve very s ar casts A mass con .

little water a nd add the bichromate of sisti n of gl ue a n glyceri ne is poured


potassium and the al um . over t e model in a box When the mol d .

I X — T his preparati on permits a n a h


. is removed it is pai nte d with pl aster out
,

so l ute l y permanent glui g of pieces of side a nd with boil ed oil i nsi de a nd ca n


card board even when they are moist
,

, then be used ma ny ti mes for maki ng r e


ened by water M elt together equal . prod ucti ons o i the model
parts of good pitch and utta -percha ; of
this ta ke 9 parts an d ad gto it 3 parts of Glue for Paper a n d M eta l — A l ue
which will keep well a nd ad here tigg
.

1t l y
,

boil ed li nseed oil an d 1 } parts of l i tharge 1 .

Place this over the fire and stir it till all is obtained by dil uti ng parts by
the i n gredie nts are i ntimately mixed .
weight of potato starch i n parts by
T h e m i xt ure may be d i l uted with a little
weight of water a nd addi ng 50 parts by
benzine or oil of turpenti ne a n d must be weight of pure nitric aci d T h e m i xture .

warm whe n used


,
is kept i n a hot pl ace for 4 8 hours tak i ng ,

care to stir frequently It is afterwards


.

Gl ue to Faste n Linoleum o n Iro n boiled to a thick and tra ns p arent consist


S ta irs — I —Us e a mixt ure of gl ue isi n
. .
,
e ncy dil uted with water if there is occa
,

glass a nd dextrin which diss olved i n


, ,
si on a nd the n there are ad ded in the
,

water a nd heated is given a n ad mixture ,


form of a screened powder 2 parts of sal ,

of t urpentine T h e stri ps pasted do w n .


a m moniac a nd 1 part of s ulph ur flowers .

m ust be weighted with boards an d brick Glue for Attach i ng Cloth S tr ips to Ir on .

on top until the adhesive agent has hard -


S oa k 500 parts of C ol ogne gl ue in the
ened .

eveni ng with clea n cold water i n a cl ea n


II — S oak 3 parts of l ue in 8 parts
.

vessel ; i n t h e morni n pour o ff th e water g


water add 5 part h yd r o c loric acid and
,
place the softened gl ue with out admix
,

it part zi nc Vi tri ol a nd l et this mixture ture of water into a cl ea n c opper or


bo xl several hours C oat the floor an d .

e na mel receptacl e which is put on a mod


the back of the li noleu m with this .

crate l ow fire (charcoal or stea m a ppa


,

Press the linoleum d own uniformly a nd ratus ) D uring the diss ol uti on the mass
.

fi rmly a nd w eight it for s ome ti me .

m ust be c o n ti n ua ll stirred with a wood


Glue for Atta ch ing Gl oss to Precious en trowel o r s pa t u a If the gl ue is too .

Metals — S a ndarac varnis h 1 5 parts ;


.
,
thick it is th i nned wi th dil uted s pi rit
, ,

mari ne gl ue 5 parts ; drying oil 5 parts ; , ,


b ut not with water As s oon as th e gl ue .

white l ead 5 parts ; S panis h whi te 5 , ,


has r e ached the b oili ng oi nt about 5 0 ,

parts ; turpenti ne 5 parts T riturate all to , .


parts of li nseed oil va r n i s ( b oiled oil ) is
form a rather h om ogeneous paste T his added to the mass with consta nt sti r r i n
When the l atter has been stirred up wefi
.

gl ue becomes very hard a nd resisting .


,

a dd 5 0 parts of powdered c ol o hony a n d


Elastic Gi n a — Although elastic gl ue is shake i t into th e m ass w i th stirrin g ,
le ss dura ble tha n rubber a nd W l ll not , s u bse uentl y removing the gl ue fro m the
sta n d m uc h heat yet it is chea per tha n , fire . n order to i ncrease the bin di ng
rubber a nd is not lik e rub ber affected
, , q ualities a n d to guard agai nst m oisture ,

by oil col ors Hence it is largely used .


it is well still to a dd a bout 5 0 parts of
for pri nting roll ers a nd sta mps For .
isi nglass which has bee n previ ousl y c ut
,
AD HES I VES 15

into narrow stri ps and laced well Natu ral Gl u e for Ce me n ti n Porcela i n
ar ge shel l
,

beaten i n a vessel i nto w ich enough


, ,
Cr ystal Gl ass , etc The .

s irit of wi ne has been c ured to cover s nails which are fo und i n vi neyards ha ve
ap .l When diss ol ved t e last —named , at the extremity of their body a small ,

mass is add ed to th e boiling gl ue with whitis h bladder filled with a substance "

constant stirri ng T h e adhesive a e a t . of greasy a nd gelati nous as ect I f this .

is now ready for use and is empl oyed o t , s ubsta nce extracted from t e bladder is
it bei ng advisa bl e to warm the iron als o . a pplied on the fragments of porcelai n or
Apply gl ue only to a s urface equivalent a ny body whatever whi ch are juxtapose d ,

to a si ngl e stri p at a ti me T h e stri ps are . by bei ng made to touch at all parts they ,

pressed d own with a sti ff brus h or a wad acquire s uch adhesi on that if one strives
of cl oth . to separate them by a bl ow they are ,

Glue for Lea th er or Car d boar d — T o .


m ore liabl e to break at a nother place
attach leather to cardboard diss olve than the cemented sea m It is necessary .

good gl ue (softened by s welli ng i n water ) to gi ve this gl ue s u ffi cient ti me to dry per


f e ctl y s o as to permit it to a cquire the
with a little turpentine and eno ugh water ,

in a n ordi nary gl ue pot an d then havi ng highest degree of strength a nd tena city .

made a thi ck paste with starch in the Belt Gl ue — A gl ue for belts ca n be


.

proporti on of 2 parts by weight of starch , prepared as follows : S oa k 5 0 parts of


o w d e r for every 1 part by wei ht of gelati n in water pour o ff the excess of
Sr y glue mix the c om pounds a n all ow
, ,

water a nd heat on the water bath With


,

, , .

the mixture to become col d before a ppli good sti r r i n add first 5 parts by , , ,

ca ti on to the ca rd board .
weight of g yc er i n e then 1 0 parts by
, , ,

For Woo d , Glas s, Card boar d , a n d a ll weight of turpenti ne a nd 5 parts by


, , ,

Articles of a Metallic or Mineral Ch a r weight of li nsee d oil varnish and thi n


,

a cter .
—T ake boiled linseed oil 2 0 parts
,
with water as required T h e ends of the .

Flemish gl ue 2 0 parts hydrated li me 1 5 ,


belts to be gl ued are cut o ff obli u el y and
parts powdered turpentine 5 arts al um warmed ; then the hot gl ue is a p i e d an d ,

the united a r ts 'a r e s u bj e cte to strong


, ,

5 parts acetic acid 5 parts i ssol v e the .

glue with the acetic aci d add the al um , .


pressure a l owi ng the m to dry thus for
,

then the hydrated lime and finally the 24 hours before th e belts are used .

turpenti ne a nd the boil ed li nseed oil Ch ro mi um Glue f o r Wood , Pa er a n d


,
T ri turate all well until it forms a h omo Cloth - I -( a ) O n e -half poun strong
. .

e n e o us aste a nd keep i n well cl ose d -


gl ue (any l ue if col or 1 8 immaterial
gasks . se li ke a ny other glue .
W hite fish gfue otherwise ) ; so a k 1 2 hours
,

Gl ue f o r Un i ti n g M etal s w ith Fabr i cs .


i n 1 2 fl ui d o u n ces of col d water ( b) O n e .

— Col o ne gl ue of good quality is s oaked quarter pound gelati n ; soak 2 hours in


g
and b 0 1l ed down to the consiste ncy of 1 2 fl ui d o u n ce s cold water (0 ) T w o .

that used by ca bi netmakers T hen a dd .


,
ounces bichromate of potassium dis
with constant stirring sifted wood as hes ,
sol ved i n 8 fl ui d o u n ce s boiling water .

until a moderately thick hom ogeneous ,


D iss ol ve ( a ) after s oaki ng i n a glue pot , ,

mass res ults Use h ot and press the


.
a nd add ( b) After ( a ) a nd ( b) are m i xed
.

pi eces well together duri ng the dryi n g .


a nd diss ol ved stir in ( c) T his gl ue is
, .

For tinfoil about 2 per cent of b oraci c e x c e e d i n l y strong a nd if the article ,

aci d should be added i nstea d of the wood ce me n t e be exposed to strong sunlight


as hes .
for 1 hour th e glue bec omes perfectly
,

water roof O f c ourse it is understood


Gl ue or Paste f o r Ma ki n g Paper
.
,

Boxes that t e exposure to s unli ght is to be


ma de after the gl ue is th oroughly dry .

Chl ora l hydrate 5 parts T h e one obj ecti ona bl e feature of this
G elatin white , 8 parts cement is its col or which is a yellow
G um arabic
,
2 parts brown . By s ubstituti ng chrome alu m
B oili ng water 30 parts i n place of the bichromate a n olive col or ,

M i x the chl oral gelatin and gum , , is obtai ned .

arabic i n a porcelai n c ontai ner pour the , II — Use a m oderately strong gelati n
.

b oili ng water over the mi xture a nd l et s ol uti on ( contai ni n g 5 to 1 0 per cent of


sta n d for 1 day gi vi ng it a vigorous stir
, dry gelati n ) to whi c h a bout 1 part of
,

ring several ti mes d uri ng the day I n . aci d chromate of potassi um i n s ol ution is
col d weather this is a pt to get hard and added to every 5 parts of e l a ti n T his .

stiff but this may be ob v iated by stand


, mixture has the pro er t y o becomi ng i n
i ng the c ontai ner i n warm water for a s ol uble by water t rough the action of
few minutes T his paste a d heres to a ny
. s unlight under partial reducti on of th e
s urfa ce whate ver . chromic aci d .
16 A D H E SIVE S

Fi r eproof Gl ue . Pour the mixt ure hot into the o peni n g , ,

Ra w linseed oil 8 parts .


of the heate d ha ndle a nd s hove i n the
G l ue or gelatin 1 part knife likewise heated .

Q uickli me 2 parts .
VIII — M elt s uffi cient black rosi n a nd
.
,

i ncorporate thoroughly with it one fifth i ts -

S oak the gl ue or gelatin i n the oil for M a ke


1 0 to 1 2 h ours and then melt it by gently
weight of very fine sil ver san d .

heating the oil a nd when perfectly flui d


,
the pestle h ot pour i n a littl e of the mi x
,

stir i n the quickli me until the whole


,
ture the n force the handl e well home
, ,

mass is homogeneous then s pread out i n a nd set asi de for a day before usi n _

l ayers to dry grad ually out of the sun s


,
’ I X — M ake a s mooth m oderate y s oft
.
,
,
aste with litharge a nd glyceri ne ; fill the
rays For use reheat the gl ue in a l ue
.

pot i n the ordinary way of melting g ue


,
hole i n the pestle with the cement and ,
.

firmly press the handle i n place kee ing ,

CEM ENTS .
it under press ure for three or fo ur ays .

Under this heading will be found onl y Cements for S tone — I — A n excell ent . .

cements for causi ng one s ubstance to a d cement for broken marbl e consists of 4
here to another Cements used prima . pa rts of gyps um a nd 1 part of finely
rily as fillers s uch as dental cem ents , , o w d e r e d gum arabic M i x in ti mately . .

will be found under Cements Putties , , hen with a col d s ol uti on of b orax make
etc . i nto a m ortarlike mass S m ear on each .

Cutlers ’ Ceme nts for Fi xi ng K n ife face of the parts to be j oi ned and fasten ,

Bla d es into Handles the bits of marble together I n the .

course of a few days the cement becom es


.

I — Rosi n
.
very hard a nd h olds very tena ci ously .

Beeswax T h e obj ect mende d s houl d not be touched


Plaster of Paris or for several days I n me ndi ng col ored .

brickd ust 1 pound marbles the cement may be give n the h ue


II — Pitch
. 5 pounds of the marbl e by ad ding the c ol or to t h e
Wood ashes 1 pou nd . borax s ol uti on .

T all ow 1 pound II — A cement which dries i n st a n ta


.

III — Rosi n 1 2 ; s ulphur flowers 3 ;


.
n e o usl y qualifyi ng it for all so rts of r e
,
, ,

i ron fi li n s 5 M elt together fill the


, .
,
pairi ng and only pr e se n ti n g the d i s a d
handl e w il e hot and insert the i n str u ,
va ntage o f havin g to be f r e sli l y prepare d
ment each ti me n o t w rt h st a n di n any s u bse
quent heati ng may be ma de as foll ows :
. ,

I V — Plaster of Paris is ordi narily


. ,

used for fasteni ng l oose handles It is .


I n a metal vessel or iron s poon m elt 4 t o
made i nto a m oderately thi ck paste with 5 parts of rosi n ( or preferably mastic )
water run into the hole i n the head of the a nd 1 part of beeswa x T his mixture .

pestl e the handl e i n s erted and hel d i n must be a p lied ra p i dly i t bei ng of a d
vanta e sl i g tl y to heat t he s urfaces to be
,

place till the cement hardens S ome add .

sand to the paste apd clai m to get better ,


unite wh i ch nat urall y must have been
res ults .
previ ously well cl ea ned .

V — B oil together 1 part of ca ustic soda III — S l aked l i me 1 0 pa rts ; chal k 1 5


.
, ,

parts ; ka oli n 5 parts ; mi x a nd i m me


.
,

3 parts of rosin and 5 parts of water till ,


,

h omogeneous a nd add 4 parts of plaster d i a t el y before use stir with a corres pond
of Paris T h e paste sets i n half an hour
.
i ng am ount o f po ta sh water glass
. .

a nd is but l ittl e a ff ected by water .


I V — Ce me nt o n Marble S labs — T h e
.

VI — E qual quantities of utta percha


.
whol e marbl e s l a b is thoroughly warm ed
a nd s hellac are melte d t o get er a nd well and lai d face d own u pon a neatly cl ea ned
stirred T his is best d one i n a n iron ca p
pl ani ng bench upon which a woole n cl oth
.

s ul e placed on a sa n d ba t h a nd heated i s spread s o as not to inj ure th e o li s h of


over a as furnace or on the top of a the slab N ext a pply t o the s ab very
.

stove he combi nation possesses b oth


.
hot weak gl ue and quic kly sift h ot plaster
,

hardness a nd t o u h n ess u a li ti es that c


, of Paris on t h e gl ue i n a thi n even layer
make it particularl y d esi r a l e in mend stirri ng the pl aster ra pidly into the a p
,

i ng m ortars a nd pestl es I n usi ng .


, plied gl ue by means o f a strong s patul a ,
the articles to be cemented should be s o that a uniform gl ue laster coati ng
warmed to about the melti ng poi nt of the is formed on the warm slab B efore this .

mixture and retai ned i n proper position has time to harden ti p the res pecti ve piece
u ntil cool when they are ready for use
, .
of furniture on the slab T h e fram e lik e .
,

VI I . wise w a r me d w i ll adhere very firmly to the


,
S ul phur . . slab after two days Besid es this proces s .
,

I ron fili ngs h a s the advantage of great clea nl i nes s .


A D H ESI VE S 17

V — The f oll owi ng is a reci pe used by


. T his cement is not attacked by water ,

marbl e wor k ers and whic h probably , heat a nd e tr ol e u m I f i n place of the


, .
,

c a n be used to a d va n ta e : Fl our of s ul plaster of aris zi nc white white l ead , , ,

phur 1 part ; h yd r o c l orate of a m


, or sla ked li me is used the ce me nt hard ,

m onia 2 parts ; iron fili ngs 1 6 a rts


, , . ens m ore sl owly .

T h e above s ubsta nces m ust be re uce d


to a powder and securely reserved,
To Faste n Brass u po n Glas s — B oil to
in cl osely sto pered vessels hen the gether 1 part of caustic s oda 3 parts of
cement is to b
. ,

e em pl oyed ta ke 2 0 parts ,
rosin 3 parts of gyps um a nd 5 arts of
, ,

very fine iron filings a nd 1 part of the water T h e cement made i n t is w a y


.

above powder ; mix them together with hardens i n about half a n hour hence i t ,

enough water to form a manageabl e m ust be a ppli ed quickly D uri ng the .

paste T his paste soli difies in 20 days


.
preparati on it shoul d be stirred con
st a n tl y All the ingredi ents used m ust
and becomes as hard as iron A reci pe .
.

for another cem e nt useful for j oi ning be i n a finely powdered state .

small pieces of marble or alabaster is as


Un iti ng Glass w ith Horn A s ol u
follows : Add if pi nt of vi negar to i pi nt .

ski mmed mil k ; mix the curd with the tion of 2 parts of gelati n in 20 parts water
whites of 5 eg 5 well beaten a nd s u ffi is evaporated up to one -sixth of its vol um e
,

cient po w d e r e quickli me sifted i n with


,
and 9 ; mastic diss ol ved i n 1} s irit ad ded
a nd some zi nc white stirre i n Th e
consta nt stirring s o as to form a paste .

putty is a p lied warm ; it dries easily


.

i and ca n be E
t resists water and a m oderate degree of
eat re t l ong ti me (2 ) M i x a .

gol d size with t e equal vol ume of water


.

VI —Ce me n t for Iron a n d M arble


. .
glass .

For fastening iron to marble or stone a


good cement is ma de as foll ows : T hi rty To Ce me n t Glass to Ir o n
parts plaster of Paris 1 0 parts iron filings , ,
I .

5 part sal am moniac mixed with vinegar Yell o w wa x .

to a fluid paste fres h for use . Vene tia n red . .

Ceme nt for S an d sto nes — O n e art .


M elt the wax a nd rosin on a wate r
s ul phur a nd 1 part rosi n are me ted bath a nd add under constant stirring t h e
, ,

separately ; the melted masses are mixed Venetia n red previ ously well dried S ti r .

and 3 parts litharge and 2 parts ground until nearly cool so as to prevent the Ve ,

glass stirred i n T h e latter i ngredients n e ti a n red from settl i ng to the bottom .


.

must be perfectly dry a nd have been , II — Portl a nd cement


. 2 ounces .

well pul verized a nd mixed previ ously . Prepared chal k 1 ounce


E qually good cement is obtai ned by Fi ne sa nd 1 ounce
melti ng together 1 pa rt pitc h and fi part S ol uti on of s odi u m silicate
wa x and mixing W i th 2 parts brickdust
, .
en o u h to form a semi
T h e stones to be cemented or be , h q ui paste .

tween the j oi nts o f whi ch the putty is to II I — Li t h a r


. 2 parts
be poured must be perfectly dry I f
, .
White
racti cable they s hould be warmed a
p Work i nto a asty conditi on by usi n
.
,

3 pa rt s bo xl e d p 1 part copag
i ttl e and the s urfaces to which the putty
i n se e d oil
,

is to adhere pai nted with oil varni s h ,

once or twice T h e a bove two formulae


.
varnish .

are of es pecial val ue i n case the stones Celluloi d Ce me n ts — I — T o mend brok .

are very much exposed to the heat of the en draughting triangl es a nd other ce ll u
s un i n s um mer as well as to cold rain
, , , l oi d articles use 3 parts al cohol a nd 4
,
and snow i n winter Experience has .
parts ether mi xed together a nd a plied to
s hown that i n these i nstances the above t h e fracture with a brus h until t e edges
menti oned cements gi ve better sa ti sfa c become warm T h e ed es are then .

ti on tha n the other bra nds of cement .


stuck together a nd left to r y for at least
,

Ce me n ts for Atta ch i n g Obje cts to 2 4 hours .

Glass .
II —Cam phor 1 part ; alc oh ol 4 parts
.
, , .

D issol ve and a dd equal qua ntity ( by


W ei ht ) of shell ac to this sol ution .

I I — I f firmness is desired i n utti ng


M elt together cell ul oi d on wood ti n etc the fo il o w i n
.

.
.
, , ,

To Atta ch Copper to Gla ss — B oil 1 glui ng agent is recom men ded viz ,

art of ca usti c soda a nd 3 parts of c o com pound of 2 parts shellac 3 parts ,

o ph o n y i n 5 parts of water a nd mi x with s irit of cam phor and 4 parts strong ,

th e li ke qua ntity of plaster of Paris . a cohol .


18 A D HE S I VE S

IV — S hella c ou nces 2 II —M i x
100 pa r ts fin el y o w der d
. . .
e
white litharge w ith 5 0 parts ry wh i te
i
i r i ts of camph or ounces 2
p
.

cohol 9 0 per cent 6 to 8 ounces


, . l ead , knead together 3 parts li nseed c i l
V — M ake a moderatel y strong glue or
.
varnish and 1 art copal varnis h i nto a
s ol ution of gel atin I n a dark place or .
firm d ough oat the si de to be attached
.

a dark room mi x with the above a small with t his removing the s uperfl uous ce
,

amount of concentrated s ol uti on of po t a s ment I t will dry qui ckly a nd become


.

siu m dichromate Coat the back of the .


very hard .

label which must be clea n with a thi n


, ,
III —C opal varnish
. 1 5 parts
l a er of the mixture S trongly press t h e .
Linseed -oil varnis h 5 parts
la el agai nst the b ottl e and keep the two Ra w turpentin e 3 parts
i n cl ose contact by tying with twi ne or O i l of turpentine 2 parts
otherwise Expose to su nli gh t for s om e
.
Carpenters gl u e di s ’
,

h ours ; this causes the cement to be i ns ol s ol ved i n water 5 parts


ubl e even i n hot water .
Preci pitated chal k 1 0 parts
'

VI —Lime
.
IV — M ast ic gum
. 1 part 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

White of egg
_

L ith a r e l ea d 2 pa rts
White ead
. ,

Plaster of Paris 1 part a a a a a a a a a

Water
.

. .
Li nseed oil 3 parts
Reduce the li me to a fine powder ; mi x M elt together to a hom ogeneous mass .

it wit h the white of egg by trituration ,


A ply h ot T o make a thorough a nd .

formi ng uniform paste D il ute with


a .
re i a bl e j ob th e l etters sh oul d be heated
,

water ra pi dly incorporate the plaster of


,
to at l east th e tem perature of the cement .

Paris and use the cement i m mediately


, . To Fi x Gol d Le tters , e tc , upon Gla ss . .

T h e surfaces to be cemented m ust first — I — T h e glass m ust be entirel y cl ean and


.

be m oisten ed with water s o that th e c c polished a nd the m edi um is pre pared i n


,

ment will readily adhere Th e ) i e c es the foll owi ng ma nner : O n e ou nce fish
must be firmly r ess e d together a n dkept
.

gl ue or i smgl a ss is diss ol ved i n water


i n t his positi on or a b out 1 2 h ours . so that the latter covers the gl ue When .

Ce me nti ng Celluloid a n d Har d-Rubber this is diss olved a quart of rectified s pi r


it o f wi ne is added a nd en ough water is
'

Articles — I — Cellul oi d articl e s can be


. .
,

mende d by making a mixture com poure d i n to make u p one-quarter th e


posed of 3 parts of al coh ol a nd 4 ) arts of whole T h e substance must be ke pt well
.

ether T h i s mi xture shoul d be ept i n


.
corked .

a
. well -c o rked bottl e and when cellul oi d ,
I I — T a k e {c quart of the best rum
.

a rticl es are to be mended the broken ,


and ou nce fis h gl ue whi ch is diss olved ,

su r faces are pai nte d over with the alcohol i n the former at a m o derate degree of
and ether mi xture until the s urfaces heat T hen a dd i qua rt distill ed water
.
,

s often : then res s together a nd bind and and filter throu h a pi ece of ol d li nen
T h e glass is lai d u pon a perfectly l e v e l
.

all ow to dry or at l east 2 4 h ours .

II — D i ss olve 1 part of gu m ca mphor


. table a nd is covered with this su bsta nce
i n 4 parts of alcohol ; diss ol ve a n e ual to the thickness of g inch usi ng a clea n »
,

wei ght of shell ac i n s uch stron ca m p or brush S eize the gol d leaf w ith a
.

sol uti on T he cement is app i e d warm poi nted object a nd place it s m oothly

and the parts united must not be dis upon the repared mass a nd it will be
attracted p the glass at once Af ter 5
,

t ur be d unti l the cement is hard Hard . .

rubber articl es are never mended to form minutes ho d th e gl ass sli ghtl y sl a n ti n
a strong j oi nt . so that the s uperfluous mass ca n run 0
III - M elt to ether e ual parts of
. a nd lea ve th e plate i n this positi on for 2 4
gu tta pe rcha an real as p altum T h e . h ours whe n it will be perfectl y d ry N ow
, .

cement is applied h ot a nd the broken , trace the letters or the desi gn o n a piec e
s urfaces r e ss e d together a nd hel d i n of pa per and perforate the li n es Wi th a
,

place w hi e cooli ng thic k needle ma kin the holes TH ; i nc h


apart T he n place the perforated pa per
.
,

S ign -Letter Ceme nts


.

.
up o n the s urface of the glass a nd sta mp
I — Copal va rnis h ,
. 1 5 parts .
the tracery on w ith powdered chalk The .

5 parts pa per pattern is the n carefully re m ove d


T urpen ti ne (s pirits ) 3 parts
,
.
a nd the accurate desi gn will remai n u o n
O i l o f turpenti ne 2 parts .

the gol d Th e outl i nes are now fill ed


.

Li q uefied gl ue 5 parts out Wi th a n oily gol d mass mixed with


M elt all together on a water bath until
,

a littl e c hrome oran ge a nd d il uted with


ell mi xed , a n d then add 1 0 parts slaked boiled oil or t urpentine Whe n all is
Fm
.

i e. d r y th e superfluous gol d is was h ed ofi


20 ADHES I VES

ta ch e d . T h e silicate s houl d be some the first s ol ution to the second mi x th or ,

what dil uted I t is sprea d on the glass


. oughly by a gitati on a nd then add th e
with a rag or a s mall sponge . s ol uti on of gum am m oni ac and sti r well
i n Fi nally put on the water bath and
JE WELERS
,

C EMENTS
.
'

.
keeping at a m oderate heat eva porate ,

Jewel ers a nd ol d smi th s


re ui r e for the wh ole down to 1 7 5 parts
the cementi ng of genui ne an col ore d
.
,

gems as well as for the placing of col


,
Ce me nt for Enamele d D ia l s — T h e .

ored foli o under certai n stones very ,


foll owi ng is a good cement for ena mel ed
a dhesi ve gl ui n age nts which must , ,
dials plates or other pi eces : G ri nd i nto
, ,

however be cc o r l ess
, I n this respect .
a fine powder 2 1; parts of da m mar ro snn
these are di sti nguished chiefly by the a nd 2 } parts of copal usi ng col orl ess ,

so -call ed dia mond cement and the regu


pieces if possi ble N ext a dd 2 pa rts .

la r jewelers ce ment D iamond c c



.
of Venetia n turpenti ne a nd enough 8 irit
ment is much esteemed by j ewelers for of wi ne s o that the whol e forms a t ick
cementing precious stones a nd corals ,
paste T o this ri nd 3 parts of the finest
.

but may als o be em pl oyed with a d zi nc white T e mass now has the .

vantage for layin col ored fluxes of c onsistency of r e pa r ed oil ai nt T o .

glass on white g ass T h e dia mond .


rem ove t he yel ow ti nge of t e cemen t
ce ment is of s uch a nature as to be abl e a dd a tri fle of Berli n bl ue to the zinc
to remai n for s ome ti me i n contact wi th whi te Fi nall y the whol e is heated u ntil
. ,

water with out becoming s oft It a d .


the spi rit of wi ne is dri ven off and a molt
heres best between glass or between pre en mass remains which is all owed to cool ,

c i o us stones I t is c om posed as foll ows a nd is h e t for use Heat the parts to be .

men te
.

I si ngl ass 8 pa r ts gum a mmoniac 1 pa rt , ,


ce

al ba num 1 pa rt s pirit of wi ne 4 rts


goak the isi ngl ass i n water with a mi x
, .

Wa tch -Li d Cemen t hardest ce .


— Th e
ture of a littl e spirit of wi ne and add the ment for fixi ng on watch lids is s hellac .

I f the li ds are exceedi ngly thi n the en


s ol uti on of the gums i n the remainder
ra vi ng will al ways press through Be
of the spirit of wi ne B efore us e heat
g
.

o r e ceme nting it on the i nsi de of the li d


,

the dia mond ceme nt a little s o as to ,

s ofte n it Jewelers cement is used for ’ i n order not to i nj ure the polis h it is ,

coate d with chal k diss ol ve d i n alc ohol


.

si milar purposes as is the dia mond c c ,

ment a nd is prepared from : I singlass whic h is first all owed to dry N ext melt .

mas ti c varni s h 5 par ts the s hellac on the stick heat the watch
( dry ) 1 0
,

lid a nd put it on After the e n gr a vi n


.

D iss ol ve t e isinglass i n very littl e water


.

addi ng s ome strong spirit of wine T h e .


,
has been done sim ply force the li d o ff an ,

mastic varnis h is prepared by pouri ng r e m ove the remai ning shella c from the
a mixture of highly rectified spirit of l atter by light ta ppi ng If this does not .

wi ne and benzi ne over finel y powdere d remove it completely lay the lid i n alco
mastic a nd diss ol vi ng it i n the s mallest h ol l ea vi ng it therei n u ntil all the shel
,

possi ble q uantity of liquid T h e two .


lac has dissol ved All that remai ns to be .

s ol utions of isi nglass a nd mas ti c are i n done now is to was h out the watch li d .

i in i t el y ground together i n a porcelai n


Efi Jew elers Ceme n t s — D iss ol e o n

G lue v

is
a water bath 50 of fis h gl ue in
Arme n ian Ce me n t — T h e celebrated a littl e 95 -per —cent alcohol a ddi n g ,

Armenia n ceme nt s o called formerly ,


parts by weight of gum a mmo ma c
, , .

used b T urkish a nd O riental j ewelers O n the other ha nd dissol ve 2 parts by , ,

general y for s etti ng precious stones


, ,
wei ht of mastic i n 1 0 parts by weight
, , ,

faci ng diamo nds rubi es etc is made , , .
,
of a cohol M i x the se two s ol uti ons a n d
.

as foll ows : preserve i n a well -corked flask For .

M astic gum 1 0 parts .


use it s u ffices to s ofte n it on the water
I si nglass ( fis h gl ue ) 2 0 parts
bath .

G u m a m moniac 5 parts .
C asei n Ceme nts .

Alcohol a bsol ute 6 0 parts .

Alc ohol 50 per cent , 3 5 parts .


I .
parts 5
1 0 0 parts p a r ts 95
D iss ol ve the mastic i n the abs olute Casei n s ufficie nt qua nti ty, .

al cohol ; diss ol ve by the aid of gentle , D issol ve the b orax i n water a n d i n


heat on the water bath the isi nglass i n
, , corporate enough casei n to produce a
the wa ter a nd add 1 0 parts of the dilute
, mass of the pro per consistency .

alcohol , N o w diss ol ve the a mmoniacum I I — Th e case i n is ma de feebly alka


.

i n the residue of the dil ute alcohol Add .


lin e by mea ns o i s oda or potas h l ye a n d
AD H ES IVES 21

the n subj e cted f or about 24 h ours to a Wa terproof Cemen ts for Gl a ss, S to n e


tem perature o f 1 4 0 F N e xt f oll ow °
. w are , Me ta l — I — M a ke a paste of
an d . .

the customary a d mixture s uch as lime . sul h ur sal a m monia c iron fili ngs a n d
, , ,

and water lass a nd finally to aecom , , bo x ed 0 11 .

pli sh a qui c ( er r esi n ifi ca ti o n s ubsta nces , II — M i x together d r y : Whiting 6


.
,
contai ni ng ta nni n are added For ta n .
pounds ; plaster of Pa ris 8 pou nds ; ,
nic a dmixtures to t he partiall y d i si n te sa nd 8 pounds ; litharge 8 pounds ;
, ,
grated casei n slight qua n titi es — about
, rosi n 1 pound M a ke to a paste wit h
, .

l per ce nt — o f gallic aci d cutch or , , copal varnish .

qu erci ba n n i c aci d a re em pl oyed T he .

I I I — M ake a paste of b oil e d oil 6


feebly alkali ne casei n cement contai n ,

ing tanni c aci d is used i n the well -known pounds ; co pal 6 pou nds ; litharge 2 , ,

manner for the glui ng together o f wood pounds ; wh i te l ea d 1 pound , .

I V — M ake a paste with b oile d oil


.

. ,

For Metal s — M ake paste with 1 6


. a. 3 ou nds ; brickd ust 2 pounds ; dry
ounces casei n 2 0 ou nces sla ked li me a n d
, , sla e d li me 1 pound , .

20 ounces of s and i n water , .


V — D iss ol ve 93 ounces of al um a n d
.

For Gla ss — I — D iss olve casei n i n a


. .
93 ounces of s u ar of lea d i n water to
concentrate d s ol uti on of borax .
concentration i sso l ve se paratel y 1 5 2
.

II — M ake a paste of casei n and


.
ounces of gum arabic i n 2 5 gall ons of
water glass .
water, a nd then sti r i n 62 } pounds of
flour T hen heat to a u niform paste
Pasteboar d a n d Paper Ce me n t — I
.

. .
with the metallic salts but ta ke care not ,

Let pure gl ue s well i n col d water ; pour to b oil the mass .

and press o ff the excess ; put on th e VI — For I ron a nd M arbl e to S ta nd i n


.

water bath a nd melt Paper or other .


Hea t — I n 3 ) ounds of water diss ol ve
material cemented with this is then first 1 pou n d water lass a nd the n 1
,
i mmedi ately before the cement dries
, ,
pound of borax i th the s ol ution .

submitte d to the a cti on of formal dehyde make 2 pounds of clay a nd 1 pou n d of


and dried T h e cement resists the acti on
.
barytes first mi xed dry to a paste .
, ,
of water eve n h ot
VI I — G l ue to Resist B oiling Water
.
,

II — M elt to ether equal parts of


.

D issolve se a r a t el y i n water 55 pounds


good pitch a n gutta percha T o 9 .
of In c an a mi xture of 4 0 pounds of
arts of this mass add 3 arts of boil ed bic r o ma te a nd 5 pounds of al u m Mix
p i n se e d oil a n d 1} pa r t i th a r ge The .
as wa nted .
.

heat is kept u p until with c onsta nt


V III ( Chi nese G l ue ) — D iss ol ve shel
,

stirring a n i nti mate u ni on of all the i n


,
. .

lac i n 1 0 ti mes its weight of a m monia


gr e d i e n ts has taken place T h e mix .
.

ture is dilu ted with a littl e benzi ne or I X — M ake a paste of 40 ou nc e s of


.

oil of tur cuti ne a n d a pplie d whil e sti l l dry slaked li m e 1 0 ounces of al u m and ,

warm . he cement is waterproof .


50 ou nces of white of egg .

I I I —T h e N a ti o n a l D r uggzst says
'

.
X — Alcohol
. parts
that experience with pasti ng or cement S a ndarac 60 pa rts
i ng parchment paper s eems t o s how M astic 6 0 parts
.

that about th e best age nt is casei n T urpenti ne oil 60 parts .

cement ma de by diss ol vi ng casei n in


D iss ol ve the ums i n th e alc ohol a nd
,

a saturated aq ueous s ol u ti on of b ora x


add the oil a n stir i n N o w pre pare
.

I V — T h e foll owing is recom mende d


.
.

for paper b oxes a sol uti on of e ual parts of gl ue an d


isi nglass by so a i ng 1 2 5 parts of eac h
,
Chl oral hydrate 5 parts i n col d water until it becomes saturated ,
G elatin white , 8 parts pouri ng a nd pressing off the resi due and
G u m ara bic
,

2 parts melting on the water bath T his s houl d .

B oili ng water 80 parts produce a vol u me of gl ue nearly e ual


M i x t he chl oral gelati n a nd gum , , to that of the s ol uti on of gums he .

arabic i n a porcel ai n conta i ner pour the , latter s houl d i n the mea n ti me have , ,

boili ng water over the mi xture and let been ca uti ously raised to th e bo ili n
stan d for 1 day gi vi ng it a Vi gorous , poi nt on the water bath a nd then mi xe ,

stirri ng several ti mes during the day . w ith the hot glue sol uti on .

I n col d weather this is apt to get hard I t is sai d that articl es united with
and stiff but this may be obvi ate d by
,
this s ubstance will sta nd the strai n of
sta ndi ng the contai ner i n warm water col d water for a n u nli mited ti me a nd ,

for a fe w mi nutes T his paste a dheres . it takes hot water even a l ong ti me to
to a n y s ur f ace whatever . a ffect it .
Q2 A D H ESIVES

XL— B urgundy i tch it i n 1 4 0 parts o f car bon bis ul ph i de th e


percga
,

G utta vessel be i ng laced on a water bath of


Pumice stone i n fi n e , 3 0 C ( 86
°
Further melt 1 0 arts
°
,

parts 3 of rubber wit h 1 5 of col o phony a n a dd ,

M elt the gutta percha very careful ly 3 5 parts of oil of turpen ti ne Whe n the .

a dd the ) u mi ce stone and lastly the rubber has been com pletel y d i ss olve d ,

pitc h a n d stir until hom ogeneous the two liquids may be m i xed T h e
,
.
.
,

Us e whil e stil l hot T his ce ment will .


resulti ng ceme nt m ust be kept well
corked
g
w i t sta n d water a nd dil ute mi neral .

a cr s . To Faste n R ubber to Wood .

M ake a cement by ma cerati ng Vi rg i n


LEATHER AND RUBBER CEM ENTS .
um ru bber or as pure rubber as ca n be
ha d cut i n s mall pieces i n j ust e nough
,

I — Use a melte d mixture of gutta


.
, ,

erc ha a nd ge nui ne as phalt appl i ed , naphtha or gasoli ne to c over it Let i t .

ot .T h e hard -rub ber goods m ust be stand i n a very tightly corke d or seale d .

kept pressed together until the cement ar for 1 4 da 8 or a s ufli ci e n t ti me to


'

has cooled . ecome diss o ved shaking the mi xture ,

II -A cement which i s e ff ective for


. daily .

cementi ng rubber to i ron and wh i ch i s II — D iss ol ve pul verize d gu m shellac


. ,

1 ounce i n 9 } ounces of strong a mmo ma


_

especiall val ua bl e for fasten i ng rub ,


1 .

ber ban s to bandsa w wheels i s made T his of cours e m ust be kept tightly
as foll ows : Powdered sh ellac 1 pa r t ; , c orked I t will n ot be as elastic as the
.

stron water of a m monia 10 pa rts Put first re aration


I I IP n s e together s hellac a nd gutta
.
, .

the s el l a c i n the am monia water a nd i

set it a way in a tightly cl osed jar for percha i n e qual weights .

3 or 4 weeks By that time the mixture.


I V - I ndia rub ber e e e e e e e
. 8 ounces
will become a perfectly l i qui d t r a n s pa r G utta percha 4 ounces
ent mass and is the n ready for use .
I si n lass 2 ounces
When a p lied to rubber the a m monia Bisu ph i d e of carbon 3 2 ounces
s ofte ns it ut it quickly eva porates leav ~

V — I ndia rubber
, ,

i ng the rubber i n the sa me condition as . 5 ounces


before T h e shellac cli ngs to the iron
.
- G um mastic 1 ounce 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

a n d thus forms a firm bond betwee n the


Chl oroform 3 ounces
i ron a nd the rubber . VI —G utta percha
. 1 6 ou nces
I I I — G utta percha white
. 1 drachm .
I ndia rubb er 4 ounces
Pitch 4 ounces
,

Carbon dis ul phide 1 ou nce .


O O O O O O O O O O O O O

S hella c 1 ounce
D iss ol ve filter a nd add , ,
Li nseed Oi l 1 ounce
I ndia rubber 1 5 grains Amalgamate by heat .

D iss ol ve .
VII — M i x 1 ounce of oil of turpentine
.

Cement for M eta l on Hard Rubber .


with 1 0 ounces of bisul phid e of carbon i n
I — S oa k good Col ogne gl ue and boil down
.
which as m uch gutta percha as possi ble
s o as to gi ve it the consi stency of j oi ners ’
has been dissolved .

gl ue a nd add with constant stirring


, .
, VIII — A mal ga mate by heat
.

e nough sifted wood as hes u ntil a homo G utta percha 1 00 ounces


ge n e o us m oderately thick mass res ults
, .
Venice turpenti ne 8 0 ounces
Use warm a nd fit the pieces well together
.

S h ellac 8 ounces
while d rying .
I ndi a rubber 2 ounces
H ow to Unite R ubber a n d Leather . Li quid storax 1 0 ounces 0 0 0 0 0

II — Roughen b oth s urfaces the leather


.
, IX —Amalga mate by heat
.

and the rubber with a sharp glass edge ; ,


I ndia r ub ber 1 00 ounces .

a pply to bot h a dil uted s ol uti on of gutta Rosi n 1 5 ounces


percha i n carbon bis ul phi de and let this , S hellac 1 0 ounces
s ol uti on s oak i nto the material T hen .
T hen diss olve i n bisu l phi de of carb on
press upo n each s urface a s ki n of gutta .

percha wof a n inch i n thickness between X — M ake the followi ng s ol uti ons se p
.
,
v

a r a t e l y and mix :
rolls T h e two s urfaces are now united
.

i n a press whic h s houl d be warm but not


, (a ) I ndia rubber 5 ou nces
hot T his m ethod s houl d a nswer i n all
. Chl oroform 140 ounces
cases in which it is applicabl e T he .
(b) India ru bber 5 ounces
other prescri pti on covers cases i n which Rosi n 2 ounces
a ess ca nnot be used Cut 8 0 arts of Venice turpenti ne 1 ounce
r uf h er i nto s m
. .

a ll pieces and is sol ve , O i l o f turpenti n e 20 ounces


AD HES I VES 23

Ce me n t for Pa t ch i n g Rubbe r Boots S hella c . 1 pound


a n d S h o es . Alcohol 1 pi nt
I — I ndia rubber
. fi n el , M i x and diss olve then ad d : ,

Castor oil t ounce


Rosi n
T h e castor oil prevents the cement
.

S hellac
from becomi ng hard and brittle
.

Carbon dis ul phi de .

,
A cement used to fasten bicycl e tires
q s to dissol ve .

may be made by m elti ng together at a


. .

T his will not only un ite leather to gentl e heat eq ual arts of 1 utta percha
leat h er i ndia rubber etc but will u nite and as phalt A pp y h ot Someti mes a
'

, , .
, . .

rubber to al most a ny substa nce .


small qua ntity eac h of sul ph ur a nd red
I I — Caoutch ouc finely cut 4 parts
.
, l ead is added (a bout 1 part of each to 2 0
I ndia rubber finely parts of cement ) .

cut l pa r t
Carbo n disul phi de 3 2 parts
Cements for Leather .

I — G utta percha
D iss ol ve the ca outchouc i n the carb on
.

S yrian asphalt pow


disul phi de add the rubber l et ma cer ,
,

ate a few days the n mas h W i th a palette


l

dered 2 0 parts

knife to a s moot h paste T h e vessel i n


,
Carbon disul phid e 5 0 parts
O i l of turpentine 1 0 parts
.

which the s ol uti on is made i n both


i nsta nces ab ove m ust be kept tightly Th e u tta ercha s hredde d fine is , ,

closed a n d s houl d have frequent agita


,
dissol ve i n t i e carbon disul phide a nd
ti ons .
tur e n ti n e oil T o the s ol ution add the .

III — T ake 1 00 parts of crude ru bber


.
as p alt a nd set away for several days ,

or caoutchouc c ut it up i n s mall bits , ,


or until the as phalt is diss olved T h e .

and diss ol ve it i n s u ffi cien t carbon bi s ul cement should have the consiste n cy of


phi d e ad d t o i t 1 5 parts of rosi n and
,
honey I f the preparati on is thi nner
.

1 0 parts of u m lac T h e user must .


tha n this let it sta nd open for a few , ,

not o verlook t e great i n fla mma bil ity and days Articles to be patched shoul d
.

e xc e e d i n l y volati le nature of the carbon first be washed with benzi ne .

bi s ul phi e . I I — G l ue
. 1 ounce
S tarch paste 2 ounces
Tire Ce me n ts .
T urpenti ne 1 drachm
I .
— I ndia rubber Water a s u ffi cient quantity , .

C hl oroform D issol ve the gl ue in su ffi cient water


ounce wit h heat ; mi x the starc h paste wit h
M i x th e i ndia rubber a nd chl oroform water ; add the tur e n ti n e a nd finally ,

together a n d whe n dissol ved the mastic


, , mi x with the glue w ile hot .

is added i n powder It is then all owed . I I I — S oa k for o n e day 1 pound of com


.

to stand a week or t wo before usi n mon gl ue i n e n o u h water to c over a n d


1 pound of i si n gI
,

II — T he following is reco mme n ed as


. a ss i n al e droppi ngs .

very ood for cementing pneumatic tires to T hen mix together a nd heat ently u n
bicycg e wheels til boili ng At this poi nt a d a little
.

S hellac 1 ounce ure tanni n a n d keep b oili ng for a n


G utta percha 1 oun ce hour I f the glue and isi nglass when
.

8 111 bur 4 5 grain s mixed are too thick a dd water This , .

Re lea d 4 5 grains cement s hould be used warm and the


o i n te d leather presse d tightly together
M elt together the shellac and gutta per
cha then add with consta nt sti rring the g or 1 2 hours .

sulphur and red lea d Use whil e hot


, ,
I V - A waterproof cement for leather
.

. .

caoutchouc or balata is prepared by , ,

III — Ra w gutta perc ha


. 1 6 ounces .
diss ol ving gutta percha caoutch ouc . ,
Carbo n bisul phi de 7 2 ounces .
benz oi n gu m lac mastic etc i n some
. , , .
,

Ea u de C ol ogne 2 g ounces .
convenient s olvent like carbon d i sul
T his cement is the s ubject of a n E n g hid e chl oroform ether or alcohol
lish patent a nd is recommended for p‘
,

I he best s olvent h owever i n the case of


, , .

, ,

atch i ng cycle a nd m otor ti res i n s ul a t gutta percha is carbon dis ul phi de and
p , , ,

in electric wires etc ether for mastic T h e m ost fa vora ble


gV —A good thick shellac varnis h with
. .
,

. proportions are as follows : G utta perc h a ,

which a s mall a mount of castor oil has 2 00 to 3 00 parts to 1 00 parts of the sol
been mi xed will be found a very excell ent vent and 7 5 to 85 parts of mastic to 1 0 0
,

bicycle ri m cement T h e form ula rec . . parts of ether From 5 to 8 parts of .

o mm e n d e d by Edel is as foll ows : th e former s o luti on are mi xed with 1


24 AD H ES IVES

part o f the latte r a nd the mi xt ure is , t hi ck paste with water o f pow d ere d
, ,

then boil ed on the water bath or i n a , iron 60 parts ; sal a mmo ma c 2 parts
, , ,

vessel fitted with a wat er jacket . and sul ph ur flowers 1 pa rt Use wh i le , .

V — M a ke a sol uti on of 2 00 to 3 0 0
. fres h .

parts of ca outc houc gutta percha i ndia , . I I —S ul phur flowers


. 6 parts ; dry ,

r ub ber benz oi n or si milar gum i n


, , , white lead 6 parts a nd powdered b orax , ,

parts of carbon dis ul phide chloroform 1 pa rt M i x by s i fti ng a n d ke as a


p0 use
e
, , .

ether or al coh ol a nd of this add 5 to 8


, , dry powder i n a closed ti n box . ,

parts to a sol uti on of mastic (7 5 to 1 25 make i nto a thi n paste with strong sul
parts ) i n ether 1 00 parts of equal vol ume ph u r i c aci d a nd press to ether i mme d i
ately T his cement wilgharde n i n 5
,

and boil together Use hot water as the . .

boiling agent or boil very ca uti ously on , days .

the water bath .


II I — G raphite
. 50 pounds .

VI — Forty pa rts of al umi nu m ace


.
Whi ti ng 1 5 pounds .

tate 1 0 B 10 parts of gl ue 1 0 parts


,
°
.
, , Litharge 1 5 pounds .

of rye flour T hese materials are e i ther


.
M ake to a paste with a b oiled oil .

t o be si multa neously mi xed a nd boiled


I V — M ak e a past e of white l ead a nd
,

or else the gl ue is to be diss olved i n the .

al umi num acetate a nd th e flour stirre d asbestos .

V — M ake a paste of litharge a nd l c


,

i nto the s ol ution T his is a n excellent


gyis
.

Re d l ea d may be a dded
.

cement for leather a nd is used i n so eri ne . .

called art work with leather an d with


,
als o does for stone .

VI —M ake a paste of b oil ed oil o f


,

leather a rticles which are made of sev .

eral pieces I t is to be a ppli ed warm


. .
equal pa rts of whi te l ea d pipe cl ay a nd , ,

black oxi de of man ga nes e .

R ubbe r Ceme nt for Cloth —T h e fol .


~
VIL — M a ke iron fil ings to a paste with
l owing form ulas have bee n recomme nded : water glass .

I — Ca outchouc 5 parts ; chl oroform


.
, , V I II — S a l a m m oniac
D iss ol ve a nd a dd gu m masti c
. .

3 parts .
S ul ph ur . .

( powder ) 1 part .
I ron fil i ngs
II - G utta percha 1 6 parts ; indi a rub
M a ke as much as is to be u sed at once
.
,

ber 4 parts ; pitch 2 parts ; s hellac 1


.

part ; li nseed Ol l 2 parts Reduce the


, ,
to a paste with a littl e water T his r e .

,
mark a pplies to both the foll owi ng dry
.

solids to s mall pieces melt together with


the oil a nd mi x well .
,
reci pes :
TI L— T h e foll owing cement for mend I X — I ron fili ngs
. .

i ng rubber shoes and tires will answer Lim e


si milar purposes Re d l ea d .

Ca outch ouc in shavi ngs 10


Al um
pa r ts S a l a m m oni ac
4 by
.

G u m turpenti ne 40 wei gh t X — Clay


. .

O il turpentine, enough .
Iron fili ngs .

M elt together first the ca outchouc and


rosi n then a dd the u rn turpenti ne a nd
, ,

when all is li q ue fi e ad d enough of oil Blac k oxide of


of t a r cuti ne to preserve it liqui d A .
manga nese 2 ounces
secon sol uti on is prepared by di ssol v XI — M ix :
.

i ng together : Iron fili ngs 0 0 0 0 0 0

Li me o o o o o o o o o o o

Caoutchouc S alt
C hl oroform
XI I — M i x
.

For us e these two sol Iro n fili ngs o o o o o o 1 40 ounces


Was h the hol e i n the rubber s hoe Hydra ulic li me 20 ounces
over with t h e cement then a piece of , S a nd n n n n n 2 5 ounces
li nen di p ed i n it is placed over it ; as S a l a m moni ac 8 ounces
s oon as t e linen adheres to the sol e the , Either of these last two mi xtures is
cement i s th en appli ed as thickly as r e
,
made i nto a paste with strong vi nega r
quired .
j ust before us e .

X I I I — M i x equal weights of zi nc
CEMENTS F OR M ETALS AND F OR AT
.

oxi de a nd black oxi de of manga n es e


TACHING VAR IOUS S UBSTANCES i nto a aste with water glass
TO METAL S
.

XI — C opal varni s h 15 rts ; h y


Ce me nts for Iro n — I — T o ma ke a
,
. . d r a te d li me 1 0 part s ; gl ue
, n erfs ( of
good cement f or i ron on i ron make a , si news ) 5 parts ; fat dryi ng oil 5 parts ;
, ,
A D H ES I VES 25

powdered turpen ti ne 3 pa rts ; essence of , cem e nt in a b ottl e cl osel y stoppered and ,

t urpenti ne 2 parts , D i ss ol ve the gl ue . when it is to be used place it i n hot ,

de n erfs o n the water bath a dd all the , water un til di ss ol ved .

other s ubsta nces a nd t riturate i n ti


mately
,
Ceme nts for Fa ste n i n g Porcel a i n to
Me ta I —I — M i x equal parts of al coh ol
.

XV — Copal varnish 1 5 parts ; o w


.
. .

( 9 5 per cent ) and water an d make a


,

dered turpe nti ne 3 parts; essence o tur ,


,

penti ne 2 parts ; powdered fish glue 3 paste by i ncorporating the li ui d with


3 00 parts of fi n el pul verized c al k a n d
, ,
v
parts ; iron fili ngs 3 parts ; ocher 1 0
2 50 parts of starc h
, ,

parts .

II -M i x finely powdered burned li m e


.

XVI — T o make a cement for cast iron


.
,

3 0 0 parts with powdered starch 2 5 0


.
,

ta ke 16 ounces ca st-iron borin s ; 2 ounces , ,

sal am moniac a nd 1 ou nce su phur M i x parts a nd m oisten the mi xture with a


,

well a nd kee ) dry


,

Whe n ready to us e
.

com o u n d of eq ual parts of water a nd


take 1 part of t hi s powder to 2 0 arts of alco 0 1 of 95 per cent until a paste
.

cast iron bori n s and mi x thoroughly i nto


-
results .

a sti ff pas te a di ng a l ittl e water III - Cement or pl aster ca n b e u sed


.

if the su r faces are s u ffici ently la r e ;


, . .

XVII — Li th a r cement is the bett er a rti cle whe n t e


B o il e d li n se e d oil
'

. c h eet may be exposed to m oisture or


s u j e cte d to much press ure A process .

which can be rec omm ended consists i n


Heat together u ntil of a uniform con mi ngli ng equal weights of chalk b ri c k ,

sistence a nd a pply warm dust cl ay and Rom a i n cem ent T hese


, , .

materials pul ve r iz ed and sifted a re i n


.

X VII I — A cement for iron which is


.
,

c o r po r a t e d with li nseed oil i n the pro


.

said to be perf ectly waterproof a nd fi r e


proof is ma de by worki ng up a mixture porti on of hal f a kil o of oil to 3 kil os of
of equal weights of red lea d and l i t h a r e the mingle d powder T h e Romai n or .

Roma nic ce me nt is s o desi gnated from


with glyceri ne till the mass is perfect y
homogeneous a nd has the consistency the district i n Fra nce where the cal ca
’ r e o us stone from whi ch it is prepared is
of a glazier s putty T his cement is
found i n consi dera ble qua ntity Al ‘
.

said to a nswer well eve r» for very large .

,
though its a dhesi ve ua l i ti es are n uques
t i o n e d there are undoubtedl y American
iron vessels a nd to be unsurpassa ble for
,

stoppin g u p cracks in large i ron pa ns of ,

s tea m p i p e s
cements equally as good .

IV — Acetate of l ead
.

. 4 6 } parts by ,

Ce me n t f or M e ta l , Gla s s , a n d Po r ce weight ; al um 4 6 5 parts by weight ; ,

lai n -A s oft all oy is prepared by mi xing


.
gu m arabic 7 6 parts by wei ght ; flour, ,

5 00 pa rts by weight ; water parts


from 3 0 to 3 6 parts of copper pr eci pi ,

t a te d i n the form of a fi ne brown powder


by wei ght D iss ol ve the acetate of lead
.

with sul phuri c a ci d of a s peci fic gravity


,
a nd the al u m i n a l ittle water ; on the
of i n a cast-i ro n or porcelai n m or
other hand di ss olve the gu m arabi c i n
water b o ur i n g for i nsta nce the 2
liters of b oiling water on the um arabic
tar a nd i ncorporati ng by sti rri ng with 7 5 , ,

parts of mercur the a ci d bei ng after


wards rem oved y was hi ng with water red uced to powder When t e um has .

I n from 10 t o 1 4 h ours the a malgam be diss ol ved a dd the flower put a on the
.

, ,

comes harder tha n ti n but when heated to fire and sti r well with a pi ece of wood ;
,

6 92 F it ca n b e kn ea ded like wa x
°
In
,
then ad d the sol uti on of a cetate of lea d
a nd the al um ; agitate well so as to pre
.
, .

this conditi on it is a pplied to the s urfa ce


_

vent a ny l umps from forming ; retire fro m


to be ce mented a n d will fix the m firmly
to ether on cooli n
,
the fire before all owi ng to boil T his .

i ssol ve 1 d r a c fim of um masti c i n 3 gl ue is used col d does not peel o ff and , ,

g i s excelle nt to make wood glass card


drach ms of s pirits of Wi ne I n a sep .

board etc adhere to metals


, ,

arate vessel c o n ta i n in water s oak 3


.
,

drachms of isi nglass hen thoroughly . Ce me n t f or Leath er a n d Iro n — T o


s oa ke d take it out o f the water and put face a cast-iron pull ey with l eather a ppl
it into 5 drach ms o f s pirits of wi ne T ake . acetic aci d to the face o f the pulley wit y
a i ece of gu m a mm oniacum the si n e of a brush which will rou hen i t by rusti n
ap a nd then when dr a pg
,

arge pea a n d gri nd i t u p fin ely W i th a y a ceme nt ma e


l ittl e s pi rits of wi ne a nd i si nglass u ntil of 1 pou nd of fi s g us a nd 5 pound of
it h a s dissol ved T he n mi x the whol e . com mon gl ue m elted i n a m i xture of ,

toget her wi th s u ffi ci e nt heat I t will be . al cohol a nd water T h e leather s h ould .

found m os t con veni ent to lace the the n be placed on the pulle y an d drie d
ve ssel on a h o t-water bath ce p this . under press ure .
26 A DHES I VES

Amber Ceme nts — I — T o s older to . . Aci d -Proof Ce me nt for Wood , Meta ls ,


gether two pieces of yellow a mber , e tc .
slightly heat the arts to be united and I — Powdered asbestos
moi ste n the m wit
. .

s ol uti on of ca ustic a.
G round baryta .

s oda ; then bri ng the two pieces together S odium water glass so -

quickly .
l u ti o n
I I — D iss ol ve i n a cl osed bottle 7 5
. Mix .

parts of cut u p ca outch ouc i n 60 parts of -


II .
—withsta nd h ot nitri c aci d the
To
chl oroform Add 1 5 parts of mastic and .
foll owin g is used :
l et the mixture sta nd i n the cold until all
S odi um water—glass s o
has diss ol ved .

III — M oiste n the pieces to be j oi ned


.
S a nd .

with caustic potas h a n d press the m to


gether whe n warm T h e uni on is s o .

Mix
perfect that no trace of the j uncture is
.

visibl e A concentrated al coholic s ol u


.
III Asbestos
— 2 parts
ti on of the rosin over the a mber sol ubl e S ul phate of bariu m 3 parts .

i n a l c o h o l is als o e m l oyed for this pur


S ilicate of sodi u m 2 parts


p ,

pose Another med i u m is a s ol uti on


. By mixi ng these i ngredie nts a cement
of hard a nd very finely powdered copal strong enou g h to resist the stronges t
i n pure s ul ph uric ether C oat both . nitric acid will be obtai ned .

fractures previousl y well cleaned with


, , IV If hot aci ds are d eal t with the
.
-
,

this s ol uti on a nd endeavor to combi ne foll owi ng mixture will be fou nd to possess
them i ntimately by tyi ng or pressi ng . still more resista nt powers :
I V — I n 3 0 parts by weight of co pal
.
S ilicate of s odi um ( 5 0 °

diss ol ve 3 0 parts by weight of al um i na B a u mé ) 2 parts


by means of a water bath Bathe the .
Fi ne sand 1 part
surface to be cemented with this elat As bestos 1 part
i n o u s li qui d b ut very slightly nite
the fractures a nd pr e ss the m together
, .

B oth thes e ce ments take a fe w h ours


firmly u ntil the mixture is dry to set If the cement is wanted t o se t
.

at once use sili cate of potassi um i ns tead


, ,

Aci d Proof Cements for S tonewar e


-
of silicate of s odi um T his mi xture will .

a n d G lass I — M i x with the aid of heat -


be i nsta ntly e ff e cti ve a nd possesses the
sa me power of resista nce as the other
. .

eq ual weights of pitch rosin an d plaster , ,


.

of Paris .
D irections for R epairi ng Broke n G lass ,
I I — M i x silicate of soda to
. paste a Porcelai n , Bric —a -Brac — Broken glass .
,

with grou nd glass . chi na bri e a-brac a nd picture fra mes


,
-
, ,

III — M i x b oiled oil to


. paste with a not to name casts require each a di ffer ,

chi na cl ay . ent ce ment — i h fact several di ff erent ,

I V — M i x coal tar to a paste with cements G lass may be bea utifully


.

mended to l ook at but sc ld o m so as to


.

pi pe clay . ,

V — M i x boil e d oil to a paste with


.
be safely us ed For clear glass the best .

q uickli me .
ce ment is isi n glass diss ol ved i n gi n Put .

2 ounces of i si nglass i n a cl ean wi de


VI — M i x with the ai d of heat : S ul ,

m outhed bottle ad d half a pi nt o f gin


.

ph ur 1 0 0 pounds : tall ow 2 pounds ; , ,


,

rosi n 2 pounds T hicken with ground


,
a nd set i n the s un until diss ol ved S ha ke .

,
we l l every day a nd before using strai n
.

glass .
,

through doubl e la wn s queezing very


V II — M i x with th e ai d of heat :
.

gently
,

Ro sm 2 pounds ; s ul phur 2 pounds ;


. .

.
,

brickdust 4 pounds , . S pread a white cl oth over t h e mend


VII I — M i x with the aid of heat 2
.
ing ta ble a nd s upply it with plenty of
o u n d s of i ndia rubber and 4 pounds of
clea n linen rags strong rub ber ba nds
E
, ,

oil e d oil T hicken with 1 2 pounds of an d narrow white ta pe als o a basi n of ,

tepi d water a nd a cl ea n s oft towel Was h


.

pi pe c l ay .
.

the broken glass very cl ea n especial ly


I X — Fuse 1 00 pounds of i ndia rub
.

al o n g the break b ut take care not to


,

ber with 7 pounds of tall ow T hen .

chi i t further Wet b oth broken edges


,

make to a paste with dry slake d li me a nd


.

wel w ith the glue using a ca mel s hai r ’


-
finally add 20 pounds of red lead .
pe ncil Fit the brea k to a nicety the n
.
,

X — M i x with the a i d of heat : Rosi n


,
.
, sli p o n rubber bands l ength and cross
2 4 pound s ; red ocher 8 pounds ; boil e d
;
, wise every way they will hold If they
, .

Ol l 2 po unds ; plaster of Paris 4 p oun d s


, , . will not h ol d t r ue as upon a ste m med
28 AD H E S IVE S

o r cel a n , i
etc which are to be used to fluid being careful not to l et it come to
hol d strong aci ds a mixture of asbestos
.
, ,

,
a b oil as this i nj ures its a dhes i ve prop
,

e wder water glass and an indiff erent pow e r ti e s (the same may be said i n re ard

der ( perma nent white sand etc ) is rec


, ,

, ,
. to gl ues a nd gelati ns of all ki nds ) is .

o mme n d e d T o begi n with asbestos ,


s ol ve the gums i n the al cohol a nd ad d
the sol uti on to the gel ati n after r e mo v
.

powder is made i nto a pulp with three


or four ti mes the qua nti ty ( weight) of a i ng the same from the water bath and ,

s ol uti on of soda water glass ( of 3 0 °


letti ng it cool down t o a b out 1 6 0 F °
.

T h e sa me is exceedingly fat a nd S tir well togeth er or mi x by agitation .

pl astic b ut is not very well suited for


,
T h e foll owi ng precauti ons m ust b e
worki ng as it shri nks too much and
,
observed : 1 B oth s urfaces to be j oi ned .

cracks when drying By an additi on of m ust be abs ol utely cl ean free from dust ,

dirt grease etc 2 Where the cement


. ,

fine writing sand of the sa me weight , , . .

as the asbestos used the mass can be ,


is one that requi res the a pplication of
made less fat s o as to obviate shrinking , , heat befor e use the obj ects to be united ,

without detracting from the plasticity . shoul d also be h ea ted to a poi n t a t l ea st


S mall vessels were molded from it a nd a s h i gh a s the mel ti n g poi n t of th e ce men t .

dried i n the air to be tested afterwards ,


. O therwise th e ce ment on a plication is,

Put i n water the hardened mass becomes


,
chilled a nd c o n se q u e n tl y f a i s to make a
s oft agai n a nd falls apart Brought i nto . lasting j oint 3 T h e thi nner the layer . .

contact however with very strong min


, , of cement the stronger the j oi nt ; avoi d ,

eral acids it becomes e ven firmer a nd


, therefore usi ng too m uch of the bi nding
,

withsta nds the li qui d perfectl y C on . material C over both surfaces to be


.

ce n t r a t e d nitric aci d was kept i n such united coa pt them exactly a n d press
, ,

s mall vessels without the mass bei ng together as cl osely as possi bl e I n this .

visibly attacked or a nythi ng penetrating ma nner the thi nnest possibl e lay er is
it T h e acti on of the aci d manifestly
. secured 4 Bi nd the pa rts securely to
. .

has the e ff ect that silicic acid is set free gether and let remain without l oosening
,

from t h e water glass i n excess which , or attempti ng to use the articl e for 2 or
cl ogs up the pores entirely and con 3 days or l onger A li ui d ce ment a o .

tributes to the l utation Later on the .


, quires its full stre ngth on y after e v a po r
mass cannot be dissol ved by a r e water ation of the flui ds used as s ol vents and ,

a ny more T h e mass is als o i i gh l y fi r e


. this ca n occur only from the i nfinitesimal
roof O n e of the mol ded bodies ca n
. line of exposed s urface .

e kept gl owi ng i n a B unsen gas flame


V — Li qui d Por celai n Ceme n t — Fish
for ab out half a day after treatment with .

aci d with out slaggi ng in the least For l ue 2 0 parts ; gl ass acetic aci d 2 0 parts ;
, ,
,
eat together until the mass gel a h n i z e s
.

many purposes it ought to be wel come


to have s u ch a mass at ha nd I t cannot on cool i ng .

VI — T ake 1 ou nce of Russia n isin


.

be kept ready for use however as it .

hardens a fe w hours after being pre


, ,
glass cut in s mall pieces and bruis e
, ,

pared ; ii otas h water glass is used i n well ; then ad d 6 ounces of warm water ,

stead o f t e s oda c o m o si ti o n this i n


,
a nd leave it i n a warm place for from .

durati on takes pl a ce sti l more quickly


,
24 to 4 8 h ours Eva porate the r e .

su l ti n g sol ution to about 3 ounces


.

I V — Ce men t f or G lass , Porcelai n , etc


.

. . N ext diss ol ve ounce of mastic i n 4


I si nglass ( fis h gl ue ) 50 parts ounces of al coh ol and add the masti c ,

G u m a m moniac 4 parts s ol uti on to the isi nglass i n s mall quan


G u m mastic 2 parts tities at a ti me conti nuing the heat a nd ,

Al cohol 95 per cent 1 0 parts s tirri ng well Whil e still h ot strai n the .

Water q s
w
,

, . .
li i d through m usli n .

S oa k the isinglass i n col d water over II — For optical gl asses Ca nada bal
.
,

ni ht or u ntil it has become swoll en and sam is em pl oyed the two pieces being fir m ,

sog l y pressed together


,

t throughout I n the m orning throw After a whil e espe .


,

c i a l l y by h umi dity pu nctures will form


.

o ff a ny s uperfluous flui d a nd throw the , ,

isin lass on a clea n towel or other coarse a nd the glass is separated by mist of a

cl ot a nd ha ng it up i n such a way that varying reflexes whil e i n certai n climates ,

a ny free resi dual water will drai n a way the heat will melt the balsa m For all .

other glass articl es which requi re only


.

Upon doing this thoroughly de ends i n


a great measure the strengt h of the sim ple treatment s uch as knobs of covers
,
, ,

cement When the gelati n has becom e


,
l ates etc silicate of potash is excel
, .
,

ent
.

th oroughly drained ut it i nto a flask .

or other contai ner p ace it i n the water , VIII — G lass Ce me n t.


— D iss ol ve in 1 50
ba th a n d he at care f ully until it becomes parts o f acetic acid of 96 per cent , 1 00
A D H ESI VES 29

parts of gelati n by the use of heat and , M i x the l ea d a nd l i th a r e thoroughl y ,

add a m m oni um bichromate 5 parts , . and the oil a nd copal i n t e sa me man


Whe n
lgl t
n l s gl ue m ust be kept away from the ner and preserve separately
, .

i i . needed for use mi x i n the proporti on s


,

IX .
- White gl ue parts . 10 indi cated ( 1 5 0 parts of th e powder to 4
Pota ssium bichromate parts 2 parts of the li quid ) a nd knead well to
parts ether A pply to the edges of the glass
.
,

T h e gl ue is diss ol ved i n a o r ti o n of
i nd the broken parts together and let ,

the water by the ai d of heat t e bichro stand for from 2 4 to 4 8 h ours .

,
X VI — T o reu nite pl aster articl es dis
mate i h th e remai nder a nd the li quids
.

mixed the mixing being d one i n a feebly


,
s ol ve s mall pieces o i cell ul oid i n ether ;
,

lighted l ace an d th e mixture is the n i n quarter of a n h our decant a nd use


a ,

k e t i n the dark
,
th e pasty deposit which remains for
I t is applied i n feeble
s mearing the edges of th e articles I t
.

lig t being r el i que fi e d by gentle heat


.

, ,
dries ra pidly a nd is i nsol ubl e i n water
and the glass the fr a ht ur e d i e c es bei n
.

tightly clam ped together is t hen expose


,

, XVII — To Men d Wed gwoo d Mortars


. .

to a stron g l i ght for s ome time By this .


— I t is easy enough to m end m ortars s o

exposure t h e cem ent becomes i ns ol uble . that they ma be used for making em ul
T his is wat e rpro of ce ment for glass sions a n’ d o t i e r light work which does

X — D ia mon d Glass Ce ment — D i s


not tax their strength too m uch B ut .

a mended m ortar will hardly be abl e to


. .

sol ve 1 0 0 parts of fis h gl ue i n 1 50 parts stand the force required for powderi ng


of 90 per cent alcohol a nd add with con ,
hard s ubstances A good cement for
sta nt stirri ng 2 0 0 parts of powdered
.

,
mending m ortars i s the foll owi ng :
rosi n T his cement must be preserved
.

i n abs ol utel y tight bottles as it s olidifies a — G lass flour el utriated


. 1 0 parts .

very quickly .
Fl uors par powdered ,

’ ‘ and el utriated 20 parts


XI — l o u nite obje cts of crystal di s S ilicate of s oda 6 0 parts
sol ve 8 parts of ca outc houc and 1 0 0 arts
of gu m mas ti c i n 60 0 parts of ch oro B oth glass and fl u o r s ar must be i n
form . S e t asi de hermetically cl osed , ,
the fi nest possible con i ti o n which is ,

for 8 days ; then a pply with a brush ,


best d one by s ha kin each i n fine pow
cold .
der with water a l owing the coarser
,

particles to deposit a nd the n to pour o ff


XI I — To ma k e a tra n spare nt ceme nt ,
.
the remai nder whi ch hol ds the finest
for gl ass , digest together for a week i n ,

particl es i n s uspensi on T h e mi xture


the col d 1 ou nce of i ndia rubber 67
.

,
must be made very ra pidly by quic k
ounces of chl oroform an d 4 0 ounces of ,
sti rring a nd when th oron h l y mixed
mastic .
,

must be at once appli ed his is said


XIII -A mixture of tra umatici n a
.

to yiel d a n excellent cement


.

,
.

s ol ution of ca outchouc in chl oroform ,

and a concentrated s ol uti on of water b —Freshly burnt plaster


.

of Paris
glass make a ca ital cement for unit Freshly b urnt lime
in
g articles of g ass N ot only is the
White of egg s u ffici ent
.

{
ai nt very strong but it i s tra nsparent
seither changes of tem perature nor
.
. ,
,

Reduce the first two ingredients to a


moisture aff ect the cement .
very fine powder and mi x them well ;
XI V — A tra ns arent cement for pe r
.
m oisten the two surfaces to be u nited with
cel e i u is pre pare by diss ol vi ng 7 5 parts a s mall qua ntity of white of egg to make
of i ndia rubber cut i nto small pieces , , them adhesi ve ; then mi x the powder very
in a bottl e c ontaining 60 parts chl oro rapidly with the white of egg a nd apply
form ; to this add 1 5 parts green masti c .
the mixture to the broken surfaces I f .

Let the bottle sta nd i n the col d until the the are large two pers ons should do this
each a pplying the cement to one portion
, ,
in r e d i e n ts ha ve bec ome thoroughly dis .

s o ved .
T h e pi eces are then firml y pressed to
X V — S om e preparations resist the s e
.
ether and l eft undisturbed for several
ti on of heat a nd moisture a sh ort ti me , a s T h e less ce ment is used the better
.

but generally yiel d very quickly T h e .


wi l the articles hol d together .

foll owi n g cement for glass has prove n .c — If there is no objection to dark
most r e S i sta n t to liqui ds and heat : col ored cement the very best that can
,

S il ver litharge parts be used is probably marine gl ue T his .

White lead 50 parts is made thus : Ten arts of caoutchouc or


B oil ed linseed oil 3 parts . i ndia rubber are i sso l ve d i n 1 2 0 parts
C opal varni sh 1 part of benzine or petrol e um na phtha with ,
80 A D HE S I VES

the a i d o f a gentl e heat When the se . I —


. Asbestos 2 pa rts
.

luti e n is com plete which s ometi mes ,


Bari um s ul phate 3 parts
r equires from 1 0 to 1 4 days 20 parts of , S odi u m sili cate 2 part s .

asphalt are melted i n an iron vessel and By mixi ng these i ngredi ents a ce m e nt
the ca outc houc s ol uti on is poured i n very strong en o u h to resist the strongest
sl o wly i n a fine strea m a nd u nder con nitric aci d Wi 1 be obtai ned If hot ac i ds .

ti n n ed heating until the mass has be , are dealt with the foll owi ng mixture will
,
c ome hom o e n e o u s a nd n ea r l all the be found to possess stil l m ore resistant
s ol vent has een driven o ff t is then .
powers :
poured out and cast i nto greased ti n I I — S odi um silicate
. 2 parts .

m olds It forms dark brown or black


.
l pa r t
c a k es which are very hard to break
,
.
Asbestos powder 1 part
T his ce ment requires consi dera bl e heat
to melt it ; a nd to prevent it from be ing B oth these cements take a fe w h ours
b urnt it is best to heat a capsul e conta i n t o set If the ceme nt is wanted to set at
.

i ng a pi ece of it first on a water bat h unti l once use potassi u m silicate i nstea d of
,

the cake s oftens a nd be ins to be l i qui d sodiu m sil i cate T his mi xture will be
.

I t is then carefully wi pe sdry and heated


.

i nstantly eff ective and possess es t h e ,

over a naked fla me u n der consta nt stir ,


same power of resista nce as the other .

ring up to about 3 0 0 F T h e‘ed ges of Pa ri sian Ce me n t — M i x 1


°
. .
art of . .

t he art i cl e to be mende d s houl d if poss i , fi nely ground glass powder 0 t a i n ed ,

ble als o be heated to at l east 2 1 2 F


,
°
.
, by l evigation Wi th 3 arts of fi n e l po w
,
s o as to ermit the ce ment to be a dered z i nc oxid e ren ered peri ce y free
plied at e i s ur e and with care T e .
from carbonic aci d by calci nation B e .

thi nner the cement is applied the better si des pre are a sol ution of 1 part by ,

it binds .
weight 0 borax i n a very s mall qua ntity
,

Mee r s chau m Cemen ts — I — I f the ma . .


of hot water a nd mi x this with 50 parts
t er i s l is genuine ( natural ) meerschau m of a h i ghl concentrate d zinc chl orid e
a lasting j oint ca n be made between the s ol ution 0 to s peci fic gravity .

parts by proceeding as foll ows : Clean a As is well known the mixture of thi s ‘

cl ove O r two of garlic (the fresher the powder with the liqui d i nto a s oft uni
better ) by r e mo v mg all the outsi de hull form paste is accom plished only i m m e
of s kin ; throw i nto a little mortar and d i a tel y before use T h e i nd urati on to.

mash to paste Rub this paste over


a .
‘ a stonelike mass takes place withi n a
each s urface to be united a nd oi n quick few minutes the a dmi xture of bora x
Bri n the arts as closely together
,

ly reta rding the solidificati on s ome wha t


as possible an faste n i n this o si ti o n
. ,

.
T h e pure white col or of the powder may
Have rea dy s ome bo il i n fres mil k ; be ti nted with ocher manga nes e etc , , .
,

lace the a r ticl e i n it an conti nue the a ccording to the shade desired .

oili ng for 30 mi nutes Remove and . S tro n g Ceme n t Pour over well .

l e t cool sl o wly If properly done this


.
, washed a nd cl ea ned casei n 1 2 5 parts of
makes j oi nt that will sta nd any ordi
a boil ed linseed oil a nd th e sam e a m ou nt
nary treat me n t a nd is nearly i n visible ,
.
of castor oil B oil S tir acti vely a n d
For com positi o n use a ce ment made of
. .

, add a s mall a m ount of a saturated a que


q uickli m e rubbed to a thick crea m w ith
, ous sol ution of al u m ; rem ove from the
al b umen fire and set aside After a whil e a mil ky
gI — M i x very fine meerschaum sh a v
eg .
.

.
l ooking flui d will sepa rate and rise T his .

i n gs with albu me n or dissol ve casei n i n s houl d be poured off T o the resid u e .

water glass sti r finely o wd e r e d magne


, a dd 1 2 0 o f rock ca ndy s yrup a nd
sia i nto the mass a n use the cem e nt , 6 part s 0 fparts
de xt ri n .

at once T his hardens quickly


A Ch ea a n d E xcel l en t Ce me n t — A
. .

Asbesto s Ceme n t -G round asbestos . cheap a n exc el l ent cement i ns ol uble ,

may be made into a cement which will after dr i n i n water petroleu m oils
carb on is ug
, , ,
stand a high degree of heat b simply phi d e etc very hard when , .
,

mixi ng it with a soluti on of so ium sil i dry a nd of very con si derabl e tensil e
cate . By s ubsequen t treatment with a strength is composed of casei n and
,

s ol uti on of calci um chloride the mass s ome tannic—aci d com p ound as for i n , ,

may be ma de i nsol uble sil icate of cal , stance calciu m tann ate a nd is pre pare d
,

ci um bei ng f o rmed
,

. as follows
A ce me nt sai d to stand a high degree First a tanni n s olution is r e pa r e d
e i ther by diss ol vi ng a tan ni n sal t or by
,

of heat a nd to be s uitable for cementi n ,

gl ass o r ce l a i n or other v essels i ntende


, , e xtraction f rom vegeta ble s ources ( as
to ho] cor r osi ve a ci d s, is t hi s o n e : barks fr o mcertai n tr ees . t o w hi c h
AD H ES IVES 31

is a dded clear lim e water ( obtai ned by A qua r i um Ce men ts .

filteri ng milk of li me or by letti ng the ,


I — Li th a r e
.

mil k sta nd until the li m e s u bsi d es ) until Fi ne w ite sand


n o further pre ci i ta ti o n occurs a nd red ,
Plaster of Paris .

litmus aper n u ed i n th e fluid is Rosi n i n fi ne pow


turne d l ue p r ‘ ,
he i qui d is now sepa der 1 ounce
rated from i ts r e ci pi ta te either by de ,
Li nseed oil enough , .

c antati on or o t e r Wi se a nd the r e ci pi , D rier e nough , .

tate is d ried I n operati ng wit large


M i x the first three ingredients ad d


.

quantiti es of the s ubsta nce this is d one ,

s u fli ci e n t li n seed oil to make a hom ogene


,

by passi n a strea m of atmos pheri c


a i r throu g 1 the sa me T h e l i me tan
‘ ous paste a n d the n add a s mall qua ntity
,

of drier T his shoul d stand a fe w hours


.

nate obta i ned thus is the n mi xed with .

cas ei n i n proporti ons runni ng from 1 : 1 '


before it is used I t is said that glass
.

oi n ed to iro n with this ce ment will


up to 1 1 0 and the mixture t h o r o u bl y
,

dried is milled i nto t h e consistency o the


,
rea k before it will com e l oose .

finest powder T hi s powder has n ow .


IL — Lit h a r e 1 ounce
.

only to be mi xed with water to be ready Fi n e w ite sand 1 ounce .

for use the consistency of the prepara


,
Plaster of Paris 1 ounce .

tion depending upon the us e to which M anganese borate 2 0 grai ns .

it is to be p ut .
Rosin i n fi ne pow ,

3 } pounds
Uni vers al Ce ment — T ake gum arabi c . , Li nseed var n is h oil ,

1 00 arts by weight ; starch 7 5 parts by


, , , enough .

weig t ; white sugar 21 parts by weight ; , , I I I — T ake equal parts of flowers o f


.

camphor 4 parts by weight D iss ol ve


, , .
s ul ph ur am m oni u m chloride and i ron
, ,
the u rn arabic i n a little wate r ; als o fili ngs and mi x thoron h l y with boile d
diss o ve the starch i n a litt le wa ter Mi x
,
.
li nseed oil Finally a d e nough white
.
,
and add the su a t a nd camphor B oil .
l ead to f orm a thi n paste .

on the water bat until a paste is forme d


I V — Powdered grap h ite 6 pa r ts
whi ch on coating will thicke n . .

,
S laked li me 3 parts
, .

Ce me nt for I vory — M elt to ether .


B ari um 8 parts
equal parts of gutta percha an d or i n a r y Li nseed varnis h oil 7 parts .

itch Th e p i eces to be u nited have to V — S i mpl y mi x e qual parts of white


Be warmed
. .

. a nd r ed lea (i wit h a little kettle -boiled


linseed oil
C ement f or Bel ts — M i x 5 0 parts by
.

S u bstitute f o r Ce me nt on Grinde r
,

weight of fis h gl ue with e ual parts of


whey and aceti c aci d Tdi e n add 50 D isk s — A good substitute in place of
,
.
.

parts b weight of garlic i n paste for m


, ,
gl ue or various ki nds of ceme nt for fast
e nin e mery cl oth to t h e dis ks of gri nd
ers ofthe G ardner t pe is to heat or war m
'

and bo the whole on the water bath .

At the sa me ti me ma ke a so l uti o n of '

1 00 parts by weight of gelati n i n th e


, ,
the disk a nd a pp y a thi n e o a ti n of
same qua ntity of wh ey a nd mix both ,
bees wa x ; then put the emery cl ot i n
liqui ds T o the wh ol e ad d finall y 50
.
, ,
place a nd allow to set and cool unde r
parts by wei ht of 90 -per cent alcohol
, ,
- press ure .

and after fi tr a ti o n a cement is o b


, , K n o ck e n pl o mbe — 1f 1 part of thym ol .

ta i n e d whi ch ca n be readi ly a pplied wi th be mixed with 2 parts of i odoform we


a brus h and possess es extra ordi n ary obtai n a s ubstance that retains i ts fl ui d
binding qualiti es .
ity d own to 7 2 C °
I f the .

tem perature be carrie d down to 6 0 C °

Ce men t fo r Ch e mi cal Apparatus


.

.
( 1 40 °
F ) it s uddenly becomes s olid a n d
M el t together 20 parts of gutta p ercha
.

,
hard If i n its li quid c onditi on this
.
, ,
1) arts of yel l ow wa x a n d 3 0 parts of
h
s e ac .
, s ubstance b e mi xed i n timately with a n
e qual quantity of cal ci ned b one it forms ,

a cement that ca n be m ol ded or kneaded


S i ze Portla n d Ceme n t
O ver T he .
i nto a ny shape that at the tem perature ,
best size to use on Portla nd cement of the b ody ( 9 8 °
,

becomes as hard as
molding f or wall pa per woul d ord inari ly stone a fact that s uggests man y useful
be gl ue a nd al u m S i z e put on th i n and ,

purposes to whic h the mixture ma y be


pound
1
warm ma de in proporti on of
put
,

of gl ue and sa me weight of a u m d i s
.

sol ved i n separate pails , t h en pour e d to Ce me n t fo r Gen er al Use — T ak e gu m


get h er . a rabic, 1 00 pa rts, by w ei ght ; starch 75 ,
32 A D H ES I VES

parts by weight ; white s ugar 2 1 parts by , ,


come as hard as wood T h e Chi nese pai nt .

weight ; cam phor 4 parts by weight , , .


their h ouses with “ shio liao a nd glaze "

D iss ol ve the gu m arab i c i n a littl e water .


thei r Barrels with it i n wh i ch they tra ns ,

O n the other hand diss ol ve the starch ,


port oil a nd other greasy s ubsta nces .

als o i n s ome water When this is d one .

LUTES
a dd the s ugar an d the cam phor and put
.

i n a water bath B oil until a aste is L utes al ways c onsist of a menstruu m


formed which must be rather t hin be
.

,
a nd diss ol ved or s us pend ed solids and ,
,

ca use it will thicken on cooling .


the m us t not be attacked by the ases
an li qui ds comi ng i n contact with t em .

S tro n g Ceme nt — Pour over well . I n s ome cases the constituents of the l ute
washed a nd cl eaned casei n 1 2 ) pa rts react to form a m ore strongly adheri ng
of b oiled linseed oil and the same am oun t mass .

of castor oil put on the fire a nd brin T h e c onditi ons of appli cati on are i n
to a boil ; stir actively an d a dd a s malg
, ,

brief :
a mount of saturated a ue o us sol uti on (a ) He a ti n the com positi on to make
it pl asti c until firml y fixed i n place
a

of al um ; re m ove from t e fire an d set .

aside After sta nding a whil e a milky


.
( b) Heating the surfaces .

l ooking flui d will separate at the bottom (0 ) Applyi ng the l ute with water or a
and rise to the top T his s houl d be . volatile s olvent which is all owed to vola,

poured o ff a nd to the resi due add 1 2 0 ti li ze .

parts of rock-candy s yrup a nd 6 parts of (d ) M oisteni ng the s urfaces with w a


dextri ne . ter oil etc (the menstruu m of the l ute , , .


itself ) .

S yn d eti co n — I S la ke 1 00 parts of
(6 ) Applying the l ute i n workabl e con
. .

burnt lim e with 50 pa rts of water pour dition a nd the setti ng taki ng pla ce b y ,

o ff the s upernata nt water ; next diss ol ve


chemical reacti ons ,
.

6 0 parts of l um p s ugar i n 1 6 0 parts of


(f) S etting by hydrati on .

water ad d to the sol uti on 1 5 parts of th e )


-
S etti ng by oxidati on
(lghese pri nci ples will be found to c over
, .

slaked li me heat to 7 0 or 8 0 C ( 1 5 8 to
,
° °
.
°

1 76
°
and set aside sha ki ng fr s nearly all cas es .

q uently Fi nally diss olve 5 0 to 60 parts


.
Jo mts s houl d n ot be ill —fi tti n g de ,
of gen uine C ol ogne gl ue i n 25 0 parts of pendin g u pon the l ute to do what th e
the cl ear s ol uti on .
pi pes or other parts of the a pparatus
II — A s ol uti on of 1 0 parts gum ara
.

s houl d d o I n m ost cases one art of .

bic an d 3 0 pa rts of s ugar i n 100 parts of the fi tti n s h oul d overlap the ot er s o ,
s oda water lass .
as to ma e a s mall am ount of the l ute

III A o t s ol ution of 50 parts of
.
effecti ve and to kee p the parts of the a p
C ol ogne gl ue i n 60 a rts of a 2 0 per cent -
paratus rigi d as a l uted j oi nt
-
is n ot ,
aqueous cal ci um-ch o r i de s oluti on s uppose d to be a partic ul arly stron g one .

IV — A sol uti on of 5 0 parts of C o


,
.
b ut rather one qui ckl y appli ed e ff ecti ve ,
l ogn e gl ue i n 6 0 parts of ace tic aci d whil e i n plac e a n d eas i l y re moved
.

V — S oa k isi nglass ( fish bladder ) i n


.

.
Ver m oderate a m ou nts of the l ute
acetic aci d of 7 0 per cent until it s wells u p shoul be use d a s large a m ounts are ,
,
then rub it up a ddi ng a li ttl e water dur
,
likel y t o devel op cracks be rubbed o fl’
,

, ,
i ng the process .
etc .

“ hi A cl assificati on may b e gi ven as fol


S o Li ao ”— Under this na me the .

C hi nese man ufacture a n excellent cc l ows


ment which takes the place of gl ue and ( 1 ) Plaster of Paris ,
.

with which gyps um marbl e porcelai n ( 2 ) Hydraulic cement


, , ,
.

stone a nd stoneware can be ce mented


,
(3 ) Cl ay .
.

I t cons ists of the f o l l o wi n pa rts ( by (4 ) Lime .

wei ght ) : S laked o w d er e lime 64 (5 ) Asphalt and pitc h ,


.

art s ; powder e d a um 6 pa r ts ; a nd ( 6 ) Ros in ,


.

res h well strai ned bl ood 4 0 parts


,
( 7 ) Rub ber , .
.

T hese materials are stirred th oroughly ( 8 ) Linsee d oil .

u ntil a n i nti mately bound mass of the ( 9) Casei n a nd al bumen .

co n si st e n c of a m ore or l ess stiff sal ve ( 1 0 ) S ilicates of s oda a n d o xyc h l o


i s o bta i n e I n paste form this mass is ride cem ents .

used as cement : i n a li ui d state it is ( 1 1 ) Fl our a nd starch .

e mpl o e d for painti ng a l s orts of a rti ( 1 2 ) M iscellaneous i ncl udin g c ore ,

cl es w i ch are to be rendered waterproo f com pounds .

and d ura b l e Card board covers which


. I Plast e r o f Pa ris is of c ourse ofte n , .
, ,

a r e c oated w ith it two or three ti mes be use d al one as a paste which quickl y , ,
AD H ESI VES

f or gas and wood distillation


S Ol l O l D e S , and casei n c ompositions which are very ,

retorts etc and si milar places where


, .
,
stron and useful but will be described ,

quickness of setting is requisite It is . e l se w ere .

more often however used with some , ,


Formulas
fibrous material to give it greater stren gth .
( 1 ) Li me and b oiled oil to sti ff mass .

Asbestos is the m ost com monly used (2 ) Clay etc b oiled oil to sti ff
,
.
,

material of these as it will stand a high ,


mass .

temperature When that is not s o i m .

V Asph alt a n d Pitch - T hes e sub


portant straw pl ush tri mmi ngs hair
, , , ,
.

sta nces are use d i n lutes s omewhat inter


.

etc are used as binders whil e broken


.
, ,
cha ngeably As a rule pitch makes the
stone glass and vari ous mi neral sub
.
,
, ,
stron er l utes T a r is s om eti mes used
stances are used as fillers but they d o
.
,
,
but e ca use of the light oils a nd fr e
not add anything t o the strength .
,

quently water contain ed it is not so


,

T hese l utes seem to be pa r ti c ul a r l y sui t


, ,

able for oil va pors a nd hydrocarb on good as either of the others .

As halt diss ol ved i n ben z ol is very


gases .

nsefu for uniti ng gl ass for ph otographic


Formulas : microscopical an d other uses Als o .
,

( 1 ) Plaster a nd water .
for co a ti n wood concrete etc where , , .
,

(2 ) Plaster ( wet ) a nd asbestos .


the m elte asphalt woul d be too thi ck
( 3 ) Plaster ( wet ) an d stra w .
to c over well Benz ol is the cheapest
.

(4 ) Plaster ( wet ) and pl us h tri m s ol vent that is satisfactory for this pur
mi ngs .
pose as the only one that is cheaper
,

(5 ) Plaster ( wet ) a nd hair .


woul d be a petrole um na phtha which ,

( 6) Plaster (w e t ) an d broken stone , d oes not dissol ve all the constitue nts of
etc .
the as phalt For waterproofing wood
.
,

11 Hyd rauli c Ce me nt
. C ement is . brick concrete etc
, melted as phalt
, .
,

used either al one or with sand asbestos , , al one is m uch used but when a little ,

etc T hese l utes are s uita bl e for nitric


. para ffi ne is a dded it i m proves its water
acid When used with s ubsta nces s uc h
,

roofing qualities a nd in particular cases


poile d oil i s als o a dded to advantage
.
,

as rosi n or sul ph ur ce ment is r o ba bl y , .

empl oyed because it is i n s uc a fine Form ulas :


state of divisi on and used as a filler and 1 Refined lake as phalt
. .

not because of a ny powers of setting by


2 Asphalt 4 parts
hydration
.

Pa r a fli n e 1 part
.

Formulas :
3 Asphalt 1 0 parts
( l ) Cem ent — neat .
.

Pa r a ffi n e 2 parts
( 2 ) Cement and asbestos .

(3 ) Cement a n d sa nd .
B oiled oil 1 part

III Clay — T his m ost fre quentl y e n


. .
Any of these may be thi nned with hot
ters into the compositi on of l utes as a benz ol or tol uol T ol uol is l ess volatil e
.

filler but even the n the very finely divi d


,
than benz ol and about as chea p if not ,

ed conditi on o f certai n grades renders cheaper the stra w -col ored grades being
,

it val uable as it i ves b ody to a li quid ab out 2 4: cents per gall on .

such as linseed o il which u nless sti ff


, ,

, ,
Exa m ples of s o called stone cem ent -

ened woul d be pervi ous to a gas the


, ,
are :
clay i n all cases bei ng neutral T hus .
,
8 parts
for l uting pi pes carryi ng chl ori ne a stiff ,
6 parts
paste of clay and m olasses has been sug l pa r t
ested by T heo K ell er i n D i e S ur r oga te
gut i t s oon gives way
. ,

. 5 . parts 8
Formul as : Rosin parts 7
( 1 ) Clay a nd li nseed oil . parts 2
(2 ) S ame usi ng fire clay ,
. S tone powder part 1
(3 ) Clay a nd m olasses .
T hese com positions are used to unite
( 1 ) I s suita ble for steam etc ; ( 2) for , .
slate slabs and stoneware for dom estic ,

chlori ne and (3 ) for oil va pors


,
.
engi neeri ng and chemical purposes Va
, .

IV Li me is used i n the ol d l ute known


. r i o u s rosin and pitch mixtures are u sed

as utt y which consists of caustic lim e


, for thes e pur poses and the proporti ons ,

an linseed oil Freq uentl y the li me is . of thes e two i ngredients are deter mi ned
replaced by chal k a nd china clay b ut , by the consistency desi red S ul phur and .

the lime s houl d be i n part at l east caus , , stone powder are added to prevent th e
tic s o as to form a certain am ount of
, formati on of cracks sul hur acti ng chem ,

l ime soa p Li me is a ls o use d in s ilicate


. i ca l l y a nd s tone po w e r mecha n icall y .
34 A D H ES I VES

Where the l ute woul d come i n c ontact i n l utes b ut its price makes i ts
sti t u e n t ,

with acid or vapors of the same li me , use very li mited .

stone s houl d not be the powder used ,


L eather Ce me nt
ot h erwise it is a bout the bes t Wa x is a
.

1 As phalt
useful i ngredient to kee p the c om posi .

Rosi n
tion fro m getti ng brittle W i th age
G utta percha
.

A class of l utes under this general


grou i n that are m uch used are so Carbon dis ul phi de .

calle g ”
mari ne gl ues ( q T hey .
T o stand acid v apors :
m ust be tough and e lastic When used . 2 Rub ber
. 1 part
for calking on a vessel they m ust expand Li nseed oil 3 p a rts
a nd contract with the tem perature a nd Fire clay 3 parts
n ot crac k or come l oose .
3 Plai n R ubber Ce me n t — C ut the
.

Form ulas : crude rubber i n s mall pieces a nd then


6 Pitch . 3 pa rts ad d the s ol vent Carb on dis ul phide is
.

S hellac 2 parts the best benz ol good a nd m uc h cheaper


, ,

Pure crude rubber 1 part but gasol ine is ) r o ba bl y m ost extensively


7 Pitch 1 part used becaus e o fi ts chea pness .

make corks a nd wood i m


.

l pa r t 4 To
.

R ubber
s ubstitute 1 part p ervious to steam a nd water soak them ,

i n a rubber s ol uti on as a bove ; if it is


T hese a re used by melti ng over a desired to protect the m from oil va pors
burner use gl ue c om positi on
,

( S e e S ecti on I X )
.

. .

VI R osin , S h ellac , a n d Wa x
. A .

strong cement used as a stone cement


, ,
VIII Li nsee d Oi l — T his is one of the
. .

i s:
most ge nerally useful s ubstan ces we have
1 8 parts for l uti ng purposes if a bs orbe d by a por ,

ous s u bsta nce that is i nert


.

T urpe n tine part 1


Formulas : 1 Chi na clay of general .

utility for a que ous va pors .

It has little or no body a nd is used i n ,


Li nseed 0 1 1 of general utility for aque
thi n layers .
o us va ors
For nitri c a nd hydrochl ori c acid p .

2 L i me
. forming the well - known
va pors : putty .

2 Rosin . 1 pa rt Linseed oil formi ng the well - known


l pa r t putty .

Fire clay 2 parts 3 Re d or white l ea d a nd li nseed oil


.
.

S ul phur gi ves great hard ness an d T hese mixtures become very strong
permane ncy to rosi n l utes but this com when set a nd are best dil uted with o w
positi on is s omewhat brittle
,

. dered glass clay or gra phite T h er e


,
P , .

G ood waterproof l utes of this class are al m ost a n endl ess num ber of lutes
are : usi ng metallic oxid es a n d li nsee d oil A .

3 Rosin . 1 part very good one n ot getti ng as hard as,

those containi ng lead is : ,

Powdered stone 2 parts 4 O xide of i ron a nd li nseed o il


.
.

5 parts IX Casein Albume n , a n d Gl ue


.
,
l pa r t T hese i f properly m a de bec ome very
, ,
T ur
cutine 1 part tough a nd te nacious ; they sta nd moder
C ha k etc 8 to , . . 1 0 parts ate heat a nd oil va pors but not acid ,

For a s oft air-tight paste for grou nd vapors .

glass s urfaces :
5 l pa r t
.

i
1 F nel y powdered case
.
12 arts
l pa r t S laked li me 50 arts g
6A stron ce ment without body
.

for metals (o t er tha n copper or all oys


of sa me ) porcelai n a nd glass is made by
, ,
, ,
Fi ne
Water to thick u sh
5 0 parts

very strong cement which sta nds


m .

l etti ng 1 art of finely powdered s hellac m oderate heat i s the foll owing
stand wit 1 0 parts of a m m onia water 2 Casei n i n very fine
.

until sol uti on is e ff ected .


Beca use of its toughness ,
Rubbed u p with sili
elasti c i ty a nd resista nce t o alterative
,
cate of soda 3 parts
i n fluen ces , r ubbe r is a very use f ul co n A stron g l ute for general purposes ,
36 AD H ES I VES

II —D iss ol ve in hot water a su fficient


.
s ufficient size a nd warm until it becomes
q ua ntity of dextrine to bring it to the li quid a nd if necessary or a dvi sa ble th i n
consistency of honey T his forms a . Wi th water .

stro n g a dhesi ve paste that will keep a I X —S tir up 1 0 parts of dextr i ne Wi th


.

l ong ti me uncha nged if the water is not ,


s ufficient water to make a thick broth .

allowed to evaporate S heets of paper . T hen over a light fire heat a nd ad d 2 5


, .

may be prepared for extempore labels parts of sodi um water glass .

by coati n g one side with the paste an d X — D iss ol ve 5 parts of dextri ne 1 11


.

all owing I t to dry ; by slightly wetting water a nd add 1 part of al um .

the gum med si de the la bel Wl l l a dhere ,


Faste ni ng Cor k to M eta 1 — I n fasten .

to glass T his paste is very useful i n the


.
i ng cork to iron a nd brass even when ,
o ffi ce or laboratory .

these are lacquered a good seali ng wax ,


III — Pour over
. parts of dextri ne containi ng sh ella c will be fou nd to serv e
4 50 parts of s of t water and stir the mix the purpose nicely Wa x prepared with
.

ture for 1 0 minutes After the dextrine .


rosi n is not s uita ble T h e cork s urface.

h a s a bs orbed the water put the mixture ,


is pai nted with the melted s eali ng wax .

over the fire or prefera bly on a water , , ,


T h e s urface of the m etal is heated with
bath a nd heat with lively stirring for
, ,
a s pirit fla m e entirely free from s oot ,
5 mi nutes or until it forms a light mil k
,
u nti l the se a li n wa x melts whe n pressed
like liquid on the s urface of which lit
,
upon the meta lic surface T h e wax is .

tle bubbles begin to form a nd the liqui d held i n the fla me until it burns a n d it is
is a p a r e n t l y beginning to boil Do .

then a pplied to the hot s urface of the


,

not al ow it to come to a boil Re m etal T h e cork surface pai nted with


.

move from the fire a nd set in a bucket


.

sealing wa x is n o w hel d i n the fla me and


of cold water to cool o ff When col d .
as s oon as the wa x begi ns to mel t the
,

a dd to every parts of the s ol ution cork is pressed firmly on the m etalli c s ur


51 arts glyceri ne and as much salicylic face beari ng the wa x
aci as W l l l stand on the tip of a knife
.

blade If the s ol uti on is too thick thi n


.
,
To Paste Cel luloi d o n Woo d , Ti n , or
it with water that has been boiled an d Leath er — T o attach cell ul oi d to wood
. ,

coole d o ff again D o not add any more . ti n or leather a mixt ure of 1 part of
, ,

glyceri ne or the s ol ution will never set . s hellac 1 part of s pi rit of ca m ph or 3 to


, ,

I V — S often 1 7 5 parts of thick dex


. 4 parts of alcohol and spirit of camphor
tri n e wit h col d water and 2 5 0 parts of is well a da pted i n which 1 part of ca m
,

boiling water added Boil for 5 minutes . phor is diss olved without heati ng i n 7
a nd then a dd 3 0 parts of dil ute acet i c parts of s irit of wi ne of s pecific
acid 3 0 parts glycerine and a drop o r
, , gravity a di ng 2 parts of water
, .
r

t wo of cl ove oil
To Paste Paper S igns o n M et a l or
.

V — Powder coarsely 4 0 0 parts dex


.

tri ne and diss ol ve i n 6 00 parts of water Cloth — A piece of gutta percha of the
.

Ad d 2 0 parts glyceri ne a nd 1 0 parts gl u


.

sa me size as the labe l is lai d u nd er t h e


cose a nd heat to 9 0 C ( 1 95 ° ° l atter a nd the whol e is heated If the .

heating ca nnot be accom plis hed by means


.

VI — S tir 4 0 0 parts of dextrine with


.

of a s pirit l a m p t h e l a bel s h oul d be i roned


w ater a nd thin the mass with 200 parts
m ore water 2 0 parts glucose a nd 1 0 down under a protecti ve cl oth or a per
parts al uminum s ul phate
,

Heat the
,
i n t h e sa me ma nner as woole n goo s are
ressed T his method is als o very use
.

who l e to 90 C ( 1 9 5 F ) i n the water p


° ° .

u l for attachi ng pa per la bels to mi nerals


. .

bath u nti l the W hole mass becomes clear


.

a nd liquid . Paste for Fasteni n g Leather , O il cloth ,


VII — Warm 2 parts of dextri ne 5
.
, or S im i lar S tu ff to Table or D esk Tops ,
parts of water 1 part of acetic acid 1 . , e tc — Use the sa me paste for l eather as
.

part of alcohol together with occasional , for oilcl oth or other goods but moisten ,

s ti rri ng u nti l com plete s ol ution is a t


a the l eather before applying t he paste .

ta i n e d . Prepare the paste as foll ows : hi m 2 }


VIII .
— D issolve
by the aid of heat 1 0 0 pounds of good wheat fl our with 2

parts of b uil ders gl ue i n 2 0 0 parts of ta bles poonfuls of pul verized gu m ara


wate r add 2 parts of bleached shellac bi c or powdered rosi n a nd 2 ta bl e
dissol ved previously in 50 parts of alcohol . s poonfuls o f pul verized al u m i n a cl ea n
D issolve by the aid of hea t 50 parts of dex d i s h with water enough to make a u ni
trine m 50 a rts o f water a nd mi x the two formly thi ck batter ; set it over sl ow
s ol utions b
, a

y stirri n g the second sl owly fire a nd sti r conti nuously until t h e aste
i nt o the first S train the mixture t h ro u gh
. is u niform a nd free from l u m ps hen .

a cl ot h into a shall ow dish and let it the mass has become s o stout that the
ha rd en Whe n nee de d cut o ff a piece of
. w ooden spoon or s ti ck wil l sta n d i n i t
A D H ESI VES 37

u right it is ta ken from the fire a nd


, Pa ste That Wi l l No t Mol d — M i x o o d .

p aced i n another dish and covered s o white flour with col d water i nto a t ic k
that no ski n will form on top Whe n . paste . Be s ure to stir out all the l u m ps ;
cold the tabl e or desk top etc is
, , .
, the n ad d boili ng water stirri ng all th e ,

covered with a thi n coat of the paste the , time u ntil thoroughly cooked To 6 .

cl oth etc carefully l aid on a nd sm oothed


,
.
, quarts of this ad d J; pound light brown
from the ce nter toward the edges with s ugar a nd ounce corrosi ve s ubli mate ,

a rolli n pin T h e tri mmi ng of ed es is . diss ol ved i n a littl e h ot water When the .

a cc o mp i s h e d when the paste has ri e d . aste is cool add 1 drach m oil of l avender .

T o s mooth out the l eather after pasting a , his paste will keep for a l ong ti me .

wool e n cl oth is of the best service .

Pastin g Woo d a n d Car d boa rd o n


To Paste Paper o n S mooth Ir on . M eta l — I n a littl e water diss ol ve 5 0 parts
.

O ver a water bath diss ol ve 2 00 parts by , of l ead acetate a nd 5 parts of al um I n .

weight of gelati ne i n 1 50 parts by weight


, , , a nother receptacl e diss ol ve 7 5 parts of
of water ; whil e stirri n g a dd 5 0 parts by , um ara bic i n arts of water .

weight of acetic a ci d 50 parts al co


, , nto this um arabic s o ut i o n pour 5 00
-

hol a nd 50 parts by weight of pul ver


, , , arts of our stirri ng consta ntly a nd
, ,

i z e d al um T h e s pot upon which it is


.
eat grad ually to the boiling oi nt .

desired to attach the aper m ust first M ingle the s ol ution first re pare with
be rubbed with a bit of n e emery paper .
the second s ol uti on I t s oul d be kept .

Paste for Af fi xi n g Cloth to Metal .


i n mind that owi ng to the l ea d acetate
, ,

this preparation is poisonous .

2 0 parts
S ugar .1 0 parts Agar Agar Paste — T h e a gar agar is .

Zi nc chl oride 1 part .


broken up s mall wetted with water an d , ,

1 0 0 parts expos ed i n a n earthenwa re vessel to the a o


tion of ozone pumped u nder press ure into
M i x the i ngredients a nd stir until a the vessel from the o z o n i z i n a pparatus
e r f ec tl y s mooth liq uid res ults entirely
. .

flee from l umps then warm gradually ,


About a n h our of this bl e a c es the agar
agar and makes it freely s ol ubl e i n boil
until the li qui d thickens
ing water when s ol uti ons far m ore con
.

To Fi x Paper upo n Polis h e d M etal . ce n t r a t e d than has hitherto been o ssi bl e

D issol ve 4 0 0 parts by weight of dextri ne , , ca n be prepared O n cooli ng t e sol u


.
,

i n 600 parts by weight of water ; add , , ti ons assume milky a ppeara nce b ut
a ,

to this 1 0 arts by weight of gl ucose , , , form no l umps a nd are readily reliq ue


and heat a most to b oiling . fi e d by heati ng If the sol ution is com
.

Al bume n Paste — Fres h egg al bume n .


pl et el y eva porated as of course ha ppens ,

is recom mended as a paste for a ffi xi ng when the a dhesi ve is all owed to dry after
labels on b ottles It is sai d that labels .
use it lea ves a firmly hol di ng mass whic h
,

put on with t hi s s ubsta nce and well is i nsol ubl e i n col d water Am ong the .

dried at the ti me will not l oosen even uses t o which the preparati on ca n be
when bottl es are put i nto water a nd l eft
,
applied are the d r e ss mg of textile fa brics
there for some time Alb umen d ry is .
,
a nd paper sizing a nd the production of ,
,

al most proof agai nst mol d or ferments .


photographic pa pers as well as the o r ,

As to cost it is but littl e if any higher d i n a r y uses of a n a dhesi ve .

than gum arabi c the white of one egg , S tro ngl y A dh esi ve Paste — Four pa rts .

bein g s u ffi cient to attac h at least 1 00 gl ue are s oaked a few hours i n 1 5 arts


medi um -sized l abels . cold water and moderately beate till
,

Past e fo r Parch me nt Paper - T h e best .


the s ol ution becomes perfectly cl e a r ,

agent is made by d i ss o l v mg casein i n a when 6 5 parts boili ng water a re a dded ,

saturated aq ueous s ol uti on of b orax .


while stirring I n an other vessel 3 0
.

parts boil ed starch are previ ously stirre d


Me d ical Paste — As an adhesive age nt .
together with 2 0 parts col d water s o ,
for medici nal purposes Professor Reihl , that a thin milky liquid without l um ps
,
of L eipsic recommends the viscous s ub
, results . T h e b oiling gl ue sol ution is
stance contai ned i n the white mistletoe .
poured in t o this while sti rring consta ntly ,
I t is largely present i n the b erries a nd and the whole is kept boiling a nother 1 0
the bark of the pla nt ; it is called visci n , minutes
and ca n be produced at one tenth the -

price of caoutchouc S ol utions i n ben .


Paste for Ti ssue Paper .

zine may be used like th ose of ca o ut (a ) Pul verized gum ara


chouc without causi ng any irritati on if bic
applied mixed with medici nal remedies White s ugar .

to the s kin . B oiling water .


38 A D H ES I VES

( b)C omm on l aundry acid a ppl y heat with c onstant sti rri n g
,

starch 1 bounces until the mixture thickens ; when nea rly


C ol d water 3 fl ui d o un ce s cold ad d the oil of cl oves T h i s pa ste .

M ake into a batter an d pour into will ha ve a pleasant smell will n ot attract ,

Boiling water 3 2 fl ui d o u n c e s flies a nd can be thinned by th e a dd i ti on


,

M i x (a ) with (b) a n d keep i n a wide ,


of cold water a s needed .

mouthed b ottle II — D issol ve 4 ounces al u m i n 4


.

Whe n cool add as


.

quarts hot water


Waterproof a n d Aci d proof Pastes
.

.
m uch flour as will make it of the us ual
I — C hromi c acid
. 2 } parts consistency ; then sti r i nto it } ounce a

S tronger ammonia 1 5 parts owdered rosi n ; next add a littl e w a ter


p
.

S ul phuric aci d } part 1


in which d ozen cl oves have been
a

C uprammonium s o steeped ; then boil it u ntil thick as m us h ,


l uti o n stirring from the b ottom a l l the ti me
Fine white pap er
. .

.
T hi n with warm water for use .

II — I si nglass
. s uf fi cient
, a
Pre se r vati ves f or Paste — Vari ous a n .

quantity t i se pti cs are em pl oyed for the preserva


Acetic aci d 1 part
.

ti on of fl our paste m ucil age etc B oric


Water
.

7 parts
, ,
.

a nd salicyli c acids oil of cl oves oil of , ,

D issol ve s u fficient isi ngl ass in the mix sassafras a nd s ol uti on of formal dehyde
,

ture of acetic aci d a nd water to make a are a mong those whi ch ha ve given best
thi n mucilage .
service A dura bl e starch paste is pro
.

O n e of the s ol utions is applied to the d u ce d by a ddi n g s om e b ora x to the


s urface of one sheet of pa er a nd the other water used i n maki ng it A paste from .

to the other s heet a n they are then , 1 0 parts ( weight ) starch to 100 parts
pressed together .

( weight ) water with 1 per cent borax


I II — A fair knotti ng varnish free
.
a dded will kee p ma n y weeks while wi th ,

from sur l us oil is by far the best a dhe 0 ut this additi on it will s our a fte r si x
sive for fiit i n g labels es pecially on metal , days I n the cas e of a glui ng m aterial
.
'

s urfaces It dries i nstantly insuri ng


.
, prepared from starch paste an d j oiners ’

a s peedy j ob an d i mmediate packi ng if , gl ue b or ax has als o de monstrated its pr e


,

needful without fear of derangement


, .
servi ng qualities T h e s ol uti on i s made .

I t has reat te nacity a nd is not only , by mixing 1 0 parts ( weight ) starch i nto
a bs olute y da m p proof itself but is actu~
, a paste with water a nd ad di ng 1 0 parts
ally re pellent o f m oisture to which all ,
( weight ) gl ue s oa ked i n water to the hot
water pastes are su bject It costs m ore s ol uti on ; the a dditi on of fl, art ( weight )
of bora x to the s ol uti on will ca use it to
.
,

but the ad diti onal expense is often i n fi n i


t e si ma l com pared with the pl e as ure o f a keep for weeks It is equal to the best
.

satisfactory result l ue but s houl d be warme d a n d stirred


gef o r e use
.

Bal k an Paste .
.

Pal e gl ue Boar d -S iz i n g A cheap sizing for


White l oaf suga r
.

rou h weath er -beaten b oa rds may be


ma g
,

Powdered starc h e by diss olvi ng s hellac i n sal sod a


White d ex trine . a nd a ddi ng s om e heavy-bodie d pigment .

Pure glyceri ne T his size will stick to grease s pots Lin .

Carbolic aci d ounce . seed oil ma y be ad ded if desire d Lime .

Boiling w a ter 3 2 ounces water an d l i nseed oil make a good heavy


Cut up the gl ue and steep it i n a} pin t S i z i ng b ut hard to s rea d
, T hey are .

boili ng water ; when softened melt i n a us ually used half a nd alf th ough thes e

,

sa ucepa n ; a dd sugar starch and dex , , proporti ons may be varied s omewha t
trine a nd lastly the glyceri ne in which
, ,
R i ce Paste —M i x the rice fl ou r with
carb olic aci d has been mixed ; add r e .

col d W ater a nd boil it over a ge ntle fir e


ma i n d e r of water and b oil until it thick ,
.

unti l it thickens
,

T his paste is q uit e


e ns Pour i nto jars or bottles
.

. .

wh i te and bec om es tra ns parent on d r y


Permane n t Paste . ing I t is very a dherent and of great Use
.

1 — Wheat flour
.
~
1 pound
for ma ny purposes .

Water col d
.

, 1 uart Ca sein Pa ste —A s ol uti on of ta nni n


4 ui d r a chms
.

prepared from a bark or from c o mm er


,
N itric a ci d .

Bori c aci d 4 0 grai ns C l a l tan n i n is preci pi tated with li me


,

O i l of cl oves 2 0 mini ms water the li me bei ng a d ded until th e


,

M i x the flour b oric acid an d water , , , s ol uti on j ust turns red lit mus pa er bl ue .

t he n strain t he mi xture ; a dd t h e n i tr i c T h e su pernatant li quid i s then e e a n te d .


A D H ES IVES 59

and the preci ita te is d ried w ith out a rti N o w stir i n ( a ) a nd necess a ry (c) a nd, if ,

fi ci a l heat he res ulting calci um tan


. contin ue boili ng unti l the paste thi cke n s
nate is then mi xed according to the pur , into a semitrans parent m ucilag e afte r ,

pose for which the a d he sive is i nte n ded which stir i n s ol uti o n (b) T h e a bove .

ma k es a very fine paste for w a ll pa per


,

with from 1 to 1 0 ti mes its weight of d r y .

casei n by gri nding i n a mill The a d


V Elastic or Pl iable Paste
.

h esi ve c om pound is s ol ubl e i n water ,
. .

etrol eum oils an d car bon bis ul phide ( a ) 4 ounces comm on starch
p
, , .

t is very stron g a nd is a pplied i n th e ,


2 ounces white dextrine
form of a paste with water .
1 0 fl u i dou nces c ol d water
(b) 1 ounce borax
PAS TES F OR
PAPERHANG ERS .
3 fl ui d o u n c e s glycerine
64 fl u i d o u n ces ( 5 gallon ) boiling
I — Us e a chea p rade of rye or w h eat
flour mix th o r o ughi y with col d water to water
.

about the c onsist e ncy of dough or a little ,


Beat to a batter th e i ngredients of ( a ) .

thinner being careful to remove all


,
D issolve the b orax i n the boili ng water ;
l umps ; s tir i n a ta bles o o n f ul of pow then ad d the glycerine after which pour ,

dered al um to a q uart o fl our then our ,


(a ) i nto s ol ution (b) S tir until it becomes .

i n boili ng water stirring ra pidly unti the


,
transl ucent T his paste will not crack
.
,

flour is thoroug h ly coo k ed Let this cool a nd being very pliable is us ed for pa per , ,

before usi ng a nd thi n with col d water


, .
cl ot l eather a n d other material where
,

flexibility is re quired .

1 1 — Ven e ti a n Paste
. .
VI — A paste with which w all pa per
.

(a ) 4 ounces white or fi s h gl ue Ca n be a ttached to wood or mas o n ry


ad hering to it fi r mly i n s pite of d a mp
,
8 fl ui d o u n c e s col d water
( b) 2 fi ui d o u n ce s Venice tu r pentine ness is r e pa r e d as usual of rye flour to
,
.
, , ,

(c) 1 o u n d rye fl our which o w e v e r a r e added aft er the boil


, , ,
1 6 ui d o u n ces ( 1 pi nt ) c ol d w ater i n g S Qparts by Wei ght of goo d linseed
o i f varnish a nd 8 5 p a rts
, , ,

(d ) 64 fl ui d o u n c es (i gall on ) boili n g by wei ght of »


, ,
water turpenti ne to every 500 parts by weight , .

S oak the 4 ounces of In c in the col d


water for 4 hours ; disso ve on a wat e r VI I — Pa ste for Wall Paper — S oak 18
. .

bath (gl ue pot ) a nd whil e hot stir in the


,
ound s of bol us ( b ole ) i n water after it ,

Venice tur e n ti n e M a ke up (c) into a .


as been beaten i nto s m a ll fra gments ,

batter free rom l um s a n d pour into an d pour off t h e s u pernata nt wa ter .

S tir briskly a n d fi n a l y a d d the gl ue s o


,
B oil 1 0 o unces of gl ue i n t o gl u e water ,

l uti o n T his makes a very strong paste ,


'

.
mi x it well with th e so ft en e d b ol us a n d
a nd it will a dhere to a painted s urface 2 pounds plaster of Paris and st r ai n
,

owing to the Venice turpenti ne i n its through a sieve by mea ns of a bru sh .

com p osition .
T hi n t h e mass with water to the consist
ency o f a thi n paste Th e paste is now .

I I I — S tro n g
. Adh es i ve Paste .
ready fo r use It is no t only much .

( a ) 4 pou n de r fl o ur
e cheaper tha n other vari eti es but has the ,

5 gall on co ( 1 w ater advantage over t hem of ad heri ng better


( b) 1 ) gal l ons boilin g water to whitewashed walls a nd es e ci a ll y ,

(0 ) 2 oun ces pul veri zed rosi n such as h ave been repeatedly coa e d over
M ake ( a ) i nto a batter free from l um ps ; the ol d coati ngs whi ch were not thor
then pour into (b) B oil if necessary , and
.
oughl y r e m oved For ha n gi n g fi n é wall
pa pe r this paste is l ess co mmendable
.

while hot stir i n t he pulver i zed r osi n a


a s i t for m
,
little at a ti me T his paste is exceed .
s a w hi te col o r with which ,
i n gl y strong and will stick heavy wall

, the pape r might easil y bec ome s oil ed if


paper or thi n l eather I f the pa ste be
gr eat care is not exercised i n a ppl yin g
.

too thic k thi n with a l i ttle hot water ;


, it. I f the fi n e wall paper is m ou n ted on
never thi n paste with col d water .
gr ound paper h owever it ca n be t ec e m
, ,

I V —Fl o ur Pa ste
.
'

.
mended for pasti ng the groun d pa per o n
( a ) 2 pou n ds wheat flou r
the wall .

3 2 fl u id o un ce s ( 1 quart ) col d wate r


(b) 1 ounce alu m LABEL PASTES
4 fi n i d o u n ce s hot wate r Pastes to A fii x La bel s to Ti m— L a bel s
(0) 96 fl uid ounces ( 5 gall o n ) boili n g sepa r a te from ti n because th e pa st e be a

water C omes too dry S o me m oistu r e i s pr e“


Work the wh eat fl our i n t o a batter free
.

suma bly al w a ys present ; but more i s


f rom l um ps with the cold wate r D i s~ . r equi red to ca use conti n ued a d hesion i n t h e
ol v e th e al u m as desi gnated i n (b) . case of ti n than where the contai ne r i s of
40 AD H ES I VES

glass Paste may be kept moist by the


.
VII — G u m arabic 50 parts ; gl y c e r :
. ,

a ddition of calciu m c hl ori de which is ,


i ne 1 0 parts ; water 30 parts ; l i q S tl bl l
, ,
.

stro ngly h ygr o sc o i c or of glyceri ne , . c h l orat 2 parts .


,
.

T h e foll owi ng o r mul a s for pastes of VIII — B oil rye flour a nd strong gl ue
.

the ty pe i ndicated we re proposed by L eo water i nto a mass to whic h are a d de d fo r ,

Eliel : pa r ts o o d li ns eed-oil varni s h 3 0


,

I —T ragaca nth
arts a nd 0 1 of turpentine 3 0 pa rts
i bis mi xture furnis hes a gl ui n agent
F
.

.

Acacia
which it is clai m ed eve n re n ers the
.

, ,

G lyceri ne .
label s proof agai nst being l oosened by
Water s u fficient to
,
m oisture .

IX — Pour 140 pa rts of distilled cold


make 2 pi nts .

water over 1 00 parts of gum ara bi c i n a


.

D iss ol ve the gums i n 1 pi nt of water ,


wide necked bottl e a nd diss ol ve by f r e
-

strai n a nd a dd the i n which


the thym ol is su spe n ( g
i
, ,
q uent shaking T o the s oluti on which . ,
ed ; sha
l ycer neke well a n d . is ready after standin g for ab out 3 days ,
a dd s ufficient wate r to ma ke 2 p i nts .
ad d 1 0 parts of glyceri ne ; l ater 2 0 parts of ,
T his separates on standi n but a si ngl e
s hake mi xes it su fficiently g
,
dil uted aceti c acid a nd finally 6 parts of ,
or use .
al uminu m s ul hate then s tr ai ning it ,

II -Rye flour
. 8 ounces through a fi n e ai r sieve .

Powdered acacia 1 ounce .


X — G ood gl ue is sai d to be obtained
.

G] 2 0 unces by dissol vin g 1 part of powdered sugar


O i of cl oves 4 0 drops i n 4 pa rts of s oda water glass .

B ub the rye fl our and acacia to a. XI — A gl ue for b ottl e labels is pre


.

s m ooth as te with 8 ounces of col d water ; pared by di ssol vi n borax i n water ;


strai n through chees e cl oth a nd pour , s oa k gl ue i n thi s s o uti o n an d diss ol ve
i nto 1 pint bf b oili ng water a nd cont i nue , th e 11 0 by boilin g1
Carefull y d rop as .

the heat u ntil as thic k as desired When . m uc aceti c a ci d into the s ol uti on as
nearly col d add the glyceri ne and oil of will all ow it t o remai n thi n on cooli ng .

cl oves . L abel s a ffi xe d with this a gent a dhere


I I I — Rye flour
. 5 parts . .
firmly and d o not becom e m ol dy i n da mp
Venice turpen ti ne 1 part .
cellars .

Li qui d gl ue 8 s ufficient quantity , .


XII — D issol ve s om e l sI D gl a S S i n aceti c
.

Ru b u p th e flour with the turpenti ne


acid an d brus h the l a bels over w ith it .

T here will be n o cause t o com pl ai n


a nd then a dd s uffici ent fres hly prepare d
gl ue l ue or gelatine diss ol ved i n water of their comin g o ff n or of stri king ,

t o ma e a sti ff paste T his paste dries .


throu h the pa er T ake a wide .

sl owly .
m out ed b ottl e 5 ab out two-thirds with ,

commercial a ceti c acid an d put i n as much ,

I V -D extrine
. 2 parts .
isi nglass as the li qui d will h ol d and set ,

Aceti c aci d 1 pa r t .
a s1 d e in a w a rm place until com pl etel y
Water 5 pa rts diss ol ved When col d it sh oul d form a
.

Al cohol 95 per cent 1 part


,
Jelly . T o use it l ac e th e b ottl e i n h ot
D iss ol ve the d extrine and acetic aci d water T h e c or s h oul d b e well -fi t
.

i n water by h e a ti n together i n the water ti ng a nd s meare d with vas eline or m elted


bath a nd to the s o uti o n add the alcohol
, .
pa r a fi n e.

V — D extri ne
. 3 pounds Ho w to Pa ste Label s Brush on Ti m—
2 ounces over the entire back of the la bel w ith a
5 drachms fl our paste fol d th e l a bel l oosely by
Water
,
3 pi nts 2 ounces
. .
sticking both ends together with out
D issol ve th e b ora x in the w ater by creasing the center a nd throw t o one ,

w armi ng then a dd the dext ri ne a nd gl u


, si de u nti l this process has been gone
cose a n d conti nue to heat gently u ntil
, throu h w i th the whole l ot T h en unf ol d .

diss ol ved . each ab el a nd place it on th e ca n in the


Another variety is made by diss ol vi ng re ular manner T h e paste ought n ot .

a chea G hatti gum i n li mewater but it , to e thicker tha n ma pl e syru p When .

kee s a dly . of this consistency it s oa ks throu gh th e


I -Ad d tar a ric acid to thic k flour
. t label and ma kes it plia bl e a n d i n a c on
paste T h e paste is t o be boiled until
. d i ti on to be easily rubbed i nt o p osi ti on .

quite thick a nd the aci d previ ously dis


, , I f th e paste i s too thi ck it d ries quic k ly ,
sol ved i n a littl e water is added the pro , , a nd d oes n ot s oa k throu gh the l a bel suf
porti on bei ng ab out 2 ou nces to the pi nt fi ci e n tl y After the l abels have b ee n
.

of paste . placed u pon the cans the latter must be


A D H E S I VES 41

kept a part u ntil dry I n putting the . O nly col d Water must be used a nd be ,

aste upon the labels i n the first pl ace fore usi n g the mucilage all w hitish
p
, ,

o ll o w the method of placi ng the dry l u mps (wh i ch are pa rticles of u ndiss ol ved
labels over one a nother back sides u p , ,
gum ) s houl d be pi cked out or else th e
with the ed e of each j ust protruding over m ucilage strai ned T h e ti me of s ol uti on
.

the edge 0 the one beneath it s o that , ca n be consi dera bly s h ortened ( to a fe w
the fingers may easily gras p the la bel hours ) by acidifyi ng th e water i n whi ch
after the pasting has been d one . the gum is pla ced with a littl e s ul phuri c
D ru ggi sts ’ Label Paste — T his aste or oxalic ac i d ; b ut as the res ulta nt muci
when car e fully ma de is a n a d mi r a b e one
. .
,
l age woul d c ontai n traces of their pres
for label use a nd a very littl e will go a
,
ence such a ci ds are n ot per missibl e
,

l ong way :
,
when the gu m dragon m ucil a ge is to be
-

used for m ounti ng photo r a ph s


Wheat flour G lycerine a nd u m ara b
.

4 ounces .
i c m ake a very
Nitric aci d 1 drachm good adhesi ve 0 a flui d nature suited
Boric aci d 10 rains to mountin g h otogra phs ; a n d alth ough
O i l of cl oves 5 r o ps glyceri ne is p ygr o s c o pi c by itself s uch ,
Carb olic acid 5 drach m tendency to abs orb m oisture is checked
S tir flour and water together mixing , by the reverse nature of the gum a ra bi c ;
thoroughly and a dd the other ingre
, consequently a n ideal flui d m ucil a ge is
d i e n ts
. After the stu ff is well mixed , produced T h e pro o r ti o n s of the s ev
.

heat it watchi ng very carefully a nd r e


, eral i ngredients are t ese :
moving the instant i t sti fi e n s .
G u m arabic genuine ,

To Att a ch Glas s Labe ls to Bottles ( gum acacia n ot ,

Bass ora gu m)
.

M elt together 1 part of rosin and 2 parts .

of yell ow wax a nd use while warm , .


B oili ng water
G lyceri ne pure
Photo graphic M ounta nts (see also
, .

Photograph y ) — O wing to th e nature of First dis sol ve the u m i n the water ,

and then stir i n the g yc e r i n e a nd all ow


.

the diff erent pa pers used for pri nting a ll d ébr i s from the gu m to d eposit before
,

photographs i t i s matter of extreme


, a
usi ng T h e foll owin g adh e sive com
i mporta nce to use a m ountant that shall
.

not set up decom positi on i n the coating pou nd is als o one that i s free from ch em
i cal reacti ons a nd is s uited for photo
of the pri nt For exam pl e a m ountant
.
,
gra phi c purposes :
,

that exhi bits aci dity or al kalinity is i n


juri o n s with m ost va rieti es of pa l er ; a nd Water 2 pi nts
i n photography the foll owing fb r mul a s G u m dragon pow ,

for pastes mucilages etc have there


, , .
,
dered 0 0 0 0 1 ounce
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

fore been sel ected with regard to th ei r G u m a ra bic genui ne 4 ou n ces


,

abs ol ute i m munity from setting up de Glyceri ne . 4 ounces


compositi on i n the print or changi ng its M i x the gum arabic with half the w a
tone i n any way O n e of th e us ual .
ter and i n the remainder of the water
,
mountants is rice starch or else rice water .
diss ol ve the gum dragon When both .

T h e latter is b oil ed to a thi ck jell y , s oli ds are dissolved mix them together , ,
strai ned and th e strai ned mass used
, a nd the n stir i n the glyceri ne .

as an aggl uti nant for attachi ng photo T h e foll owi ng paste will be found a
gra hi c pri nts to the m ounts T here is useful mountant :
not p
.

ing of a n inj uri ous nature whatever


i n this m ountant neither is there in a G u m arabic genui ne 1 ou nce ,

mucilage made W i th gu m dragon Rice starch .1 ounce


White sugar o o o o o o o o 4 ounces
.

T his gum ( als o called gum traga


canth ) is usually i n the form of curls Water q s , . .

l eaf um ) whi ch take a l ong ti me


, D iss ol ve th e gum i n j ust su ffi cient
to roper y diss ol ve i n water — several water to c om pl etel y diss ol ve it th en add ,

wee s i n fact — b ut d uring the past few


,
the sugar a n d wh en t h at has c o mpl etel y
,

years there has been put on the market a d iss ol ved sti r i n th e starch paste a n d ,

powdered gu m dragon which d oes n ot then boil the mixture until th e starch is
occupy s o many days i n diss ol vin g T o . properly cooked .

ma ke a mucilage r o m gum dragon a A very strong sti ff paste for fastening


,

very l arge vol um e of water is required . card board m ounts t o fram es w ood a n d , ,

For exam pl e 1 ounce of the gum either


, , other materials is prepa re d by ma ki ng
l eaf or powder will s well u p and co n, a b owl of starch paste in th e u sual way ,

vert 1 gall on of water i nto a thi ckis h a nd then a ddi n g 1 o u nce of Ve n ice tur
mucila ge i n the cour se of 2 o r 3 wee ks .
p enti ne per
pound of paste and boi l , ,
42 A D HES I VE S

in g a nd stirring the mixture u n til t he the n all o w to cool a n d mi x i n the al co h ol , ,

th i c k t urpenti n e has beco me well i ncor ad di n a few dro of oil of cl ove s


Perha ps one o t he most us eful c om
.

orated Ve ni ce tur c uti ne stirred i nt o


flour paste a n d bo i l e w ill als o be foun d
.
.

pounds for pho tographic purposes i s that


a very a dhesive cement for fa ste n i n r e pa r e d as fo ll ows : S oa k 4 o unces of
card board stra wboard leatheret t e a n
, , , hard gel a tine i n 1 5 ounce s of wate r for a
ski v er leather to w ood or metal ; but few ho urs the n melt the gelat ine by
, .

o wing to the resi no us nature of the Venice heating it i n a gl ue pot until the s ol uti o n
t urpenti ne , s uch p a stes are not s uita bl e is quite clear an d free from l um ps sti r ,

for mounting ho to gr a phi c pri nts T h e i n 65 fi ui d o un ces of col d water s o that


foll owi ng ha lf doze n com pounds are
.

- it is free from lu mps a nd pour i n the ,

s uita ble mou n ta nts to use with sil ve r boiling hot s ol ution of gelati ne a nd con
-

pri n ts : ti n u e stirri ng and if the sta rc h is not ,

Al cohol a bs ol ute , 1 0 ounce s . com pl etely c ooked boil u the mi xture ,



G elati ne good , 1 ounce for a fe w mi nutes until it bl ows being ,

G lycerine } to 1 ounce
. . 1 careful to k ee p it well stirre d s o as n o t
S oa k the elati n e i n water for a n hour to burn ; whe n cold ad d few drops of
or two un tif it is c om ) l e t e l y softene d ;
a

ca rbolic aci d or som e ess e ntial oil as a n


take the gelati ne out o f the water a nd , antise ptic to pre vent the c om poun d from
all ow it to drai n a nd put it i nto a , d e composi n g or b ec omi ng sou r .

bottl e a nd pour al cohol over it ; add the A usef ul ho to ra ph i c m ucila ge which


is ve ry l iq uid:is o b
,

glycerine (i f the gelati ne is s oft use ,


ta i ne d by mi xmg equal
only 1} ounce ; if the gelati ne is har d use , b ul ks of gum ara bic a n d gu m d r a on - -

1 o unce of the glyceri ne ) then melt the muci l ages of the sa me consistence he .

mixture of these m ucilages will be con


,

gelati n e by sta ndi ng th e bottle i n a vessel


of hot w ater and sh ake up very well
, . s i d e r a bl y thinner tha n either of them
For use remelt by heat T h e alcohol
, . when al one .

prevents the pri nts from stretching or As a n aggl uti na nt for general use i n the
coc k l ing as they are a pt to under the
, , studio t he foll owi ng is recommen ded :
,

i nfluence of the gelatine .


Dissol ve 2 ounces of g um ara bi c i n 5
I n the fol l owing co mpound however , , o unces of wa ter a n d for e very 2 5 0
parts ,

only s u fficie nt alcohol is used to serve as of the mucila ge ad d 2 0 parts of a s ol u


a n a ntise ptic a nd prevent the a ggl ut i
, ti o n of s ul p hate of al um i nu m pre pared ,

nant from decom posing : D issolve 4 by diss o lvi ng 1 part of the s ul phate i n
ounces of photogra phic elati ne i n 1 6 2 0 parts of wa t er ( com m on al um s ho ul d
ounces of water ( first s oa ing t he gela n o t be used only the pure al u mi num ,

s ul phate be cause com m on al u m is a


.

ti n e therei n for a n h our or two un til it is


mixture of s ul phates a nd us ually con
,

complete ly s oftened ) then re move the ,

ta m
,

gelati n e from the water all ow it to drai n , , i n a te d with iron salts ) Th e addi .

a nd put it i nto the bottle a n d pour the , tion of t h e s ul pha te s ol uti on to t he


alcohol over it a nd put i n the glyceri ne u m muc il a ge renders the latter less
gygr o sc o i c a n d practically waterproof
,

(if the g e lati ne is s oft use only 5 ounce ; , , ,


if t he gelati ne is hard use 1 ou n ce of the , bes i des ci n g very ad hesive to a ny
glyceri ne ) then melt the gelati ne by
, materials particularly th os e exhi biting a
, .

standing the bottl e i n a vessel of hot s mooth s u rface


water a nd s hake u p well a n d mi x thor
,

oug h ly For us e remelt by heat T h e M UCI LAG ES


mxi
. .
,

alcohol prevents the r i n t from stretch For A Labels to Gl a s s a n d Oth e r


ing or cockli ng up un der t h e i nfluence of
n
Objects he m ucil a ge is made by
the gelati ne . S i mply pour i n g over the gu m eno ugh
T h e foll owi ng paste aggl utina nt is one wat e r to a littl e m ore tha n cover it a n d ,
that is very perma nent a nd useful for all the n as the gumswells a ddi ng more wa te r
,

from ti me to ti me i n s mall porti ons until


,

pi i r oses re qui r ed i n a phot o gra phi c ,


stu i o : T a ke 5 pints of water 1 0 ounces , the m uci lage is brought to s uch con
of a rro wroot 1 ounce of f elatine a nd a S i ste ncy that it may be easily s p r ead with

} pi n t ( 1 0 fl ui d o u n ce s) of al cohol a n d
, ,

a
, the brus h T h e m uci l age k e e ps fairly
proceed to combi ne th e m as foll ows
.

well wi th out the a d diti on of a ny a n ti v

M a ke arrowroot i nto a thick crea m wit h se tic


p
.

a li ttle of the water and i n the remainder , I—T .


r a ga ca n t
of the water s oak the gelati ne for a fe w Acacia .

h ours after which melt the gelati ne i n


, T hym ol . .

the water by he a ting it add the arr ow G lyc e ri ne


root pa ste and bri n g the mixture to the
,

Water s u ffi cie n t to


.

boil a n d a l low to bOil for 4 o r 5 mi n utes


,

.
2 pi nts
44 A D H ESI VE S

parts by weight of flour a nd heat sl owl y


, , , through whos e a perture th e th e r mo m
to boili ng stirring the while Let it cool
, . eter is thrust I n order to perm i t the
.

s ome what a nd mix with it the s ol ution


, va pors to esca pe the cork is grooved ,

contai ning the lead acetate a nd al um , l engthwise al ong t he peri phery .

stirring the m well together


AI R B UBBLE S I N G EL A TI NE :
.

Preser vati o n of Gum S oluti on Put a .


-
S e e G elatine .

s mall piece of ca mphor i n the mucilage AI R , EXCL US I O N O F , FR OM S OL U


bottle Ca m ) hor vapors are generated
whic h kill a l i the bacterial germs that TI ONS :
.

S ee Photogra phy
have entered the bottle T h e gum mai n .
.

tains its a dhesiveness to the l ast drop . AI R -P UR IFYING .

O zo n a ti n e i s a fragrant air purifyin g -

AD ULTERANTS IN F OODS : prepa ration consisting of dextrogyrate


S e e Foods .

turpentine oil scente d with slight quan


AD UR O L D EV EL O PER tities of fra grant oils .

S e e Photogra phy . ALA BAS TER CLEAN ING :


S e e Cleaning Pre parati ons an d M eth
[ES CO -QUINI NE : o ds .

S e e Horse C hestnut .

ALBATA M ETAL :
AGAR AGAR PASTE S e e All oys .

S e e Adhesi ves .

AGATE , BUTTONS OF AR TIFICI AL .

Prepare a mi xture or frit of 3 3 parts ALB UM EN IN UR INE , D E TECTI O N


of quartz sa nd 6 5 arts calciu m phos , OF .

phate a n d 2 parts 0 pot as h T h e frit


, .
,
Pa t e i n (Ph a rm Z ei t )
recom m en ds the
. .

which has bee n reduced by heat to the foll owing test for al bum en i n urine :
fusing oint is fi n e l ground intimately
mingle d with a s ma l ua n t i ty of kaolin
, ,
D issol ve 2 5 0 grams of citric aci d i n a
s uffi cient quantity of water a dd en ough
and pressed i n mol ds w ich yiel d button a m m onia t o n e utrali ze the n 50 grams
,

,
s ha ped masses T hese masses after hav .
,
of al cohol a n d finally en ough wate r to
i ng bee n fired are given a transparent ,
,

make 1 liter T o the aci d ( or aci dulated )


glaze by a ny of the well -known processes
.

.
urin e one -tenth its vol um e of the a mmo
,

AGATE (I MITATI ON) nium —citrate sol uti on ma de as a b ove is


S e e G e ms Artificial , .
added an d th e wh ole heated in the usual
,

manner T h e a p e a r a n ce of th e faint
est turbi dity is sai gto in dicate with pos
.

AGING OF S ILK
S ee S il k .
i ti v e certainty the presence of al b umen .

AGI NG , SI LV ER ALB UM EN PAPER :


AND GOL D
S ee Ph otography
S e e Plati ng
.

ALB UM EN PAS TE :
AI R BATH .
S e e A dhesives .

T his air bath is e mpl oyed i n cases


in which u on dryi ng or heating sub Al coh ol
stances aci pva pors aris e becaus e the
,

walls of the bath are not attacked by After the ma n u scr i t of thi s b ook was
the m For the prod ucti on of the drying
.
ready for the press o n gr e ss passed the ,

a pparatus ta ke a flask with the botto m bill which has since beco me a law whereby ,

burst o ff or a bell jar tubulated a bove .


the prohibitive tax on industrial or de
T his is placed either upon sa nd bath a nature d al cohol is re m ove d S o i m por .

or upon as b e stos a per previously lai d , tant is this legisl ati ve meas ure that the
u pon piece of s e et iron T h e sa nd
a .
Editor has deeme d it wise to inse rt an
bath or the s heet iron is put on a tri pod , article on the sources of al cohol a n d the
s o that it can be heated by means of a man ufacture of alcoh ol from far m ) rod
burn e r pl aced underneath T h e sub . u cts. Because the first porti o n o f the
stance to be dried is l aced i n a glass or book was i n type whe n th i s step was de
o r cel a i n dis h whic h is put under the , c i de d upon the E ditor was co m pelled to
,

ell jar a nd if desired the drying dish


, relegate to a later page a monogra ph
may be h ung on the tri pod For regu .
which should properl y ha ve a ppea re d
latin g the te mperature the tubul ure of here T h e reader will fi n d the matter
.

the Ja r is cl osed with a pierced cork , on alcoh ol referred to under the hea ding
ALCOHOL 45


S irit ; l ike wise meth ods o f den a tur in g D issolv e the oil s i n th e spi ri t a nd a d d !I

an p
C

a list o f denaturants . th e a myl acetate T h e m i xture serve s .

ALCOH OL , DIL UTION OF for d e stroyi ng the bad odor of d e n a t ur


S e e T ables .
i ze d s pirit i n distilling Use 50 parts of .

the perfume per parts of S pi rit


Al coh ol , Tests f or Absol ute — Th e
.

committee for the compilati on of the S oli d Al cohol — I — Heat . parts of .

G erma n Arznei buch esta blishe d the fol denaturized alc ohol ( 90 per cent ) i n a flask
l owing tests for the determi nati on of a b of d ouble the ca pacity on the water bath
s olute al cohol : to a bout 1 4 0 F a nd then mi x with 2 8 to
°
.
,

Absolute alcohol is a cl ear col orl ess vol , , 3 0 parts of well -dri ed ras ped Ve netia n ,

atile readily i mfla mma bl e li qui d which


,
s oa p a nd 2 arts of gu rrl lac After r e .

burns with a faintly l umin ous fla me .


pe a t e d sha ( i ng com plete diss ol ution
,

Abs ol ute al cohol has a peculiar od or a , will take place T h e s ol uti on is put
.
,

burning taste a nd does not a ff ect litmus


, whil e still warm i nto metallic vessels , ,

paper Boiling point


. S pecific
, cl osi ng th em u p at once a nd all owi ng the
gravity , to O n e hundred mixture to cool therei n T h e a d mi x .

parts contai n to arts by vol ture of u m lac eff ects a better preserva
tion a n ti als o prevents the eva porati on of
,

ume or
,
to parts y weight of , ,

alcohol . the al coh ol O n li hti ng th e s olid s pi rit


.

Abs ol ute al coh ol s houl d ha ve n o for the s oa re mai ns be ind .

e i gn smell and s houl d mi x with water II . mara dine is a trade na m e for


without cl oudiness . solidified alco 0 1 It consists of alc oh ol .

After t he ad mixture of 5 drops of sil a nd gun cotton col ored with mal achite ,

ver-nitrate s ol uti on 1 0 cubic centi meters ree n I t a pears i n the market i n the
orm of s ma ii cubes
.
,

of absol ute al cohol shoul d not become .

turbid or col ored even on heating .


Alco h o l i n Fe r me n te d Beers — Ex pe .

A mi xture of 1 0 cubic centi meters of r i e n c e has s ho wn t h at 1 5 pound of suga r


absol ute al cohol a nd cubic ce nti meter to 1 gall on of water yields ab out 2 per cent
of potash lye eva orated down to 1 cubic of proof spirit or ab out 1 per cent of a b
,
centi meter s houl n ot exhibit a n odor of sol ute alcohol Beyond this a m ount it is
.

fusel oil after s upersaturati on with dil ute not safe to go if the l egal li mit is t o be
,
s ul phuric acid .

observed yet a i nger beer brewed with


,
Five cubic centi meters of sul phuric
acid carefull y covered in a test tube 4 pound per gal on of s ugar woul d be a
, , ,
very wis hy-washy compound a nd there
with a stratum of 5 cubic ce nti meters of is little d oubt that a much l arger q ua ntity
,

absol ute alcoh ol sh oul d n ot form a rose


,
is generally used T h e m ore s ugar that .

col ore d z one at the surface of contact ,


is used — u p to l } or 1 } pounds per gall on
even on standi ng for some time .
— the better the dri nk will b e a n d t he
T h e red col or of a mi xture of 1 0 cubi c m ore customers will relis h it ; but it will
centi meters of a bs ol ut e al cohol a nd 1 “ ”
be as strong as la er a nd contai n per
cubic ce nti meter of potassium -perma n haps 5 per cent of alco 0 1 which will ma ke
ga me te s ol uti on sh oul d not pass i nto “
it a nythi ng but a tempera nce drink ”
,

yellow before 2 0 mi nutes .


Any maker who is usi ng as much as even
Abs ol ute al cohol s houl d not be dyed pound of s uga r er gall on is b ou nd to
by hydroge n s ul phi de water or by a que get more s pirit t a n the la w all ows .

O US a mmon i a .
M eanwhil e it is s carcely accurate t o t e rm
Five cu bic centi meters of abs ol ute a l ginger beers etc non -alcoholic
, .
, .

cohol s houl d not lea ve behi nd a weighable


residue a fter eva porati on on water bath . Al coh ol D eo d or i zer .

Absol ute Alco h ol —I f gel atine be sus


. Alcohol 1 6 0 ounces
pende d i n ordi nary alcohol it will absorb Powdered quickli me 30 0 grains . .

the water b ut as it is ins ol uble in alcoh ol Powdered al um 1 50 rai ns


1 } drachms
.
,

that s ubsta nce will remain behi nd a nd , S pirit of nitrous ether


thus neari abs ol ute alcohol will be o b
ta i n e d wit out distillatio n .
M i x the li me and al u m i n ti ma t el by
tr ituration ; add the alcohol a nd s ak e
Per fu me d D en aturi ze d Al coh ol .
well ; the n add the s pirit of nitrous ether ;
East I ndia le m on oil parts set aside for 7 days a nd filter through
M irba ne oil . parts
a nimal charcoal
Cassia oil 5 0 parts
.

Cl ove oil 7 5 parts D enatu rize d Alco h ol — T here are two .

L em on oil 1 0 0 parts general classes or degrees of denaturizing ,

Amyl acetate 500 parts


.
vi z
.
, the com pl et e a nd the i n co m
“ ” “

S pirit ( 95 per cent ) parts . pl ete acc ording to the purpose for
,
46 A L C O HO L

which the al cohol s o denaturized is to be ferme n ta ti o n co n tain only a s mall qu a n


'

tity of un deco mposed s uga r a n d gum


,

ulti matel y used ,

S o me of
.

I — C omplete denaturization by the


. varyi ng fro m 1 to 5 per cent .

G er ma n syst e m is accomplished by the


“ .

these are highly hopped or b i tter ed ,

additio n to every 1 00 liters (e qual to 2 6 5 the furthe r to prom ote their preserv a ti on
gall ons ) of s pirits : duri n g tra n sit a nd ch a nge of t e m per
a ) Two a n d one ha lf l i t e r s of the sta nd ature M i ld or s weet al es on the con
5
-
. ,

ar d enaturizer made of 4 parts of , t r a r y a re l ess accentuated by l engthened


,

wood alc ohol 1 part of pyridi n e ( a nitro , fer mentation a nd abou nd i n sa cch a r i ne
,

genous base obtai ned by distilli ng bone an d gu m my matter T hey are there . ,

oil or coal tar ) with t h e addition of 5 0 fore m ore nutritious thou h l ess i n t o x
, ,

gra ms to eac h li ter of oil of la ve nder or i ca ti n g than those previous y referred to


, .

ros emary . I n brewing the finer kinds of al es pa l e ,

( b) O n e a nd one fourth liters of the - malt and the best hops of the current
ab ove “ sta nda rd ” a nd 2 liters of benzol seas on s growth a re al wa ys e mpl oyed ;

with every 1 0 0 liters of al cohol . a nd when i t is desi red to prod u ce a liqu or


I I — I ncom plete denaturization — i e
. . .
, possessing little col or very great atten ,

s u ffi cient to prevent alcohol from being ti on is ai d to their s el ecti on With the .

d runk but not to dis qualify it from use


,
sa me 0 jcet the boili ng is c ond n oted with
,

for various s pecial purposes for which , more tha n the us ual preca uti ons and the ,

t h e wholly de naturized s pirits woul d be ferment a ti on is ca rried on at a s omewhat


una vaila ble — is accomplis hed by several l ower temperature tha n that com monl y
methods as foll ows the qua ntity a nd , all o w ed for other varieties of beer For .

nature of eac h s ubsta nce iven being ordi n ary al e intended f o r i mmediate use
, ,

the prescri bed dose for ca c 1 00 liters the malt may be all p a le ; but if the li quor ,

gall ons ) of s pirits : be bre wed for keepi ng a n d i n warm ,

( 0 ) Fi ve liters of wood alcohol or 5 weather when a sli ght col or is n ot o bj e c


,

l iter o f yr i d i n e . t i o n a bl e one fi fth or even one fou r th of


,
-
,
-

(d ) w e n ty liters of s ol ution of shellac , a mber malt ma y be a d va n ta e o usl y -em


containi ng 1 part gu m to 2 parts alcoh o l pl o yed Fro m4 33 to 6 poun s of hops is
.

of 90-per cent purity Alcohol for the


- . the u a n ti ty com monly used to the one
manufacture of cell ulo i d a nd pegamoi d fo urt of malt for ordi nary al es ; a nd 7 ,
“ ”
is denaturi zed . ou n ds to 0 pounds for keeping al es
1 .

(6 ) By the additi on of 1 kil ogra m of he pro portions however m ust gr eatl y , ,

ca mphor or 2 liters oil of turpe ntine or depend o n the i ntended q uality a nd de


1 liter benzol to each 1 0 0 liters of s pirits
} . scription of the brewi n g a nd the peri od
Al coh ol to be used in the ma nuf a cture that will be all owed for i ts maturati on .

of ethers al dehyde agaricin white l e a d


, , , , T h e stronger varieti es of al e us uall y
bromo sil ver gelati nes photogr a phic
-
c ontai n” from 6 to 8 per cent of “abs ol ute
pers a nd plates el ectrode plates c o 8i:
,

, , al cohol ; ordi nary strong al e 4 § t o 6 per ,

di on salicyli c aci d a nd salts a niline


, , cent ; mil d ale 3 to 4 per cent ; a nd ta ble ale
, ,

chemistry and a gr eat number of other


, 1 to 1 4 pe r cent (ea ch by vol ume ) ; t o ge th
pu r po s es is denaturized by the addition
, er with s om e un decom posed saccharine ,

0 f gum my a nd e xtractive matter the bitter


, ,

(f) T e n
liters sul phuric ether or 1 , a nd narcotic princi ples of th e h op s ome ,

pa rt of benzol or i part oil of turpentine , , acetic aci d formed by the oxidati on of


or pa rt of ani mal oil . the al coh ol a nd very s mall a n d variable
,

For the manufacture of var n ish e s a n d qua n tities of mi neral a n d saline matter .

i nks al cohol is denaturize d by the a ddi O rd inary al e —wort ( prefera bly al e )


suffi cient to prod uce 1 barrel i s sIo w l y
,
ti on of oil of tu rpe nti ne or ani mal oil , ,

and for the prod uction of s oda s oaps by b oiled with about 3 ha ndfuls of hops ,

the a dditi on of 1 kil ogra m of castor oil .


and 1 2 to 1 4 pou nds of crush e d groat s ,

Alcohol for the producti on of lanolin is until the wh ol e of th e s ol ubl e matter of


pre ared by ad d i ng 5 liters of b e n zine to the l atter is extracted T h e resulting
e a cp
.

hectoliter of s pirits .
l i quor after bei ng run th rough a coars e
,

stra i ner and become l uke warm is fer


ALE .
m ont o d with 2 or 3 pi nts of yeast ; a nd
,

as s oon as the fer mentati on is at its


,
T heal e of the m odern brewer is man
uf a ct u r e d in several varieties which are , hei ht is either cl osely bu nged u p for
,

determined by the wa nts of the cons umer dra t or 18 a t once put i nto strong stone
a nd the partic ular market for w hich it ware bottl es which are th en well corked
,

is i nte nded T h us the fi n e r k i nds of


.
. a n d wire d .

B urton East I ndia B avarian and other


, , , White al e is said to be very n utritious ,
like al es having undergone a tho r ou gh
, thou gh a pt to prove l a xa tive to th ose u n
A LL OYS 47

accustomed to its use I t is drunk in a . s hown by the h om ogeneity and superi or


state of e ff ervesce nce or lively fer me nt a qu a lity of many all oys i n whi ch the con
tion ; the gl ass or cup co ntai ning it being s ti t u e n t m etals are i n atomi c proporti on .

kept in constant moti on when removed , T h e variati on of the s pecific gravity and
from the m outh until the whol e is con
,
melting points of all oys from the m ea n
su med i n order that the thi cker portion
, of thos e of their component metals als o
may not s ubside to the bottom . a ff ords strong evid e nce of a chemical
change having ta k en place T hus all oys .
,

ALE , GING ER generally melt at l ower tem peratures tha n


S ee Beverages . their separate metals T hey als o usuall y .

poss ess more tenacity a nd hard ness tha n


ALFENI D E M ETAL t he mea n of thei r constituents .

S e e All oys .
M a tt hi esse n found that when weights
are s us pended to s pirals of h a r d d r a w n
ALK ALI , HOW
~

TO D E TECT
wire made of copper gold or plati nu m ,
S e e S oa ps
, ,
.
they become nearly straighte n ed whe n
ALK AL OID S , ANTID OTES TO : stretched by a moderat e weight ; b ut
S e e Atropi ne .
wires of e qual di mensi ons com posed of
cop per tin ( 1 2 per cent of ti n ) sil ver
-
,

plat i nu m ( 3 6 per cent of pl ati nu m ) a nd ,

All oy s gol d -copper ( 8 4 per cent of c opper ) scarce


l y undergo any perma nent cha nge i n form
No general rul es ca n be given for , when s ubj ected to tensi on by the sa me
all oyi ng metals All oys differing greatly
.
wei ht .

i n fusibility are com monly made by he sa me chemist gives the foll owing
adding the m ore fusi ble o n es either i n a proxi mate res ults u pon the t e nacity
op
,

the melted state or i n s mall portions at a certai n metals a nd wires hard -drawn
ti me to t h e other m elted or heated to
,
through the sa me ga uge ( N o 2 3 ) .

the lowest possi ble te m e r a t ur e at which Pou n d s


a perfec t uni on will ta e place betwee n Copper breaking strai
, 2 5 — 30
them T h e mixture is us ually effected
.
T i n breaki ng strain
, under . 7
under a flux or s o me material that will
,
Lead breaki ng strain
, u nder 7
promote liquefacti on a n d preve nt vola T i n lead ( 2 0 % lead )
-
ab out 7
t i li z a ti o n a nd unnecessa ry exposure to T i n copper ( 1 2 % copper )
-
ab out . 7
the air T h us i n mel ti ng lead a nd t i n Co ) e r ti n ( 1 2 % ti n )
-
about 8 0 — 90
G old ( 1 2 % ti n )
.
,

together for s ol der rosi n or tall ow is , . 2 0— 2 5


thrown u pon the s urface is rubbed with G ol d copper
-
copper ) 7 0 —7 5
sal a m mo n iac ; a nd i n com bi ni ng s ome S il ver copper ) 4 5— 50
metals powdered cha rcoal is used for
, Platinu m copper ) 4 5 —50
the sa me ur po s e M ercury or qui ck
.
S ilver plati nu m (3 0 % platinu m )
-
. 75 — 8 0
sil ver com i nes with ma ny m etals i n the
cold forming AMA LG AM S or easily fusi bl e
, , On the other han d the mall eability , ,

all o s ductility and power of re sisti ng o xygen


Afl o ys generally possess c h a r a ct e r i s
,

of all oys is e n e r a l l y di mi n is hed The


all oy forme d of two brittl e m etals is
.

tics unshared by thei r component metals .

T hus , co pper a n d zinc form brass , al ways brittl e ; that of a brittle a nd a d ue


which has a different density hardness , , tile metal generally s o ; a nd even two
,

and col or from either of its constituents . d uctile metals s ometi mes unite to for m
Whether the metals tend to unite i n a brittle com pou nd T h e all o ys formed .

atomic pro o r t i o n s or in a ny definite of metals havi ng di fferent f us mg poi nts


ratio is sti u ndetermined T h e evi . are us ually mall e abl e while col d a n d
dence a ff orde d by the natural all oys of brittl e while h ot T h e acti on o f the a i r
.

gol d a nd sil ver a nd by the phenomena


,
on all oys is e n e r a l l y less tha n on t h ei r
accompa nyi ng the cooli ng of several si mple meta s unl ess the former a re
,

all oys from the state of fusi on goes far , heated A mixture of 1 art of ti n and
.

to prove that s uch is the cas e ( Rud 3 parts of lea d is scarce y acted on at
berg) . T h e s ubject is however one of , , comm on temperatures ; b ut at a red h eat
considerabl e di fficulty as metals a nd ,
it readily takes fire a nd conti nues to ,

metallic com pounds are generally s ol u burn for s ome time like a piece of ba d
bl e i n each other a nd u nite by si mple
,
turf I n like ma nner a m i xture of ti n
.
,

fusion a nd c ontact T hat they do n ot . a nd zi nc whe n strongly heated de


, ,

c om bi ne indi fferently with each other ,


c om oses both moist air a nd stea m wit h
but exercise s pecies of elective a fli n i ty
a ra pi ity .

not dissi mila r to othe r bo d ies is cl ea rly , Th e s pe ci fic gravity of all oys is rar ely
48 A LL O YS

the arithmetical mean of that o i their s houl d be i n excess as s ome of it will be ,

c onstituents as com monly tau ht ; a nd l ost a nyway


S ome all oys as cop er a nd z mc
.
,

i n ma ny cases considerable con e n sa ti o n . 2 , ,

or expansion occurs When there is a


.
copper a nd arsenic may e formed by ,

strong a ffi nity between two metals the ,


exposing heated plates of the l east fus 1
density of their all oy is generally greater bl e metal to the va por of th e other I n .

tha n t h e cal culated mea n ; and vice versa ,


maki ng brass i n the large way th i n plate s ,

as may be s een i n the foll owi ng table : of copper are diss olved as it were i n , ,

mel ted zi nc until the proper proporti ons


ALL OYS H AVI N G A D EN S ITY have been obtained .

G reater tha n the M ea n of their C o n sti t . 3 T h e surface of all oxidiza ble metals
u e n ts : s h oul d be covered with s ome protecting
C opper a nd bism uth , agent as tall ow for very fusi bl e ones
, ,

Copper a n d palladium , rosi n for lea d a nd ti n charcoal for zi nc , ,

Copper a nd tin , copper etc ,


.

C opper a nd zinc , . 4 S tir the metal before casting and


G old and antim ony , if possible when casting with a white , ,

G ol d a nd bis muth , wood stick ; this is m uch better for the


G ol d and cobalt , purpose tha n a n i ron rod
G ol d a nd tin , . 5 If possible ad d a s mall portion of ,

G ol d and zinc , ol d all oy to the ne w I f the alloy is r e .

Lead a nd anti m ony , quired to make s harp castings and


Palla dium and bis muth , stre n gth is n ot a very great obj ect the ,

S il ver a nd anti m ony r o po r ti o n of ol d all oy to the new s hould

b
,

S ilver a nd bis m uth , e increased I n all cases a new or .

S ilver a nd lead , thor oughl y well cl ea nsed crucibl e should -

S ilver and tin , be used .

S ilver a nd zinc .
T o obtai n metals an d m etallic all oys
L ess tha n the M ean of their Constituents : from their com pounds s uc h as oxides , ,

s ul phi des chl or i des etc a process lately


G ol d and cop per
.
, , ,
,
patented makes us e of th e reducing
G old and irid i um ,
qualiti es of al u mi nu m or its all oys with
G ol d a nd iron ,
magnesium T h e fi nely powdered ma
G ol d a nd lead
.

,
t er i a l ( e g chromic oxi de ) is pl aced in a
G ol d a nd nickel
. .
, v
,
cruci ble mixed with al u min um oxide
G ol d and sil ver
.

,
T h e mixture is set afi re by mea ns of a
Iron a nd antim ony ,
s old ering i pe or a b urni ng mag n esium
Iron a nd bis muth ,
wire a nd t e desired reacti on ta kes place
Iron a nd l ead
.
,
,
For igniti ng one may als o em pl oy with
N ickel a nd arsenic ,
,
adva ntage a s pecial pri mi ng cartridge
S il ver and copper ,
consisti ng of pul veriz ed al umi num to
T i n a nd antim ony ,
which a littl e magnesiu m may be mixed
T i n and l ead
,
,
a nd peroxid e of magnesia which is
Ti n a nd palladium ,
,
s ha ped i nto balls a nd l ighted with a
Zi nc a nd a ntim ony .

magnesiu m wire By suitabl e a dditions .

Co mpoun d ing Alloys — C onsiderable to the pul verize d mixture all oys con ,

experience is necessary to i ns ure s uccess ta ini ng al umi n um magnetis m ebro , ,

i n compou nding all oys es pecially when , m i um manganese copper i ron boron
, , , , ,

the metals em ployed vary greatly i n S i licic acid etc are obtained , .
, .

fusibility a nd volatility T h e foll owing .

are rul es supplied by an experienced ALUMI NUM ALL OYS .

work man : M H Pe ch e u x has c ontrib ute d to the


l M elt th e l east fusibl e oxidi za ble
. .

C o mptes Re n d u s from ti m e to ti me the


.
, ,

a nd volatil e first and then add the others , ,


,

h eated to their poi nt of fusi on or near it results of his i nvestigati ons into the all oys
of al umin um with s oft metals a n d th e
.

T hus if it is desired to make a n all oy of ,


,

exactly 1 part of copper a nd 3 of zinc it foll owing constitutes a bri ef s u m mary of


,
1118 observations :
will be im possi ble to d o s o by putting
proporti ons of the metals i n a cruci ble Lea d — When al u min um is melted
.

a nd exposi ng the whol e to heat M uch . and lea d is ad ded i n proporti on greater
of the zi nc w oul d fly o ff i n va por before tha n 1 0 per cent the m etals s e parate on ,

the copper was melted First melt the .


, cool i ng into th ree l ayers — l ead al um i ,

copper a nd add the zi nc whic h has bee n , nu m and between the m a n all o contai n
,

melted in a nother crucible T h e zin c . . i n g from 9 0 to 9 7 per cen t of a u mi n u m .


ALLOYS 49

T h e all oys wi th 93 95 and 98 per cent have , , per a t ur eof casting b ut are readil y a t ,

densiti es of an d re tacked by aci ds concentrated o r d i l ute


, ,

s pe cti ve l y a nd melti ng points near that a nd by potassi um hydroxi de s ol uti on -

m
.
,

of al u in um T heir col or is like that . T h e filed all oys beha ve like those of tin ,

of al uminum but the y are less l ustrous , . b ut still m ore markedly .

All are mall ea bl e eas i ly cut softer than M a gnes i u m


, ,
T hese
were obtai ned

aluminum an d have a granular fracture .

with 66 68 a nd 85 per cent


73 , 77 ,
.
,

O n remelti ng they become s omewhat , ,

richer in lead through a tendency to of al uminu m a nd densities ,


,
T hey a re b rittle with
li quation T hey d o not oxidize i n moist
.

lar e gra nular fracture silver w h ite fil e -


,

w e fi ta ke a good polish an d have m elt


air nor at their melting poi nts
, T hey .
, ,

are attacked i n the col d by hydrochloric , ,

and by strong sul phuric acid with evo ing poi nts near that of al umi n u m .

l uti o n of hydrogen an d by strong nitric


,
Being viscous when melted they a r e dif ,
,
fi c ul t to cast a n d when sl o w l cool ed
form a gray s pongy mass whic h cannot
acid when h ot ; strong s ol ution of po ,

t a ssi u m hydroxide als o attacks the m ,

be remelted T hey do not oxi dize i n


.

T hey are without action on distille d


.

water whether col d or hot air at the ordi nary te mperatures bu t ,

b urn readily at a bri h t-red heat T hey


.
,

Zinc — Well d e fi n e d all oys were o h


.

.
-
are attacked vi o l e n t y b a cids a nd by
ta i n e d corres onding to the formulas
, potassi um -hydroxide s o uti o n d e co m ,
Zn a Al , Zn e A Z n Al , Z n Al g, Z n Al s , pos e hy drogen peroxi de an d sl owly de ,

Z n Al 4 , Z D Al e , Z D Al l o , ZIl Al l g . T heir com pose water even i n the col d .

melti ng poi nts and densities all lie be


tween th ose o f zi nc a nd al umi num a nd Ti n , Bis muth , a n d M a gnesiu m — T h e .
,

those containing m ost zinc are the hard action of water on these all oys j ust r e
est T hey a r e all diss olved by col d
.
ferred to has been recently dem onstrated
hydrochl oric aci d a nd by hot dil ute nitric on a larger scal e 5 to 6 cubic centi meters
,

acid Col d concentrate d nitric aci d a t of hydro e n bavin been obtai ned i n 2 0
mi nutes mm 2 c u i c centi m e ters of the
.

tacks the first three a n d col d dil ute aci d ,

the first five T h e Z n sAl Z n Al e Z n Al m


.
’ filed tin all o T h e bis m uth all oy yiel d
, , ,

and Zn Al m are only slightly a ff ected by ed more h y rogen tha n the ti n all oy an d ,

cold potassi um -hydroxi de s ol uti on ; the the ma n esi u m all oy m ore than the hi s
others are strongly attacked o ta ssi u m ,
muth a l oy T h e oxygen of th e d e c o m
.

o se d water unites with the al uminu m


zincate an d al umi nate proba l y being .

arger qua ntities of h drogen are o h


t a i n e d from cop e r -s ul phate s ol uti on
formed .

Ti n — A filed rod of ti n al umi num all oy ,

apart from the e c o mpo si ti o n of this


-
.

pl unged i n col d water gives o ff for s ome s ol ution by preci pitati on of c o per at the
minutes bubbles of gas c omposed of ,
expense of the m etal a l l o y e with the
'

hydrogen an d oxy en i n expl osive pro


porti ons An un fi fe d rod or a fil ed rod
al uminum T h e all oys of al umin um
.

.
,
with zinc a nd l ea d d o n ot deco mpose
of either al uminum or ti n is without ,
pure water but d o decom pose the water
,
action though the u n fi l e d rod of all oy
,
of copper -s ul phate s ol ution an d m ore ,
will act on b oili ng water T h e fil ed rod .

sl owly that of zi nc-s ul phate s ol ution


,

,
of all oy i n fai ntly aci d s ol ution of cop
.

,
Al uminu m is a m etal whose properties
per or zi nc s ul phate becom es covered ,
are very ma t e r i a ll influ enced by a pro '

po r ti o n a tel y s ma l f ad diti on of copper


with a deposit of copper or zi nc while ,

M
.

bubbles of oxygen are given o ff . .

All oys of 99 per cent al u min u m and l per


Pe ch e ux beli eves that the metals are truly
cent of copper are hard brittl e an d bl ui sh ,
all oyed only at the s urface an d that fili ng ,
in col or ; 95 per cent of al u min um and 5
,

lays bare a n al m ost infinitel y numerous er cent of co per give a n all oy w h ich can
seri es of j u ncti ons of the two metals
which heate d by the fili ng act as ther
,
be h a mmer e b ut with 1 0 per cent of cop
r the metal ca n n o l onger be worked
, ,

mo co upl es gsith 80 per cent a nd upward of co er


.

B i s muth — B y the method used for


. are obtai ned all oys of a beautiful ye ow
lead bis muth alloys were obtai ned con
, col or and these mixtures c ontaining from
, ,

tai ni ng 75 85 88 a nd 94 per cent of , , , 5 to 1 0 per cent of alu mi num and from 9 0


al umi num with densities , to 95 per cent of copper are the genuine ,

a nd res pecti vely T hey were . al umin um bronzes T h e 1 0 er -cent a l .

son orous brittl e fi n el grai ned a nd l oys are of a pure gol den -yel ow col or ;
hom ogeneous S i lver w fiite a nd with
, ,

,
-
, Wi th 5 per cent of al u min u m they are
meltin g points betwee n those of their con red dish yell ow like gol d heavily all oyed
,

s ti t ue n ts but nearer that of al umi num


, . with cop er and a 2 per-cent admix
,
-

T hey are not oxi dize d i n air at th e te m tur e is 0 an al most pure copper red .
50 A LL OY S

As the proportion of co pe r i n creases ,


by a n all oyage of 7 8 parts o f go l d a nd 2 2
the brittl eness is di mi n i s ed a n d alloys With plati n u m a ol d

, parts al uminu m .

containi ng 1 0 per cent and less of aluminum col ored all oy is obta i n ed ; Wi th palla mm
ca n be us ed for i ndustrial purposes the ,
a copper colore d one ; a nd W i th cobalt
-

best consisti ng of 9 0 per cent of copper and a nd nickel one of a yell ow col or Ea sfl y .

1 0 of al u mi nu m T h e hardness of this . fusible m etals of the col or of al uminum


a ll oy a pproac h es that of the general ive white all oys M etal di ffi cult of .

bro nz es Whence its na me I t ca n be


’ ’

. . us i o n s uch as iri diu m os mi um tita


, , ,

st retch ed out into thi n sheets between ni um etc a pea r i n a bn or mal tones of
roll ers worked under the ha m mer and
.
, ,

, , color throng s uc h a ll o ya ge s .

shaped as desired by h e a t i n g or pr ess ure


i n po vve r f ul stam pi ng pre sses

On ac .
,
Alumi nu m-Brass — Al u rn i n u m 1 per .
,

cou n t of its hard ness i t takes a fi n e pol cent ; s pecific gravity tensil e strength , ,

ish a n d i ts pec uliar t ee n ish -gol d col or 40 .Al umi num 3 per cent ; s pecific grav ,

resembles that of gol dall oye d with cop Th e last


,
ity , tensile s trength 6 5 , .

per a nd sil v er together .


named is h arder tha n the firs t .

All oys wi th a still gre ater proporti on of Al umi mJm-Copper —


'

M inikin is prin

c i pa ll y al uminu m with a s mall percent


.

c opper a pp r oac h this m et a l m or e a n d


more nea rly i n th eir ch a ract er ; t he col or a ge of copper a nd ni ckel It is all oyed
of a n all oy for i nstanc e com
.
'

pos ed of , , by mixing the al umin um and c opper ,


9 5 per cent of co p e r a n d 5 per cent of al l u
"

mi n tr m ca ri be disti ngui s hed from a r e


then ad di ng th e nickel It resembles .

,
palladi u m a n d is very strong
gold only by di r ect com a ri so n a n t h e
.

metal is very h a rd a m als o very ma l Al umi nu m S i l v er — I


,

,
S il ver 3 pe r . .
,

l e a bl e .

cent; 9 7 per cent A h and


so me col or
.

Electrical Con d uc ti vity of Al umi n u m


.

II — A silver al uminu m that is easily


All e ys — D uri n g three ye ar s expo sur e to
.
' ‘

wor k ed i nto vari ous articl es contains


t he a tm o sph ere co pe r al umi n um all o ys ,
-
about one-fourth sil ver and three —fourths
i n o ne test gradual y dimini sh ed in con
of al umin um
d ucti v ity in pi o po rti On to the amount of
.
' ‘

co pper they conta ined Th e nickel coppe r Al um i n u m -Ti m— B o urbon m


'

et a l is

-
.

al umi n um all oys whi ch S how suc h r e ‘

com posed of equ a l parts o f al u min um “

ma r k a bly i n creased tensile strength as


,

and tin ; it s ol ders rea dily


c om pa red with Go d Co m me rcial alu mi
.

n u m co n si d e r a b y d i mi n i s xe d 11 tota l c o n Al u mi nu m -Tu ngste n — A n ew metal



"

O n the othe r a nd the man


.

all oy consisti u of al u min u m an d t un g


.

d u cti vi ty
'

ga nese c opper a l u m
.
,

i n um alloys s uffered
- sten is used of ate i n Fran ce i n the con
c om a r a tl ve l y littl e dimi n ution i n t o ta structi on of conveya nces es pe cial ly car
é
'

c o nd ii cti vi ty a nd one o f the mr eta in e


,

r i a ge s bicycle s an d m otor vehicles


'

c omparative y high tensil e str ength I t


, , .

"

.
T h e French call it a rti n i u m; t h e com
wa s tho ugh t that a n e xa mi nation of positi on o i the ne w a l o y varies accordi ng
th e str uct ure of t h ese al l oys by ai d o f to the purposes for wh i ch it is used It

mi croph otogra phy might throw som e


.

is c o ns i dera bly chea per tha n al uminum


, ,

light on th e gr eat d iff e r ence whic h exists al m ost as li ght a n d has a greater resist
betwe en S o m
,

e of their physical pro per ance T h e stre n gth is state d at 3 2 to 3 7


.

ti es F or i n s t n e e a ni ck el -c opper a lu kil ograms per sq uare milli meter


"

m i n u m a ll o y 1 a s ti m
. .
,

es the tensil e
strength of ordi n ar y co m me rci al al umi Al
umi n u m Zi nc
Zi nc 3 per befit
- —

al u m
'
. .
l
,

n um Un der a m
i num 97 per cent Very d uctile
. a gnifi cation of 8 00 ,

wh i te and harde r than al umi n u m


.
,

diameters practic ally n o structure coul d , .

be d is covered C onsi deri ng t h e r e


'

. AMALG AMS
m ark a bl e crystalli n e st ructu re exhibited S e e Fusi ble All oys
' ‘

by Ordi n a ry co m mercial al u minu m nea r


th e s urfa ce of a n ingot when al l owed to
'
An ti -Fr i ctio n Beari ng or B a bbi tt Met
a l s — T hese all oy s are us ua l ly sup orted by
,

so l idify a t a n o rdinar ra te the Wa nt of


~
.
p
s truct ure i n these a l oys m ust be attrib
'
,
be a r i ngs of br ass , i nt o Whi ch it is o u r e d
a f ter they hav e bee n tinn ed a n d ca te d
ute d to the pro ces s of dra wing do wn
‘ "

,
.

T h e i n f e r e n ce i s th at the gre a t di ff er and put togethe r with a n exact m od el of


en ce which exists betwee n thei r te nsil e the axl e or oth er worki n g pi ece l a sti c
cl a y b e i n g pre vi ou sl y a plied p ,

stren gths a n d other q u aliti es i s no t d ue p th e


'

in
'

to variati on in structure usual manner as a l ute or outer m ol d ,

S oft gun met a l i s a ls o ex cell ent a n d is


.
.
'

Color e d Alle ys of Alu mi nu m A pur mu ch used for b eari n gs T hey al l be


,
.
-
.

pl e sci n ti l l a ting is prod uced come less h eat e d i n wor kin g th an th e


' "
52 AL L O YS

n ine a i ts Used for the bel ls of re pea t


, 2 sel do m uniform through its w h ol e s ub
1 wa es . stance ; nor ca n the S pecific gravi ty from
— M elt to ether copper 1 00 parts a ny given porti on of i ts const i tuent met
tin 25 mrts gfter being cast i nto t he
; ,

als be exactly calc ulated o w mg to the


r e q ui r e ci o bj e e t it s houl d be made red
.
,

,
many i nterfering circumsta nces Th e .

hot a nd then pl unged i mmediately into


,
nearer this uniformity is a pproached or , ,

col d water i n order to i mpart to it the in other words chemical co mbination is ,

req uisite degree of sonorous ness For . complete the m ore d urable and fi n er ,

cymbals an d gongs . toned will be the bell I n general it is .


,

XII — M elt together copper 8 0 parts ;


.
,
found necessa ry to ta ke a bout one-tenth
tin 2 0 pa rts
, Whe n col d it has to be
. m ore metal tha n the wei ht of the i n
ha mmered out w ith frequent an nealing . te nded bell o r bells i n or er to allow for
, ,

X ML — C opper 7 8 parts ; ti n 2 2 parts ; , ,


waste a nd sco r i fi ca ti o n duri ng the opera
T his is s uper i or to the former a nd i t ca n ,
tions of fusi ng a nd casting .

be rolled out For tam -tams a nd gongs


. .

BI S MUTH ALL OYS


XI V — M elt together co per 7 2 parts ;
.

.
,
Bis muth poss esses the unus ual q uality
ti n 2 6 to 5 6 parts ; iron
, part Us ed .
of expa nding i n c ooling It is there ,
i n making the bells of orna mental French
.

fore i ntrod uced i n many all oys to red uce


,
clocks .
or check shri nkage i n the mol d
Castin s i n bell metal are all more or
.

For delicate casti ngs and for taking


l ess britt e ; a nd when recent have a , ,
i mpressi ons from dies m edals etc va
,

, ,
color varying from a dark ash -gray to
.
,

ri o n s bis muth all oys are i n use wh ose


grayish -white which is darkest i n the ,
com o si ti o n corresponds to th e foll ow
,

m ore cuprous varieti es i n which it ,


ing gures :
turns s omewhat on the yell owi s h -red or I II III I V
bl uis h-red T h e larger the r o po r ti o n
.
Bism uth 6 5 2 8
of copper i n th e alloy the ceper a nd ,
Tin 3 2 I 3
graver the tone of the bells formed of L ea d l 3 3 l 5
it . Th e ad dition of tin iron or zi nc
Clich é Metal — T his all oy is com
, , ,

ca uses them to give out their tones s harp V .


— .

er Bis muth and lea d are als o often


.
posed of ti n 4 8 pa rts ; lead , bis ,

used to modify the tone which each ,


m uth 9 ; a nd a nti mony
, I t is es ,

e ci a l l y
well a da pted to dabbing roll ers
metal a ff ects di ff erently T h e additi on
of a nti mony a n d bis muth is frequentl y
.

p _

or printi ng cotto n goods a nd as it pos ,

made by the founder to ive a more crys sesses a considerabl e degree of hardness ,

ta lli n e grai n to the a l o y All these .


it wears well .

VI 7 -For filli ng out defective l aces i n


conditions are h owever prejudicial to p
.

, ,

the s onorous ness of bells a nd of very ,


metall i c castings a n all oy of bi s muth 1 ,

d oubtful utility Ra pi d r e fr i cration .


part a nti m ony 3 l ea d 8 ca n be a d
, , ,

va n ta ge o usl
increases the s onorous ness of a l these y used .

all oys Hence M D Ar e et recommends


. .

VII — For Ce me n ti n g Glas s — M ost
.
.
“ ”
that the pieces b e heated to a cherry of the cements i n ordi nary use are dis
red after they are cast a nd after having , s ol ved o r at least s oftened by petro
, ,

been s uddenly pl unged into col d water , l eum .


An all oy of lea d 3 parts tin 2 , ,

that they be submitted to well -regula ted b i s muth melting at 2 1 2 F is not °


.
,

press ure by skillful ham meri ng unti l they a ff ected b petrol eum an d is t herefore
very nsefuyfor cementing la mps made of
, ,

ass ume their proper form ; after whi ch they


a re to b e again heated a nd all owed to cool metal and glass combi ned .

sl owly in the air T his is t h e meth od .

LI POWITZ ’ S BI S MUTH ALL OY


ad opted by the Chi nese with their gongs ,
S e e Cad mi u m All oys
etc a casing of s heet iron being em
.
,
.

ployed by the m to s upport a nd protect B RASS .

the pieces d uring the expos ure to heat . I n general brass is co m pose d of t wo
I n a general way howeve r bells are th i rds co per a nd o ne third zi nc b ut a
l i ttle l ea I or ti n is s ometi mes a d va n t a
-
, , ,

formed and com l e te d by si m pl e casting .

T his is necessar i y the case Wi th all very geons as the foll owing :
,

large bells Where the quality of their


.
I — Re d copper 6 6 pa rts ; zi nc 3 4
.
, ,

tones is the chief object sought after the ,


parts ; l ea d 1 part , .

greatest care s houl d be ta ke n to use com I I — Cop er 6 6 pa rts ; zi n c 3 2 pa rt s ;


.
,

me r ci a ll y pure copper Th e presence


,

.
ti n 1 part ; ead 1 pa rt
, , .

I II — C opp er
of a ver little lead or any similar metal parts ; zi nc
greatly lesse ns the sonorous ness o f this
.
, ,
pa rts ; l ead pa rts ; ti n ,pa rt , .

all o y ; while that of silver increases it .


Br as s-Al umi n um —A sma ll a ddition of .

T h e s pecific gravit y of a large h el l is al um i num to brass to 8 per cent) great


A LL OYS 53

l y i n cr e a es its h a rd n ess d el I II — T w o varieties o f excellent q ual


asticity
i
an ,
.

and this s l o is als o easily worked f or a ny i ty a r e the product of the Rosthorn fac
purp ose ” rass co n ta i n i n 8 per cent of t ory i n L ower Austri a — c opper
al umi n u has the va l u a bF
m
, ,

e
property of parts ; zi nc iron , Als o ,

I V — Englis h sterro metal ( G e d ge s




being but slightly affected by aci ds or gases . .

A larger percentage of al umi num makes all oy for s hi p s heathi ng ) copper 60 , ,

the brass brittle I t is to be noted that . parts ; zi nc iron , ,

alumi num brass decreases very materi T h e great val ue of this all oy lies in its
ally i n vol um e in casti ng a nd the casts , strength which is equal ed only by that
,

must be cooled sl owly or t hey will be of the best steel As a n ill ustrat i on of .

brittle It is a n all oy easily made a nd


.
, this a wrought -iron pipe broke with
, a

its l ow price combined with its excellent


, press ure of 267 atm os pheres while a ,

qualities woul d seem to ma ke it i n ma ny


, si milar pi pe of sterro metal withstoo d the
cases a n a dvantageous s ubstitute for the enormous press ure of 7 63 atm os pheres
expensive phosphorous bronze . without cracki ng Besides its remark .

Bristo l Brass (Prince ’s M etal ) — T his .


a ble strength i t possesses a high degree ,

alloy which possesses pro perties si milar


,
of elasticity a nd i s therefore particular
, , ,

to those of French brass i s prepared i n l y s uitabl e for purposes which re uire


, q
the followi ng proporti ons : t he combi nation of t hese two qual i ties ,

I II II I s uch as the construction of hydraulic


cylinders It is well known that thes e
.

cyli nders at a certa in press ure begin to


, ,

Particular care is re quired to prevent s weat that is the i nteri or press ure is s o
, ,

the zi nc from evaporati ng duri ng the fus great that the water permeates through
ing a nd for this ) ur po s e it is customary the ores of the steel With a sterro .

to put only half o fit i nto the first melti ng meta cylinder the pressure ca n be con
,
,

si d e r a bl y increased without a ny mois


,

and to add the remai nder when the first


mass is li quefied ture bein perceptibl e o n the outside of
the cyl i n er
.

Brass -Iro n (Ai ch ’s Meta l ) — T his is


.

.
S terro meta l ca n be made eve n m ore
a variety of brass with a n ad mixture of hard and dense if required for s pecial ,
iron which gives it cons iderable degree
, a
purposes but this is effected rather by
,
of tenacity It is es peciall y adapted for
.
mecha nical ma ni pulation tha n by a ny
purposes which re qu i re a hard a nd at chan e in the che mical com position If
the same time tenaci ous metal Analyses
, .

, .
rolle or ha m mere d i n heat its strength ,
of the various ki nds of this metal sho w is increased a nd it ac nires i n addition
an exceedingly high degree of tenacity
, , ,
considerabl e variation i n the proportions .
.

Even the a mount of iron to which the , S pecial care must be taken however i n
hardeni ng e ffect m ust be attrib uted ma y
, ,

, ha m mering n ot to overheat the metal ,


vary withi n wi de li mits with out materi as i n this case it woul d becom e brittl e a nd
ally modifying the tenacity which is the might crack u nder the hammer S terro .

essential characteristic o i this all oy .


metal is especially suitable for all the
I — Th e best variet y of Ai ch s metal

.
purposes for whic h the s o called red -

consists of copper 60 parts ; zi nc , , metal has been i n the past al m ost ex


iron , T h e predom i nating quality of el usively used Axle beari ngs for ex .
,

this all oy is its hardness which is clai med , ample made of ster r o metal have s uch
,
to be not i nferi or to that of certai n kinds excell ent qualities that ma ny machine
of steel It has a bea utiful gol den -yell ow
.
factories are now using this material
col or a nd is sai d not to oxi dize easily a
, , entirely for t h e purpose .

val uabl e propert y for articl es exposed to


the acti on of air a nd water . Cast Bras s — T h e various articles of
II — Copper
. parts ; zinc , , bronze s o called statuettes cl ock cases
, , , ,

iron , T h e permissible variati ons e tc


. made in Fra nce where this i nd ustry
, ,

i n the conte nt of i ron are from to 3 has attained great perfecti on and exte n
per cent . sive proporti ons are not in many cases , ,
,

S terro meta l may pro erly be co n si d genui ne br o rfze b ut fine cast brass F 0 1 , .

ered in con necti on wit Ai ch s metal ’ ’


l owi ng are the com positions of a few .

mixtures of metals m ost frequentl y us ed


. ,

since its constitue nts are the sa me a nd


its r o per ti e s very si milar T h e princi pal .
by French ma nufacturers :
di erence betwee n the two meta ls is C opp er Z in c Ti n Lea d
that sterro metal contai ns a m uch larger
a mount of iron T h e com positi on of .

this all oy varies considera bly with d if


fe r e n t ma nufacturers .
54 ALL OYS

T heir speci a l adva n tage is that they er cent o f zinc are mall eabl e T here i s
p ,
.

can be r eadily cast worked with fil e a nd ,


I n a dditi on a sec ond grou p of s uc h a l
,

chi sel and easily gil ded


, . l oys with
,
er cent o f c opper a nd _

To Cast Yello w Brass -I f good clea n


per cent 0 zi nc w h i c h are also ,

mallea ble i n heat


.
, ,

yell ow brass sand castings are desire d .

T h e preparation of thes e all oys r e


,

the brass s hould not co n tai n over 3 0 per


cent of zi nc T his will ass ure a n all oy of quires c onsiderable e xperi e nce a nd i s ,
.

good col or a nd one which w ill run free b e st accomplis hed by melti ng the metals
and clean T i n or l ead may be added together i n the usual man ner a nd heati n g ,

the fused mass as strongly as possible


.

without affecting the property of casti ng .

clean A mixture of 7 pounds of copper It m ust be covere d with a layer of char


,
coal dust to prevent oxi dati on of the zinc
.

3 pounds of s pelter 4 oun ces of tin a n d


.

T h e mass becomes thinly flui d a nd a n


, ,

3 ou n ces of lea d makes good casting a.


,

all oy an d one which will cut free a nd is i nti mate mixture of th e c onstituents is
strong I f a stronger all oy be desired e ff ected S mall pieces of the sa me all oy
.

,
are thrown i nto the li qui d mass until it
.

m ore tin may be a dded but 4 ounces is


usually s u fficient I f th e a ll o y be too
,
n o l onger sh ows a reflecti ng s urface ,

when it is cast i nto i ngots i n iron m olds


.

hard reduce the proportion of ti n .


.

T h e i n ots are pl u nged i nto water while


,

Leaf Brass — T his all oy is als o call ed


.
still re h ot and acqui re by this tr eat
-
,

D utch gol d or i mitati on gol d leaf , It .


ment a very h igh d egree of ductility T h e
is made of copp e r
.

to parts ; , alloy properly pre pared has a fibrous


, ,

zin c, to Its col or is ale or fracture a nd a redd i s h yell o w c ol or -

bright yel low or greenish a c co r ing t o


S h eet Brass ( For S h eet an d Wire )
,

the pro o r t i o n s of the metals It has a n .


.

u n us ua degree of ductility .
I n the pre paration of brass for the manu
facture of wire a n es pecially pure qual
Mal l e a bl e Brass — T his metal is a f .
,

ity of copper m ust be us ed ; with out this


f e cte d l ess by sea water tha n pure c opper
,
,
all efforts to produce a s uita bl e quality of
a nd was formerly much us ed for s hi p brass will be i n vai n T hat pure copper
s heathin g an d for making nail s a nd
.

,
is i ndis pe nsa bl e to the manufacture of
rivets wh i ch were to come i n conta ct with good ductile brass may be see n f rom the
sea water At the present day it has
.
,

great diff erence i n the com positi on of the


l ost m uch of its i m porta nce si nce all the ,
various kinds all of which a ns wer their
l a rger shi ps are made of steel It is .
,

purpose b ut contai n widel y varying


usually com posed of copper 6 0 to 62 ,
,

quantities of copper and zinc T h e fol


p a rts ; a n d zi nc 4 0 to 3 8 parts It i s
.

, .

l o wing ta bl e s hows the c om positi on of


someti mes called yell ow metal or M untz ,
s ome excellent q ualities of brass s uitabl e
metal ( calle d after its i nventor ) a n d is ,
for ma ki ng s heet a nd wire :
prepared with certai n preca utions di ,

r e c t e d towa rd obtai ni ng as fine grai n a

as possi ble experience having s hown ,


B r a ss S h ee t— S o urce L ea d Ti n
that only a fi n e grained all oy of uni f orm -

d ensity ca n resist the action of the sea Jema ppes .

water evenly A metal of uneven den


'
.
S tolberg .

ty will wear i n holes T o obtai n as .


R omilly . .

uniform a grai n as possi ble s mall sa m , R osthorn ( Vienna ) .

pl es taken from the f used mass are cool ed Rosth orn ( Vienna ) .

i ck l y and exami ned as to fracture If R osth or n ( Vi enna )


tq p
.
.

e
y d o n ot s how the desired uniform I serl oh n R omilly
gra i n s ome zinc is a dded to the mass
, .
L ii d e n sc h e i d
After it has er me a t e d the whol e mass ,
( Brittl e ) .

a fres h sam p e is ta ken and tested this , He ge r mti h l .

bei ng conti nued until the desi red result O ker


is reached It is scarcely necessary to
.

B r a ss Wir e
remark that consi derable ex perience is
required to tell the correct com o si ti o n Augsb urg
of the all oy from the fracture T e ma ss .
N eustadt .

is finally poured i nto m ol ds a nd r o l l e


col d. M alleabl e brass ca n be w o r k e g N eustadt
N eustadt
.

w a rm li ke iron being d uctile i n heat a


, , , N eusta dt .

valua bl e quality .

( G ood q uality )
Experi ments with mall eabl e brass ( Brittle )
show that all all oys contai ning u p to For wire an d sheet
per cen t of copper a nd up to
.
A LLOY S 55

As th e ab ov e fig ures sh ow the per ,

centa e o f zinc i n the diff erent kinds of


br a ss i es b etween 2 7 and 84 Recently .
,

alloys containin a s om ew h at larger


quantity of zinc g ave been used it ha v ,

ing been f o und that the toughness an d


d u cti li t of the brass are increased there
by wit out injury to its tenacity Al
, .

l oys containing up to 3 7 per cent of zinc


possess a high de ree of ductility i n the
c l d and are wel g ada pted for wire a n d
s lq
,

e et .

Gil d ers ’ S h eet Bra ss — C opper 1 part ; ,

zinc 1 part ; tin


, part ; lead 115 part , , .

Very readily fusi bl e a nd very dense .


10 .

Wh i te B ras s — Birmi ngha m platina is


an all oy of a pure white al m ost sil ver ,

white col or remaining una ff ected by ,

tolerably l ong expos ure to the atm os


here Unfortunatel y this all oy is s o
.
Britannia meta l is prepared by m elti ng
the copper al one first the n a ddi ng a
.

rittle that it ca n rarely be sha ped ex ,

cept by casting I t is use d only i n the part of the ti n a nd the w h ol e of the a n


ti mo n y T h e heat can then be quickly
.

ma n ufacture of buttons T h e all oy is


.

oured into m ol ds gi vi ng rather sharp


.

modera ted as th e mel ti ng oint of the


,

p new all oy is m uch l ower t a n that of


i mpressi ons and all owing th e desi gn on
the button (letters or coat of arms ) to c opper Fi nally the rest of the ti n is
.
,

stand out r o mi n e n tl y with careful a dded and the mixture stirred consta n tl y
,

stam ping he co m o si ti o n of this for some ti me to make it thoroughly


.

alloy als o kn own by t e nam e of plati h omoge n eous .

num lead is as foll ows : An alloy which bears a resem bla nc e


,

I II
to Britan nia metal is As h berry m etal ,

4
for which t h ere are two formulas
16
II I .
—Zinc 80 parts ; copper 10 parts ;
, ,

iron , 10 parts .

B RITANNI A M ETAL .
N ickel
B ritannia m etal is an all o y consisti ng
pri n ci pally of ti n an d a nti mony M any .
B R ONZES .

vari eti es contai n only these two metals , The co mpo sn i o n of bronze m ust be
and may be considered si m l y as ti n eff ect ed i m mediately before the casti n
hardened with a nti m ony w liil e others , for bronze ca nnot be h e t i n store rea y
conta i n i n addition certain ua n titi e s of repared I n forming t e all oy the r e
p
.
, , ,

copper s ometi m es lead an occasi on


, , r a ct o r y c om c u nd copper is first melted , ,

all y th ough rarel y o n account of its cost


, , separ a tely t e other metal s ti n zi nc
, , , ,

bismuth Britanni a m etal is al ways of a


. etc .
, previ ous] heated bein g then ,

sil very-white col or with a bl uis h ti nge , , added ; the who e is then sti rred a nd the
and i ts hardness makes it ca pable of casti ng carried o ut with o ut l oss of ti me .

taking a high polis h which is not l ost , T h e process of forming th e all oy m ust be
through expos ure to the air N inety pe r . effecte d q uickly s o that there may be n o
,

cent of ti n an d 1 0 per cen t of antimony l oss of zinc ti n or lea d through oxid a


, ,

gives a com positi on which is the best for ti on and als o no interrupti on to th e
,

many purposes es eci a ll y for casting as , , flow of metal as m etal added after an ,

it fills out the m ol s well a nd is readily , i nterval o f ti me will not combi ne e r


fusibl e I n some cases where articl es
. , f e ctl y with th e metal alrea dy poure in .

m a de f rom it are to be subjected to con I t is im portant there f ore to ascertai n


, ,

stant wear a harder all oy is re quired, . the spe C i fi c weights of the metals for ,

I n the proportions i ven ab ove the metal the heavier metal will nat ural ] tend t o
si nk to the b ottom a n d t he il ghter to
,

i s i nde e d m uc h arder th a n ti n but ,

woul d still soon give way under usage . coll ect at the top O nl y i n this way .
,

A tabl e is a ppended gi vi ng the c o m ,


an d by vigorous sti rring ca n th e c u m ,

position of s ome of the varieties of Bri pl e te bl ending of the two meta l s be


ta n ni a me tal a n d their S pecial na mes , s ecured I n adding the zinc great ca r e
. ,
56 A LLO YS

must be taken t h at the latter sinks at all o s with ti n an d zi nc bron z e brass , ,

once to the level of th e co per otherwise etc I t ca n be cast ex ec l e n tl y ca n be


a consi derable portion w i p
. ,