Yonggang Meng
Tianmin Shao
Qian Zhao
Advanced Tribology
Advanced Tribology
Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008
ISBN 9787302204220
Tsinghua University Press, Beijing
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Advanced Tribology
̣Proceedings of CIST2008 &
ITSIFToMM2008
Edited by:
Jianbin LUO, Yonggang MENG,
Tianmin SHAO, Qian ZHAO
Preface
The 5th China International Symposium on Tribology (CIST 2008), conjugated with the 1st International
Tribology Symposium of IFToMM (ITS  IFToMM 2008), was held from September 24 to 27, 2008 in Beijing,
China. The symposium was jointly organized by the State Key Laboratory of Tribology (Tsinghua University), the
State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication (Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of
Sciences), and the Tribology Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society. Increasing activities in the
area of tribology of academia and industry in recent years were discussed during the symposium. Overall, a total of
463 abstracts were accepted for presentation and 378 participants took part in 41 oral sessions or in the poster area.
We gratefully acknowledge the financial support for the symposium from the National Natural Science
Foundation of China, International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science (IFToMM),
STLE (USA), the State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (China),
China University of Mining and Technology, SAE Magnetics (H.K.) Ltd. (Hongkong, China), NSK Ltd. (Japan),
ETT (Eureka Think Tank) (Japan) and Quaker Chemical (China) Co. Ltd. (USA).
The symposium brought tribologists together from industry to academia all over the world for the purpose of
sharing their research information and viewpoints. The topics of the symposium included:
Subjects Organizers
Prof. Yuanzhong Hu (China)
Lubrication
Prof. Jane Wang (USA)
Prof. Zhongrong Zhou (China)
Friction and wear
Prof. Valentin L. Popov (Germany)
Prof. Yonggang Meng (China)
Micro/Nanotribology
Prof. DaeEun Kim (R. Korea)
Prof. Tianmin Shao (China)
Tribology of coatings, surface and interface
Prof. A. Erdemir (USA)
Prof. Shirong Ge (China)
Biotribology
Prof. Zhongming Jin (UK)
Prof. Weimin Liu (China)
Tribochemistry
Prof. S. Mori (Japan)
Prof. Xinchun Lu (China)
Industry tribology
Prof. Yongzheng Zhang (China)
We would like to thank all the organizers of the above subjects and the session chairs in the symposium. We
also would like to express our great gratitude to Profs. Siwei Zhang, Qunji Xue, Jianbin Luo, Hugh Spikes, and
Stven Granick, for their excellent plenary talks, to Profs. Y. Kimura, S. M. Hsu, W. M. Liu, Y. G. Meng, A.
Erdemir, and A.G. Wang, for their keynote speeches, to all of the invited presenters and all the participants in the
symposium.
In the social programme on Sep. 27, 2008, some participants took a short tour of the Beijing city, which just
successfully hosted the 29th Olympic Games and the Paralympics in August and September of 2008. Although the
I
Preface
games ended in a splendor of fireworks a few days before the symposium, many participants met the joy, the
warm, and the passion of Beijing in their journey. In the afternoon of Sep. 26, more than 100 participants visited
the State Key Laboratory of Tribology (SKLT), Tsinghua University, as the first state key laboratory in the field of
tribology in China and was established in 1988. Now there are more than 20 fulltime staffs, about 20 parttime
research assistants, and 70 postgraduate students working on tribology in the laboratory.
The success of the symposium depends heavily on the colleagues and students in SKLT, and many friends
who played a role in organization. We would like to thank Profs. Yonggang Meng, Tianmin Shao, Hui Wang,
Xinchun Lu, Drs. Xiangjun Zhang, Yu Tian, Qian Zhao, Chenhui Zhang, Haosheng Chen, Jiadao Wang, Dan Guo,
Tianbao Ma, and Ms. Yuhua Qi, Ms. Xiaochen Chen, as well as Dr. Aiyang Zhang, Dr. Jingyun Fan, for their great
contribution to the symposium. We would also like to thank our student volunteers for their excellent works.
We now look forward to the 6th China International Symposium on Tribology to be held in 2011 in Lanzhou,
China.
Shizhu Wen
Jianbin Luo
II
Content
Content
Plenary Lectures
Current Industrial Activities of Tribology in China ........................................................................................... Siwei Zhang 3
The FullereneLike Nanostructure Hydrogenated Carbon Films with SuperLow Friction .... Qunji Xue, Junyan Zhang 4
Tribology in Nanomanufacturing—Interaction between Nanoparticles and a Solid Surface .......... J. B. Luo, D. Guo 5
Tribology at Small Scales .....................................................................................................................................Steve Granick 11
Frontiers of Research in Liquid Lubrication ................................................................................................. Hugh A. Spikes 12
Keynote Talks
EHL with Grease at Low Speeds ..............................................................Yoshitsugu Kimura, Toshiaki Endo, Daming Dong 15
The Nature of Adhesion and Friction .............................................................................................................Stephen M. Hsu 20
Space Tribology of China ........................................................................................................................................ Weimin Liu 21
Active Control of Sliding Friction ...................................................................................................Yonggang Meng, Yu Tian 22
Superhard and Low Friction Nanocomposite Coatings: Design, Synthesis, and Applications
.............................................................................................A. Erdemir, O. L. Eryilmaz, M. Urgen, K. Kazmanli, V. Ezirmik 23
Tribology of MetalonMetal Bearings at High Inclination Angles
............................................................................................................ Reginald Lee, Aaron Essner, Aiguo Wang, Shirong Ge 24
Technical Sessions
ĉ. Lubrication
Key Factors to Induce CavitationErosion (Invited) .................................... Darong Chen, Jiadao Wang, Haosheng Chen 31
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiCReinforced HSSBased Composites with an Interpenetrating
Network for High Temperature SelfLubrication Applications ...................................... Yanjun Wang, Zuomin Liu 32
Friction and Wear Characteristics of Advanced Space Lubricants (Invited)
................................................................................................Nobuyoshi Ohno, Sobahan Mia, Shigeki Morita, Shingo Obara 38
Lubrication Analysis of Journal Bearing and Rotor System Using CFD and FSI Techniques
................................................................................................................... Huiping Liu, Hua Xu, Peter Ellison, Zhongmin Jin 40
Oil Film Behavior under Minute Vibrating Conditions in EHL Point Contacts
........................................................................................................................Chen Feng, Taisuke Maruyama, Tsuyoshi Saito 42
Different Loading and Motion Applied on Hip Simulators Affects the Lubrication of
MetalonMetal Hip Implants...................................................Leiming Gao, Fengcai Wang, Peiran Yang, Zhongmin Jin 44
EHD Lubrication of Different Types of Gears ............................................................................................... Vilmos Simon 46
The Role of Heat Partition in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication (Invited)
.......................................................................................................................H. P. Evans, A. Clarke, K.J. Sharif, R.W. Snidle 48
Influence of Surface Roughness on Elastohydrodynamic Journal Bearings with NonNewtonian Lubricants
................................................................................................................ Chatchai Aiumpornsin, Mongkol Mongkolwongrojn 50
Theoretical Investigation of Journal Bearings with NonNewtonian Fluids Included Thermal Effects
................................................................................................................ Mongkol Mongkolwongrojn, Chatchai Aiumpornsin 52
Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film Behavior between Transversely Rough Curved Plates
...........................................................................................................G.M.Deheri, Rakesh M. Patel, Nikhilkumar D. Abhangi 54
III
Content
Engine Lubrication System Analysis and Oil Pump Design Optimization..............................................Quanbao Zhou 56
TemperatureDependent Rheology and Tribology of Lubrication Greases Investigated with New Flexible
Platform for Tribological Measurements on a Rheometer ............................................... Jörg Läuger, Patrick Heyer 61
Study on Characteristic Parameters of Wear Particle Boundary ...................................................Guobin Li, Delin Guan 64
Viscosity Variation Model and Its Application in Micro/NanoScale Clearance
.............................................................................................................................Dong Chunliu, Zhang Chaohui, Wang Yan 70
Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings.........Geng Haipeng, Qi Shemiao, Yu Lie 75
Biotribological Properties of Natural Swine Joint Cartilage ...................................................Cui Tao, Xiong Dangsheng 81
Effect of Surface Texturing on Lubrication Film Formation within NonConformal Contacts
.....................................................................................I. Kupka, M. Hartl, R. Polišuk, M. Vaverka, M. Vrbka, O. Šamánek 84
Experimental Investigation of TimeDependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing
.............................................................................................................................Sun Meili, Xia Chengyong, Wang Xiangang 86
Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of LY12 and HPb622 Ring Compression
......................................................................................................................Bin Guo, Feng Gong, Chunju Wang, Debin Shan 94
Application of Metal SelfRepairing Additives on CylinderPiston Ring Rubbing Pairs
....................................................................................... Lei Wang, X. C. Zhou, Q. Q. Li, C. Q. Yuan, X. P. Yan, Y. H. Chen 98
Wettability Study of MultiplyAlkylated Cyclopentanes (MACs) on Silicon Substrates ..... Ying Wang, Mingwu Bai 102
Numerical Analysis on Hydrodynamics of Circular Translational Polishing under Mixed Lubrication
...................................................................................................................................................................... W. Zhai, P. Feng 104
MicroTribological Analysis of POMMoS2Compounds ......................................... R. Stengler, S. Schraube, X. G. Hu 109
On Lubrication Characteristics of Dual Tori DoubleEnveloping Toroidal Worm Drive
................................................................................................... Yaping Zhao, Wenjun Wei, Xuezhu Dong, Jiancheng Zhou 110
Thermoelastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of Crankshaft Bearing Considering Crankshaft
Deformation under Load .......................................................................................... Jun Sun, Jianglin Liu, Changlin Gui 112
Transient Behavior of ElastoMetalPlastic Journal Bearing during the Stage of Stop
................................................................................................................................ Jian Jin, Guoxian Zhang, Xiaojing Wang 116
Analyses on the Splashing Parameters of HighSpeed Oil Impacted a Wall in Jet Lubrications
.................................................................................................................. Le Gu, Zhenghuan Ye, Liqin Wang, Dezhi Zheng 120
Interferometry Measurement of Spinning Effect on Sliding EHL ........................................... F. Guo, X. M. Li, B. Fan 122
Effect of Wide Dimples on Planar Contact Lubrication ..... Jiadao Wang, Zhongling Han, Haosheng Chen, Darong Chen 125
Friction Properties and Microstructure of AlCuFe Nano Films ........................ Zhou Xiying, Liu Yanhui, Xu Zhou 127
Tribological Properties of Ti6Al4V Alloy by FOTS SelfAssembled Monolayers Modification Treatment
............................................................................................................................................... Sun Changguo, Zhang Huichen 130
Influence of Spinning Effect on the Rolling EHL Films ............................................................ X. M. Li, F. Guo, B. Fan 134
A Study on Lubrication Characteristics between Piston Ring and Cylinder Bore of BentAxis Type Piston Pump
............................................................JaeYoun Jung, IhnSung Cho, IlHyun Beak, HyunIl Shin, JaeCheon Jo, Lu Hong 136
The Fabrication and Lubricant Performance of MoS2 Nanotubes Arrays .......................Caihong Sun, Changsheng Li 140
The Research on the Lubricant Aging under Durability Test of the Porous Sliding Bearings
.................................................................................................................. Giemza Boleslaw, Kaldonski Tadeusz, Krol Artur 142
Models for Predicting Friction Coefficient and Parameters with Influence in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
................................................. P. Lafont Morgado, J. Echávarri Otero, J. B. SánchezPeñuela Lejarraga, J. L. Muñoz Sanz,
A. Díaz Lantada, J. M. MuñozGuijosa, H. Lorenzo Yustos, P. Leal Wiña 144
Elastohydrodynamic Film Thickness in Elliptical Contacts with Rolling and Spinning ........................ TaeJo Park 146
Experimental Study on the Tribological Properties of Pure Powder Lubrication under Plane Contact
......................................................................................................................Wang Wei, Liu Xiaojun, Liu Kun, Li Hongxian 151
IV
Content
Hydrodynamic Analysis and Experiment Verification of the HighPressure SmallFlow Centrifugal Pump
................................................................................................................................ Li Baoliang, Jiang QinYu, Pan Xinghe 153
Effect of Liquid Surface Tension and Viscosity on MicroBubble Induced by External Electric Field
.......................................................................................................................................................... Xie Guoxin, Luo Jianbin 155
Study of Water Lubrication in Sliding Point Contact Friction Pairs with Hydrophobic Surfaces
............................................................................................................ Zhizuo Ma, Chenhui Zhang, Shuhai Liu, Wenshi Zhu 157
A Simplified Numerical ElasticPlastic Contact Model for Rough Surfaces
............................................................................................. Zhanjiang Wang, Wenzhong Wang, Yuanzhong Hu, Hui Wang 159
Film Characteristics of Grease in Point Contact under MicroSwaying Motion
.............................................................................................Li Gang, Zhang Chenhui, Luo Jianbin, Liu Shuhai, Lu Xinchun 167
Effects of Solid Body Temperature on the NonNewtonian Thermal EHL Behavior in Point Contacts (Invited)
....................................................................................................................................................... Xiaoling Liu, Peiran Yang 169
Numerical Analysis on Dynamic Characteristics of Flying Magnetic Head with Ultra Thin Spacing
...................................................................................................................................................... Yao Huaping, Huang Ping 171
The Analysis of Higher Guide Bearing Pad Temperature and Its Fault Diagnosis
........................................................................................................................... Mei Gui, Gao Zhi, Liu Ying, Liu Xiangfeng 175
Pitting Life Prediction Based on a 3D Line Contact Mixed EHL Analysis and Subsurface von Mises Stress
Calculation (Invited) ................................................................................................Dong Zhu, Ning Ren, Q. Jane Wang 178
Numerical Lubrication Simulation of MetalonMetal Hip Joints: BallinSocket Model and BallonPlane Model
.......................................................................Wenzhong Wang, Fengcai Wang, Zhongmin Jin, D. Dowson, Yuanzhong Hu 180
Deterministic Simulation of Surfaces in ConformalContact Lubrication (Invited)
.....................................................................................................Shangwu Xiong, Chih Lin, Jane Q. Wang, Yansong Wang 182
Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Effect of Surface Texture on Fluid Film Formation
............................................................................................. Zhang Jinyu, Meng Yonggang, Le Chengning, Hideki OGATA 184
Marangoni Stress and Its Effects on the Flow in an Evaporating Sessile Droplet .............. Xuefeng Xu, Jianbin Luo 186
Film Forming Characteristics of OilinWater Emulsion with SuperLow Oil Concentration
................................................................................................................................... Ma Liran, Luo Jianbin, Zhang Chenhui 188
A Piston Lubrication Model Considering the Coupling between the Piston Secondary Motion and the
System Inertia Variation in an IC Engine ......................... Xiaoxiang Zhang, Zhinan Zhang, Ping Wang, Youbai Xie 191
Analysis of the Combined Effect of the Surface Roughness and Inertia on the Performance of HighSpeed
Hydrostatic Thrust Bearing .......................................................... Yang Xuebing, Xiong Wanli, Lü Lang, Hou Zhiquan 197
Study on the Efficiency of the NewStyle Reducer with the Green Lubricant
...............................................................................................Hu Junhong, Jin Yingli, Guo Dan, Ding Jinyuan, He Weidong 202
Pressure Dependence of the Limiting Shear Stress Coefficient of Liquid Lubricants ......G. T. Y. Wan, P. L. Wong 206
A Method of Dual Number for the Aerodynamic Property Analysis of GasLubricated Mechanism:
SelfPressurizing Thrust Bearings and NonContacting Face Seals ...............Wanfu Xu, Bin Geng, Chunjing Shi 211
A Model for the Calculation of the MicroPores Number of Compressively Molded Polyimide Porous
Materials ................................................................................................. Yuping Pu, Jianmin Chen, Peng Zhao, Qunji Xue 216
Frictional Dynamics in a Two Dimensional FrenkelKontorova Model with Square Lattice Symmetry
............................................................................................... Juna Wei, Canglong Wang, Wenshan Duan, Jianmin Chen 220
Advances in investigation of ElastoAerodynamic Lubrication in Compliant Foil Bearings (Invited)
.........................................................................................................................................Lie Yu, Shemiao Qi, Haipeng Geng 225
Normal Stress Effects in Journal Bearing Lubrication with Maxwell Fluid
......................................................................................................... Li Xiaodi, Chen Haosheng, Chen Darong, Wang Jiadao 231
V
Content
VI
Content
Experimental Study on Runningin of Steel Fiction Pair of Block on Disk in Oil with MicroandNano
Diamond Powder .......................................................................................................... X. P. Xie, Z. G. Wang, S. L. Chen 315
Thermomechanical Properties and Tribological Behavior of CaCO3 Whisker Reinforced
Polyetheretherketone Composites ................................................................. Lin Youxi, Gao Chenghui, Chen Minghui 319
Corrosive Fretting Wear Behavior of a Titanium Alloy TC11 in Artificial Seawater
..........................................................................................................................H. Y. Ding, Z. D. Dai, Y. Zhang, G. H. Zhou 322
Investigation on Rolling Contact Fatigue and Wear Properties of Railway Rail
................................................................................................................... Wenjian Wang, Wen Zhong, Jun Guo, Qiyue Liu 327
Superlubricity Characteristics Using Ceramic Composite Mineral Powder as Lubricating Oil Additive
........................................................................................................................ Yuzhou Gao, Wengang Chen, Huichen Zhang 329
On the WearResistance of ZincBased Composites Reinforced by Modified Silicon Phase
........................ Zhao Haofeng, Wang Ling, Wang Wei, Tan Xingxuan, Huang Tingli, Xia Zhengjun, Liu Yanling, Liu Bin 333
On the WearResistance of LowAlloyed Steel Modified by Inoculants
............................................ Wang Ling, Zhao Haofeng, Yan Kai, Liu Bin, Wang Wei, Chen Xi, Qin Qing, Wang Zhigang,
He Jun, Liu Mengyin, Liu Zhigang, Wu Hongyan 336
Research on Worn Mechanism of DiscBrake Pair Materials for Drilling Rig
.......................................................................................................................X. H. Wang, S. W. Zhang, D. G. Wang, N. Wu 338
Modelling of SelfLubrication in Frictional Interaction ......................................................................... I. G. Goryacheva 344
An AsperityContact Based Oxidation Model for Fretting Wear with the Presence of Debris
..................................................................................................................J. Ding, S. B. Leen, E. J. Williams, P. H. Shipway 346
Rolling Contact Fatigue of Silicon Nitride Balls under Pure Rolling Condition
..............................................................................................Zhou Jingling, Chen Xiaoyang, Zhang Peizhi, Wu Guoqing 348
Influence of Different External Pressure on the ThermoMechanical Coupling of the Rough Surface
during Sliding Contact ......................................................................................................J. M. Huang, C. H. Gao, Z. Liu 350
Effect of Transverse Surface Topography on Cavitation Erosion.................. Y. Li, Z. Xu, H. Chen, J. Wang, D. Chen 356
The Theory of Debris Group in Ferrographic Analysis ................................ Tonggang Liu, Xiaohang Tang, Zhiyi Yang 361
A Method to Monitor Nonferrous Debris in Ferrographic Analysis .................Liu Tonggang, Liu Shujin, Yang Zhiyi 366
Interaction between MicroParticales and Bubbles in CavitationErosion of HydroMachinery
........................................................................ Wang Jiadao, Chen Haosheng, Xu Yanji, Qin Li, Li Yongjian, Chen Darong 368
Magnetization of Friction Surfaces and Wear Particles under Tribological Processes ..... Alan Hase, Hiroshi Mishina 370
Wear Progress Prediction of Carbide Tool in Turning of AISI1045 by Using FEM
.................................................................................................... Xie L.J., Schmidt C., Biesinger F., Schmidt J., Pang S.Q. 372
Friction and Wear Properties of Fe7Mo6Based Alloy under the Lubrication of EthylAlcohol
.............................................................................................................................. T. Murakami, H. Mano, Y. Hibi, S. Sasaki 376
Seizure of PEEK and Its Composite at High Sliding Velocity in Oil Lubrication ............. T. Akagaki, M. Kawabata 378
Tribological Behavior of Chromium Alloyed Layer Prepared on Surface of TiAl
................................................................Zhiyong He, Xiaofeng Wang, Ying Fan, Zhenxia Wang, Xiaoping Liu, Zhong Xu 384
Wear Characteristics under Boundary Lubrication Contacts in Phosphorated Starch Based
Electrorheological Fluids ....................................... ChulHee Lee, YoungMin Han, Jung Woo Sohn , SeungBok Choi 386
Abrasive Wear Mechanisms of Multi Component Ferrous Alloys Abraded by Soft, Fine Abrasive
Particles (Invited) ....................................................................................................De Mello, J. D. B., Polycarpou, A. A. 388
The Analyzes of Mutual Influence of Contact Spots in Sliding Contact of a Periodic Surface and
a Viscoelastic Foundation ..................................................................................................................... Lyubicheva A. N. 390
Different NanoFillers on the Tribological Properties of PTFE Nanocomposites
............................................................................................................... Huaiyuan Wang, Xin Feng, Liwen Mu, Xiaohua Lu 392
VII
Content
Study on Surface Passivation Treatment and Tribological Properties of 1Cr18Ni9Ti Stainless Steel in
Hydrogen Peroxide ............... Wang Jihui, Gu Kali, Yuan Chengqing, Sun Xianming, Hu Sheng, Hu Xiaozhong, Li Jian 396
High Speed Tribology: Some Developments on Thermal Behaviors (Invited) ..............Zhang Yongzhen, Qiu Ming 402
Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of CuGraphite Composite within a Wide Range of Sliding Velocity
.............................................................................................................................................................. Wenlin Ma, Jinjun Lu 404
Tribological Aspects of Control over Frictional Interaction between Solids in the Presence of Liquid Crystals
...............................................................................................................................................S. F. Ermakov, A.V. Mikelionis 406
Effects of the Concentration of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Solution and NaCl Additive on the
PotentialControlled Friction ................................................................................Siqing He, Yonggang Meng, Yu Tian 408
Study of Wear and Corrosion Properties of Coated Ionic Liquid
..... Zhang Xiaohao, Zhang Xiangjun, Liu Yonghe, Mikhail Kosinsky, Imad Ahmed, Stefan Krischok, Juergen A. Schaefer 413
Deformation Behavior of Al4Cu2Mg Alloy during Cold Upset Forging
..................................................................J Babu Rao, Syed Kamaluddin, J Appa Rao, M M M Sarcar, N R M R Bhargava 417
Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Pure Aluminium and AlCu Alloys ........ A Narendra Kumar, R Srinivasu, J Babu Rao 422
Tribological Properties of SparkPlasmaSintered Al2O3SrSO4 SelfLubricating Nanocomposites at Elevated
Temperatures ............................. Yufeng Li, Jiahu Ouyang, Yaming Wang, Yu Zhou, Takashi Murakami, Shinya Sasaki 426
Tribological Behaviors of Some Materials in Sea Water ............................ Jianzhang Wang, Fengyuan Yan, Qunji Xue 430
Nanofretting Wear of Monocrystalline Silicon (100) against Spherical SiO2 Tip in Vacuum
..........................................................................................................Jiaxin Yu, Linmao Qian, Bingjun Yu, Zhongrong Zhou 433
Influence of Surface Finishing Operations on the Reciprocating Sliding Friction and Wear Response of
WC Based Cemented Carbides
..............................................K. Bonny, P. De Baets, W. Ost, S. Huang, J. Vleugels, O. Van der Biest, W. Liu, B. Lauwers 435
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Titanium Reinforced Polybenzimidazole Composites
...................................................................................................................................Lu Yanhua, Chen Jianmin, Zhou Huida 437
Friction and Wear Behavior of Laser Cladding NiAl/hBN SelfLubricating Composite Coating
.......................................................... Shitang Zhang, Jiansong Zhou, Baogang Guo, Huidi Zhou, Yuping Pu, Jianmin Chen 442
Research on the WearResisting Material Produced by Vacuum Evaporation Pattern Casting
........................................................................................................ Jianxiu Liu, Yongjun Liu, Minxin Zheng, Xiangke Ning 443
Effect of Surface Topography on Friction and Wear of Cast Iron for Cylinder Liners
............................................................................................................................J. Keller, V. Fridrici, Ph. Kapsa, J. F. Huard 447
Wear Resistance Analysis of Hardening Materials for Engine Cylinder .......Jianmin Sun, Qinghui Zhou, Gequn Shu 449
Effects of Speed Sequence on Friction Properties of Sintered CuSiO2
..................................................................................................................... Fei Gao, Rong Fu, Baoyun Song, Yves Berthier 454
The Fluid Dynamic Lubrication between Tooth Surfaces of High Order Contact........................................ L. Huran 457
Study on Friction and Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber and Fly Ash Reinforced MC Nylon Composites
.......................................................................................................................... S. H. Zhang, G. Chen, C. Cui, C. Mi, F. Tian 460
Experimental Study of Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Sapphire Substrate
.....................................................................................Wenhu Xu, Xinchun Lu, Guoshun Pan, Jianbin Luo, Chenhui Zhang 464
Friction and Wear of the Ceramic Coating Formed on Magnesium Alloy
....................................................................................................................Fei Chen, Hai Zhou, Qingfeng Zhang, Fanxiu Lv 467
ThermalMechanical Couple Simulation of Solid Brake Disc in Repeated Braking Cycles
........................................................................Pyung Hwang, Xuan Wu, YoungBae Jeon, QiCheng Peng, HeeChang Seo 471
Preliminary Applications of King’s ART Technology in Industry ..................Ling Chen, Yayue Zhao, Yuansheng Jin 473
Wear Properties of Potassium Titanate Whiskers Reinforced ZL109 Alloy Composites
..................................................................................................................................................Wei Zhongshan,Wu Shenqing 475
VIII
Content
ċ. Micro/Nanotribology
Nano and Micro Indentation and Scratch Tests of Mechanical Properties of Thin Films
.............................................................................................................Norm V. Gitis, Ilja Hermann, Suresh Kuiry, Jun Xiao 489
Synthesis of NanoMoS2 Particles and Its Role in the SelfLubrication of PolyacetalBased Composite
..............................................................................................................Xianguo Hu, Kunhong Hu, Yufu Xu, Ralph Stengler 491
Analysis of a ThreeBody Contacting Model with the Adhesive Effect ...............JengHaur Horng, ChinChung Wei 493
Analysis of ThreeBody Contacting Model with Scale Effect.................................ChinChung Wei, JengHaur Horng 495
Adhesion, Friction and Wear Measurements at Microscale
.............................................................................................N. Myshkin, A. Grigoriev, A. Kovalev, W. Scharff, E. Kovalev 497
Fabrication and NanoTribological Behaviors of PDDA/Ag NPs Composite Molecular Deposition Films
..................................................................................Xiao Yuqi, Wang Deguo, Zhang Siwei, Guo Yanbao, Gao Manglai 499
Frequency Shift of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube under Axial Load
.............................................................Kan Biao, Ding Jianning, Cheng Guanggui, Wang Xiuqin, Fan Zhen, Ling Zhiyong 503
Effect of Heat Treatment on the NanoTribological Properties of Ionic Liquid Films
............................................................................................................Wenjie Zhao, Deming Huang, Jibing Pu, Mingwu Bai 505
Analysis on Wafer Tilt Effects in CMP Process ..........................................Chaohui Zhang, Zicheng Wang, Yan Wang 507
Size Effects on Friction of C3602 in Cylinder Compression ..............Bin Guo, Feng Gong, Chunju Wang, Debin Shan 509
Investigation on the Tribological Characteristics of Nano/Micro Solid AntiWear Additives
in Engine Lubricants ........................................................ Zhang Kejin, Wang Dan, Pan Yanchun, Lu Yun, Han Zhiyong 511
The Influence of Carbon Nanotubes on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Resistance of a Polyamide
Nanocomposite ......................................................................................... B. May, M. R. Hartwich, R. Stengler, X. G. Hu 515
Experimental Investigation of the Frictional Behaviors at ParticleSurface Interfaces in CMP Application
Using an Atomic Force Microscope .............................................................InHa Sung, HungGu Han, Hosung Kong 516
Finite Element Simulation and Analysis of NanoScale Adhesive Contacts..................... Liu Yuan, Zhang Xiangjun 518
Nano/MicroTribological Properties of Ultrathin Functionalized Imidazolium Ionic Liquid Films
on Silicon Wafer ............................................................................................................................. Yufei Mo, Mingwu Bai 520
Micro Asperity Type Induced in Electrostatic Resistance of MEMS ....... Xuejin Shen, Licheng Hou, Xiaoyang Chen 522
Experimental Analysis and Numerical Simulation of the Recess Slider in Magnetic Recording System
with UltraThin Spacing .....................................................................................Rongjun Niu, Hongbin Liu, Ping Huang 528
Effect of Solvents on Frictional Properties of Monolayer Lubricant Films Coated on Magnetic Disk
Surfaces (Invited).............................................. Hedong Zhang, Yasunaga Mitsuya, Yosuke Fujikawa, Kenji Fukuzawa 531
FlyAbility and Durability Test of Dynamic Fly Height Heads at 1 nm Clearance
.......................................................................................................Ning Li, David B. Bogy, Lanshi Zheng, Yonggang Meng 533
Cavitation Erosion Characteristics of Titanium Alloy Thin Film Prepared by Ion Beam
Enhanced Deposition ...................................................................................... Zhang Huichen, Gao Yuzhou, Zhou Rixue 536
Measurements of Vertical Elongation and Adhesive Force of NanometersThick Lubricant Films
on Magnetic Disks Using Micro Probe for SPM
........................ Yasuji Ohshima, Hedong Zhang, Yasunaga Mitsuya, Masayuki Watanabe, Takashi Sumi, Kenji Fukuzawa 540
IX
Content
Experimental Research on Boundary Slip of Confined Liquids at Micro/Nano Scale and Effect of
Shear Rate and Viscosity .................................................... Wang Xin, Zhang Xiangjun, Meng Yonggang, Wen Shizhu 542
Study on MicroScale Gas Slider Bearing with Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method
...............................................................................................................................................Yanrui Zhang, Yonggang Meng 544
Tribological Behaviors of SelfAssembled DualLayer Films in Atmosphere and in Vacuum
...........................................................................................Bingjun Yu, Linmao Qian, Jiaxin Yu, Jun Luo, Zhongrong Zhou 546
Research on Fractal Contact Model of Cylinders’ Surface.......................................... Huang Kang, Zhao Han, Chen Qi 548
Friction between DiamondLike Carbon (DLC) Films—a Molecular Dynamics Study
..................................................................................................................................Tianbao Ma, Yuanzhong Hu, Hui Wang 554
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of AtomicScale Friction in DiamondSilver Sliding System
................................................................................................................................ Pengzhe Zhu, Hui Wang, Yuanzhong Hu 556
Molecular Dynamics Study on Carbon Nanotubes Sandwiched between Si Surface
...........................................................................................................................................Li Rui, Hu Yuanzhong, Wang Hui 558
Tribological Aspects of Nanoimprint Process (Invited) .......................................................................Zygmunt Rymuza 560
Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Effect of Crystallographic Orientation on NanoIndentation/Scratching
Behaviors of BCC Iron .............. Cheng Lu, Yuan Gao, Guillaume Michal, Hongtao Zhu, Nam N. Huynh, A. Kiet Tieu 562
3D Misorientation of Cantilevers and Its Impact in Friction Force Microscopy
.............................................................................................................................Guillaume Michal, Cheng Lu, A. Kiet Tieu 564
Coupled Simulative Analysis for Drive Characteristic of MicroComb Structure..............................D. Guo, Y. Zhu 566
Relating Friction and Processes Development during ChemicalMechanical Polishing (CMP)
.............................................................................................................................. Filip Ilie, Tiberiu Laurian, Constantin Tita 571
An Irreversible Thermodynamics Theory for Friction and Wear (Invited) ...........................................Zhendong Dai 576
Fabrication and Flying Test of Silicon Sliders .................................................... Jing Lin, Yonggang Meng, Nanhai Song 579
Surface Damages on Silicon Surfaces Created by Large Silica Cluster Impacts:
Molecular Dynamics Simulation....................................................... Ruling Chen, Jianbin Luo, Dan Guo, Xinchun Lu 582
Silicon Oxide Surface Chemistry and NanoTribology (Invited) ............................................................Seong H. Kim 584
Dynamic Testing for Evaluation of HDI Robustness
.............................................................................Zhi Sheng Deng, Li Zhi Su, Eric Lap Pang Lam, Eric Cheuk Wing Leung 586
Effect of Wall Roughness on Electroosmotic Flow in Microchannels .................................................Y. Liu, D. Yang 588
Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring System: Friction and Its Control (Invited) .................................. Yonghe Liu 592
X
Content
XI
Content
XII
Content
XIII
Content
č. Biotribology
The Biotribological Behavior Researches on the Tocopherol Doped and GammaIrradiated UHMWPE
..............................................................................................................................................................Ni Zifeng, Ge Shirong 823
The Effects of Protein and pH on the TriboCorrosion Performance of Cast CoCrMo —A Combined
Electrochemical and Tribological Study ............................................................D. Sun, J. A. Wharton, R. J. K. Wood 825
Biotribological Properties of Carburized Titanium Alloys ...............Yong Luo, Shirong Ge, Zhongmin Jin, John Fisher 827
Effect of Corrosion and Biofilm on Friction Behavior in Biotribocorrosion System for MetalonMetal
Hip Prosthesis ......................................................Yu Yan, Anne Neville, Duncan Dowson, John Fisher, Sophie Williams 829
A Microscopic Model for Pedestrian Slips Caused by Particle Contamination
................................................................................ HungJung Tsai, HungCheng Tsai, PayYau Huang, ChihHsiang Liao 831
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Aspherical MetalonMetal Artificial Hip Joints
.................................................................. Qingen Meng, Leiming Gao, Feng Liu, Peiran Yang, Fisher John, Zhongmin Jin 833
LongTerm ContactCoupled Wear Prediction for Total MetalonMetal Hip Joint Replacement
...................................................................................... Muhamad Noor Harun, Zhongmin Jin, Fengchai Wang, John Fisher 835
The Molecular Orientation Induced by MultiDirectional Sliding in the UHMWPE Used for the Artificial
Joint Replacements ........Lu Kang, Eric Lewis, Jagan Mohanraj, Tom Brown, David Barton, Zhongmin Jin, John Fisher 837
Radial Displacements in a Thin SemiSpherical Layer of Biphasic Articular Cartilage for Use in EHL
Models of Natural Hip Joints .................................................................................. A Félix Quiñonez, J Fisher, Z M Jin 839
Investigations of the Sliding Friction Behaviors of Locusts on Slippery Trapping Plate
...................................................................................................................................... Wang Lixin, Zhang Xin, Zhou Qiang 841
Tribology of Sequentially Irradiated and Annealed UHMWPE with and without Impingement
.......................................................................... Aaron Essner, Lizeth Herrera, Reginald Lee, Jason Longaray, Aiguo Wang 843
Study on UHMWPE Carrying Estradiol to Treat the ParticleInduced Osteolysis
....................................................................... Shuxin Qu, Aiqin Liu, Xiaomin Liu, Shengfu Li, Jie Weng, Zhongrong Zhou 845
Friction and Wear Characteristics of UHMWPE Studied by Orthogonal Method
.................................................................................................................................... Wu Gang, Zhao Chunhua, Zhao Xinze 847
Wear Mechanism of Sliding Tracks between Femoral Head and Acetabular Cup of Artificial Joint
......................................................................................................Wang Shibo, Wang Qingliang, Ge Shirong, Zhang Dekun 851
Dynamic Contacting Characteristic of Natural Articular Cartilage under Reciprocating Sliding
....................................................................................................................................................... Qian Shanhua, Ge Shirong 853
Application of Principal Component Analysis and Fuzzy CMeans Clustering Algorithm to
the Classification of UHMWPE Wear Debris from Artificial Joints
.............................................................................................J. P. Wu, X. P. Yan, C. Q. Yuan, X. C. Zhou, Z. Jin, J. L. Tipper 855
Numerical Surface Characterization of Wear Debris from Artificial Joints Using Atomic Force Microscopy
.............................................................................................................................. C. Q. Yuan, X. P. Yan, Z. Jin, J. L. Tipper 857
A Novel Propelling Mechanism Based on Frictional Interaction for Endoscope Robot
............................................................................................................................................... YoungTae Kim, DaeEun Kim 859
Study on the Release of Estradiol form UHMWPE Loading Estradiol Wear Debris in vitro
...............................................................Xiaomin Liu, Aiqin Liu, Shuxin Qu, Xiaohong Li, Linmao Qian, Zhongrong Zhou 861
A New Method to Simulate Wear within the Patellofemoral Joint of TKR
............................................................................................................................P. Ellison, D. C. Barton, Z. M. Jin, J. Fisher 863
Modification and Tribological Study on Implant Polymers of Hip Prosthesis ......................................Maoquan Xue 865
Dynamic Contact Model of BioAdhesive Pads of Animals: Simulation Experiments
..........................................................Xiong Yi, Xiangjun Zhang, Imad Ahmed, Michael Kosinsky, Yonghe Liu, J Schaefer 867
Examination of Biolox®delta from Serum Lubricated Reciprocating Sliding Wear ........... L. Ma, W. M. Rainforth 869
Lubrication of Synovial Joints (Invited) ........................................................................................................ Zhongmin Jin 871
XIV
Content
Ď. Tribochemistry
Mechanism and Applications of Chemical and Mechanical Polishing (Invited)
.................................................................................................................................. Xinchun Lu, Guoshun Pan, Jianbin Luo 875
Tribological Performance of BiomassOil from Straw Product
............................................................................................................... Xianguo Hu, Qiongjie Wang, Yufu Xu, Xifeng Zhu 876
Extreme Pressure Properties and Mechnism of Bismuth Naphthenate with Sulfur Containing Additives
........................................................................................................ Huanqin Zhu, Jianqiang Hu, Yongguo Zhang, Yiwei Fei 878
Synthesis and Tribology Properties of Stearate Coated Ag Nanoparticles
............................................................................................................... Lei Sun, Xiaojun Tao, Pingyu Zhang, Zhijun Zhang 880
Filtrate Reducer Activity and Antiwear Behavior of Drilling Fluid Doped with an NonConventional Additive
.................................................................................. Wei Danping, Geng Zhiyong, Liu Xiaoyu, Yan Lili, Wang Chengbiao 882
Utilization of Industrial and Agricultural Wastes as a Source of Lubricants, Additives and Fuels ....... Wei Danping 884
Effect of Tribochemical Reaction on Friction and Wear of DLC under Lubrication with Ionic Liquids at
HighVacuum Condition (Invited)
........................................................ Shinya Sasaki, Tsutomu Yagi, Hiroki Mano, Koji Miyake, Miki Nakano, Takao Ishida 886
Tribochemical Reaction of Ionic Liquids on Sliding Metal Surfaces
........................................................ Tsutomu Yagi, Shinya Sasaki, Hiroki Mano, Koji Miyake, Miki Nakano, Takao Ishida 888
The Tribological Properties of OilSoluble NanoCopper and NanoSilica Particles as Additives of
Lubricating Oils............................................................................................. Jingjing Huang, Xiaohong Li, Zhijun Zhang 890
Preparation and Tribological Properties of Monodispersed Metallic CuSn Alloy Nanoclusters with
Modified Surface .................................................................... Tao Zhao, Rong Sun, Shuhui Yu, Ruxu Du, Zhijun Zhang 892
Tribological Studies on a Novel Borate Ester Containing Benzothiazol2yl and Disulfide Groups as EP
and Multifunctional Additive ...................................................................... Yonggang Wang, Jiusheng Li, Tianhui Ren 894
Tribological Behavior of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy against SAE52100 Steel under Ionic Liquid
Lubricated Conditions ........................................................................................Yanqiu Xia, Zhengfeng Jia, Junhong Jia 896
Tribological Characteristics of Magnesium Alloy Using BNContaining Additives under Boundary
Lubricating Condition ............................................................................ Zhengfeng Jia, Yanqiu Xia, Weimin Liu, Bin Li 899
Synthesis of YPO4 Nanoparticals vis Microemulsion Method and Its Friction Properties of
Lubricating Oils........................................................................................... Limin Zhao, Xin Shao, Yibin Yin, Wenzhi Li 903
A Protective Coating Formed insitu on the Cylinder Bore in Presence of Mg6Si4O10(OH)8
.............................................................................................................................................. Zhongxue Yang, Yuansheng Jin 905
Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Copper in Organic Phosphonic Acid System Slurry
..........................................................................................Zhang Wei, Lu Xinchun, Liu Yuhong, Pan Guoshun, Luo Jianbin 906
Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Copper Using Ethylenediamine and Hydrogen Peroxide
Based Slurry ..................................................................... Ping Liu, Xinchun Lu, Yuhong Liu, Jianbin Luo, Guoshun Pan 908
Rheological and Tribological Characteristics of Chemically Modified Rapeseed Oil
.............................................................................................................. Li Qinghua, Tao Dehua, Zhang Jianhua, Mo Yunhui 912
Research on FrictionCoatings with Activated UltraThick TinBase
................................................................................................................. Mo Yunhui, Tao Dehua,Wei Xicheng, Li Qinghua 915
Surfactants Lubricating Oil Additives (Invited) ........................................................................ S. Plaza, L. Margielewski 920
ď. Industry Tribology
Efficient Tribology Testing of Lubricating Oils with NanoAdditives................................... Norm V. Gitis, Jun Xiao 925
Manufacture and Characterization of C/CSiC Fabricated by Warm Compactedin situ Reacted Process
..........................................................................................................................................Li Zhuan, Xiao Peng, Xiong Xiang 926
XV
Content
Experimental Investigations on Relationship between Sorptive Properties, Surface Tension, Contact Angle
and Lubricity of Engine and Gear Oils ...................................................... Tomasz Jan Kaldonski, Tadeusz Kaldonski 928
The Latest Technology of Traction Drive HalfToroidal CVT ........................................Daping Liu, Takashi Imanishi 930
Long Life Bearing Technologies on Material Aspect ................ Peng Xiangduo, Yasuyuki Shimizu, Nobuaki Mitamura 932
Fault Diagnosis of Gear Using Oil Monitoring Samples and Vibration Data
.................................................................................................................. Cao Yibo, Xie Xiaopeng, Liu Yan, Ding Tianhuai 934
Prediction of Static Performance of BumpType Foil Bearings and Validation............ Kai Feng, Shigehiko Kaneko 940
Study on Condition Monitoring in Petrochemical Equipment Using Oil Analysis Technology
...............................................................................................................................Xiaopeng Xie, Wei Feng, Qiansheng Liao 942
Dynamic Mechanical Properties of PolymerLining and Their Effect on Coefficient of Friction
.................................................................................................................................Yuxing Peng, Zhencai Zhu, Guoan Chen 947
Machine Condition Monitoring and Remaining Life Prediction Using Integrated Approach
............................................................................................. S. Ebersbach, Zhongxiao Peng, Chengqing Yuan, Xinping Yan 949
Study on Condition Characteristics of TriboSystem and Its Description Method
....................................................................................................Xinping Yan, Chengqing Yuan, Xincong Zhou, Xiuqin Bai 957
Study of Tribological Faults and Their Prevention Approaches in Dredger
.......................................................................................................................... X. P. Yan, Y. H. Chen, A. N. Li, C. Q. Yuan 961
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication and Asperity Contact Simulation of Engine Main Bearing with Flexible
Rotating Crankshaft and Flexible Engine Block ............... Liang Chen, Xigeng Song, Dongxin Xue, Zhangjie Ming 967
Tribology Extenics Condition Evaluation Based on Case Reasoning
.............................................................................................................. Zhao Chunhua, Yu Zhiqiang, Zhao Xinze, Wu Gang 973
Effect of Surface Material on the Cavitation Erosion Noise: Experimental Investigation
............................................................................................................... Ge Han, Chen Haosheng, Chen Darong, Yan Dayun 977
Research on Mechanism of Casing Wear in SlidingImpact Wear Condition
........................................................................................................Fan Jianchun, Zhang Laibin, Chun Shengli, Yu Huiyuan 980
Durability of Phosphorated Starch Based ER Fluid under Damper........ C. H. Lee, J. W. Sohn, Y. M. Han, S. B. Choi 983
Effect of Different Atmosphere on Dry Friction Behavior of Steel Sliding against Brass at High Speed
...................................................................................................Qiu Ming, Zhang Yongzhen, Du Sanming , Shangguan Bao 989
A Study on the Application of a Mineral Additive in Lubricating Oil for Cylinder Liner
......................................................Yue Wen, Wang Chengbiao, Huang Haipeng, Wen Qingfeng, Liu Yuandong, Liu Jiajun 991
Effect of Ingredients in Slurry Containing Alumina on Polishing of Hard Disk Substrate
.....................................................Jiazhen Sun, Guoshun Pan, Yan Zhou, Yonghua Zhu, Jianbin Luo, Xinchun Lu, Yan Liu 993
Study on Dispersion Stability and SelfRepair Principle of UltrafineTungsten Disulfide Particulates
............................................................................................................................................................ Shi Chen, Mao Daheng 995
Research on MicroAbrasion Performances of TiN Coating in Simulated Body Fluid
................................................................................................................................ Weijiu Huang, Guo Wang, Zhaofeng Li 1000
MicroAbrasionCorrosion of Ti6Al4V Alloy in Simulated Artificial Hip Joint Environments
................................................................................................................................ Weijiu Huang, Guo Wang, Ziqin Zheng 1005
ChemicalMechanical Polishing of NiP Alloy for Hard Disk Drive Substrates
.............................................................................................................. Weiming Lee, Zuqiang Qi, Wanjia Lu, Jianbin Luo 1011
The Material Removal Rate of Metal Polishing Process ..............................................YeauRen Jeng, PayYau Huang 1013
Tool Life Modelling for HighSpeed Milling ...............................................................................Wu Delin, Zhou Yunfei 1015
NanoScratchingInduced Damages and Their Effect on Fracture Properties of a Single Crystal Sapphire
...........................................................................................................................................Yufu Liu, Y. Kagawa, K. Shiraki 1017
Interfacial Forces in ChemicalMechanical Polishing (Invited) ................................................ Dedy Ng, Hong Liang 1019
Influence of Water on the Tribological Behavior of Collector Materials against Railway Contact Wires at
High Sliding Speeds ........................................................................... L. M. Sun, D. C. Hu, B. Shangguan, Y. Z. Zhang 1020
Index of Authors ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1025
XVI
Proceedings of CIST2008 &
ITSIFToMM2008
Plenary Lectures
Current Industrial Activities of Tribology in China
Siwei Zhang
Chinese Tribology Institution (CTI), CMES
China Petroleum University, Beijing, China
Abstract: A recent investigation of the industrial China in 2006, the Chinese industrial enterprises can save
application of tribology in China is presented. This work 414.8 hundred million USD per year, namely, 1.55% of
is aimed mainly at finding out the current situation of gross national product (GNP) in 2006.
industrial activities of tribology and proposing some On the basis of the investigation, a general view of the
recommendations with the emphasis on the energy and current industrial activities of tribology in China was
material savings in the process of manufacture and obtained which has a practical significance for the
operation of machinery. Eight representative industries international community of tribology, and some
were selected as the investigated objects, namely recommendations dealing with industrial application,
metallurgical industry, energy (coal, electric power) and research and education were made and delivered to the
petrochemical industries, railway transport, automotive government departments concerned.
industry, agriculture machinery, shipping industry, aerospace Finally, the author highlights the green tribology from the
industry and military equipment. view point of ecological balance and sustained development.
It was found that owing to application of tribology, the Green tribology is considered as an important way to
sum total of the estimated potential savings of the first 6 propel the society forward sustainedly. It might be one of
investigated objects above mentioned is 103.61 hundred the key directions of technological progress of tribology in
million USD (according to the exchange rates in November striding forward towards the new century.
2006) per year. The first three contributors of savings are
automotive industry, metallurgical industry and railway (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
transport. Based on the above figure and the statistical data needs it.)
of valueadded of industry of all industrial enterprises in
3
Plenary Lectures—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Abstract: Carbonbased thin films have been subject of and the lattice spacing of 3.34±0.02 Å of the bulk graphite
extensive research over the last decade due to their are observed by HRTEM. Nanoindentation is an attractive
excellent properties, such as low friction coefficient, technique for analyzing the mechanical properties of thin
chemical inertness, infrared transparency, and high films independently of the substrate. The significant finding
hardness. The hardness of carbonbased films is usually for the nanoparticles hydrogenated carbon films with
linked to the presence of sp3 C–C bonds and these films are thickness of 1500 nm is the elastic recovery which is as
called diamondlike carbon. Recently, it was shown that high as 85%. The friction coefficient as a function of the
some nonhydrogenated carbon and carbon nitride films sliding time of the fullerenelike hydrogenated carbon films
containing a high number of sp2 bonds exhibit very against Si3N4 ball was assessed on a reciprocating
interesting properties, such as high hardness (up to 55 GPa) ballondisk tribotester. We found that the fullerenelike
combined with an extreme elasticity (elastic recovery of hydrogenated carbon films exhibited not only high hardness
85%). The combination of a hard and at the same time an and high elasticity concurrently, but also superlow friction
elastic material has been attributed to a ‘‘fullerenelike’’ coefficient (μ=0.009) in ambient atmosphere with 20%
microstructure. The fullerenelike materials composed of relative humidity. The lowtemperature deposition process
graphene multilayers, onions and nanotubes together with allows the fullerenelike structure carbon films to be
amorphous structures have been already synthesized by deposited atop hard or magnetic thin films to supply a
different physical vapor deposition techniques. Here, we superlow friction protective layer. Moreover, the finding
reported that fullerenelike nanostructure hydrogenated of the fullerenelike structure carbon films in this study will
carbon films can also be fabricated by plasma chemical definitely open a new avenue of carbon films’ research and
vapor deposition—pulsed glow discharge. The fabricated applications.
fullerenelike nanostructure hydrogenated carbon films
possess high hardness and high elasticity, more importantly, (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
the films exhibit ultralow friction under ambient condition needs it.)
with 20% relative humidity.
The fullerenelike nanostructure characterized by
curved graphite planes with interval of approximately 3.4 Å
4
Tribology in Nanomanufacturing—Interaction between Nanoparticles and a Solid Surface
5
Plenary Lectures—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Velocities of particles
800 Velocities of liquid
500
400
300
200
100
0 500 1000 1500 2000 Fig. 5 Collision, adsorption, and desorption of a nanoparticle
X (um)
on a solid surface [ 6]
Fig.3 Velocity distributions of solid phase in a micro channels
6
Tribology in Nanomanufacturing—Interaction between Nanoparticles and a Solid Surface
deionized water and SiO2 nanoparticles impacting obliquely on atom pileup also can be found on the surface and its maximum
a surface of a single crystal silicon wafer at a speed of 50 m/s height is approximately 15 Å. In addition, there are a few
with an incidence angle of 45º was performed as shown in Fig. crystal grain packets in which the lattice is distorted, and the
7 and Fig. 8 which is a picture captured by a high speed video orientations of the lattice fringes in the packets deviate from
camera. that of the matrix of the Si wafer.
7
Plenary Lectures—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
grains. With the increase of the exposure time, many pits and
scratches on the surface, an amorphous layer in the surface
layer, and an atom pileup in the outlet region of the scratch can
be found.
8
Tribology in Nanomanufacturing—Interaction between Nanoparticles and a Solid Surface
9
Plenary Lectures—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
modification of nanopartilces will reduce the agglomeration of [7] Xu J., Luo J.B., Lu X.C. et al., 2005, “Atomic scale
nanoparticles, the number of micro/nanoscratch, and the deformation in the solid surface induced by nanoparticle
number of adhesive particles on the solid surface. Smaller size impacts”, Nanotechnology, 16, pp.16.
and soft surface of particles, and a lower friction coefficient are [8] Duan F.L., Luo J.B., Wen S.Z., Wang J.X., 2005,
in favor of getting a smoother surface in CMP process. It also “Atomistic structural change of silicon surface under a
indicates that tribology is very important in the nanoparticle collision”, Chinese Science Bulletin, 50(15),
nanomanufacturing. pp. 16611665.
[9] Chen R.L, Luo J.B, Guo D., Lu X.C, 2008, “Extrusion
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS formation mechanism on silicon surface under the silica
cluster impact studied by molecular dynamics
The work is financially supported by the International Science
simulation”, Journal of Applied Physics, 104(10),
& Technology Cooperation Project and NSFC with the Grant
pp.104907.
No. 50721004.
[10] Chen R.L., Luo J.B., Guo D., Lu X.C., 2008, “Phase
transformation during silica cluster impact on crystal
silicon substrate studied by molecular dynamics
REFERENCES simulation”, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics
[1] Yang M.C., Luo J.B., Wen S.Z. et al., 2001, Research Section BBeam Interactions with Materials
“Investigation of X1P coating on magnetic head to and Atoms, 266(14), pp.32313240.
enhance the stability of head/disk interface”, Science in [11] Chen R.L., Luo J.B., Guo D., Lu X.C., 2009, “Energy
China, 44 (Supp.), pp. 400406. transfer under impact load studied by molrcular dynamic
[2] Shen M.W., Luo J.B., Wen S.Z. et al., 2001, “Nano simulation”, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 11, pp.
tribological properties and mechanisms of the liquid 589600.
crystal as an additive”, Chinese Science Bulletin, 46(14), [12] Chen R.L., 2008, “The collision mechanism between the
pp.12271232. silica cluster and the silicon surface studied by molecular
[3] Wang H., Hu Y.Z., and Guo Y., 2004, “Molecular dynamics simulation”, PHD Disertation of Tsinghua
dynamics study of the interfacial slip phenomenon in University, China.
ultrathin lubricating film”, Lubrication Science, 16(3), [13] Luo J.B., Hu Y.Z., and Wen S.Z., 2008, Physics and
pp.303314. Chemistry of Micro/Nanotribology, ASTM International,
[4] Xu X.F., Luo J.B., and Yan J., 2008, “A PIV system for Maryland in USA.
twophase flow with nanoparticles”, Int. J. Surface [14] Wang Y.G., Zhao Y.W., 2007, “Modeling the effects of
Science and Engineering, 2(1/2), pp.168175. cohesive energy for single particle on the material
[5] Xu X.F., Luo J.B., 2007, “Marangoni flow in an removal in chemical mechanical polishing at atomic
evaporating water droplet”, Applied Physics Letters, scale.”, Appl Surf Sci, 253, pp91379141.
91(12), pp.124102.
[6] Xu X.F., Luo J.B., Lu X.C., Zhang C.H., Guo D., 2008, .
“Effect of nanoparticle impact on material removal”,
Tribology Transactions, 51(6), pp718722.
10
Tribology at Small Scales
Steve Granick
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
Abstract: The design of tribological interfaces is often the prominent twodimensional fluids known as
motivated by a quest to minimize friction and wear. Many phospholipid bilayers. The issues discussed in this talk
of the most important advances of recent years come from point the way to possible new strategies for energysaving
new techniques capable of characterization at small scales during fluid transport and have relevance to filtration,
and even at the level of individual molecules. This talk will colloidal dynamics, and microfluidic devices.
tests of the StokesEinstein equation in molecularlythin
films, of modifying the boundary conditions of fluid flow, (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
from stick to slip, and of extending tribology research to needs it.)
11
Plenary Lectures — Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Hugh A. Spikes
Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, UK
Abstract: The level activity in tribology research areas of very active current research will then be discussed,
worldwide is currently higher than it have ever been, including the texturing of surfaces to reduce friction,
largely due to three linked drivers, the need to save energy research in thin film, boundary lubrication and the
and reduce CO2 emissions, demand for improved quality of application of high performance computing to simulate
life and rapid progress in machine minaturisation. This lubricated systems.
presentation will explore how these drivers are influencing
current research in tribology, with a particular focus on (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
their impact on liquid lubrication. A number of specific needs it.)
12
Proceedings of CIST2008 &
ITSIFToMM2008
Keynote Talks
EHL with Grease at Low Speeds
Yoshitsugu Kimura*
The Univ. of Tokyo/Kagawa Univ., 521104 Nagayama, Tamashi, Tokyo, 2060025 Japan
“SLIM” EXPERIMENT
INTRODUCTION
It may be a simple interpretation of elastohydrodynamic Apparatus
lubrication (EHL) with grease that the base oil alone performs The spacer layer imaging technique (SLIM) [1] was
lubrication and the thickener serves as its retainer. This is employed to observe grease film between a glass disk and a
almost true at high speeds where the apparent viscosity of steel ball in pure rolling contact. The glass disk had a
grease decreases to a low value comparable to that of the base chromium coating and a silica spacer layer on it. As shown in
oil. At low speeds, on the other hand, the thickener causes Fig.1, two ways of image processing were used. One was to
the apparent viscosity of grease to increase until it behaves like determine the central film thickness from the wavelength of
a solid, and some lubrication mechanism particular to grease is the maximum constructive interference on an intensity vs
expected to prevail. Since lowspeed rolling contact bearings wavelength curve, while the other was to determine the general
with grease lubrication are widely used in practice, film shape over the contact from the interference image.
understanding the particular lubrication mechanism of grease
is of considerable importance for optimum selection of its Sample Greases
constituents. Five sample greases marked A to E are listed in detail in
Today, we have an excellent means to study this Table 1. All these greases were prepared with synthetic
mechanism, namely ultrathinfilm optical interferometry, hydrocarbon as the base oils. Greases A to C were made with
which has made it possible to determine the thickness of EHL base oils of different viscosity 25, 81 and 741 mPa᱅s at 25°C,
film at very low speeds [1]. On loglog plots of the central film respectively, and with the common thickener, lithium stearate.
thickness vs entrainment speed, most fluids showed linearity Greases D and E were made with the same base oil as B and
General film
shape
CCD camera
Spectrometer
Microscope
Film thickness
Steel ball Glass disk measurement
Cr/SiO2
Load
Fig.1 Schematic of the interferometry setup
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed.
15
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
16
EHL with Grease at Low Speeds
apex angle and a plate was filled with the sample grease. The 1Hz 2Hz
5Hz 10Hz
cone was driven in a sinusoidal angular oscillation manner to 104 20HzǂǂƸ 50Hz
give a uniform shear strain in the sample and the average torque 3
over 5s transmitted to the plate was recorded to determine the 10
shear stress. The frequency of the oscillation was set to a 102
constant and the amplitude of the shear strain was increased
from 0.01 to 1000% in 25 steps, and this series of measurement 101
was repeated for different frequencies from 1 to 50Hz with new Grease A
100
grease samples. In the cases of high frequencies, 20 and 50Hz,
103 102 101 100 101 102 103
the maximum shear strain was 100% because of the capacity of 1
Shear rate/s
the rheometer. All measurement was conducted at 25°C.
Fig.8 The generalized viscosity of grease B
0.5
5 W0 J0 Figure 8 gives thus determined generalized viscosity of
WˈkPa
Jˈ
0 0
grease A in a function of the shear rate and the oscillation
0 1 2 3 4 5
frequency; the arrays of symbols represent its measured values
5 and a chain curve is the apparent viscosity Ka approximated by
0.5
the Bauer model to give the bestfit envelope.
(a) J0 = 4.6%, G = 0.43 In the low shear rate region, K* becomes smaller than Ka
1 showing the effect of viscoelasticity and, with decreasing shear
50
rate, K* tends to level off. In this region, K* is dependent on
WˈkPa
both the shear rate and the oscillation frequency, and the higher
Jˈ
0
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 the frequency the broader the region. In the medium shear rates,
K* asymptotically approaches Ka with increasing shear rate,
50
1 where K* depends on shear rate but becomes irrelevant to the
frequency. At much higher shear rates, say 105s1 or higher,K*
(b) J0 = 46%, G = 0.85 is expected to approach a low viscosity of the base oil which is
1.5 independent of the shear rate or the frequency. These features
500
have commonly been found for all the sample greases.
WˈkPa
Jˈ
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5
REPRESENTATION OF RHEOLOGY
500
1.5
CarreauYasuda Equation
(c) J0 = 460%, G = 1.30 For incorporating such nonNewtonian behavior into a
simplified EHL formulation, the CarreauYasuda equation [4]
Fig.7 Examples of the records of the rheometry K * ( P1 P2 ) 1 (OJ )a
( n 1) / a
>
P2 (4) @
17
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
is employed to represent the atmospheric viscosity, and the has to be determined. For this purpose, the “time scale of
abovedetermined values of the generalized viscosity are used observation” tp is introduced to compare those two conditions.
for K*. This is an empirical equation used for describing In the rheometry, tp is defined by the reciprocal of the oscillation
rheology of polymer melts or polymer solutions, and depicts a frequency, while for the EHL contact it is defined by the passing
transition of a generalized viscosity K* from the first, high time of the ball/disk surface across the Hertzian area.
Newtonian viscosity P at low shear rates to the second, low Then the procedure of the EHL calculation at a specific
Newtonian viscosity P at high shear rates. The three entrainment speed is as follows:
parameters are used to characterize the transition: it occurs at (1) Determine tp for the entrainment speed.
lower shear rate for larger O and becomes smoother for smaller (2) Assume a tentative film thickness and determine the
a and more gradual for smaller n values. average shear rate in the EHL contact by assuming a
parabolic speed distribution across the film.
Rheological Parameters (3) Determine the generalized viscosity by eq. (4) for the
given tp and the average shear rate.
105 101 (4) Determine the film shape by eq. (5) for a load which gives
Grease A the half width of the twodimensional Hertzian contact b
being equal to the radius of the Hertzian contact a in the
104 100 experiment.
/Pas /s
(5) Solve the Reynolds equation with the generalized
P1
O viscosity K* with the pressure dependent viscosities
103 101 Pand Pgiven by eq. (6).
(6) Adjust the parallel film thickness h1 and repeat the step (5)
until the established reduced pressure q=(1eDp)/D at the
102 102 inlet to the Hertzian zone sufficiently approaches 1/D.
101 100 101 102 103 The resultant value h1 gives the estimate of the central film
Frequency / Hz thickness.
ELASTOHYDRODYNAMICS
1000
The ErtelGrubin Theory
The possibility of predicting the thick EHL film formation 100
at low speeds is then examined by the twodimensional Er
telGrubin theory. 10
It assumes that the film shape is given by the sum of the Grease A
parallel film thickness h1 and elastic deformation following the 1
Hertz theory h2, 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
2 ° x x2 § x2 x2 ·½° Entrainment speed/ms1
h2 bpmax ® 1 ln¨ 2 1 ¸¾ (5)
E °̄ b b2 ¨b b 2 ¸°
© ¹¿
Fig.10 EHL film thickness calculated with K*
where E is Young’ modulus of the solid, b the half width of a
twodimensional Hertzian contact, pmax the maximum Hertzian The valley characterizing the Vcurve is caused by a feature
pressure, and x the coordinate along the contact surface. The of the curves in Fig.8. At medium shear rates, the increase in the
dependence of two viscosities of the lubricant Pand Pon frequency implies the decrease in tp, and the decrease in tp
pressure is assumed to be given by causes the decrease in K*. In EHL, the increase in the
P PEp) (61) entrainment speed means the increase in the mean shear rate to
P Pexp(Dp) (62) increase the film thickness, but it also decreases tp so that the
with the viscositypressure coefficients DandE. Then the decreased K* causes the decrease in the film thickness. The
Reynolds equation is solved as described below. imbalance of these opposing effects results in the Vcurve.
18
EHL with Grease at Low Speeds
increase depending on the base oil viscosity and the thickeners. [2] Cann, P. M. E., 1996, “Understanding grease lubrication,”
Analysis based on the CarreauYasuda viscosity equation Proc. 22nd LeedsLyon Symp. on Tribology, pp.573581.
employing the generalized viscosity of grease determined by [3] Hurley, S., Cann, P. M., 1999, “IR spectroscopic analysis of
rheometry shows the feature of the change in the EHL film grease lubricant films in rolling contacts,” Proc. 25th
thickness. LeedsLyon Symp. on Tribology, pp.589600.
[4] Bair, S., 2002, “The shear rheology of thin compressed
REFERENCES liquid films,” Proc. IMechE, 216, pt.J, pp.117.
[1] Spikes, H. A., Cann, P. M., 2001, “The development and
application of the spacer layer imaging method for
measuring lubricant film thickness,” Proc. IMechE, 215,
pp.261277.
19
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Stephen M. Hsu
City University of Hong Kong, Hong kong, China
Abstract: When the scale shrinks to nanometer, one of the on the contact area. This paper will describe the interplay
key issue is that the surface forces begin to exert of these factors in our measurement of adhesion and
considerable influence on the very nature of adhesion and friction under various conditions using AFM and
friction in a nanoscale contact. There is also an interplay Nanoindenter. Results suggest that we need to define our
between adhesion and friction since both of these processes terms very carefully and deconvolute the basic processes to
involve energy dissipation. At the same time, the nature of gain an insight into the true nature of the adhesion and
contact also may change from single scale contact to friction processes.
multiscale sequential contacts. Since adhesion is a function
of real contact area, and Amoton's Law suggests that (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
needs it.)
friction is independent of contact area, the two separate
processes when combined may present results dependent
20
Space Tribology of China
Weimin Liu
Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, China
Abstract: In recent years, China’s exploration on outer (MACs), ionic liquids etc. The physical properties,
space has been advanced, putting forwards a lot of new including the thermal stability, low temperature fluidity and
challenges to Chinese tribology society. Stable and extremely low saturated vapour pressure, were optimized to
Efficient lubrication is one of the key issues to guarantee meet the requirement for space applications. For the solid
the operation of components under motion in spacecrafts. lubrication, a number of selflubricating composites or
The complexity of lubrication arises from the harsh alloys, multilayer films with special nanostructures and
environment conditions in space, including the ultrahigh compositions, diamondlike carbon film etc were prepared
vacuum, UV and atomic oxygen irradiation, large and the properties were investigated. These lubrication
temperature gap etc. State Key Laboratory of Solid techniques can render ultralow friction and low friction
Lubrication (LSL) has been actively involved in the noise, prevention of cold welding in intermittent operating
China’s aerospace exploration for decades and provided a conditions, and extend lubricant endurance life. Simulated
variety of lubrication solutions to rockets, satellites and labs and facilities were built up in LSL, allowing for
spacecrafts. A brief review was given on the stateofart onground evaluation of their performance inclusive of the
space tribology research in LSL. In the aspect of fluid service life and the failure mechanism.
lubrication, a number of liquid lubricants was developed or
under developed, including the synthetic silicon oil, (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
polyalphaolefin (PAO), multiple substituted cyclopentanes needs it.)
21
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
INTRODUCTION
Friction is an archaic phenomenon that occurs everywhere
between two relatively moved and contacted objects.
During the last decades, fundamental studies of friction
have been developed down to molecular and atomic level Fig. 2 Average friction coefficient applied different
that has been called nanotribology. Micro/nanotribology voltages under the same load and sliding speed.
has been widely investigated with modern apparatuses as
atomic force microscopy, atomicforce microscope, surface Experiments wth many other friction pairs of steel/steel,
force apparatus, and quartz crystal microbalance to reveal ceramics/steel and ceramics/silicon sliding contacts and
tribological origins at molecular and atomic level. Self solutions have been done. They showed similar results and
assembled molecularly thin film adsorbed on surfaces have verified the feasibility of the active friction control method
been found could change friction by orders of magnitude in aqueous lubrication.
while remain other conditions the same. We have verified
the feasibility of this active friction control through tuning REFERENCES
the adsorption and removing of the thin films on metal. 1. Y. Meng, B. Hu, Q. Chang, control of local friction of
metal/ceramic couples in aqueous solutions with an
TYPICAL RESULTS electrochemical method, Wear 260 (2006) 305309.
Results of a typical metal/ceramic couples lubricated with 2. H. Jiang, P.L. Wong, Y. Meng, S. Wen, An indirect
aqueous solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate, and controlled electric field effect on the friction of boundarylubricated
by applying a voltage are shown in Fig. 1. Upon the couples, Lubr. Sci. 15 (3) (2003) 275292.
applying of a negative external electric potential on the 3. Q. Chang, Y. Meng, S. Wen, Influence of interfacial
metal part, the anionic surfactant film adsorbed are potential on the tribological behavior of brass/silicon dioxide
removed from the metal surface, and results in a worse friction couple, Appl. Surf. Sci. 202 (2002) 120125.
22
Superhard and Low Friction Nanocomposite Coatings: Design, Synthesis, and Applications
Superhard and Low Friction Nanocomposite Coatings: Design, Synthesis, and Applications
A. Erdemir, O. L. Eryilmaz
Argonne National Laboratory, Energy Systems Division, Argonne, IL 60439USA
Abstract: During last decade, there has been an dry and lubricated sliding conditions. Employing advanced
overwhelming interest in the design and development of analytical tools (such as timeofflight secondary ions mass
superhard and lowfriction nanocomposite coatings for a spectrometry, xray photoelectron spectroscopy, and
wide range of engineering applications. During the same Raman spectroscopy) we ascertained the chemical nature of
period, great strides have been made in both the physical tribofilms forming on sliding surfaces of these
and chemical vapor deposition technologies, and as a result, nanocomposite films and correlated these findings with
numerous coating architectures based on nanocomposite their superior friction and wear properties. Overall, crystal
and/or –layered morphologies are have become readily chemical model used in this study seems to provide a new
available in recent years. In this paper, we introduce a scientific insight into the design and production of next
fundamental approache to the design and development of generation nanocomposite coatings that are ideal for harsh
such coatings. Specifically, we introduce a crystalchemical tribological conditions. Some of the recent field test results
model that can help indentify the kinds of coating will be presented in support of the very unique mechanical
ingredients that are needed in such nanocomposite and tribological properties of these designer coatings.
coatings for achieving ultralow friction and wear on
sliding surfaces. Using this model, we recently designed (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
and synthesized a series of nanocomposite coatings and needs it.)
confirmed their superior tribological properties under both
23
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Reginald Lee, Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ, USA Aaron Essner, Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ, USA
Aiguo Wang, Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ, USA Shirong Ge, China University of Mining & Technology,
Xuzhou, China
ABSTRACT
Although metalonmetal hip bearings generally experience (beddingin wear) followed by low steady state wear.
low wear in vivo and in simulator testing, high cup inclination High inclination angles result in rim loading of the bearing.
angle has been shown to dramatically increase wear. A recent As the area of conformance reaches the rim of the acetabular
study has shown that metalonmetal (MoM) bearings cup, asymmetrical contact occurs which may result in higher
converge to a specific contact area regardless of bearing size, contact pressures. These high pressures prevent the bearing
clearance, or even contact mode. This evidence points to a from reaching low steady state wear. The hypothesis is that
relationship between contact pressure and wear rate such that runaway wear will occur if this conformance area reaches the
as the contact pressure is reduced (due to the formation of a rim of the cup resulting in rim loading.
conforming surface contact, aka. the wear scar) the wear rate RunAway Wear
will approach a lowsteady state value. This research suggested
that the runaway wear that leads to extremely high MoM wear
may be due to the inability of the specific bearing to reach a SteadyState Wear
low contact pressure. Total Wear
Rim loading prevents the formation of the conformance
area in a symmetrical manner which may lead to high contact BeddingIn Wear
pressures. Building on previous research which proposes the Wear Cycles
interdependencies of the wear rate, total wear, and contact
pressures of bearings at proper inclination angles, this study
will determine the effect of high inclination angle on the wear
rate, total wear, and contact pressure behavior of MoM bearings.
Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to determine the
contact pressures of MoM bearings with increasingly larger
wear patches simulating increasing wear volume. This analysis
was performed with various cup angles to determine the effect
of inclination angle on the contact pressure of the MoM
bearing through its wear process.
This study confirms the hypothesis that high cup
inclination angle leads to runaway wear. Additionally, large SteadyState Wear RunAway Wear
diameters reduced the effect of high inclination angles. Low Fig. 1 RunAway wear occurs when the conformance area
bearing clearance does not affect the ability of the bearing to reaches the rim of the acetabular cup
reach low contact pressures but reduced the amount of wear
volume required to reach low contact pressures. The results of METHODS
this study agrees with the clinical results regarding high
inclination angles for MoM bearings and illustrates a method Generic MoM bearings were created in ProEngineer
to engineer MoM bearings for good tribological performance. Wildfire 2.0 for FEA analysis in this study. Acetabular cups are
similar to commercially available bearings with 40mm or
Keywords: Tribology, Lubrication, Wear, Pressure, Contact
56mm internal diameter (ID) and a 46mm or 62mm outer
INTRODUCTION diameter (OD). Material properties for the acetabular cup were
taken for generic Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum alloy with
Metalonmetal (MoM) bearings have experienced a 220GPa modulus and 0.3 Poisson’s ratio. Femoral heads are
resurgence in recent years due to good wear performance and spherical with a small flat for loading and a diameter slightly
the availability as a large diameter resurfacing bearing. Despite smaller than its respective acetabular cup resulting in a head to
its generally good wear performance [12], high cup cup diametric clearance of 150um or 400um. To ensure perfect
inclination angles have been shown to cause extremely high conformance between the femoral head and the acetabular cup
wear in vitro and in hip simulator testing due to rim loading wear scar, a nearly incompressible head was used (220,000GPa
[34]. This runaway wear phenomenon is not currently well modulus).
understood and is not explained by traditional FEA was performed using Mechanica with at least 330
elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theories that are often solid element (up to 9th order edges) preferentially located at
applied to these bearings [5]. A recent study suggests that the the contact area. A half model with symmetry was used for
wear performance of MoM bearings relies heavily on the contact analysis between the components to reduce analysis
contact pressures generated by the bearing through the wear time. The acetabular cup was oriented at 35°, 50°, and 65°
process [6]. As wear occurs, an area of conformance (wear area) respective to the horizontal with the femoral head oriented
is formed which reduces contact pressures and therefore vertically. Loading of 1250N (simulating 2450N full model
reduces wear. This mechanism explains the biphasic wear loading) was applied superiorly through the femoral head. This
pattern of MoM bearings starting with a period of high wear model simulates implantation angles of approximately 45°, 60°,
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. and 75° due to the 1015° medial orientation of the load path in
Aiguo.wang@Stryker.com
24
Tribology of MetalonMetal Bearings at High Inclination Angles
40mm at 35 Degrees
by removing spherical sections from the superior point of the 45 = Inclination Angle
= Wear Area Angle
acetabular cup. The radius of curvature of this section matched 30
the corresponding femoral head. The size of the wear scar was 15
edge from the superior point. This size was varied from 15° to Wear Area Angle (Degrees)
35°. This encompasses the contact area sizes that are found in a Fig. 3 Contact pressure behavior of 40mm bearing at 35º, 50º,
5 million cycle wear study. and 65º and 56mm at 65° with increasing wear scar size
Wear simulation data for 40mm bearings with 400um 5
40mm Diameter Bearing
Technical Sessions
Technical Sessions:
ĉ. Lubrication
Key Factors to Induce CavitationErosion
˄Extended Abstract˅
31
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
32
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiCReinforced HSSbased Composites with an Interpenetrating Network for
High Temperature Selflubrication Applications
The matrix powders (chemical composition of the matrix of pins (I12×10 mm) were allowed to slide against a rotating
powders were listed in Table 2) were thoroughly mixed with 8 disc (I50×10 mm). The pin specimens were rounded to have 8
Vol.% of complex PFA powder in a ball mill for two hours. mm diameter radius at one end with a surface roughness of 1.6
These milled powder mixture were then uniaxially diepressed μmcenterline average (CLA).The counter discs were TiAl
with 600 MPa to reach the desired form. After compaction, the coated materials with a hardness of HV 19.42 GPa. The disc
green compacts were sintered at temperatures of 1250 ć during surface was polished to produce a final surface roughness of
1 hour in a pilot vacuum furnace at a heating rate of 5 ć/min. 0.32 μm. The friction and wear tests were conducted at room
A vacuum of 10 1 10 2 mbar was used in lower temperature temperature, 300, 500, 600, 700 and 800 ć in the laboratory air
range (up to 900 ć) and the vacuum of 10 2 10 3 mbar was environment. A normal load of 50 N, a sliding speed of 0.139
used in higher temperatures range (above 900 ć). The m/s and a sliding duration of 2 hours were used in each test.
TiCreinforced HSSbased selflubrication composites were An optical microscope was used for measuring the
then produced by infiltrating molten PbSn15Ag0.7RE diameter of wear scar on pin samples. The wear volume was
compound into above preforms at 800 ć, using a selfmade calculated using the following procedure [10]:
vacuum high pressure infiltration furnace. Sd 4
V ( 2)
Table 2 The chemical compositions of the matrix powders 64r
A B C D E F G H I Where d is the wear scar diameter (mm) and V is the worn
volume (mm3).
TiC, Vol.% 0 5 10 15 15 15 15 15 20
A scanning electron microscope (SEM, HITACHI X650,
HSS M3/2, Vol.% 100 95 90 85 85 85 85 85 80 Japan) equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS,
Kevex Super Quantum) was used to characterize the pin and disc
Cu 3 P, % wt 0 0 0 0 5 6 7 8 0
wear surfaces to clarify wear mechanisms.
3.2. FRICTION MEASUREMENTS The reference materials, the composite ‘D’ and composite
Fig. 1 shows the friction coefficient (μ) versus temperature ‘B’ showed almost the same average friction coefficient of 0.36
for selfmated couples, respectively, of preform D, composite with the composite ‘G’ exhibiting the lowest average friction
‘D’, composite ‘G’, and composite ‘B’ specimens. At room coefficient of 0.28 in a range temperature of 300 °C to 600 °C.
temperature, the observed values of μ for composites were 3.3. MEAN WEAR VALUES
slightly lower than that of the preform. However, at higher Fig. 2 shows the mean wear rate obtained under
temperatures, the three composites showed significantly low experimental conditions similar to those recorded in Fig. 1. It
values of the friction coefficient compared to the preform. The can be seen that The small, approximately linear increase in
advantages of a lower friction were maintained at all wear rate over the test temperature range of 300–800 °C for the
temperatures above room temperature.
33
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Composite G
In Fig. 3, the typical variations of the friction coefficient with
0.6
Composite B sliding duration are presented for the preform and composites.
It can be seen that the friction coefficients of composites
0.4
infiltrated with PbSnAg based solid lubricants were much
lower than that of the preform, which had no solid lubricant
0.2
infiltrated. The lowest and most stable friction coefficient was
obtained for composite with additives of 15 vol.% TiC and 7
0.0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 80 wt.% Cu3P (composite G), which showed very stable friction
Temperature ć)
(
Temperature (ć) coefficient, with an average value of 0.28. For the preform, at
Fig. 1 Friction coefficients in a range of temperatures up high temperature, the galling seizure occurred eventually. The
seizure event was accompanied by a sudden increase in wear
to 800 ćfor the composites D and G and preform D
rate, heavy noise and vibration. Therefore, the test was stopped
after 90 minutes.
0.1 1.2 1–Preform D
Preform D 2–Composite D
0.01 Composite D 1.0 3–Composite G
Friction coefficient
Composite G
0.001 Composite B 0.8
Wear rate (mm 3/Nm)
IE04 0.6
1
2
IE05 0.4
IE06 0.2 3
IE07 0.0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 80
ć)
Temperature(ć)
Temperature ( 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Time (min)
Fig. 2 Wear rate in a range of temperatures up to 800 ć Fig. 3 Friction coefficient of the preform and the
for the composites D and G and preform D composites versus sliding duration under a normal load of
50 N and a sliding speed of about 0.139 m/s at 600 ć
composite materials results in very small differences in wear
behaviour between 300 °C and 800 °C , whereas the increase of
about two order of magnitude in the wear rate of preform at
300 °C–700 °C. This suggested differences in wear
mechanisms in these two conditions. The trend was shown that
the wear rate of the composites was lower by two orders of
Fig. 4 SEM topographies of worn surface of (a) the preform D, (b) the composite D and (c) the composites G sliding against
TIAl ceramic coated materials at 600 ć
3.5. MORPHOLOGY OF THE WORN SURFACE any lubricating film had been founded (as shown in Fig. 4 a).
Typical features of the worn surfaces of the preform and the While on the worn surface of the composite D and G infiltrated
composites at 600 0C under a load of 50 N for 2 hours sliding with PbSnAg based solid lubricants, a thin lubricating film
duration are shown in Fig. 4. existed. Comparing the topographies of the two composites, it
It can be seen that there were obvious furrow marks and can be observed that the worn surface of the composite G with
adhesive traces on the worn surface of the preform D, but no additives of 7 wt.% Cu3P was smooth along the sliding
34
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiCReinforced HSSbased Composites with an Interpenetrating Network for
High Temperature Selflubrication Applications
direction: no plastic deformation or fatigue cracks could be reinforced with TiC was mainly composed of Fe2O3, (Fe,Cr)7C3,
found (as shown in Fig. 4 c). Whereas the worn surface of the Ti8C5, Cr3Ti3O, Cr2Ti and Al2O3, and no elemental Pb, Sn and
composite D with no additives of Cu3P was much rougher (as Ag phases were found (Fig. 5). On the wear surface layer of the
shown in Fig. 4 b). composites infiltrated with PbSnAg based lubricants, the
The XRD patterns of the worn surface of preform D, composite elemental Pb, Sn, Ag and Cu intermetallic compounds and
D and composite G were shown in Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.It oxides were formed (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7).
can be seen that the wear surface layer of highspeed steel
35
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
1Fe2O3 2PbWO4 3CuO 4SnO2 5SnW4 6Ag3P11 7Ag2WO4 8Ag5Pb2O6 9Cu3Sn 10Ag3Sn 11PbO
Fig.7 XRD spectra of the worn surface of composites G sliding against TIAl ceramic coated materials at 600 ć
36
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiCReinforced HSSbased Composites with an Interpenetrating Network for
High Temperature Selflubrication Applications
infiltrated with PbSnAg based lubricants, the formation of [5] Sun X. L., Liu Y., Lu Y., 2001, “P/M metalmatrix
lubricating film on the contacting interface reduces the value of hightemperature solid selflubricating materials,” Powder
the friction coefficient to 0.28 and the wear rate to 6.3×106 Metallurgy Technology 19, PP. 86–92.
mm3/Nm at high temperature (600 C). In contrast, for preform [6] Liu Z. M., 2007, “Elevated temperature diffusion
without infiltrated solid lubricants, the observed value of selflubricating mechanisms of a novel cermet sinter with
friction coefficient is 1.10 and the wear rate 5.3×103 mm3/Nm. orderly micropores”, Wear, 262, PP. 600606.
[7]Mattern A., Huchler B., Staudenecker D., et al., 2004,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “Preparation of interpenetrating ceramic–metal composites”,
The authors would like to thank National Natural Science Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 24, PP. 33993408.
Foundation of P.R. China for the financial support (ID: [8] Sang K. Z., Lu Z. L., Jin Z. H., 2002, “A Study of the SiC
50275110 and 50775168). Composite Ceramics for Selflubrication,” Wear 253, PP.
11881193.
REFERENCES [9] Michalski J., Wejrzanowski T., Gierlotka S. et al., 2007,
[1] Sustarsic B., Kosec L., Dolinsek S. et al., 2003, “The “The preparation and structural characterization of
characteristics of vacuum sintered M3/2 type HSSs with Al2O3/Ni–P composites with an interpenetrating network,”
MoS2 addition,” Journal of Materials Processing Journal of the European Ceramic Society 27, PP.831836.
Technology, 143144, pp. 98104. [10] Bushe N. A., Goryacheva I. G., Makhovskaya Y. Y., 2003,
[2] Zsidai L., De Baets P., Samyn P., et al., 2002, “The “Effect of aluminumalloy composition on selflubrication of
tribological behavior of engineering plastics during sliding frictional surfaces,” Wear 254, PP.12761280.
friction investigated with smallscale specimens,” Wear 253, [11] Zalisz Z., Watts A., Mitchell S.C., et al., 2005, “Wronski,
pp. 673–688. Friction and wear of lubricated M3 Class 2 sintered high
[3] Xiang D. H., Shan K. L., 2006, “Friction and wear behavior speed steel with and without TiC and MnS additives”, Wear
of selflubricating and heavily loaded metal–PTFE 258, pp701–711.
composites”,Wear 260, pp.11121118. [12] Sang K. Z., Lü Z. L., Jin Z. H., 2002, “A study of the
[4] Liu Z. M., Childs T.H.C., 2004, “The study of wear SiCL composite ceramics for selflubrication”, Wear 253,
characteristics of sintered high speed steels containing pp11881193.
CaF2, MnS and TiC additives at elevated temperature”,
Wear 257, PP.435–440.
37
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
*Nobuyoshi Ohno, Saga University, Mechanical Sobahan Mia, Saga University, Mechanical Engineering,
Engineering, 1, Honjo, Saga, 8408502 JAPAN 1, Honjo, Saga, 8408502 JAPAN
Shigeki Morita, Saga University, Mechanical Shingo Obara, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency,
Engineering, 1, Honjo, Saga, 8408502 JAPAN 211, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 3058505 JAPAN
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT EXPERIMENTAL
Synthetic oils and greases are used for space lubricant. So, it SAMPLE OIL AND GREASES
is important to know the performances of these lubricants. The Two kinds of base oil and four kinds of greases using these
base oil 815Z and 2001A and the greases 600EF, 601EF and base oils were used as sample. PFPE 815Z and MAC 2001A
602EF with base oil 815Z and grease R2000 with base oil are the base oil where as 600EF, 601EF, 602EF and R2000 are
2001A were considered as the test lubricants in this study. The the tested greases. Properties of the base oils and greases are
highest wear scar has found for base oil 815Z but it showed the given in Table1 and Table 2 where ρ is the density, ν is the
lowest coefficient of friction, whereas greases 600EF, 601EF kinematic viscosity, VI is viscosity index, α is pressure
and 602EF showed lower wear scar and considerable friction viscosity coefficient and M is the molecular weight.
coefficient. Investigating these phenomena, authors found that
the base oil 815Z contains the acetal group (OCF2O). At high
EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND METHOD
shear rate in EHL conjunction the viscosity was decreased by
Friction and wear experiments were carried out using a
mechanical shear. Hydrogen fluoride occurred with the
conventional 4ball wear tester. The balls arrangement of the
decomposition of acetal group. It increases the wear rate of the
test is shown in Fig.1. The steel balls of 19.05 mm in diameter
contact surfaces. But that decomposition does not occurred in
and 5.7nm in mean surface roughness was used in the
the greases with base oil 815Z and showed better result as
experiments. All experiments were conducted at constant load
space lubricant.
for each ball of w=564N (corresponding mean Hertzian
Keywords: Tribology, Space Lubricant, Friction, Wear
pressure of 2.6GPa and Hertzian diameter of dH=0.521mm),
upper rotating ball speed of 60rpm, test duration of 60min and
INTRODUCTION
at room temperature of 22~25°C. Friction was measured by
Liquid lubricants are frequently used in space mechanisms means of a torsion bar to which the bottom of oil container was
because they are associated with low mechanical noise, no clamped.
wear in the elastohydrodynamic regime, ease of replenishment,
ability to remove wear debris and insensitivity to environ RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
mental factors [1]. Friction and wear behavior of space
lubricants are vital under boundary lubrication condition for The photograph of wear scar area of all tested
longevity of space mechanisms. Now a days perfluoropoly samples has shown in Fig.2 mentioning base oil as O
ether (PFPE) and multiply alkylated cyclopentane (MAC) are and grease as G. Higher wear scar has found for base oil
well known liquid lubricant for space appliances. Also some 815Z, investigating the causes used 815Z oil at 85.5
greases of these base oils are used. In this study, authors’ hour bearing life test [4] was also tested. On the other
considered two kinds of base oils and four kinds of greases. hand wear scar area and friction coefficient is plotted in
PFPE 815Z is one of the base oil and the greases using this base Fig.3. Results shown low wear scar has found except for
oil are 600EF, 601EF and 602EF. Another base oil is MAC
815Z oil but comparatively low friction coefficient has
2001A and grease R2000 is produced using this base oil. Mainly
friction and wear behavior of these oils are examined using found for 815Z oil where as friction coefficient for other
4ball wear testing machine. It has found that the wear scar area samples are lies on normal value of 0.1~0.12. The low
of base oil 815Z increased extremely compared with greases. wear scar area of greases 600EF, 601EF and 602EF has
Investigation found the permanent viscosity loss occurred in the found which are made using base oil 815Z. The
fresh 815Z oil and hydrogen fluoride (HF) generated with the chemical decomposition and permanent viscosity loss
decomposition of acetal group (OCF2O) [2][3]. occurred during the test of 815Z fresh base oil, which
Table㧝 Properties of base oil has not occurred in greases or used 815Z oil [4].
Fluid ρ, g/mL ν, mm2/s α,GPa1 M Rotating ball
VI
name 288 K 313 K 373 K 313K g/mol
815Z 1.8580 139.1 42.7 343 11.9 9200
2001A 0.8513 103.2 14.4 137 10.7 910
liquid
(D) (C) (B) (H)(G) (I) (A)
300 (F)
(E)
Phase line for 815Z
T, K
solid
Phase line for 2001A
200
815Z
2001A
Hertzian
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
− GPa
p,
Fig.2 Wear scars of fixed steel ball
(A): Hertz pressure, (B): 5 min, (C): 10 min, (D): 20 min
(E): 40 min and (F): 60 min wear test for 815Z oil
(G): 20 min, (H): 40 min, (I): 60 min wear test 2001A oil
Wear behavior of the base oils are again investigated using the
applied average pressure on it. Figure 4 has shown the time
dependants wear scar for the base oils mentioning the average
pressure of each point. These points are plotted on the phase
diagram as shown in Fig.5. This graph has shown that the base
oil 815Z was on liquid phase on the test conditions and
permanent viscosity loss occurred as a result, large wear scar
has found at the contact region. It has reported that the
permanent viscosity loss decreases from liquid phase to solid
phase [3]. In case of 2001A, at the applied average contact
pressure the oil stayed at solid region and reduced the wear.
REFERENCES
[1] Jones, W.R., Jr. at el., 1994, “The preliminary Evaluation
of Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications by Vacuum
Triobometry,” 28th Aerospace Mech. Symp., NASA Lewis
Research Center, Cleveland, OH.
[2] Ohno, N., 2007, “EHL behavior of liquid lubricants for
space application,” Journal of Japan Society for Design
Engineering, 42, 1, pp.914.
[3] Mia, S., Komiya, H., Hayashi, S., Morita, S., Ohno, N.,
Obara, S., 2007, “Viscosity loss in PFPE lubricant for
space applications under EHL conditions,” Tribology
Online, 2(2), pp. 5458.
[4] Ohno, N., Komiya, H., Morita, S., Mia, S., Satoh, N.,
Obara, S., 2007, “Bearing Fatigue Life Tests in Advanced
Base Oil and Grease for Space Application,” Proc. STLE
Fig. 4 Time dependants wear scar for 815Z and 2001A oil Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, CDROM, pp.124.
39
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Lubrication Analysis of Journal Bearing and Rotor System Using CFD and FSI Techniques
Huiping Liu*/Theory of Lubrication and Bearing Institute, Hua Xu/Theory of Lubrication and Bearing Institute,
Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an Shannxi, 710049, China Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an Shannxi, 710049, China
Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering,
University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Peter Ellison/ Institute of Medical and Biological Zhongmin Jin/ Institute of Medical and Biological
Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
Along the development of software and hardware, more using ADINA 8.4.4 (ADINA R&D Inc, Watertown, USA) [3].
and more complex engineering problems can be predicted Firstly, a pure fluid bearing simulation was conducted to
using a computational approach. For a complex bearingrotor analyze the hydrodynamic lubrication to check the suitability
system, several lubrication models have been developed based of CFD for a given bearing gap. Then, a squeezefilm
on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique where lubrication model was built to validate the method of FSI.
a general NavierStokes equation is usually considered. In this Finally, a fully coupled bearingrotor FSI model was analysed
paper, three different journal bearing models were simulated to study the interaction of the bearing and rotor. The
using a CFD and Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) technique to parameters for the lubrication model of a finite length journal
investigate the interaction of the lubrication of the journal bearing are listed in Table 1.
bearing and the dynamics of the shaft: a pure fluid bearing
model, an FSI squeezefilm model and a bearingrotor FSI Table 1 Parameters of the models
model. The first two models were built to compare the CFD Parameters Value
and FSI methods with the solution predicted from the classical Diameter D=0.03 m
Reynolds equation and two different boundary conditions
Radial clearance C=30 μm
were adopted, Sommerfeld and Gumbel. The results of both of
these models were compared with the analytical solutions and Length L=0.015 m
good agreements were found. The combined CFD and FSI Viscosity 0.04 Pa.s
method was subsequently used to study the lubrication
performance of the rotorbearing system. An elastic shaft was In all models, the fluid was assumed to be incompressible
used in the full coupled bearingrotor FSI model, as well as and laminar. Nonslip condition was set between fluidsolid
the Gumbel boundary condition. The load applied on the interfaces. Zero pressure was set on the two ends of the
model included a vertical load and a rotation, representative of bearing. Sommerfeld and Gumbel boundary conditions were
real working conditions of an experiment of marine journal applied in the simulations. Sommerfeld boundary condition
bearing. Future more complex models will be developed to allowed subambient pressure, while the Gumbel boundary
investigate more realistic rheological properties of the condition was implemented by setting pressures as zero in the
lubricant and the complex interactions between the lubrication divergent region.
of the journal bearing and the dynamics of the shaft using the A typical case was considered for the pure fluid bearing
CFD and FSI method. simulation, with an eccentricity ratio of 0.789 away from the
Keywords: Journal bearing; Computational Fluid Dynamics outer wall centre and 30.887 degrees from the vertical
(CFD); Fluid Structure Interaction(FSI); Lubrication direction in the pure fluid bearing simulation. And its outer
wall was stationary and the inner wall had a rotational speed
1. INTRODUCTION (2750 rpm) along its shaft axis.
As the important parts of rotary machines, a large number In the two FSI models, the material of the shaft was
of journal bearings and rotors are required. Therefore, it is assumed to be isotropic linear elastic with a Young’s modulus
important to investigate the performance of the rotor bearing of 210 GPa and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.3. The mesh density
system. Numerical methods such as the finite difference and adopted depended on the load of each model, and mesh
the finite element are usually used to solve the Reynolds sensitivity was checked to ensure the accuracy of the results.
equation to predict the lubrication performance. However, Two fluid structure interface pairs were used in the models to
many studies have been recently conducted with a general connect the fluid and solid structure together.
CFD approach. Guo et al. [1] developed some models for In the squeeze model, the length of bearing was 0.15 m,
bearings and squeeze film damper with CFD and calculated five times its diameter (i.e. L/D=5) to reduce the influence of
the static and dynamic characteristics. Almqvist and Larsson the axial flow. The load applied on the shaft was 200 N and
[2] investigated the thermal transient rough EHL line contact the shaft was assumed to fall from the center line of the
problem with CFD and found that the commercial CFD code cylinder. In the bearingrotor FSI model, the load applied was
could be modified to solve their lubrication model. However, 2212.25 N and a rotational speed of 2750 rpm along its shaft
there has been no study where an FSI approach is used to axis was applied to the shaft, representative of the working
analyze the combined effect of hydrodynamics and elasticity conditions in an experiment of marine journal bearing.
and dynamics of bearing surfaces. The aim of this study was to
apply a CFD and FSI method to the lubrication of a 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
bearingrotor system. Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 show the pressure distribution within the
fluid under an eccentric rotational motion according to various
2. ANALYSIS
boundary conditions. For these typical pure fluid bearings, the
Three different models were developed in this study by analytical load capacity of oil film were 2212.25 N.
*Corresponding author: Email address: menlhu@leeds.ac.uk, No negative pressure was allowed with the Gümbel
Tel㧦+44 113 343 2179. boundary condition as shown in Fig. 2. To obtain the load
40
Lubrication Analysis of Journal Bearing and Rotor System Using CFD and FSI Techniques
capacity, the inner surface pressure within the convergent Small differences were observed on the predicted
region (Fig. 1) and the whole inner surface pressure of Fig. 2 squeezefilm velocity. In the analytical solution, no
were integrated respectively. The load capacities from sideleakage was allowed and therefore the drop distance was
integration are compared with the given value of 2212.25 N, expected to be smallest at a given time as shown in Fig. 4.
in Table 2. Fig. 5 shows the fluid pressure distribution according to the
Gumbel boundary condition for the CFD FSI bearingrotor
model.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The research was supported by China scholarship council.
The funding source is gratefully acknowledged.
Fig. 3 Fluid pressure distribution of FSI squeezefilm
model according to Gümbel boundary condition REFERENCES
Fig. 4 shows the comparison of the nondimensional drop [1] Guo, Z.L., T. Hirano, and R.G. Kirk,
distance between the CFDFSI models and the analytical 2005,"Application of CFD analysis for rotating
solution (based on hydrodynamic lubrication where the machinery  Part I: Hydrodynamic, hydrostatic bearings
hydrodynamic pressure was not expected to cause appreciable and squeeze film damper," Journal of Engineering for
deformation) [4]. Gas Turbines and PowerTransactions of the Asme.
1.2
127(2): pp. 445451.
1
[2] Almqvist, T. and R. Larsson, 2008,"Thermal transient
rough EHL line contact simulations by aid of
Nondimensinal drop distance
41
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Oil Film Behavior under Minute Vibrating Conditions in EHL Point Contacts
Taisuke Maruyama/Basic Technology R&D Center Tsuyoshi Saito/Basic Technology R&D Center
( NSK Ltd. , 1550, KugenumaShinmei, Fujisawa, ( NSK Ltd. , 1550, KugenumaShinmei, Fujisawa,
Kanagawa Prefecture 2518501, JAPAN) Kanagawa Prefecture 2518501, JAPAN)
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
We expressed the degree of amplitude as a AC servomotor
nondimensional parameter of amplitude ratio and found that Thrust bearing
we could restrain fretting wear by setting the amplitude ratio to 51305
more than 1.6 and by using a high viscosity lubricating oil.
Therefore, as a result of measuring oil film thickness under
conditions of minute oscillations with a ballondisk EHL test
rig, we can understand that an oil film is formed if the Minute vibrating
amplitude ratio is set to more than 1.6.
Keywords: Tribology, Fretting, Wear, EHL, oil
INTRODUCTION
Rolling bearings, which can be found in any machine with
a moving part, may suffer from fretting wear on the rolling
element or raceway surface as a result of two metallic surfaces Load
that contact each other under conditions of cyclic motion
Fig. 2 Fretting test equipment
(oscillatory tangential displacement) of small amplitude. We
know that minute oscillations produce fretting wear, but much
remains unknown about exactly how much oscillation is
Table 1 Test conditions
required to generate fretting damage.
In this study, we converted experimental data, such as Temperature 25 °C
degree of oscillation into specific amplitude and degree of Test bearing Thrust ball bearing 51305
damage into specific damage. We discovered a condition Polyalphaolefin oil (PAO)
where fretting was inhibited. We measured the thickness of oil Oil 30 mm2/s @ 40 °C
film at the point of minute oscillation using a ballondisk test 411 mm2/s @ 40 °C
machine, and investigated the relationship between specific Maximum vibrating speed 20 mm/s
amplitude and minimum oil film thickness under oilbath Maximum contact pressure 3.2 Gpa
lubrication. Amplitude ratio 0.5 to 1.9
Cycle number 104
EXAMINATION OF FRETTING WEAR
Amplitude ratio [1] can be expressed as A/D, where A is
Fretting wear is one kind of adhesion wear, and there are a
amplitude, and D is Hertz contact diameter (see figure 1). This
lot of protrusions that are higher than those of a nondamaged
parameter expresses the degree of minute oscillations.
area. Therefore, we measured the maximum height Ry of the
damage trace and evaluated the degree of damage. Then, we
Hertz contact area adopted a flat disk specimen made of SUJ2 steel with the
A/D䋾1
A/D䋽1 mirrorfinished side being used as the lower race of the thrust
D A/D䋼1 bearings. Unevenness of the abrasion trace was restricted to the
maximum height of Ry through the use of a light interference
Minute microscope, and measured the area including the entire
vibrating A damage trace. Furthermore, we determined the ratio of the
maximum height Ry before examination (almost 0.1 um) and
after examination as the damage ratio, and quantified the
damage. Figure 3 shows the relation between amplitude ratio
Fig. 1 Example of amplitude ratio and damage ratio. Figure 4 illustrates damage trace results.
We tested the thrust bearing assuming that the ability to
Using proprietary fretting test equipment (see figure 2), we form an oil film remains constant under uniform load and
conducted a fretting wear test on a thrust bearing. An AC maximum vibrating speed. In this case, we assumed that oil
servomotor was used to create minute vibrations that acted film thickness is affected by viscosity in a steady state. Figure
upon the race of a thrust bearing under oil lubrication. Table 1 3 supports this theory because the damage ratio decreases if we
list the test conditions. In this test, we used two kinds of set the amplitude ratio to more than 1.6 and use highviscosity
lubricating oil of differing viscosities. lubricating oil.
42
Oil Film Behavior under Minute Vibrating Conditions in EHL Point Contacts
PAO䇭30
PAO䇭 mm2/s
30mm PAO䇭30
PAO䇭 mm2/s
30mm
Amplitude ratio 䋽0.5 Amplitude ratio 䋽2.0
㪍㪇 㪧㪘㪦㩷㪊㪇㩷㫄㫄㪉㪆㫊
30mm2/s
㪤㫀㫅㫀㫄㫌㫄㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷㪽㫀㫃㫄㩷㫋㪿㫀㪺㫂㫅㪼㫊㫊䋬㫅㫄
㪧㪘㪦㩷㪋㪈㪈㫄㫄㪉㪆㫊
411mm2/s
㪌㪇
㪋㪇
㪊㪇
㪉㪇
㪈㪇
PAO䇭411mm2/s
PAO䇭 PAO䇭411mm2/s
PAO䇭
Amplitude ratio 䋽0.5 Amplitude ratio 䋽2.0 㪇
㪇 㪇㪅㪌 㪈 㪈㪅㪌 㪉 㪉㪅㪌 㪊 㪊㪅㪌 㪋 㪋㪅㪌
㪘㫄㫇㫃㫀㫋㫌㪻㪼㩷㫉㪸㫋㫀㫆
Fig. 5 Comparison of minimum oil film thickness and
amplitude ratio
CONCLUSION
Fig. 4 Trace damage and direction of oscillation
1. Whereas an oil film is not formed when the amplitude
However, the damage ratio is not affected by the viscosity of ratio less than 1, there is no difference in damage ratio
the lubricating oil when amplitude ratio less than 1. In this case, even if oil viscosity is changed.
we determined that this damage form is Mindlin slip [2] as 2. Fretting wear can be restrained by setting the amplitude
shown in figure 4 because there is no damage in the center of ratio to more than 1.6 and by using high viscosity oil
the trace. In other words, there is an area of adherence where because a thick oil film is formed.
sliding does not occur in the contact area. Therefore, we
assume that an oil film is not formed. REFERENCES
[1] Sakagami, Proceeding of JAST Tribology Conference
MEASUREMENT OF MINIMUM OIL FILM THICKNESS Tottori, Nov 2004, 69.(Japanese)
We studied the relation between minimum oil film [2] R.D.Mindlin, Trans.ASME, J.Appl.Mech., 71, 3(1949)259.
thickness and amplitude ratio under minute vibrating [3] Westlake, F.J., PhD thesis,University of London(1970).
43
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Different Loading and Motion Applied on Hip Simulators Affects the Lubrication of
MetalonMetal Hip Implants
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
assumed to be Newtonian, isoviscous and incompressible [7],
The transient elastohydrodynamic lubrication for
and the corresponding viscosity of 0.001 Pa s was used in this
metalonmetal (MOM) total hip replacement was numerically
study. The cup inclination angle to a horizontal position (x
solved under three gait loading and motion patterns, according
axis) for the three hip simulators is shown in Table 2.
to Leeds Mk I hip simulator, Leeds ProSim and ISO standard,
respectively. The Reynolds equation for pressure calculation
was solved in spherical coordinate system using the multigrid
method and the elastic deformation of both acetabular cup and
femoral head was obtained by spherical FFT technique. Full
numerical solutions of EHL were obtained including the
pressure and film thickness distribution, for MOM hip
replacement under the three gait patterns. Large variations in
the film thickness were observed for different patterns,
especially when the three dimensional load applied on. For
example, the film thickness was significantly increased using
Leeds Mk I pattern. This may result in large difference of hip
simulator wear testing.
Keywords: Transient, Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication, Metal
Fig. 1 The anatomic configuration of a MOM hip joint
onMetal Hip Joint, Hip Simulator, Loading and Motion
replacement under three dimensional load and motion
INTRODUCTION
Table 1 Typical parameters for MOM hip implants
Total hip replacement has been the most successful surgical
treatment for hip joint diseases for almost fifty years. The Radius of femoral head 14 mm
requirement of long term survival of these artificial hip joints Radius of acetabular cup 14.03 mm
has led to alternative materials for the bearing surfaces, such as Elastic modulus of metal 210 GPa
metalonmetal (MOM) total hip replacement, and the demand Elastic modulus of fixation 2.27 GPa
of hip simulator testing in terms of wear has also been Cup wall thickness 9.5 mm
increased. For MOM hip bearings, large variations in wear Equivalent fixation thickness 2 mm
have been observed in both different hip simulator studies [1, Poisson’s ratio 0.3
2], and clinical studies [3]. Since the wear resistance is
significantly affected by lubrication for MOM articulation, it is
Table 2 Cup inclination angle for the three patterns (deg)
necessary to investigate the influence of different patterns of
hip simulators on the lubrication in order to understand the Leeds Mk I Leeds ProSim ISO 142421
wear of MOM hip bearings. 45 35 30
Gait studies [4] have shown that human hip joints are subjected A general ballinsocket model was adopted to solve the
to threedimensional load and motion: a vertical load applied transient lubrication for the above MOM hip replacement. The
in the superiorinferior (SI) direction, two horizontal loads Reynolds equation combined with the force balance equations
imposed in the anteriorposterior (AP) and mediumlateral were solved using the multigrid method with three levels and
(ML) directions respectively; and the flexionextension (FE), 257 by 257 nodes in the finest level. The elastic deformation of
the abductionadduction (AA) movement, and the the contact surfaces of both the acetabular cup and the femoral
internalexternal rotation (IER). In this study three gait patterns head was obtained by a spherical FFT technique. Details of
from Leeds Mk I hip simulator, Leeds ProSim and ISO equations, numerical methods and convergent criterion can be
standard 142421 were concerned [5], including both found in [8, 9]. The loading and angular motion curves in a
simplified and three dimensional loading and motions. walking cycle are shown in Figure 2. The cycle time of 1
second was divided into 100 time steps for Leeds Mk I and
MATERIALS AND METHOD ISO, 127 time steps for Leeds ProSim hip simulator. The
program codes were written in Campaq Visual Fortran and run
A typical MOM total hip replacement was employed with a
on an AMD Athlon 64 (3800+) PC with CPU of 2.4GHz
femoral head diameter of 28 mm, made from Cobalt
frequency. It cost 13 hours to calculate one walking cycle and
Chromium alloy [6], as shown in Figure 1. The material and
after 34 cycles the converged results were obtained.
geometrical properties are listed in Table 1. The lubricant was
44
Different Loading and Motion Applied on Hip Simulators Affects the Lubrication of MetalonMetal Hip Implants
CONCLUSIONS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported by EPSRC (UK).
REFERENCES
Fig.2 Loading and motion gait curves used for lubrication [1] Smith, S.L., Dowson, D., Goldsmith, A.A.J., 2001, “The
analysis: (a) Leeds Mk I (b) Leeds ProSim and (c) ISO effect of diametral clearance, motion and loading cycles
upon lubrication of metalonmetal total hip replacements,”
RESULTS Proceedings of I Mech E, Part C, 215 (1), pp.15.
The maximum pressure and minimum, centre film thickness [2] Firkins, P.J., Tipper, J.L., Ingham, E., 2001, “Influence of
variations in a converged walking cycle are shown in Figure 3. simulator kinematics on the wear of metalonmetal hip
prostheses,” Proceedings of I Mech E, Part H, 215 (H1),
pp.119121.
[3] Fisher, J, Jin, Z.M., Tipper, J., Stone, M., Ingham, E., Stone,
M.H., Farrar, R., Fisher, J., 2006, “Tribology of alternative
bearings,” Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, 453,
pp.2534.
[4] Paul, J. P., 1967, “Forces transmitted by joints in the human
body,” Proceedings of I Mech E, 181(3J), pp.815.
[5] Barbour, P.S., Stone, M.H., Fisher, J., 1999, “A hipjoint
simulator study using simplified loading and motion cycles
generating physiological wear paths and rates,” J of Eng. in
Med, 213, pp.455̄467.
[6] Jagatia, M., Jin, Z.M., 2001, “Elastohydrodynamic
lubrication analysis of metalonmetal hip prostheses under
steady state entraining motion,” Proceedings of I Mech E, Part
H, 215 (H6), pp.531541.
[7] Cooke, A.V., Dowson, D., Wright, V., 1978, “The rheology
of synovial fluid and some potential synthetic lubricants for
degenerate synovial joints,” Engineering in Medicine, 7,
pp.6672.
[8]Wang, F.C., Jin, Z.M., 2008, “Transient elastohydrodynamic
lubrication of hip joint implants,” J of TribologyTransactions,
ASME, 130, 011007.
[9] Gao, L.M., Meng, Q.E., Wang, F.C., Yang, P.R., Jin, Z.M.,
2007, “Comparison of Numerical Methods for EHL Analysis
of MetalonMetal Hip Implant: Multigrid verses
NewtonRaphson,” Proceedings of I Mech E, Part J, 221,
pp.133140.
Fig. 3 Maximum pressure, minimum and centre film
thickness variations against time in a converged walking (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
cycle: (a) Leeds Mk I (b) Leeds ProSim and (c) ISO needs it.)
45
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
∂ ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ∂ ⎡F ⎤
⎜⎜ F2 ⎟⎟ = − ⎢ 3 (U1 − U 2 )⎥ −
The full thermal elastohydrodynamic analysis of lubrication
of spur, helical, hypoid, and different types of cylindrical and ⎜ F2 ⎟+
∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ∂x ⎣ F0 ⎦
double enveloping worm gears is performed. The theory is
implemented by computer programs. By using these programs
∂ ⎡ F3 ⎤
⎢ (V1 − V2 )⎥ + ρ(W1 − W2 )
the influence of gear design, operating conditions and lubricant
− (1)
characteristics on maximum pressure and temperature in the oil ∂y ⎣ F0 ⎦
film, on EHD load carrying capacity of the gear pair and on
energy losses in the oil film in different types of gears is inves
The full energy equation is applied
tigated. Part of the obtained results is presented and discussed.
Keywords: EHD Lubrication, Gears, Load Capacity, Friction
⎛ ∂T ∂T ∂T ⎞ ⎛ ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ⎞
ρc p ⎜⎜ u +v +w ⎟⎟ − k 0 ⎜ + + ⎟
⎜ ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ⎟
INTRODUCTION ⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
During the last decades many theoretical and experimental ⎡⎛ ∂u ⎞ 2 ⎛ ∂v ⎞ 2 ⎤
⎛ ∂p ∂p ⎞
works have been directed towards the analysis of elastohydro = α T T⎜⎜ u + v ⎟⎟ + η⎢⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
dynamic lubrication in line and point contacts, but only a few ⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎢⎣⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎥⎦
paper is published on EHD lubrication analysis of gears. The (2)
papers are written by Sato and Takanashi [1], Wu and Huang
[2], Huang et al. [3], Yu et al. [4], He and Wei [5], Kong et al. The equation governing the heat transfer in gear teeth is
[6] and by Simon [79]. Laplace's equation
Recently, some of the main topics in lubrication analysis are
the effect of surface roughness on EHD lubrication and the
∂ 2 Tm ∂ 2 Tm ∂ 2 Tm
nanoscale oil films. Valuable experimental results are pre + + =0 (3)
sented by Luo et al. [10] and Luo and Li [11]. ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2
The full thermal elastohydrodynamic analysis of lubrication
of spur, helical, hypoid, and different types of cylindrical and where m=1 for the driving and m=2 for the driven gear tooth.
double enveloping worm gears is performed. The EHD lubri The composite normal elastic displacement of the contact
cation analysis is based on the simultaneous solution of the ing surfaces in point (x,y), caused by the pressure distribution
Reynolds, elasticity, energy, and Laplace's equations. The oil p(X,Y), is given by
viscosity variation with respect to pressure and temperature
and the oil density variation with respect to pressure are in
p(X, Y )
x max y max
cluded. The real geometry and kinematics of the different types d (x , y ) = K d ∫ ∫ dXdY (4)
of gears is applied, thus the exact geometrical separation of the x min y min (x − X ) 2 + ( y − Y ) 2
mating surfaces is included into the oil film shape and the real
relative velocities of these surfaces are used in the Reynolds
The viscosity variation with respect to pressure and tem
and energy equations. As the governing equations represent a
perature and the density variation with respect to pressure are
highly nonlinear integrodifferential system, the finite differ
included:
ence method and numerical integration are used to attain the
pressure and temperature distributions in the oil film, the tem α p −β (T − T0 ) ⎛ α 1p ⎞
η = η0e η η ; ρ = ρ0 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ (5)
perature distribution in the gear teeth, and the elastic displace ⎝ 1 + β1p ⎠
ments of the contacting surfaces.
The corresponding computer programs are developed. By
In the viscositypressure relationship the exponent α η is
using these programs the influence of design parameters, oper
ating conditions and lubricant characteristics on maximum constant in the case of Barus equation and it is pressure de
pressure and temperature in the oil film, on EHD load carrying pendent in the Roeland’s expression.
capacity of the gear pair, and on energy losses in the oil film in The EHD load carrying capacity of the oil film is calculated
different types of gears is investigated. from the pressure by simple integration
x max y max
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
The pertinent equations governing the pressure and tem
W= ∫ ∫ p ⋅ dx ⋅ dy (6)
x min y min
perature distributions and the oil film shape are the Reynolds,
elasticity, energy, and Laplace's equations. Point contact EHD
lubrication analysis is applied because of the theoretical point The friction factor is defined by the ratio of the frictional
contact of mismatched (modified) gears. force to the load and it can be written as
The following general Reynolds equation is used FT
fT = ( 7)
W
46
EHD Lubrication of Different Types of Gears
1,5
The details of the presented theoretical background are de
scribed in Refs. [79].
k T max
kf T
RESULTS
Factors k T max ; k W ; k f T
kW kW
1,0
By using the corresponding computer programs the influ
k T max
ence of design and operating parameters of helical, hypoid and
worm gears on EHD lubrication characteristics is investigated. kf T
A small part of the obtained results, namely, the influence of 0,5
speed on EHD load carrying capacity (W), friction factor (fT),
maximum pressure (pmax) and temperature (Tmax) in the oil film
is shown in Figs. 1 – 3. It can be concluded that the speed has a
significant influence on all these parameters, especially in the
region of its lower values. 0
0 2500 5000 7500 10000
N W [rpm]
REFERENCES
[1] Sato, M., Takanashi, S., 1981, “On the
Thermoelastohydrodynamic Lubrication of the Involute
Gear”, Proceedings, International Symposium on Gearing
and Power Transmissions, Tokyo, I., , pp. 307312.
[2] Wu, H., Huang, W., 1988, “Full Thermal EHD Analysis on
the Cylindrical Worm Gearing with Cylindrical Worm
Gearing with Double Circle Arc Profile”, Proceedings of
International Conference on Gearing, Zhengzhou, pp.
489494.
[3] Huang, C., Wen, S., Huang, P., 1993, “Multilevel Solution
of the Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Concentrated
Contacts in Spiroid Gears”, ASME Journal of Tribology,
115, pp. 481486.
[4] Yu, T., Zhang, S., Li, J., 1997, “A New Numerical Method
for the Solution of Helical Gear Thermal EHL Problem”,
Proceedings of MTM'97 International Conference on Me
chanical Transmissions and Mechanisms, Tianjin, pp.
840842.
[5] He, H., Wei, Y., 1997, “Analysis of Elastohydrodynamic
Lubrication of Plane ReEnveloping Hourglass Worm
Gearing”, Proceedings of MTM'97 International Confer
ence on Mechanical Transmissions and Mechanisms, Tian
jin, pp. 660663.
[6] Kong, S., Sharif, K., Evans, H.P., Snidle, R.W., 2001,
“Elastohydrodynamics of a Worm Gear Contact”, ASME
Journal of Tribology, 123, pp. 268275.
[7] Simon, V., 1981, “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Hy
poid Gears”, ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 103 pp.
195203.
[8] Simon, V., 1988, “ThermoEHD Analysis of Lubrication of
Helical Gears”, ASME Journal of Mechanisms, Transmis
sions and Automation in Design, 110, pp. 330336.
[9] Simon, V., 1997, “EHD Lubrication Characteristics of a
New Type of Ground Cylindrical Worm Gear Drive”,
ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 119, pp. 101107.
[10] Luo, J., Wen, S., Huang, P., 1996, “Thin Film Lubrication,
Part I: Study on the Transition Between EHL and Thin Film
Lubrication Using Relative Optical Interference Intensity
Technique”, Wear, 194, pp. 107115.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS [11] Luo, J.B., Liu, S., 2006, “The Investigation of Contact
The author would like to thank the Hungarian Scientific Ratio in Mixed Lubrication”, Tribology International, 39,
Research Fund (OTKA) for their financial support of the re pp. 409416.
search under Contract No. K62722. (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
needs it.)
47
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
H.P. Evans* Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff A. Clarke Cardiff School of Engineering
University, Newport Road, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
K.J. Sharif Cardiff School of Engineering R.W. Snidle Cardiff School of Engineering
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
The paper discusses the difficulties in distinguishing and the way in which heat passes to the surfaces depends on
between nonNewtonian lubricant models of the shear thinning dissipation and conduction in the film, which must be
and the limiting shear stress types commonly used for rolling considered in any study of thermal behaviour of lubricated
sliding contacts in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL). It contacts as recognised in [3].
is shown that the ability of the lubricant rheological model to More recently sophisticated numerical analyses of EHL have
replicate experimental heat partition behaviour is a much more been developed [e.g. 4,5] and such models have generally been
discriminating test in determining the correct rheological used to predict traction behaviour and component flash
behaviour than the ability to reproduce traction curves temperatures. Recent work has seen the thermal
observed in experiment. nonNewtonian EHL models extended to cover variable ratio
Keywords: Heat Partition, nonNewtonian, Traction, EHL traction drive transmissions [6], starved contacts [7], rough
surfaces [8], and mixed lubrication conditions [9]. However
there is little published work on heat partition between the
INTRODUCTION
contacting components. The problem has been considered for
Analysis of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) is Newtonian [3] and nonNewtonian [10] lubricant models, and
commonly carried out for situations where there is inherent the differences between predicted and measured heat partition
sliding between the contacting surfaces as well as the behaviour has been addressed by the current authors [11,12].
entrainment action that gives rise to lubricant film formation.
Examples of this kind of contact are those occurring between
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
the teeth of power transmission gears, between cams and
tappets, and between the power transmission elements in This paper compares the results of heat partition calculated
toroidal traction drives. It is well known that the using EHL models with those determined experimentally [13].
conventional exponential dependence of viscosity with In these experiments the load and friction is measured, along
pressure in such models is capable of predicting film formation with the temperature at thermocouples located 3 mm below the
with a high degree of accuracy. On the other hand the surface of the disk. A conduction analysis of the test disk and
prediction of friction is inaccurate unless some form of shaft combination has been carried out [12] to find the
nonNewtonian lubricant behaviour is adopted. temperature variation in the disk by solving the following
When sliding occurs in EHL contacts, heat is dissipated in the equation,
lubricant film and is conducted into the contacting components, ∂T ⎧ ∂ 2T 1 ∂T ∂ 2T ⎫ (1)
which are consequently heated and attain higher temperatures. = α⎨ 2 + + ⎬
∂t ⎩ ∂r r ∂r ∂z 2 ⎭
The way in which the total heat generated is shared between
the two surfaces is referred to as the heat partition behaviour of subject to appropriate boundary conditions. This determines
the contact and the paper reviews the difficulties of correctly the temperature, T, averaged in the circumferential sense. The
predicting this partition in EHL contacts over a range of temperature at the thermocouple position of the two disks was
operating conditions. matched with experiment by adjustment of the heat partition
Different nonNewtonian models can match the measured factor, ß, defined as the proportion of the total heat dissipated
friction characteristics reasonably well, but this property of the passing into the faster moving disk. Values of ß were
contact is not a discerning measure as far as distinguishing obtained as shown in Figure 1 for a number of experiments
between different nonNewtonian models is concerned. In carried out over a range of kinematic conditions using a gas
contrast, the ability of different models to replicate turbine lubricant and both transverse ground and superfinished
experimental heat partition measurements is a sensitive disks.
distinguishing factor between shear thinning and limiting shear
stress models, which are the two main rheological formulations
used for these calculations. This observation is advanced as
evidence that the predominant nonNewtonian mechanism in
high shear rate conditions, such as those in gear tooth contacts, ß
is that of limiting shear stress with associated lubricant slip.
Furthermore, measurement of heat partition behaviour is
proposed as a discriminating property of the lubricant that can
be measured experimentally and used to justify selection of the
lubricant model to be used in EHL analysis situations. ΔTus / °C ms1
Many workers [e.g. 1,2] have developed methods to calculate
flash temperatures and heat partition in dry contact. However, Fig. 1 Variation of ß with ΔTus from experiment
their approaches do not consider the EHL film where the heat
The values of ß were found to follow a trend curve expressed
is dissipated. If heat is generated throughout the thickness of
in terms of the product of the temperature difference between
the film the highest temperatures occur within the film itself,
the surfaces, ΔT, and the sliding velocity, us.
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed.
48
The Role of Heat Partition in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
THERMAL EHL ANALYSIS plane and the results shown in Figure 3 are obtained by
A thermal EHL point contact analysis was carried out for locating this slip plane at the highest temperature surface in the
all the smooth surface test conditions for which experimental oil film which for these experiments is at, or close to the faster
data were available. Three lubricant viscosity formulations moving surface.
were adopted and each was combined with two nonNewtonian
rheological models. These were an Eyring shear thinning CONCLUSIONS
model Thermal EHL models are unable to predict heat partition
ηγ& = τ 0 sinh(τ τ 0 ) (2) correctly for the conditions analysed unless the heat is
relating the resultant shear rate, γ& , and the resultant shear dissipated in a slip plane. All the models run have the correct
friction characteristic and heat partition is thus a discerning test
stress, τ, where η is the viscosity and τ0 is a model constant; of the applicability of a rheological model in these
and the Bair and Winer limiting shear stress model circumstances.
ηγ& = −τ L ln(1 − τ τ L ) (3)
where τL is the limiting shear stress which is proportional to ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
pressure. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support
These analyses were carried out with temperature boundary of EPSRC (GR/T05059) for this work.
conditions corresponding to those observed and calculated for
the experiments, and parameters τ0 and τL were selected to give REFERENCES
the measured friction values. In each case the heat flux
passing into the solid surfaces was integrated in order to [1] Blok, H., 1937, “Theoretical study of temperature rise of
determine ß. The values of ß obtained are shown in Figure 2 surfaces of actual contact under oiliness lubricating
for five of the rheological combinations adopted together with conditions.” In Proceedings of General Discussion on
the trend line for the experimental values taken from Figure 1. Lubrication, Part 2, pp 222235 (IMechE, London).
[2] Tian, X. and Kennedy, F.E., 1994, “Maximum and average
flash temperatures in sliding contacts”, Trans. ASME Jn of
Tribology, 116, pp 167174.
[3] Manton, S.M., O'Donoghue, J.P. and Cameron, A., 1967,
“Temperatures at lubricated rolling / sliding contacts”,
Proc Instn. Mech. Engrs, 182, pp 813823.
[4] Cheng, H.S., 1965, “A refined solution to the thermal
ß elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rolling and sliding
cylinders”, Trans ASLE, 8, pp 397410.
[5] Sui, P.C., & Sadeghi, F., 1991, “NonNewtonian thermal
elastohydrodynamic lubrication”, Trans ASME Jn of
Tribology, 113, pp 390397.
[6] Sharif, K.J., Evans, H.P., Snidle, R.W., Newall, J.P., 2004,
Modelling of film thickness and traction in a variable ratio
ΔTus / °C ms1 traction drive rig, Trans. ASME, Jn of Tribology, 126,
Fig. 2 Variation of ß with ΔT.us determined from EHL pp 92104.
analysis with five rheological models [7] Yang, P, Wang, J., & Kaneta, M., 2006, “Thermal and
nonNewtonian numerical analyses for starved EHL line
contacts”, Trans. ASME Jn of Tribology, 128, pp 282290.
[8] Chang, L., 1992, “Traction in thermal elastohydrodynamic
lubrication of rough surfaces”, Trans. ASME Jn of
Tribology, 114, pp 186191.
[9] Zhu, D. and Hu, Y.Z., 2001 “A computer program package
for the prediction of EHL and mixed lubrication
ß characteristics, friction, subsurface stresses and flash
temperatures based on measured 3D surface roughness”,
Tribology Transactions, 44, pp 383390.
[10] Johnson, K.L. and Greenwood, J.A., “Thermal analysis
of an Eyring fluid in elastohydrodynamic traction”, 1980,
Wear, 61, pp 353374.
[11] Clarke, A,. Sharif, K.J., Evans, H.P. Snidle, R.W., 2006,
ΔTus / °C ms1 “Heat partition in rolling/sliding EHL contacts” Trans
Fig. 3 Variation of ß obtained with slip plane model ASME Jn of Tribology, 128, pp 6778.
[12] Clarke, A,. Sharif, K.J., Evans, H.P. Snidle, R.W., 2007,
Comparison of Figures 1 and 2 shows that the EHL analyses “Elastohydrodynamic modelling of heat partition in
lead to a completely incorrect evaluation of the heat partition rollingsliding point contacts” Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs
factor. This is because all of these models result in the heat Part J, Jn of Engng Tribology, 221, pp 223235.
being dissipated throughout the lubricant film. The only [13] Patching, M.J., Kweh, C.C. Evans, H.P. and Snidle, R.W.,
model that leads to values of ß that correspond approximately 1995 “Conditions for scuffing failure of ground and
to the experimental data is the model that uses a Barus superfinished steel disks at high sliding speeds using a gas
viscosity formula combined with the limiting shear stress turbine engine oil.” Trans ASME Jn. of Tribology Vol 117,
model. For this model most of the heat is dissipated in a slip pp 482489, 1995.
49
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
⎦⎭
method to show the effects of surface rough parameter
and surface pattern parameter with different L/D ratio. Density – Pressure Relation. The fluid density ρ is
Turaga and Majumdar [2] studied the influence of the ⎛ 0.6 * 10 −9 p ⎞⎟
roughness parameter on bearing characteristic. ρ = ρ 0 ⎜1 + (6)
⎜ 1 + 1.7 * 10 −9 p ⎟
The performance characteristic of hydrodynamic journal ⎝ ⎠
bearing is affected by the nonNewtonian lubricants. Load capacity . The force due to the hydrodynamic
Raghunandana and Majumdar [3] studied the stability of pressure on the journal in the x − y coordinate system are
journal bearing. Weng and Chen [4] combined effects of L 2π L 2π
nonNewtonian Lubricant and surface roughness on the Fx = − ∫ ∫ pr cos θdθ dz and F y = − ∫ ∫ pr sin θdθ dz (7)
stability of dynamically loaded short length journal 0 0 0 0
bearing. The nonNewtonian lubricants having higher Journal bearing stability. The solutions for
powerlaw index give better stability, and the effect of dimensionless critical mass and the whirl ratio are
surface roughness are significant especially in the range Bxx K yy + K xx B yy − B yx K xy − Bxy K yx
of high eccentricity ratio. MΩ 2 = (8)
For bearing under severe operating conditions, the Bxx + B yy
elastic deformation of the bearing liner and the variation
of lubricant viscosity varies with pressure have significant Ω2 =
(K xx )( )
− Ω 2 M K yy − Ω 2 M − K xy K yx
(9)
influence on the performance of journal bearings system. Bxx B yy − Bxy B yx
Singh et al.[5] studied the effects of bearing liner flexibility
on the static and dynamic performance characteristics of RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
an elliptical journal bearing. Konsari and Wang [6] found The elastohydrodynamic lubrication problems of
that material properties and boundary conditions play an journal bearing require solution of the coupled Reynolds
important role on the thermoelastohydrodynamic equation and elasticity equations. The simultaneous
c
characteristics of journal bearing. solution were solved numerically using finite difference
f
50
Influence of Surface Roughness on Elastohydrodynamic Journal Bearings with NonNewtonian Lubricants
method combined with multigrid multilevel techniques for parameter increase. Load capacity of EHL increases
length to diameter ratio and the radial clearance to radius when speed increases. Figure 2 shows that the transverse
ratio of the journal bearing at 1.0 and 0.0015 respectively. roughness pattern improve the stability region specially at
The speed of the smooth surface journal are 8000 and surface roughness parameter more than 0.4.
10,000 rpm respectively and the bearing liner surface are Figure 3 and 4 show the effects of powerlaw index
rough with various roughness parameters for transverse on load capacity and mass parameter. The journal operate
surface roughness pattern and longitudinal surface at speed 5000 rpm and eccentricity ratio equal to 0.75.
roughness pattern. The characteristics of elasto The powerlaw index are 0.95, 1.0 and 1.05. The liner
hydrodynamic journal bearings in this work are compared surface is transverse pattern. Figure 4 shows mass
with the characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearing. parameter of EHL increase when powerlaw index increases.
CONCLUSIONS
270
The influence of surface roughness on the static and
Load Capacity (kN)
γ = 9, 8000 rpm
0.0
t = time, (s)
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 U = tangential velocity of surface, (m/s)
Roughness Parameter z = coordinate axis in axial direction
Fig. 2 Effect of surface roughness on mass ε = eccentricity ratio of journal bearing
parameter θ = circumferential angle, (rad)
Ω = whirl ratio
550 γ = surface pattern parameter
Load Capacity (kN)
500
450
n = 0.95, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm
n = 1.0, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm
Λ = roughness parameter = σ / hmin
400 n = 1.05, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm
350 HD, n = 1.0, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm REFERENCES
300
250 [1] Ramesh, J., and Majumdar, B.C., 1995, “Stability
200 of Rough Journal Bearings Using Nonlinear
150 Transient Method”, ASME Journal of Tribology,
100
Vol. 117, pp. 691695.
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
[2] Turaga, R., Sekhar, A.S., and Majumdar, B.C., 1999,
Roughness Parameter
“The Effect of Roughness Parameter on the
Fig. 3 Effect of powerlaw index and surface Performance of Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings
roughness parameter on load capacity With Rough Surfaces”, Tribology International, Vol.
32, pp. 231236.
0.30 [3] Raghunandana, K., and Majumdar, B.C., 1999,
“Stability of Journal Bearing Systems Using Non
Mass Parameter
51
Technical SessionsProceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing , China
(Extended Abstract)
characteristics of journal bearing in thermohydrodynamic where flo and floo are limiting viscosity at very low and very
lubrication regime. The simultaneous system of modified high shear rates respectively. n is the powerlaw exponent
Reynolds and nonadiabatic energy equations included the
which describes the slope of viscosity as a function of shear
heat conduction in the bearing bush were solved numerically
rate in the shear thiuning regime and a is time constant. 1 is
with initial conditions and boundary conditions using finite
the second invariant of the strain rate tensor.
difference technique. The linearized bearing reaction enables
the journal motion can be approximated to obtain the spring
and damping coefficient. Simulation results are presented for (3)
pressure distribution, temperature distribution, load carrying
Adopting the perturbation method and using the continuity
capacity and friction force with varying eccentricity ratio.
equation, we obtain the modified Reynolds equation for
The stability of the journal bearing with nonNewtonian
finite journal bearing using Carreau law lubricants.
Carreau fluid was examined and. compared with the results
I
t oA 12fl Ir 2
3 3
obtained for journal bearing with nonNewtonian Powerlaw o
(h op 0 ( h op U J oh oh (4)
fluid. l
roB 121J roB * oy roB + at
Keywords: Hydrodynamic journal bearing, NonNewtonian n1
Carreau fluids, thermal effect, static and dynamic characteristics fl * = floo + (flo  floo )(1 + a21* 0 (5)
INTRODUCTION
* 2[Ou*J2(OflJ
1J=fl+   (6)
OZ 01 1=1'
The performance characteristics of journal bearing with
nonNewtonian behavior have been studied by a number of Under the nonadiabatic assumption and neglecting the
investigators. Williams [lJ analyzed the lubrication equation temperature variation across the film thickness, the energy
by using the Rabinowitsh model. Knight [2J and lang [3J equation for an incompressible fluid with laminar flow can be
analyzed the nonadiabatic solution of journal bearings. written as
Based on the Powerlaw model, the journal bearing for a
,ocJ[UJh ~~J aTm [~ apJ aTml
given eccentricity ratio, shearthinning effects tend to l 2 121) rae rae 121' 3y 3y J (7)
decrease the pressure , load capacity , friction force , and
increase attitude angle. However, the relationships between 6kl
=  ( TJ2Tm+TBI)+fl  +  
,uj h (ap)2 +h  ,aPJ
3

23
(
h h 121' rae 121' 3y
shear rate and shear stress of the pseudoplastic fluids
frequently appears to be a Newtonian fluid with very high RESULT & DISCUSSION
viscosity at low shear rates and then to be a Newtonian fluid The numerical results on the performance characteristics
with lower viscosity at higher shear rates, and so the power of journal bearings lubricated with nonNewtonian lubricants
law or cubic equation model can't predict this nonlinear based on Carreau viscosity model are calculated. The journal
behaviors accurately. bearings have length to diameter ratio equal to 1.0 and radial
The aims of this paper are to investigate the static and clearance ratio equal to 2XlO 5 .
dynamic characteristics of journal bearing when the
lubricants are in transition state from nonNewtonian fluid to v; 1000 r                  ,
Newtonian fluid behavior as increasing journal speed. "
C
;>,
Carreau viscosity model is proposed in this work to formulate .:;; 0100
o Carrcau model
the Reynolds and nonadiabatic energy equations for a finite o
.~
width hydrodynamic journal bearing by using perturbation
:: 0.010 
technique. Both equations were simultaneously solved using
~
finite difference method. §: Power law
< 0001 1.,....~!
52
Theoretical Investigation of Journal Bearings with NonNewtonian Fluids Included Therrnal Effects
2 • 6000 rpm
1000 rpm
60 ,                     ,
c; 10000 rpm
c..    ,10000 rpm,
~ 1.5
50
X 1000 rpm, Powerlaw • 6000 rpm
e Z 40 1000 rpm
:::l
1/1
~    ·10000 rpm, Powerlaw
~ 30
1/1
e
c..
X 1000 rpm, Powerlaw
0.5 ~ 20
10
325 .~
16 ,                     ,
11l
10000 rpm 11l
III 10000 rpm
• 6000 rpm :iE • 6000 rpm
~ 1000 rpm
~ 12 1000 rpm
~ 320
e    ·10000 rpm, Powerlaw
oS!    ,10000 rpm, Powerlaw
.a X 1000 rpm, Powerlaw c:
o X 1000 rpm, Powerlaw
e
Q) 11l
c.. c: 8
Q)
E 315
Q)
I
E
Cl
310 1,...,.,,,1
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
53
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
ABSTRAT
An endeavor has been made to analyze the They concluded that the application of magnetic fluid
magnetic fluid based squeeze film behavior between lubricant enhanced the performance of the squeeze film
two transversely rough curved plates, when the curved bearing system. However, they assumed that the plates
upper plate approaches the stationary curved lower were flat. But in actual practice, the flatness of the plate
plate. The lubricant used is a magnetic fluid in the does not endure owing to elastic, thermal and uneven
presence of an external magnetic field oblique to the wear effects. With this end in view Bhat and Deheri [8]
radial axis. The roughness of the bearing surface is discussed the effect of magnetic fluid lubricant on the
modeled by a stochastic random variable with nonzero configuration of Ajwaliya [4], considering the two
mean, variance and skewness. The associated Reynolds plates determined by exponential functions. They found
equation is solved with appropriate boundary that magnetic fluid lubricant improved the performance
conditions to obtain the pressure distribution, which is, of the bearing. Further, Bhat and Deheri [9]
then used to get the expression for load carrying investigated the magnetic fluid based squeeze film
capacity. To present a comparative study we consider behavior in curved porous circular disks. Patel and
the curvature of exponential form, hyperbolic form and Deheri [10] analyzed the performance of magnetic fluid
secant form to represent the film thickness. The results based squeeze film between two curved plates lying
are presented graphically. It is found that the load along the surfaces determined by secant functions. In
carrying capacity increases with increasing addition, Patel and Deheri [11] studied the magnetic
magnetization. It is seen that the bearing suffers in fluid based squeeze film between curved plates along
general, owing to the surface roughness. It is observed the surfaces governed by hyperbolic functions. In the
that negatively skewed roughness increases the load above three studies it was found that the magnetic fluid
carrying capacity. The adverse effect induced by the lubricant enhanced the performance of the bearing
standard deviation, positive variance and positive system.
skewness can be compensated up to certain extent by By now, it is wellknown that bearing
the magnetization parameter taking an appropriate surfaces particularly after having some run in and wear
choice of curvature parameters. develop roughness. In order to study and analyze the
Keywords: Magnetic Fluid, Squeeze film, Transverse effect of roughness of the bearing surfaces on the
roughness, Reynolds equation, Load carrying capacity. performance of the squeeze film bearings various
Introduction methods have been resorted to. Several investigators
The performance of squeeze film behavior have proposed a stochastic approach to mathematically
between various geometrical configurations of flat model the random character of the roughness (Tzeng
surfaces was discussed by Archibald [1]. Murti [2] and Seibel [12], Christensen and Tonder [13, 14, 15]).
analyzed the behavior of squeeze film trapped between Christensen and Tonder [13, 14, 15] presented a
curved circular pates describing the film thickness by comprehensive general analysis for surface roughness
an expression of an exponential function. Modifying (both transverse as well as longitudinal) based on a
the approach of Murti [2], Gupta and Vora [3] analyzed general probability density function by developing the
the performance of squeeze film behavior between approach if Tzeng and Seibel [12]. Subsequently, this
curved annular plates. In all the above cases the lower method of Christensen and Tonder [13, 14 and 15]
plate was taken to be flat. Ajwaliya [4] considered the formed the basis of the analysis to study the effect of
problem of squeeze film behavior taking the lower plate surface roughness on the performance of the bearing
also to be curved. He also studied the squeeze film system in a number of investigations (Ting [16],
between curved annular plates choosing the curvature Prakash and Tiwari [17], Prajapati [18], Guha [19],
of an exponential form to represent the film thickness. Gupta and Deheri [20]). Also, Andharia, Gupta and
All the above studies conventional lubricant. Verma [5] Deheri [21 22] dealt with the analysis of the effect of
and Agrwal [6] investigated the squeeze film surface roughness on the performance of a squeeze film
performance by taking a magnetic fluid as a lubricant. bearing using the general stochastic analysis for
Subsequently, Bhat and Deheri [7] analyzed the describing the random roughness. However, in these
squeeze film between porous annular disks using a discussions conventional lubricants were used.
magnetic fluid lubricant with the external magnetic Efforts have been directed to present a
field oblique to the lower disk. comparative study on the behavior of magnetic fluid
3* Corresponding Author based squeeze film between transversely rough curved
nikhil.abhangi@gmail.com
54
Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film Behavior between Transversely Rough Curved Plates
circular plates lying along the surfaces determined by curvature parameters. The load carrying capacity
different trigonometric functions and exponential decreases and then increases with respect to the lower
function. plate curvature parameter while exactly the opposite
Main Equation The associated Reynolds equation for happens with respect to the upper plate curvature
the film pressure p is obtained as parameter. The upper plate curvature parameter
( )
1 d ⎡ d ⎤ . increases the load carrying capacity while the lower
⎢ rg ( h) p − 0.5μ 0 μ H 2 ⎥ = 12 μ h0 , plate curvature parameter decreases the load carrying
r dr ⎣ dr ⎦ capacity in the hyperbolic case and exponential case.
g ( h ) = h + 3h α + 3h (σ + α ) + ε + 3σ α + ε + α
3 2 2 2 2 3 Comparatively this effect is less for exponential shape,
as can be seen from Figure 16 in the respective cases.
KeyReferences
Some of the figures tend to suggest that the
¾ Verma, P.D.S., Magnetic fluid based squeeze
adverse effect induced by the standard deviation,
film, International Journal of Engineering
positive variance and positive skewness can be
Sciences, Vol. 24(3), (1986), pp. 395401.
compensated upto some extent by the magnetization
¾ Bhat, M.V. and Deheri, G.M., Squeeze film
parameter by considering an appropriate choice of
behavior in porous annular disks lubricated with
curvature parameters. However, this compensation is
magnetic fluid, Wear, Vol. 151, (1991), pp.
upto a considerably large extent in the case of
123128.
negatively skewed roughness especially, when negative
¾ Christensen, H. and Tonder, K.C., Tribology of
variance is involved. The decreased load carrying
rough surfaces: Stochastic models of
capacity due to the lower plate curvature parameter gets
hydrodynamic lubrication. SINTEF report no.
further decreased owing to the standard deviation of the
10/69 – 18, 1969.
roughness. The increased load carrying capacity
¾ Christensen, H. and Tonder, K.C., Tribology of
introduced by the upper plate curvature parameter gets
rough surfaces: Parametric study and
substantially increased by the positive effect of
comparison of lubrication models. SINTEF
magnetization in the case of negatively skewed
report no. 22/69 18, 1969.
roughness.
¾ Christensen, H. and Tonder, K.C., The
Therefore, this article makes it clear that the
hydrodynamic lubrication of rough bearing
roughness must be given due consideration while
surfaces of finite width. ASMEASLE
designing such magnetic fluid based bearing system,
Lubrication conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1970,
albeit a proper choice of curvature parameter has been
paper no. 70Lub7.
taken into consideration. Even if a strong magnetic
¾ Gupta, J.L. and Deheri, G.M., Effect of
field is brought in and an appropriate choice for
roughness on the behavior of squeeze film in a
curvature parameters is made, roughness needs to be
spherical bearing, Tribology Transactions,
accounted for from longevity point of view.
(1996), 39, pp. 99102.
KeyFigures
Results and Discussion
It is found that load carrying capacity
2.07
W increases significantly in all the cases with respect 2.02
1.97
to the magnetization. Further, it is clearly seen that the W 1.92
effect of magnetization is most sharp in the hyperbolic 1.87
1.82
case. The five figures Figure 26 indicate that the effect 1.77
of μ ∗ is almost negligible upto the value of 0.01 for 1.72
the exponential case and hyperbolic case while in the 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
case of secant function the effect of μ ∗ is negligible μ∗
upto 0.001. ε∗=−0.02 ε∗=−0.01 ε∗=0
The bearing suffers in general owing to the ε∗=0.01 ε∗=0.02
surface roughness. The load carrying capacity
decreases with respect to the standard deviation 2.02
associated with roughness for all the cases which can 1.92
be seen from Figure 710. This negative effect is more
in the case of the surface determined by the hyperbolic W 1.82
functions. The negatively skewed roughness increases 1.72
the load carrying capacity for all the shapes, while
1.62
positive ε * decreases the load carrying capacity (cf. 0.01 0.005 0 0.005 0.01
Figure 1113). This effect of ε * is comparatively α∗
sharp in the hyperbolic case. Almost similar are the ε∗=−0.02 ε∗=−0.01 ε∗=0
trends for the variance (cf. Figure 1416). ε∗=0.01 ε∗=0.02
A symmetric nature (Figure 16) is observed
in the case of the secant function with respect to the (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if the
reader needs it.)
55
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Quanbao Zhou
Jaguar and Land Rover, Engineering Centre, W/4/031, Whitley, Coventry, CV3 4LF, UK
2.5
In an engine's lubrication system, the most critical
component is the oil pump. Usually component design 2.0
engineers find it difficult to specify two important parameters PRV pressure
associated with the oil pump, i.e. the pump size (capacity) and 1.5 setting point
the pressure relief valve setting, especially at the concept 1.0
design stage of the new engine when no representative
hardware is available to test. Clearly undersized and/or 0.5 pump sizing point
underpressurised pump is undesirable as it can cause engine
0.0
failure or degraded performance. If this is found in the middle 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
stage of the engine development, engineers have to fight for a Engine speed (rpm)
bigger package space for the oil pump and often find
Engine demand Pump delivery
themselves unpopular due to the effect on other systems and
extra cost to the programme. On the other hand, oversized Fig.1 Engine lubrication system demand and pump delivery
and/or overpressurised oil pump may work properly without
any problem but the penalty is the hidden high power loss. More oil delivery to engine than what it needs will generate
Usually, engineers tend to size a bigger pump to protect the higher oil pressure than what engine requires. The energy used
engine and try to downsize it later if the tests prove so. to generate the higher oil pressure is just wasted. There is a
Although this route is safer, it could waste the precious clear trend in the next 3 to 5 years to increase the use of variable
packaging space and also be expensive. flow oil pump in the automotive engine. However, this topic is
Several researchers tried to address the above issue by beyond the scope of this paper.
To limit the excess oil pressure to the engine, most pumps
using various CAE (computer aided engineering) tools [15].
use a simple pressure relief valve (PRV). Figure 2 shows three
However, due to the complexity, many only focused on the
typical PRV designs. Figure 2a is a commonly used pump exit
pump only or the lubrication circuit only. Very little has been
pressure regulated PRV (called conventional PRV or standard
done to combine these two subsystems (pump and lubrication
PRV in this paper). It uses the pump exit pressure to determine
circuit) together. In this paper, the commercial 3D CFD codes
the PRV position. When the pump exit pressure force is
were used for both the oil pump and the lubrication circuit. The higher than the presetting spring force, the PRV will open
3D CFD pump model enabled the pump internal geometry, so the excess oil will flow back from the discharge side to
including suction and discharge side porting, to be optimised, the suction side, leaving less oil for engine. In this case, the
therefore, the filling to be improved and the cavitation damage preload spring force has to be determined to accommodate the
to be eliminated. The lubrication circuit 3D CFD model pressure loss from the pump exit, via various pipes, junctions,
enabled the accurate pressure loss at the complex casting bends oil cooler and filter etc. to the final main oil gallery. It also
and junctions to be predicted. These pressure loss data were needs to consider the bearing clearance change and PRV
then fed into a 1D CFD lubrication circuit model to determine spring relaxation at the end of engine life. The alternative to
the right oil pump size and pressure relief valve setting. Figure 2a is called a smart PRV, as shown in
56
Engine Lubrication System Analysis and Oil Pump Design Optimization
a) b) c)
Fig. 2 a) Conventional PRV; b) Smart PRV; c) Hybrid PRV.
Figure 2b. In this case, the pump exit pressure has no influence notorious headache for both conventional and smart PRV
on the PRV position. Instead, the main gallery oil pressure P2 systems.
determines when to open the PRV to recirculate the excess oil
back to the suction side. 7
The pumps equipped with the conventional PRV always
6800 rpm and 140 ºC oil temperature, the PRV open pressure 3
has to be set at >4.8 bar when the minimum required main
2
gallery oil pressure is 2.5 bar. However, at normal operating
condition, say 2000 rpm and 100 ºC oil temperature, the 1
pressure loss from the pump exit to the main gallery could be as 0
little as 1.0 bar. That means the pressure setting catered for the 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
condition of high speed and high oil temperature is a penalty for Main oil gallery pressure P2 (bar)
the lower speed and lower oil temperature. STD PRV Smart PRV Hybrid PRV P1=P2 as boundary
With the smart PRV shown in Figure 2b, the pressure loss
variation from the pump exit to the main oil gallery under Fig. 3 Three PRV systems and their working boundaries
different oil temperature doesn't affect the PRV pressure setting
anymore. This enables the PRV to be operated with a lower OIL PUMP SIZING
pressure setting. At the worst engine operating condition, i.e.
As described earlier, the size of the oil pump is usually
the high speed and high oil temperature, both conventional and
determined by the low speed (such as 1000 rpm) hydraulic
smart PRV systems should meet the minimum required main
requirement (such as the minimum pressure of 1.0 bar to drive a
gallery pressure and therefore the pump exit pressure should be
VCT unit etc.) at the highest possible oil temperature (such as
same. The oil flow and drive torque on the pump should be
140 ºC). This requires the oil pump to deliver a given amount of
same as well. Under the lower speed and/or lower oil
oil to the engine. The 1D CFD lubrication circuit analysis codes
temperature, however, the conventional PRV system will suffer
such as AMESim and Flowmaster are commonly used to define
from higher pump exit (and main gallery) pressure than that
the minimum oil flow rate required.
with the smart PRV, therefore higher power consumption.
Figure 4 shows a typical Flowmaster lubrication circuit
Typically 0.2 to 0.4% fuel economy benefit can be achieved
model. Pipes, standard T junctions and 90 degree bends etc. can
using the smart PRV.
be pulled out from Flowmaster's buildin library. However,
However, the smart PRV has its own problem. The long
complex junctions, bearings, oil filter and cooler etc., have to
distance between the pump exit and the gallery sensing point
be defined using customer specific model to get the acceptable
and the partially empty oil circuit at the engine start means
accuracy. Often a localised 3D CFD analysis is needed to
there will be a significant time delay between the pump exit
quantify the local pressure loss for complex casting geometries.
pressure signal and the main gallery pressure signal. For
For oil pump sizing exercise, the oil pump can be represented
example, at the cold start, the pump exit pressure could reach
by a proper pump model or a simple flow source or pressure
>15 bar before the main gallery being pressurised. Since the
source. When the model is ready, to tune the pump capacity or
pump exit pressure has no influence on the smart PRV position,
the flow rate from the flow source (or the pressure if the pump
the PRV will remain closed. This could cause pressure spikes to
is represented by a pressure source) until the required oil
the lubrication system. This problem could not be easily solved
pressure to drive the VCT unit is reached under the specified
using the overpressure relief valve (OPRV) unless there is
engine speed and oil temperature. The oil flow rate and the
enough package space to allow a big open orifice for the OPRV.
pressure at the pump exit, together with the engine speed and
To address this issue, the author of this paper invented a hybrid
oil temperature, are the parameters for the oil pump sizing.
PRV (patent pending), as shown in Figure 2c. In this design,
both the pump exit pressure and main gallery pressure have
influence on the PRV position. Figure 3 shows the operating PRESSURE SETTING FOR PRV
boundaries of all three PRV designs. Contrary to the pump sizing point, the PRV pressure setting
The other advantage of the hybrid PRV is that it is not has to be done at the maximum engine speed. In this example,
sensitive to the system oil pressure pulsation which is a the setting point is to guarantee a minimum 2.5 bar
57
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
oil pressure at the main gallery at 6800 rpm engine speed with the next big task is the pump design. Here we focus on the most
5W30 oil at 140 ºC in the whole engine life. Again this can be commonly used oil pump for engines  fixed flow gerotor oil
modelled using the 1D CFD codes. The oil flow rate and the pump. The principle should be applicable to other type of oil
pump exit oil pressure (or the pressure loss from the pump exit pump. Nowadays, few engine OEMs do the internal oil pump
to the main gallery) are needed to determine to the PRV spring design. In most cases, engineers will send the pump sizing point,
stiffness and preload for the conventional PRV and hybrid PRV. PRV setting and packaging space out to oil pump suppliers and
For the smart PRV, this information is not needed. let them design the pump.
Figure 5 shows an example of the gerotor oil pump and the
Small sealing
land computational mesh. The pump rotates anticlockwise and is
divided into two main domains: suction side (left) and
discharge side (right). The suction side is connected to a
pickup pipe, picking oil from a sump. The discharge side
connects to the engine block so feeds to the oil cooler and filter,
and then to bearings and other lubrication points. The suction
side is always under vacuum while the discharge side above the
ambient pressure. Normally, there is no direct flow path (except
small clearance leakage) between the suction side and the
discharge side. However, when the PRV is open, the oil in the
discharge side can flow directly back to the suction side,
Big sealing
leaving less oil to engine hence less pressure.
land
Oil return Each gerotor pump has an inner rotor and an outer rotor.
channel Pump exit
The eccentricity between two rotors is the key to enable the
to engine
pump to pump fluid. In the suction side, when the pump rotates
(anticlockwise), the pockets formed by the inner and outer
Pickup pipe rotor gradually open up (i.e. volume of each pocket increases).
This generates the local vacuum which sucks the oil in. When
Fig. 5 A gerotor oil pump and computational mesh the pocket volume reaches the maximum, two big sealing lands
on housing and cover (or back plate) seal the oil so it can not
OIL PUMP DESIGN AND ANALYSIS connect to both suction and discharge sides. Further rotation,
When the pump size and PRV pressure setting are known, the pocket volume will decrease (compressing oil) and also
58
Engine Lubrication System Analysis and Oil Pump Design Optimization
connect to the discharge side. When this pocket reaches the A full 3D CFD transient analysis was done with the pump
small sealing lands, its volume decreases to the minimum so rotating at 6800 rpm with oil temperature at 140 ºC and 10%
most oil is squeezed out. When it passes the small sealing lands, aeration. Several issues were identified from the analysis. The
its volume will increase and start to suck oil again. It is not first one is the poor filling on the suction side. The oil flow from
difficult to understand from the pocket motion described here the pick up pipe has to battle against the shear direction
that the filling into the pockets at the suction side affects the generated from the high speed rotor rotation before entering the
volumetric efficiency and cavitation. pockets formed between inner and outer rotors. The second
Nearly all gerotor oil pumps suffer from cavitation at high problem was due to the poor porting design on the discharge
speed: some above 6000 rpm when well designed, some >3000 side. The high shearing velocity forced the oil to the small dead
rpm if badly designed. Cavitation in a gerotor oil pump is end and the oil has to turn 180 degree back to exit (Figure 7).
always associated with poor filling to those pockets in the This caused huge pressure pulsation in that region. Figure 8
suction side, especially when the pocket volume is small but shows the pressure contours of the whole pump at two different
expands quickly. When the oil can not fill the whole pocket time steps. The pressure at the dead end varied from 2 to 20 bar.
(due to high resistance or poor flow etc.), the vacuum inside the The third problem was that the oil return channel for the PRV
pocket will make the trapped air bubbles in oil bigger or didn't help the filling at all. Instead, the highly accelerated
vaporise the local oil. These bubbles and/or vapour will make return oil flow has a tendency to go into the pick up pipe
the filling even more difficult so when the pocket reaches its (caused NVH problems). The combined consequence was that
maximum volume, a significant part of it may be occupied by the pump suffered severe cavitation damage on the durability
bubbles and vapour. When the pocket moves into the discharge cycle test. The high oil pressure pulsation near the dead end
side, high pressure will collapse the bubbles, causing caused fixing break and back plate crack.
cavitation.
Figure 6 shows the outer rotor after 180 rig durability test.
The cavitation damage is clear and severe. To help to
understand the root cause and provide the guidance to the new
design, a 3D CFD oil pump transient analysis was requested. At (a)
that time, the internal research showed that the best gerotor oil
pump 3D CFD transient model was to use CFDACE+.
(b)
Dead end
59
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
CONCLUSION
Engine lubrication system requirement and three pressure
regulation methods, including the newly invented hybrid PRV
system, were discussed in the paper. Steps from pump sizing,
PRV presetting to oil pump design and optimisation, and their
associated analytical tools were described. The example given
in this paper showed that, by adopting the right tool at each
design stage, it is possible to reduce the design and
development time by offering the 'right first time' concept
design. There is no doubt that individual's knowledge and
experience and team work, including working with supplier, are
Fig. 10 New pump geometry the keys to the delivery of a robust oil pump and lubrication
system.
Pocket 3
Pocket 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Pocket 2
Thanks are given to Jaguar Cars Ltd for permitting the
Pocket 5 publication of this paper.
Pocket 1
REFERENCES
[1] Jiang, Y. and Perng, CY., “An efficient 3D transient
computational model for vane oil pump and gerotor oil pump
7
simulations”, SAE paper 970841.
6 Old pump [2] Manco, S. et al, “Gerotor lubrication oil pump for IC
New pump
engines”, SAE paper 98268.
Flow rate (g/s/mm2)
5
[3] Neyrat, S. et al, “Modeling and analysis of an automatic
4
transmission internal gear oil pump with cavitation”, SAE
3 2005012448.
[4] Senatore, A. et al, “Fluiddynamic analysis of a high
2
performance engine lubricant circuit”, JSAE 20077289 or SAE
1 2007011963.
0
[5] Tao, W. et al, “Robust Optimization of engine lubrication
Pocket 1 Pocket 2 Pocket 3 Pocket 4 Pocket 5 system”, SAE paper 2007011568.
Fig. 11 Filling rate on the suction side at 6800 rpm, 140 C oil
temperature
60
TemperatureDependent Rheology and Tribology of Lubrication Greases Investigated with
New Flexible Platform for Tribological Measurements on A Rheometer
61
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
62
TemperatureDependent Rheology and Tribology of Lubrication Greases Investigated with
New Flexible Platform for Tribological Measurements on A Rheometer
63
Technical Sessions — Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
64
Study on Characteristic Parameters of Wear Particle Boundary
65
Technical Sessions — Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Where
Pj = L j L (11)
(c) Step 3
j +m1
Lj = z
i= j
i (12)
N
Fig. 3 The first three steps in constructing the Koch curve
L = zi (13)
According to fractal method, the level of complexity of
i =1
the Koch curve is increasing as the growth of the number of
Based on the Shannon entropy, the singular entropy of
steps. We extract the boundary waves of the previous
boundary wave is defined as
m 1 step Koch curve as shown in Figure 4, its large
H = ΔH k p = ( ΔH k p ) p (14) Lyapunov exponent and singular entropy are
k =1 calculated, as shown in Table 1.
Here • p is the pnorm operation. The complexity of the
boundary wave is described by using the singular entropy. 6
4 APPLICATIONS 4
z(×102)
66
Study on Characteristic Parameters of Wear Particle Boundary
10
z(×10 )
2
0
0 5 10 15 2
N(×103)
(b) Cutting particle
(c) Step 3
Fig. 4 Boundary wave of Koch curve
Table 1
The chaos parameters of boundary wave of koch cure
Large Lyapunov
Parameter Singular entropy
exponent
k=1 0.041 73.4010
k=2 0.039 76.9916
(c) Laminar particle
k=3 0.046 79.6781
67
Technical Sessions — Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Table 2
2 Large Lyapunov exponent of wear particle boundary wave
Particle Large Lyapunov exponent
Spherical 0.025
0 Cutting 0.032
0 5 10 15
3 Laminar 0.028
N(×10 )
(a) Spherical particle
Fatigue chunk 0.034
Graveslippage 0.037
4
68
Study on Characteristic Parameters of Wear Particle Boundary
Education of China (200801511018). [10] Podsiadlo P. and Stachowiak G.W., 1998, “Evaluation
of boundary fractal methods for the characterization of
REFERENCES wear particles”, Wear, 217, pp. 2434.
[1] Raadnui, S., 2005, “Wear particle analysisutilization of [11] Hamblin M.G. and Stachowiak G.W., 1993,
quantitative computer image analysis:A review”, “Comparison of boundary fractal dimension from
Tribology International, 38, pp. 871878. projected and sectioned particle images: Part II.
[2] Bahadur S. and Badruddin R., 1990, “Erodent particle Dimension changes”, J. Comput. Assisted Microsc.,
characterization and the effect of particle size and shape 54, pp. 301308.
on erosion”, Wear, 138, pp. 189208. [12] Hamblin M.G. and Stachowiak G.W., 1993,
[3] Raadnui S. and Roylance B.J., 1995, “The classification “Comparison of boundary fractal dimension from
of wear particle shape”, Lubr. Eng., 51, pp. 432437. projected and sectioned particle images: Part I.
[4] Winte R.E. and Hutchings I.M., 1974, “Solid particle Technique evaluation”, J. Comput. Assisted Microsc.,
erosion studies using single angular particles”, Wear, 29, 54, pp. 291–300.
pp. 181194. [13] Stachowiak G.W., 1998, “Numerical characterisation of
[5] Stachowiak G.W., 1998, “Numerical characterization of wear particle morphology and angularity of particles
wear particles morphology and angularity of particles and surfaces”, Tribology , 31, pp 139  157.
[14] Peng Z. and Kirk T.B., 1997, “Twodimensional fast
and surfaces”, Tribol. Int., 31, pp. 139157.
Fourier transform and power spectrum for wear particle
[6] Allen M., Brown G.J. and Miles N.J., 1995,
analysis”, Tribology Int, 30, pp. 583590.
“Measurement of boundary fractal dimensions: review
[15] Rosenstein M.T., Collins J.J., Carlo C.J.De, 1993, “A
of current techniques”, Powder Technol., 84, pp. 114.
practical method for calculating largest Lyapunovs
[7] Meloy T.P., 1977, “Fast Fourier transforms applied to
exponents for small data sets”, Physica D, 65, pp.
shape analysis of particle silhouettes to obtain
117134.
morphological data”, Powder Technol., 17, pp. 2735. [16] Grassberg P. and Procaccia I., 1983, “Characterization
[8] Hawkins A.E, 1993, “The shape of powderparticle of the strange attractors”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 5, pp.
outlines”, John Wiley, New York. 346349.
[9] Verspui M.A., Vander Velden P., Slikkerveer P.J., 1996, [17] Shannon C.E., 1948, “A mathematical theory of
“Angularity determination of abrasive particles”, Wear, communication,” Bell Sys. Tech. Journ., 27, pp.
199, pp. 122126. 379423 and 623656.
69
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
70
Viscosity Variation Model and Its Application in Micro/NanoScale Clearance
wp w§ wu · (5)
¨ eff ¸
wx wz © wz ¹
Similarly, we can get the ydirection and zdirection
Fig. 2 Viscosity transition layer model equations:
wp w wv (6)
(Keff )
wy wz wz
The effective viscosity of the lubricant in the whole gap wp (7)
can be modified as follows: 0
wz
eff 0M z (1) where u is the velocity in xdirection, and v is the velocity in
where eff is the effective viscosity , 0 the viscosity of the ydirection.
Velocities in the x and y directions are obtained by
conventional fluid layer respectively. M(z) the modified integrating equation (5) and (6):
wp z z z 1
equation which can be described as follows: u ³
wx Keff
0
dz c1 ³
0
c
Keff 2
(8)
M1 z d z d 1 wp z z z 1
°
M z ® 11 d z d h 2 (2)
v ³
wy Keff
0
dz c3 ³
0
c
Keff 4
(9)
respectively, which are decided by the properties of the fluid Further, fluxes in x and y directions are listed as follows:
and the solid walls, 0 the viscosity of the bulk fluid layer. For 1 wp F2 F
qx ( F2 1 ) (u2 u1 ) 1 u2 h (10)
simplicity, linear variation (eqs (3) and (4)) is adopted to Keff wx F0 F0
describe viscosity variation in the transition layer as the height 1 wp F2 F
qy ( F2 1 ) (v2 v1 ) 1 v2 h (11)
of transition layer is very small. It is noted that eff can be Keff wy F0 F0
Finally, continuity equation for incompressible fluids
either greater than or less than 0 , depending on practical
reads: w (q ) w (q ) 0 , the modified 3D Reynolds
situations. In addition, M(z) can vary with respect to wx
x y
wy
coordinates x and y for heterogeneity solid surfaces. equation is obtained as follows:
w ª§ F12 · wp º w ª§ F12 · wp º
2. REYNOLDS EQUATIONS FOR TRANSITION LAYER «¨ F2 ¸ » «¨ F2 ¸ »
wx ¬© F0 ¹ wx ¼ wy ¬© F0 ¹ wy ¼ (12)
MODEL
wh w §F ·
Based on the force balance condition of micro cell as u2 u2 u1 ¨ 1 ¸
wx wx © F0 ¹
shown in Fig.3, we can get the xdirection force balanced
h z2
equation: where F
2 ³ 0 Keff
dz
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Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
3. CALCULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION is improved with the viscosity of the solid walls increasing. It
3.1 Lubrication properties predicted with the transition proves that the transition layer model can reflect the variation
layer model of viscosity in real time.
The modified 3D Reynolds equation can be solved by Velocity contribution to lubrication performances is plotted
using multigrid method [15]. For all computations, we set in Fig.5. Other parameters are adopted as follows: hin =100m,
u 2 0 , 0 = 0.02 Pa s , 1 K2 K , 1 = E2 = E . hout = 50N m, I1 = I 2 = 0.06Pa s, E1 h = E2 h = 0.1 . Fig.5
Pressure vs. ratio of /0 is plotted in Fig.4. Other (a) shows 3D pressure distribution for velocity of 0.1m/s. Fig.5
parameters used in the computation process are adopted as (b) shows the pressure distribution in zy plane at center in x
follows: hin = 100 Nm , hout = 50Nm , u1 = 0.4m / s , direction under various u1 .The largest pressure increases
from 4.11KPa to 16.46KPa. Fig.5 (c) gives the pressure
1 /h = 2 /h =0.1. Fig.4 (a) shows 3D pressure distribution for distribution in zx plane at center in y direction. The largest
viscosity of 0.03 Pa s . Fig.4 (b) shows the relationship pressure increases from 9.84KPa to 39.37KPa .It can be seen
between pressure and ratio of /0 in zy plane at center in x that the larger the velocity is, the greater the pressure becomes,
which is due to the wedge effects.
direction under variousK. The largest pressure increases from
14.05KPa to 16.46KPa. Fig.4 (c) gives the pressure
distribution zx plane at center in y direction. The largest
pressure increases from 33.60KPa to 39.37KPa. Increment in
viscosity of the transition layer will give rise to increase of
pressure.
72
Viscosity Variation Model and Its Application in Micro/NanoScale Clearance
viscosity of the whole clearance thereby it makes the pressure 0.1. Fig.7 (b) gives pressure distribution in zy plane at center
increase in addition to the wedge effect. in x direction under various G h . The largest pressure
Pressure vs. outlet height relation is shown in Fig.6. Other increases from 16.46KPa to 28.49KPa. Fig.7 (c) gives the
parameters are used as follows hin = 100 Nm , u1 = 0.4 m / s , relationship between pressure and the ratio of the transition
I1 = I2 = 0.06 Pa s, 1 /h = 2 /h = 0.1 , Fig.6 (a) shows 3D layer in zx plane at center in y direction. The largest pressure
increases from 39.37KPa to 68.13KPa. When the transition
pressure distribution for outlet height of 50m. Fig.6 (b) gives
layer accounts for less percentage, it has less influence on the
pressure distribution in zy plane at center in x direction under
pressure distribution, on the other hand, however, the larger the
various hout . The largest pressure decreases from 16.46KPa to ratios of the transition layer are, the more significant its
5.57KPa. Fig.6 (c) gives the relationship between pressure and influences on pressure are. Clearly, improving transition layer
the outlet height in zx plane at center in y direction. The thickness will also enhance the effective viscosity, thus it can
largest pressure decreases from 39.37KPa to 6.40KPa. We can cause fluid pressure increase.
conclude that the larger the outlet height is, the less significant
its influence on pressure becomes, which due to ratio of the
transition layer decreasing.
73
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
74
Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings
Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings
75
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
tangential deflections wi and vi , respectively, of and elastic prominent, the structural stiffness of the foil bearing is
intrinsically nonlinear and obtained after the relationship
curved foil (Walowit and Anno,1975) are obtained according to
Timoshenko’s simply supported beam theory: between the press distribution of gas film and the deformation
of foils is obtained through the iterative solution. It is obvious
DB § d 2 wB ·
¨ ¸ wB M that there is the structural stiffness of the foil bearing for every
RB2 © dT
2
¹ eccentricity.
(1) We founded generalized solution framework for GFBs in
According to the assumptions above mentioned, we finally
literature[1819].In generalized solution framework of elasto
obtain the radial and tangential deflections of the single bump
foil. Thus, the rigidity of the bump is reflected through the aerodynamic lubrication for aerodynamic compliant foil
constant value K B : bearings, we adopt the nonlinear contact finite element method
to solve the interactions between the springs part in foil bearings,
WB EB t 3 then a finite element method is developed for the calculation of
KB (2)
wB 2(1 vB2 )l03 aerodynamic lubrication through transforming the compressible
The deflection of the foil under the imposed hydrodynamic gas lubricated Reynolds equation into a typical elliptic partial
pressure is assumed to be proportional to the local pressure, we differential equation, then the coupled gas lubricated Reynolds
have equation, the elastic deformation equation and the contact
h C e cos(T I0 ) ( p p a ) / K B (3) boundary conditions between foils is solved through a the finite
To obtain more accurate information on the deflection of element grid mapping middle part, and the elastoaerodynamic
bump foil, Ku, C.P. R. and Heshmat.H ˈ establish a coupled numerical solution of the compliant foil bearings is
comprehensive model ,consider the link effect between two obtained. Using the method above mentioned, the structural
adjacent bump and the various forces and geometric parameters stiffness of the foil bearing under different eccentricity is
that affect bearing, and further develops the solution theory of solved.
the bump foil in the literature[4]ˈthe experimental data and the
theory analysis both show that the bumps near the fixed end
THOERY AND NUMERICAL SOLVING METHOD
have a much higher stiffness than those near the free end. But
this kind of variable bump stiffness so far has not been used to In order to solve the elastoaerodynamic coupled problem
solve the coupled elasto aerodynamic lubrication problem for in foil bearing, the researchers in the fields is always devoting to
the compliant foil bearings instead of constant bump stiffness introducing the finite element method into the solving process
[12]. of the elastoaerodynamic coupled problem in foil bearings. In
To increase the load capability, many kind of the elastic
order to analyze the performance of the foil bearing, the
supports such as springs, bump foils and rubber etc are adopted,
compressible gas lubricated Reynolds equation and the problem
and the adjacent top foils even are joined[14][16]. In the
of foil deformation are firstly respectively solved.
previous analysis, the interaction between the elastic support
The Reynolds equations which is used to describe the
and the top foil has been shy away from because of structural
compressible gas lubricated problem may be written as(Fig.1):
complexity. The analytical difficulties are largely due to the
lack of proper modeling and limited empirical evidence w PH 3 wP w PH 3 wP w (4)
( ) ( ) 6U ( PH )
showing the dynamic interaction between the hydrodynamic wI P wI wZ P wZ wI
gas film and the foil support structure. This deficiency is Where M I T , z Z P H 6PZ R 2 , Z is
,h ,/ ,p ( )
exacerbated by the absence of physical modeling of the material R Pa C Pa C
coatings introduced to reduce frictional drag during startup and angle velocity, C is nominal film gap, H is eccentricity ratio,
shutdown. Since the operating parameters are not well
Pa is environmental press. Thus the dimensionless
quantified, each foil bearing is now essentially a custompiece
of hardware, with resulting variability even in identical units compressible gas Reynolds equations is written as:
and limited scalability[17]. w wp w wp w (5)
( ph 3 ) ( ph 3 ) / ( ph)
From the point of the author, this method mentioned above wM wM wz wz wp
seems doubtful and problematic because the foil bearings are
Let s ph , 3 p 2 h 2 .Thus
usually constructed asymmetrically. According to the method
presented by Heshmat, values of structural stiffness and w wp w h w wh
( ph3 ) [ ]
damping for a foil bearing are not independent, and parameters wM wM wM 2 wM wM (6)
of the motion of the rotor are also enveloped in the structural h w 2 1 wh w wh w w2h
2
stiffness and damping. This means that even for a 2 wM 2 2 wM wM wM wM wM
certainstructure foil bearing with bump foils supported, its
w wp w h w wh
stiffness and damping cannot be predicted alone. To a great ( ph3 ) [ ]
wz wz wz 2 wz wz (7)
extent, the Heshmat model can provide an estimation. The
h w 2 1 wh w wh w w2h
socalled structure stiffness according to the Hsehmat model has
2 w z 2 2 wz w z wz w z wz 2
only a statistic meaning.
Owing to the correlation between the structural stiffness of And then, the equation 5 is written as:
the foil bearing and the load distribution upon it is very
76
Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings
w 23 w 23 2 w2h w2h that the lengths of the triangle sides are unchanged during
( ) ( )3 deformation. In order to reduce of the calculation scale, we use a
wM 2
wZ2 h wM 2 wz 2
set of curves or surfaces to denote a rigid body, thus only the
1 wh w wh w 1 ws
[ ] 2/ (8) boundary points are needed, and rigid body profile is
h wM wM wz wz h wM
constructed with these points. Using the flexible to rigid body
The Equation 8 is a typical elliptic PDE:
contact, we can analysis the all kinds of contact including with
(cu ) au f (9)
preload and without preload. In the contact analysis process, the
Through transforming the compressible gas lubricated contact state is necessarily detected. The contact state has the
Reynolds equation into a typical elliptic PDE (partial three following cases(Fig.4)
differential equation) form, thus the lubricated Reynolds
equation can be solved by finite element method, and a finite Rigid Body
(set of curves or
element program is developed for the calculation of Deformable Body
surfaces)
(set of elements)
aerodynamic lubrication.
n
The elastic deformation problem of foils in the compliant 'u A
foil bearing was always being analyzed by the analytic method
based on the beam theory, but the method reckon without the D D
effect of the three dimension deformations of foils upon the A
press distribution of gas film. In our work, the foil deformations Case 1 2 3 4
77
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
4) The gas dynamic force is loaded on the structure Equation is renewedly solved.
deformation FEA model, and the structure deformation 6) The step 4 and step 5 is iteratively calculated until the
of bearing are obtained. iterative solution is convergent.
5) Through changing the gas film gap by the elastic An elastoaerodynamic problem solving environment is
deformation of bearing, the gas lubricated Reynolds established based on the iterative step above mentioned.
Stucture deformation
FEA Model
Transform the press into
node force
lubricate gas would leak from two side of the foil bearing. The
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS contact status between the bump foil and the top foil in foil
The primary goal of the investigation is determining the bearing is also investigated with this method (Fig 8). The
microdeformations of the top foil. At the same time, the investigation of the contact status between foils is helpful to
contact status between the bump foil and top foil is also be the design of the gas foil bearing.
investigated. A certain aerodynamic compliant foil bearing is
calculated based on the presented theory by the method above
mentioned (Parameters from Table1, geometry from Fig.1).
78
Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings
CONCLUSIONS
A generalized numerical solving method for the elasto
aerodynamically coupled lubrication problem in the gas foil
(a)¦=0.3 bearing is given with mesh mapping relationship between the
two kind of finite element solving process above mentioned.
The contact status between foils is also investigated with
this numerical method.
The structural stiffness of the foil bearings with different
parameters is estimated by using the numerical method, which
is helpful to design the bump foil.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work is supported by the National Natural Science
(b)¦=0.8 Foundation of China (Grant No. 50635060), the National
Fig.7 Radial deformation of top foil Program on Key Basic Research Projects of China (Grant Nos.
2007CB707705 and 2007CB707706) and the National
Hightech Research and Development Program of China
(Grant No. 2007AA050501).
REFERENCES
[1] Radil, K., Howard, S., Dykas, B., The role of radial
clearance on the performance of foil air bearings, Tribology
Transactions, 2002, 45(4): 485490.
[2] Dellacorte, C., Valco, M. J., Load capacity estimation of foil
air journal bearings for oilfree turbomachinery applications,
Tribology Transactions, 2000, 43(4): 795801.
[3] Howard, S. A., Dellacorte, C., Valco, M. J. et al.,
Steadystate stiffness of foil air journal bearings at elevated
temperatures, Tribology Transactions, 2001, 44(3): 489493.
[4] Ku, C.P. R., Heshmat, H., Compliant foil bearing structural
stiffness analysis: part I  theoretical model including strip
and variable bump foil geometry, Journal of Tribology,
(a)¦=0.3
Transactions of the ASME, 1992, 114(2): 394400.
[5] Ku, C.P. R., Heshmat, H., Structural stiffness and coulomb
damping in compliant foil journal bearings: theoretical
considerations, Tribology Transactions, 1994, 37(3):
525533.
[6] Heshmat, H., Ku, C.P. R., Structural damping of selfacting
compliant foil journal bearings, Journal of Tribology,
Transactions of the ASME, 1994, 116(1): 7682.
[7] Walowit, J.,Gas lubricated foil bearing technology
development for propulsion and power system, Technical
report, Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory, 1973.
[8] J.A.Walowit,J.N.Arno.Modern Development in Lubrication
Mechanics,Applied Science Publishers,Ltd,London,1975.
[9] Heshmat, H., J.A.Walowit, O.Pinkus. Analysis of
gaslubricated foil journal bearings, Journal of Lubrication
Technology, Transactions of the ASME, 1983 105(10):
(b)¦=0.8 647655.
Fig.8 Contact status between top foil and bump foil [10] Heshmat, H., J.A.Walowit, O.Pinkus. Analysis of
gaslubricated compliant thrust bearings, Journal of
The structural stiffness of the foil bearing is key to the Lubrication Technology, Transactions of the ASME, 1983
stiffness and damp of the gas foil bearing. But the structural 105(10): 638646.
stiffness would change with eccentricity and contact status,
79
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
[11] Ku, C.P. R., Heshmat, H., Structural stiffness and [15] D Sudheer Kumar Reddy, S.Swarnamani. Analysis of
coulomb damping in compliant foil journal bearings: aerodynamic multileaf foil journal bearing. Wear,1997,
parametric studies, Tribology Transaction, 1994, 37(3): (209): 11522.
455462. [16] C A Heshmat, H Heshmat. An Analysis of Gas Lubricated
[12] Salehi, M., Swanson, E.E. and Heshmat, H. Thermal Multileaf Foil Bearings with Backing Springs[J]. ASME,
Features of Compliant Foil Bearings  Theory and Journal of Tribology,1995,117(7):437443.
Experiments, Journal of Tribology, Transactions of the [17] Luis San Andres. Gas bearing will soon be widely
ASME, Volume (2001),123 (3):566571. used.Turbomachinary International. 2004 (5):35.
[13] Foil Gas Bearing With Compression Springs: Analyses and [18] Yu Lie,Qi ShemiaoˈGeng Haipeng. A generalized solution
Experiments, Journal of Tribology, Transactions of the of elastoaerodynamic lubrication for aerodynamic
ASME,2007, 129(3):628639. compliant foil bearings.Science in China Ser.E Engineering
[14] K P Oh, S M Rohde. A Theoretical investigation of the and Materials Science 2005, 48(4):441449.
Multileaf Journal Bearing. Journal of Applied Mechanics. [19] Geng HaipengYu Lie,Qi Shemiao. Software Framework
1976(6):237242. for Solving of the Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Problem.
Ruhua yu mifeng,2006(2):4245.
80
Biotribological Properties of Natural Swine Joint Cartilage
˄Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology,
Nanjing 210094, People’s Republic of China, Email: cuitao11111@163.com˅
81
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
deposited on the frictional contact surface not only reduced the (b)
0.10
friction factor, but also reduced wear [3] .
Friction coefficientμ
A
0.08
B
0.20 C
0.18 (a) dry friction 0.06
distilled water
Friction coefficient,
0.16
brine 0.04
0.14
piasma
0.12
0.02
0.10
0.08 0.00
0.06 0 50 100 150 200 250
0.04 Sliding time(min)
0.02
0.00
Fig.2 Three different locations on swine articular
0 50 100 150 200 250 cartilage(a) and its friction coefficient(b) (speed 84r/min, load
Sliding time,min 1.5N, plasma lubrication)
50
45 (b) dry friction
distilled water WEAR SURFACE ANALYSIS
40
brine
Wear mass,mg
(a)
82
Biotribological Properties of Natural Swine Joint Cartilage
CONCLUSIONS
The friction coefficient and wear rate of natural swine
articular cartilage decreased in order of dry friction, distilled
water, saline and plasma. The friction coefficient is lowest
under the lubrication of plasma because of the presence of
plasma fibrinogen, which forms a protective lubricating film.
The different parts of the same joint articular cartilage show
different properties in friction under the same experimental
conditions .The smallest wear and friction coefficient was
obtained on the head of the joint front of the articular cartilage
due to regular contact and biotribological. The far away from
the area, the high friction coefficient was obtained.
In a variety of conditions, the original joint surface shows a
large number of biotribological traces, with pits and massive
flake particles sheded from the surface. The wear and tear of the
surface of stainless steel friction is the most rough. Under the
lubrication of plasma, the joint surface showed some slippery
tracks, the surface did not appear pit.
REFERENCES
[1] Anderson, J.M., in: Ratner, B.D., Hoffman, A.S., 1996, “An
Introduction to Materials in Medicine,” Biomaterials
Science:165173.
[2] Williams, R.L., Brown, S.A., Merritt, K., 1988,
“Electrochemical studies on the influence of proteins on the
corrosion of implant alloys,” Biomaterials, 9, pp.181.
Fig.3 worn surface morphologies of swine articular cartilage in [3] Huang, X.L., Zhu, H., Ge, S.R., 2005, “A study on
the dry friction, distilled water, saline and serum (84 r/minˈ biotribology behavior of natural swine articular
1.5N) (a) dry friction (b) distilled water (c) saline (d) serum cartilage.lubrication and seal” 170(4)pp.1623.
83
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
84
Effect of Surface Texturing on Lubrication Film Formation within NonConformal Contacts
{}.~2(E0(~7
<
!¼¨¨¡§ ¨¨¡§¨
5()(5(~}(
¤ ½
£$ ¾
. $ \ \
¿
85
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
86
Experimental Investigation of TimeDependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing
0. Collector ring 1. Displacement transducer 2. Rotating axis 3. Investigation of timedependent oil film pressure and
Key phase bore 4. 45°Inner taper reflector 5. Test journal 6. oil film transfer
Plexiglass end plate 7. Pointer 8. Plexiglass sleeve 9. Pressure As shown in Fig.1, the pressure sensors were mounted in
sensor 10. Journal bearing block 11. Adjustable screw 12. the journal and the sleeve material is plexiglass. The oil film
Annular lamps and lanterns 13. Highspeed camera CCD 14. pressure, the phase and oil film picture were collected
Computer simultaneously. The working conditions are as follows: room
temperature 25°, full oil pool, journal diameter 80mm,
lengthtodiameter ratio 0.75, clearancetoradius 1%, dynamic
eccentricity 65.65m, static eccentricity 100m, dynamic
viscosity 0.03Pa.s, the shaft rotates counterclockwise, rotation
speed 900r/m.
Theoretical results is available by using
fivepointdifference method based on mass conservation
boundary to solve Reynolds Equation. Film thickness is known
because type of dynamic load is identicalfrequency. To
compare with experimental results, one whole cycle is divided
into fifty equal pieces to calculate transient oil film pressure.
Each piece is at interval of 7.2e. In oil film distribution
pictures, places marked with black points (filled with "o") are
completefilm zone, while the others are cavitation zone.
Numbers marked in oil film pressure picture can be referred to
the title of oil film distribution picture. All angles in all
captions of the figures in this paper are the position of
maximum dynamic eccentricity.
The wholeoilfilm distribution picture is shown in Fig.4. In
Fig.2 schematic of dynamically loaded journal bearing test comparison with theoretical results, the circle of wholeoilfilm
apparatus for transient oil film pressure distribution picture was outspreaded at the oil inlet. By the
1. Test journal 2. Pressure sensor 3. Steel sleeve 4. Sleeve method of coordinate transform, the distortion was eliminated
support structure 5. Roller bearing and quite ideal photos of cavitation distribution of
wholeoilfilm were attained. The black mark was mounted at
the position of maximum dynamic eccentricity to distinguish
transient position. The transient oil film pressure distribution
picture collected is shown in Fig.5. The picture of transfer of
the cavitation region is shown in Fig.6 at the position of
maximum dynamic eccentricity.
87
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
88
Experimental Investigation of TimeDependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing
Fig.71 (27e
, CH1) compare between test end theoretical result
Fig.72 (63 ° , CH2) compare between test end theoretical Fig. 75 (126°ˈCH5) compare between test end theoretical
result result
89
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Fig.77 (162°ˈCH7) compare between test end theoretical Fig710 (234°ˈCH10) compare between test end theoretical
result result
90
Experimental Investigation of TimeDependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing
91
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
92
Experimental Investigation of TimeDependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing
Because the pressure sensor is not sensitive enough and one point on the journal in one cycle when the dynamic
uncertain timelag when multichannel sensor gathered signals, eccentricity is less than static eccentricity. But on some
so all these were not able to be taken into consideration during occasions, such as transient oil film pressure and the dynamic
collecting transient oil film pressure. Thus, the experimental eccentricity being more than static eccentricity, they did not
data is discrete and the result is not satisfactory. But its trend match well. Sometimes, the deviation of experimental value
should be observed and relevant data disposal skills need to be and theoretical one came out widely. Therefore, a further
further improved. In Fig.8, the pressure peak of experimental research should be done on theory of dynamic load.
results move along the circumference direction, which accords Though the pressure of oil film in dynamically loaded
with theory. This phenomenon is considerable especially in the bearings was complicated, the oil film pressure curve at a point
change of transient pressure. In this very condition, some was submitted to a good rule, which indicated inherent physical
transient moment had doublepeak phenomenon, and the discipline. Experimental results offered credible and reliable
smaller one may has something to do with oil inlet. However gist to do a further research on theory of dynamic load.
results don't expectedly match theory results.
Reference
Summary [1] B. D. Jacobson, B. J. Hamrock : HighSpeed Motion Picture
From the above results, both transfer and pressure of oil Camera Experiments of Cavitation in Dynamically Loaded
film in dynamically loaded bearings are more complicated than Journal Bearings Journal of Lubrication Technology 1983.7
in static ones. It is improper to consider that oil film usually vol 105 , pp:446452.
fractures at atmospheric pressure on dynamic condition, so [2] D.C.Sun & D.E.Brewe: Simultaneous Pressure Measurement
negative pressure should be taken into account. when the and HighSpeed Photography Study of Cavitation in a
dynamic eccentricity is bigger than static eccentricity, excellent Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing. Transaction of the
boundary in solving static loaded bearings cannot explains ASME 1993 Vol. 115, pp: 8895.
transient oil film pressure and timedependent oil film pressure [3] Kawase.T & Someya. T: An Investigation into the Oil Film
distribution as well as doublepeak phenomenon. Summing up Pressure Distrbution in Dynamically Loaded Journal
the results of experimental and theoretical comparison, some Bearing. Elsevier Science Publishers 1985, 110.
conclusions were made as follows. [4] Chen Xiaoyang, Sun Meili, etc. Experimental investigation
1. A 45einner taper reflector was used to collect the 360e of timedependent cavitation in an oscillatory squeeze film,
full oil film distribution pictures, which offers a new method to Science in China Ser. G Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy
research cavitation. 2004 Vol.47 Supp. 107112.
Cavitation destruction occurred below atmospheric [5] Sun Meili, Zhang Zhiming, etc, Experimental Study of
pressure at low rotating speed, so negative pressure should be Cavitation in an Oscillatory Oil Squeeze Film, Tribology
considered. Transactions, Vol.51,Issue 3, 2008, pp:341350.
Based on mass conserving boundary theory, the
experimental results of pressure matched that of theory well at
93
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of LY12 and HPb622 Ring Compression
*
Bin Guo, Feng Gong , Chunju Wang, Debin Shan
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin institute of Technology, Harbin150001, China
94
Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of LY12 and HPb622 Ring Compression
calibration curves.
400
Flow stress(MPa)
300
200
100
0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
True strain (b) HPb622
Fig. 3 Specimens after deformation: 1 talc powder, 2 without
(a) LY12 lubrication, 3 vaseline, 4 vegetable oil
600
500
400
under different friction factors can be seen in figure 4, it is clear
that the inner diameter of the ring decreases with the increase of
300
the friction factor. This means an excellent agreement on
200
experimental research and numerical simulation in terms of the
deformed shape.
100
0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
True strain
(b) HPb622
Fig. 2 StressStrain curves of LY12 and HPb622
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Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
oil has a lowest friction factor of m=0.18 for LY12 and m=0.10
for HPb622. Vaseline, without lubrication and talc powder
have higher values. For all the lubrication states, the friction
factors of the lubricants for LY12 are all larger than HPb622
according to the friction calibration curves determined by
numerical simulation.
0.06
40 0.08 2. The friction factors of LY12 and HPb622 on the
0.10
0.15
lubrication states of talc powder, vaseline, vegetable oil
20 0.2 and without lubrication were 0.41, 0.22, 0.18, 0.27and 0.34,
0.3
0.4 0.14, 0.10, 0.21, respectively.
0
0.5
0.6
20 0.7
0.8
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
0.9
40 1.0
The financial support from the National HighTech
Research and Development Program (2006AA04Z316) and
60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Heilongjiang Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young
Reduction in height (%) Scholar (JC0511) are greatly acknowledged.
(a) LY12
80
REFERENCES
0
0.02 [1] Ebrahimi, R., Najafizadeh, A., 2004, “A new method for
60 0.04 evaluation of friction in bulk metal forming,” Journal of
Reduction in inner diameter (%)
0.06
40 0.08 Materials Processing Technology, 152, pp.136143.
0.10
0.15 [2] Shen, G., Vedhanayagam, V., Altan, T., 1992, “A method
20 0.2
0.3
for evaluating friction a backward extrusiontype forging,”
0
0.4 Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 33,
0.5
0.6 pp.109123.
20 0.7
0.8
[3] Buschhausen, A., Weinmann, K., Lee, J.Y. et al., 1992,
40
0.9 “Evaluation of lubrication and friction in cold forging
1.0
using a double backward extrusion process,” Journal of
60 Materials Processing Technology, 33, pp.95108.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Reduction in height (%)
[4] Engel, U., 2006, “Tribology in microforming,” Wear, 260,
pp.265273.
(b) HPb622
[5] Sofuoglu, H., Gedikli, H., 2002, “Determination of friction
Fig. 6 Friction calibration curves of LY12 and HPb622
coefficient encountered in large deformation processes,”
Tribology International, 35, pp.2734.
The reduction in height h and reduction of inner diameter
[6] BakhshiJooybari, M., 2002, “A theoretical and
d of the experimental specimens can be calculated by equation
experimental study of friction in metal forming by the use
(1) and equation (2). Then the friction factors can be determined
of the forward extrusion process,” Journal of Materials
from figure6. The friction factors for LY12 and HPb622 can be
Processing Technology, 125126, pp.369374.
seen in table 3 and table 4. The results show that the vegetable
96
Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of LY12 and HPb622 Ring Compression
[7] Petersen, S.B., Martins, P.A.F., Bay, N., 1998, “An [10] FereshtechSaniee, F., Pillinger, I., Hartley, P., 2004,
alternative ringtest geometry for the evaluation of friction “Friction modelling for the physical simulation of the bulk
under low normal pressure,” Journal of Materials metal forming processes,” Journal of Materials Processing
Processing Technology, 79, pp.1424. Technology, 153154, pp.151156.
[8] Li, L. X., Peng, D. S., Liu, J. A. et al, 2000, “An [11] Rudkins, N., Hartley, P., Pillinger, I. et al., 1996, “Friction
experimental study of the lubrication behavior of A5 glass modelling and experimental observations in hot ring
lubricant by means of the ring compression test,” Journal of compression tests,” Journal of Materials Processing
Materials Processing Technology, 102, pp.138142. Technology, 60, pp.349353.
[9] Robinson, T., Ou, H., Armstrong, C. G.., 2004, “Study on [12] Hu, Z., Zhu, L.H., Li, J.Q., 1997, “Numerical simulation
ring compression test using physical modelling and FE on ring compression A new approach to determine
simulation,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, calibration curves of friction coefficient,” Acta Metallugica
153154, pp.5459. Sinica, 33, pp.337344.
97
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Lei Wang1 , X.C. Zhou1* , Q.Q. Li1,C.Q. Yuan1, X.P. Yan1 ,Y.H. Chen2
1
Reliability Engineering Institute, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063, PR China
2
Yangtze River Waterway Bureau
98
Application of Metal SelfRepairing Additives on CylinderPiston Ring Rubbing Pairs
2. laboratory experiment )H
VWDUERDUG
with a flash point of 232ćand a pour point of 20ć. HQJLQH
The disk and pin were cleaned by propanone firstly, then
labeled, dried and weighed. Its surface feature can be obtained
by Optical Microscope. The samples were divided into two
groups, observation group(added the selfrepairing additives) 0J
and control group(not added), and the total wear time was 3h.
After completed the experiments, Optical Microscope was used
to observe the surface feature again and find the differences. SRVWHQJLQH
VWDUERDUG
DISCUSSION HQJLQH
1. The results of the real ship test
New lubricant’s spectral data were shown in Table 2. All the
contents of elements were low(FHİ1.8ppm, Crİ0.5ppm, Al $O
İ1.4ppm,Mgİ4.9ppm) except the content of Mg in Castrol
SAE40 lubricant (257ppm).
SRUWHQJLQH
Table 2 The spectral data of the new lubricant
ELEMENT VWDUERDUG
HQJLQH
ITEM Fe Cr Mg Al
Great Wall CD40 1.8 0.1 4.9 1.4
Castrol SAE40 0.6 0.5 257 0.8
Fig. 1 The spectral data comparison between port engine
oil and starboard engine oil
Figure 1 was the test data comparison between port
engine(added the selfrepairing additives)oil and starboard
engine(not added)oil , the results displayed that the wear rates Figure 2 was the spectral data comparison between
rose gradually, but the port engine oil had higher contents of Fe, generator2# oil(added) and generator3# oil(not added), and the
Cr, Mg, Al than the starboard oil. In port engine oil ,the content curves was quit irregularly, especially in the
contents of Fe, Al rose from 20ppm to 43.2ppm and from generator3# oil which did not add the selfrepairing additives.
6.9ppm to 11.4ppm gradually; respectively, in starboard engine In the generator3# oil, the contents of the Fe, Cr, Al rose
oil ,the two elements rose from 12.7ppm to 32.5ppm and from steeply, and at the fifth sample reached their maximum(Feİ
4.6ppm to 9.3ppm. The rising curve of two elements in the port
129ppmCrİ8.6ppmAlİ22.2ppm; on the contrary, in the
engine oil was consistent with the starboard engine oil.
generator2# oil, the Fe, Cr, Al contents were low and changed
However, the contents of Cr, Mg changed differently: in the
port engine oil, the Cr content increased rapidly up to 9.2ppm little(Fe İ 33.4ppmCr İ 4.1ppmAl İ 10.6ppmwhich
on the fourth sample then changed smoothly, and the Mg means that the wear of the generator2# changed smoothly
content presented vertical line ascending and up to 315ppm; in However, these elements contents decrease sharply at the sixth
the starboard engine oil, the contents of the Cr, Mg were and seventh sample separately in the 2# and 3#generator’s oil .
showed an steady increasing tendency, and at the eighth sample The major cause was that new lubricants had been added into
reached their maximum(Cr İ 5.3ppm,Mg İ 127ppm). This the two lubrication systems separately before the two samples.
difference was caused by adding of the selfrepairing additives The content of Mg were not significantly changed, and
into the oil. stayed in a range of 233~276ppm, according to the table 1 and
From table 1, the conclusion was reached that the metal table 2,the content of Mg came from Castrol SAE40 lubricant.
selfrepairing additive didn’t function obviously in the port It was easy to see the element contents in the oil of
engine oil. Because the lubrication volume size was too large generator2# (added) were lower than generator3# (not
and the effective composition of the additives couldn’t circulate added),because the contents of selfrepairing additives were
sufficiently in the lubricant cycle system, the selfrepairing enough to exhibit restorative effects and came to the conclusion
additives were too low to work effectively. that the metal selfrepairing additives showed better function on
the generator.
99
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
)H &U
SRUWHQJLQH
*HQHUDWRU
*HQHUDWRU GUHGJLQJSXPS
GLHVHO
&U 0J
SRUWHQJLQH
*HQHUDWRU
*HQHUDWRU GUHGJLQJSXPS
GLHVHO
$O
0J
SRUWHQJLQH
*HQHUDWRU
GUHGJLQJSXPS
*HQHUDWRU GLHVHO
SRUWHQJLQH
GUHGJLQJSXPS
GLHVHO
400N ,300r/min not added
100
Application of Metal SelfRepairing Additives on CylinderPiston Ring Rubbing Pairs
REFERENCES
[1] HuangY, 2004, “Research on selfreconditioning
material technology for wear of metals applied in
automobile engines,” Journal of Shenyang Normal
University(Natural Science),03,pp.24.
[2] Ouyang P, Chen G,X, Li H,F ,2006,”Researching Trend
of Traditonal Antiwear Agents in Lubricating Oils,”
Lubrication Engineering,06,pp57.
400N ,300r/min added [3] YangHe,JinY,S,KazuhikoYamashita,2006,“Experimen
Fig. 5 The surface morphology after added the metal self tal Study of Applying Mg6(Si4O10)(OH)8 Reconditioner
repairing additives in water medium to Simulative Journal Bearing” Lubrication
Engineering, 07,pp14.
CONCLUSIONS [4] ChenW,G,GaoY,Z,ZhangH,C,2006,“Investigation of
the Effects of Lubricant Oil With Silicate Particles as
The metal selfrepairing additives showed better function on
Additive on the Wear Resistance of Friction Pair,”
the generator and the dredging pump diesel than on the port
China Surface Engineering,01,pp3437.
engine, which caused by the running condition and running time,
[5] FuJ,G,WangHui,ChenLi,2007, “Development Status
and it came to the conclusion that a reconditioned layer with a
and Trends of Serpentine Ore,” Hydrometallurgy of
certain thickness (submicro level) was generated on the
China,03,pp56.
substrate under given conditions of dredge. Then, the friction
[6] TianBin,WangC,B,MaX,D,2006, “ Effect of a Cermet
and wear experiments in Lab showed that a certain thickness
Additive in Lubricating Oil on the Wear Performance of
smooth layer was formed on the abrasion surface.
Steel Cast Iron Friction Pair,”Lubrication
(1) Both the generator and the dredging pump diesel were
Engineering,09,pp69.
continuous running, but the push diesel engine was
[7] Zhang Zh,Y,YangHe,Li S,H,2004, “Application
alternate running for the requirement of conditions.
Research of Auto reconditioner for Worn Metals on DF
Combined with the spectral data, the metal selfrepairing
Locomotive Diesel Engines,” Lubrication
additives showed better function in the continuous running
Engineering ,04,pp1011.
conditions.
[8] Dong W,D,MaW,J,Huang Yan,2005, “ Eflect of the
(2)Lubrication volume was another restrictive factor. The
Autorestoration Material and Technology Applied in
volume of the port engine is 950 L, which was obviously
Engine of Automobile and Ship”, Foundry,04,pp911.
greater than the dredging pump diesel (310L) or the
[9] Jin Y. S., Li S. H., Zhang Z. Y. Yang H. & Wang F.
generator(55L). Therefore, the lubrication volume was so
2004,“Insitu Mechanochemical Reconditioning of
large that the effective composition of the additives
Worn Ferrous surfaces, ” Tribology International, 18 ,
couldn’t circulate sufficiently in the lubricant cycle system.
pp562567.
101
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Extended Abstract 0.05% (w/v) was spun cast onto the aforementioned three
In order to investigate the influence of surface microtextures kinds of silicon substrates at a speed of 3000 rpm, thus
on the wettability, Multiplyalkylated cyclopentane, a novel monolayer films were formed.
hydrocarbon mobile lubricant, was deposited on silicon surface 2.3 Characterization of the films
treated by different cleaning and etching processes. Using an
atomic force microscope, measurement on the silicon surface The static contact angles for ultrapure water on the samples
was made to fully characterize the surface. Contact angles of were measured with a DSA100 contactangle meter. At least
water on these surfaces were measured using a DSA100 five replicate measurements were carried out for each
contact angle meter. The result indicates the wettability of the specimen, and the measurement error was below 2°. The film
hydroxylated silicon wafer and the silicon wafer with a morphologies were examined with an atomic force microscope
monohydrideterminated surface is better than the cleaned (AFM) (Nanoscope IIIa, Digital Instrument), using tapping
silicon wafer, which are mainly caused by topological scanning mode. The nanoadhesive behavior of the films was
structure changes of the surface. Furthermore, the characterized with an AFM controlled by CSPM4000
nanoadhesion property was also measured. The different electronics, using the contact mode. Commercially available
behavior in adhesion forces is due to the differing surfaces of rectangle Si3N4 cantilever with a normal force constant, 6N/m
the silicon wafers. and a Si3N4 tip with a radius of less than 10nm (Budgetsensors
Keywords: Etching; hydroxylated; monohydrideterminated; Instruments Inc) was employed. To avoid influence of
adhesion molecules which may transfer to the tip on the AFM/FFM
experiment, the tip was scanned on a cleaved mica surface to
1. INTRODUCTION remove these physical adsorbed molecules. The force distance
Multiplyalkylated cyclopentanes (MACs), a novel curves were recorded and the pull off force reckoned as the
hydrocarbon mobile lubricant, are a mixture of the di and adhesive force, which was given by
trisubstituted (2octylodecyl) cyclopentane. They have F=KcZp
excellent viscosity properties, thermal stability and low Where Kc is the force constant of cantilever and Zp is the
volatility for use as lubricant and is presently gaining wide vertical displacement of the piezotube, i.e., the deflection of
acceptance on actual space application [1, 2]. MACs may also the cantilever [6, 7]. In data processing, a test of ten
have the potential as lubrication in the measurements was made for each sample. All the tests were
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) application. While conducted at room temperature and a relative humidity of
MACs have been observed to dewet bearing steel surfaces [3] 45%.
and it was wondered if this represented a longterm life threat.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Controlling the wettability is quite important in the study of
nanoadhesion and nanofriction. Since silicon has been the
3.1. Wettability
most widely used material in the MEMS [4], this paper studied
Contact angles of MACs films on three kinds of silicon
the wettability of MACs on silicon wafers treated by different
substrates were measured, as shown in Table 1. The contact
cleaning and etching processes. The nanoadhesion property
angle of the cleaned silicon wafer increased very little. It may
was also measured.
indicate that MACs were unwetted on cleaned silicon wafer
2. EXPERIMENT DETAILS and there were little MACs adsorbed on it. The contact angles
2.1. Materials of the hydroxylated silicon wafer and the HSi(100) increased
Pdoped singleside polished singlecrystal silicon (1 0 0) by about 20° after coated with MACs. This result indicates that
wafers (obtained from GRINM Semiconductor Materials Co. MACs were adsorbed on the substrates and made them more
Ltd., Beijing) about 0.5mm thick were used as the substrate. hydrophobic, which may be resulted from the apolar ü
MACs were synthesized by reacting dicyclopentadiene with (CH2)nüCH3 (hydrophobic) groups.
alcohols of various chain lengths to produce a lubricant with a
selectable range of physical properties [5]. The solvent 3.2. Surface topological structure
nhexane (purity >98%) was used as received. The topological structures of the samples were observed by
2.2. Substrates and film preparation AFM, as shown in Fig. 1, the thicknesses of which are 2.5±0.3
The silicon wafers were first ultrasonicated sequentially in nm. It can be clearly seen that the cleaned silicon wafers are
acetone, ethanol and acetone each for 5 min and then rinsed unwetted and there are little MACs adsorbed on it, which is
with adequate ultrapure water and dried by N2. The cleaned consistent with the result of contact angle measurement. The
silicon wafers were hydroxylated by immersing in a piranha Table 1 List of the contact angles of the samples used in this
solution, a mixture of 7:3 (v/v) 98% H2SO4 and 30% H2O2 at article
90ć for 30 min. Other cleaned silicon wafers were immersed Substrates Without With MACs
in 40% deaerated aqueous NH4F solution for 57 min to obtain MACs (°) (°)
a monohydrideterminated surface, that is, HSi(100). Wafers Cleaned silicon 46.8 51.8
were then rinsed with adequate deaerated ultrapure water and wafer
dried by N2. Then we got three kinds of substrates: the cleaned hydroxylated 2 25.9
silicon wafers; the hydroxylated silicon wafers and the silicon wafer
HSi(100). HSi(100) 74.9 94.1
The solution of MACs in hexane with a concentration of
∗
Corresponding author. Tel: +86 931 4968080; Fax: +86 931 4968163. Email address: mwbai@LZB.ac.cn
102
Wettability Study of MultiplyAlkylated Cyclopentanes (MACs) on Silicon Substrates
3.3. Adhesion
The adhesive forces measured from the pulloff point on each
sample are presented in Fig. 2. It shows that the adhesion force
for the hydroxylated silicon wafer with MACs is the largest in
the three. This may be induced by the partly exposed
hydroxylated silicon wafer, which can increase the capillary
force and further increase the adhesion force. It also can be
seen that the adhesion force for the HSi(100) with MACs is
the smallest. This may be resulted from the partly exposed
monohydrideterminated surface, which can decrease the
adhesion force. This may also explain why the adhesion force
for the cleaned silicon wafer with MACs is between the above
two samples. We may conclude that the difference in adhesion
forces is due to the differing surfaces of the silicon wafers. The
result of the adhesion force is consistent with the contact
angles measurements.
4. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we studied the wettability of MACs on silicon
wafers treated by different cleaning and etching processes. The
wettability of the hydroxylated silicon wafer and the HSi(100)
is better than the leaned silicon wafer, which are mainly
caused by topological structure changes of the surface. The
Fig. 1 AFM images of MAC films. (a) Cleaned silicon wafer different behavior in adhesion forces is due to the differing
with MACs. (b) Line section analysis of (a). (c) Hydroxylated surfaces of the silicon wafers. In the future, we will further our
silicon wafer with s. (d) Line section analysis of (c). (e) research in this aspect and mainly focus on the study of the
HSi(100) with MACs. (f) Line section analysis of (e) influence of surface microtextures on the wettability of MACs
for the practical application as lubrication for MEMS.
wettability of the hydroxylated silicon wafer and the HSi(100)
is better. It is well known that the wettability of solid surface is REFERENCES
decided both by topological structure and chemical structure [8, [1] Venier C.G., Casserly E.W., 1991, “Multiplyalkylated
9]. MACs, which have no functional groups, are physically cyclopentanes (MACs): a newclass of synthesized
adsorbed on the substrates. This indicates that the wettability hydrocarbon fluids,” Lubr. Eng., 47, pp.586–591.
changes of the samples are mainly caused by topological [2] Dube M.J., Bollea D., Jones W.R., Marrcheti M., Jansen
structure changes of the surface. M.J., 2003, “A new class of synthetic hydrocarbon fluid
lubricant for space applications,” Tribol. Lett., 15, pp.3–8.
1. SiOHMAC
[3] Pochard, M., Prat, P., Vergne, P., Sicre, J., 1994,
250 2. SiMAC “Thermocapilliary Migration of Lubricants in Space
3. SiHMAC Environments,” Proc. 4th Int. Tribology Conf., Austrib ’94,
Adhesive forces(nN)
103
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
WZhai , P. Feng
104
Numerical Analysis on Hydrodynamics of Circular Translational Polishing under Mixed Lubrication
1
Fig. 2 Microcosmic interface between wafer and pad
0.56 h
W ³ ³ [ p(r,T ) p (r,T )] r drdT
0 0
c
(9)
Ir I T 1 0.9e V
The moments resulting from these pressures can then be
0.98 §h· §h·
2
calculated:
§h· 0.92 ¨ ¸ 0.05¨ ¸
©V ¹ ©V ¹ (4)
I s 1.899¨ ¸ e 2S 1
³ ³ [ p(r ,T ) p (r ,T )] r sin T drdT
2
©V ¹ Mx c
0 0
(10)
The average local film thickness as shown in Fig.2 for a 2S 1
³ ³ [ p(r, T ) p (r , T )] r cos T drdT
2
Gaussian distributed rough surface can be obtained by: My c
0 0
hT
h
2
>
1 erf ( h / 2V )
2S
e @
V h2 / 2V 2
(5) The initial pressure at the center point of the wafer was set as
the average pressure on the wafer, while during iteration the
Here, erf (x) is the error function pressure was determine as the average of the pressures at the
nodes of the inner loop. As a boundary condition, the pressures
ASPERITY CONTACT PRESSURE EQUATION on the edge of the wafer were set as ambient pressure. The
The asperity contact pressure between pad and wafer can be calculation for the fluid pressure continues until the load
obtained by using Greenwood and Tripp elastic contact model resulted from the pressure as described by equation (9) are
[9]: balanced with the externally applied one (with a relative error of
0.05%).
§4· (6)
pa ¨ ¸ (KEV ) F3 / 2 (h / V ) E c V / E
©3¹ RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
f
The representative input parameter values for analysis are
F3 / 2 (h / V ) ³
h /V
(] 2h / V ) 3 / 2 f (] )d] (7)
shown in Table 1. The instantaneous 3D fluid pressure
For the physical meaning of each parameter, refer to [9]. distribution is shown in Fig.4, where, X=x/r0,Y=y/r0. The pad at
this moment is moving from minus to plus along y axis, and the
SOLUTION PROCEDURES wafer tilts with the rotating angle of 45o from x axis, thus the
fluid is brought in along y axis by polishing pad.
The following dimensionless parameters are applied to
From Fig.4, we see that there is negative fluid pressure
above Reynolds equation to decrease the errors of numerical
calculation and improve computing succinctness. spreading over the inlet area of wafer. This can be seen clearer
from the corresponding contour plot in Fig.5(a). The maximum
r0 ˈ r ˈ h ˈ p ˈ t
F r h p t (8) negative pressure occurs near the center of the inlet region,
h piv r0 h piv p0 T while the maximum positive one is formed at the second
Here, r0 is radius of wafer, p0 the ambient pressure, and T is quadrant but in the vicinity of o. Further case studies show
the periodic time of the direction change of polishing velocity, that the exact positions of both the positive and the negative
105
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Y axis
film thickness, on which pad deformation affects a lot as
shown by Eq.(2) and Fig.6.
Film thickness distribution can affect the distribution of
abrasive particles in the slurry, and the contact probability with
wafer. The more uniform of the film thickness, the larger
contact area of particles with wafer, thus the larger the wafer’s
material removal rate.
X axis
Table 1 Typical input parameters for analysis Fig.6 Contour plot of pad deformation
Parameter Values Fig.7 shows the distribution of dimensionless asperity
Translational velocity
1.2 m/s  contact pressure, which increases along the radial direction of
Rotation speed 150 rmp  the wafer, though its value is much smaller than the
Initial standard nominal 10m hydrodynamic one in the case studied.
clearance h0
pressure, pc
Y axis
X axis
y axis
106
Numerical Analysis on Hydrodynamics of Circular Translational Polishing under Mixed Lubrication
deformation, d (m)
film thickness. Higher applied load leads to larger contact
Minimum film
Maximum pad
Fig.10 we can see that the maximum positive fluid pressure
and negative pressure change in a proportional accord in all
circumstances, i.e., the higher the positive pressure, the higher
W=100, =200rpm the negative one, and vice versa. As regards the negative
pressure, we find it decreases with the polishing speed but
increases with rotating speed and applied load.
Polishing speed, Ë (m/s) Fig.11 shows the influence of working parameters on the
resultant moments in x and y axis due to hydrodynamic
pressure and asperity contact pressure. In all the cases studied,
deformation, d (m)
moment in x axis is always much larger than that in y axis.
thickness, h (m)
Minimum film
Maximum pad
on moment in x axis, while rotating speed affects it little.
Higher polishing speed results in lower moment, while higher
W=100Nˈv=1.2m/s load leads to larger one. Moment in y axis is slightly, if not
negligibly, influenced by these variables.
W=100, =200rpm
Maximum pad
Minimum film
=150rpm, v=1.2m/s
W=100, =200rpm
Dimensionless fluid
pressure, p1 and p2
pressure, cp
=150rpm, v=1.2m/s
pressure, cp
pressure, cp
107
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
108
MicroTribological Analysis of POMMoS2Compounds
s (Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT RESULTS
Blending MoS2particles (Molybdenumdisulfide) in a As a result, distinctive recurring characteristics for each
POMMatrix (Polyoxymethylen) results in a plastic alloy group of samples appeared. Many of the results are
with high qualifications for frictional stressed applications. comparable to others, which leads to a new strategic focus on
The tribological behavior depends on the MoS2 content. how the material’s surfacequalities can be furthermore
Keywords: Microtribology, Lubricants enhanced.
As an example the following figure shows the relation
INTRODUCTION between the coefficient of friction, the abrasion and the
Polyoxymethylen was compounded with three different permanent deformation of the surfaces.
versions of MoS2particles (micro, nanosized and
restacked), each batch with three different shares of MoS2
quantity.
This research project investigates the micromechanical
attributes of two dimensional samples. The equipment used
for this work was the UST (Universal Surface Tester)
produced by the German company Innowep.
This highly sensitive device is an instrument to analyze
permanent, plastic, elastic, and viscoelastic properties of a
surface  punctual as well as along a line or an area. The
distinctive feature of the UST is that it works with high
sensitive sensor technology in very low loaddimensions of 1
to 1000mN.
When using the UST a free selectable tiphead scans the
surface of a sample along a selectable linear distance;
whereas the load on the tiphead, its speed and pathdistance
is free selectable.
Fig. 2 Frictionabrasiondeformation
109
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
2.3 Worm helicoid equation and its parameters
Based on the theory of elastohydrodynamic
lubrication (EHL), a mathematic model is developed and
corresponding computer programs are proposed for calculating 3 THE SECOND ENVELOPING
the EHL characteristic parameters of a novel type of toroidal
3.1 Relative motion and meshing function in the second
worm drive, including the geometrical coefficient of minimum
oil film thickness, the average entrainment velocity, the enveloping
lubricating angle, the velocity ratio of sliding and rolling and
so on, by using the theory of gearing. The numerical examples 3.2 Worm gear tooth flank equation
show the verification and validation of the principium and the
model. The simulation investigation demonstrates that the dual 3.3 Geometrical parameters in the second enveloping
tori doubleenveloping toroidal worm drive has better
lubricating property. In this foundation, the preliminary rules
of selecting the design and technical parameters are proposed 4 LUBRICATION PROPERTIES OF WORM PAIR
for this type of toroidal worm drive.
Keywords: Worm Drive, DoubleEnveloping, Elastohydrody
namic Lubrication, Meshing Analysis
5 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES AND DISCUSSION
1 INTRODUCTION
This is a novel type of hourglass worm set. The two
flanks of one tooth space of the toroidal worm are 6 CONCLUSIONS
envelopefinished at the same time by using a grinding
wheel with two tori, which are symmetrical about its
midplane. A worm gear is enveloped by using a toroidal ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
hob, whose generating flank is accordant with the
The research work in this paper was fully supported
corresponding toroidal worm helicoid. After mating the
by the National Natural Science Foundation of China
worm and the worm gear, a dual tori doubleenveloping
under Grant No. 50705068, China Hubei Provincial
toroidal worm drive is presented [1].
Natural Science Foundation under Grant No.
Besides the favorable manufacturability, the toroidal
2007ABA282, and the Key Program of Science
worm drive is of great advantages for transmission as
Research Foundation of Wuhan University of Science
shown in the preliminary researches, such as longer
and Technology under Grant No. 2006XZ6.
doubleline working length of the worm and shorter
twice contact time of the worm pair [2], better
distribution of instantaneous contact lines of the worm REFERENCES
drive, broader contact zone [3] and lower contact stress
[1] Zhao, Y., “A Type of Dual Rotation Surfaces
of tooth surfaces and so on. Furthermore, unlike the
Doubleenveloping Toroidal Worm Pair and Its Generating
previous one, the worm set can be used on the condition Method”, China patent, 200610124466.8, CN1970208,
of “manyhead” and “small drive ratio” because as far as 2006 (in processing, in Chinese).
the worm is concerned, the edge tooth top is usually [2] Zhao, Y., 2007, “Meshing Limit Line of the DualTorus
sufficiently thick [4] and there is no undercutting. DoubleEnveloping Toroidal Worm Drive and
In the present paper, on the basis of the theory of Configuration of the Worm Helicoids”, Journal of Wuhan
elastohydrodynamic lubrication, theoretical research is University of Science and Technology, 31 (1), pp.7477. (in
made on the lubricating property of the worm set by Chinese)
using the theory of gearing. [3] Zhao, Y., Dong, X., Wei Wen., Wei, G., 2006, “Study on the
Tooth Surface Configuration of Dual Tori
Doubleenveloping Worm Pair without Tooth Flank
2 THE FIRST ENVELOPING
Modification” ē Proc. of ICMT’2006, Chongqing, P R
2.1 Generating flank equation and its parameters China㧦Sept, pp.180184.
[4] Zhao, Y., Wei, Wen., Dong, X., 2007, “Tooth Thickness of
2.2 Relative motion and meshing function in the first Dual Tori Enveloping Toroidal Worm”, Proc. of The 12th
enveloping World Congress in Mechanism and Machine Science,
Besançon, FRANCE: June, pp.133138.
*Corresponding Author.
[5] Dong, X., 1989, Theoretical Foundation of Gear Meshing,
Email address: zhaoyaping1975@126.com.
110
On Lubrication Characteristics of Dual Tori DoubleEnveloping Toroidal Worm Drive
Mechanical Industry Press, Beijing. (in Chinese) [10] J. Oprea, 2003, Differential Geometry and Its Applications
[6] Litvin, F. L., 1994, Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, (2nd Edition), PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. [11] Wen, S., Yang, P., 1992, Elastohydrodynamic Lubricating,
[7] Dong, X., 2004, Toroidal Worm Drives Design and Tsinghua University Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
Modification, Mechanical Industry Press, Beijing. (in
Chinese)
[8] Wu, D., Luo, J., 1992, A Geometric Theory of Conjugate
Tooth Surfaces, World Scientific, Singapore.
[9] F. Di Puccio, M. Gabiccini, M. Guiggiani, 2006,
“Generation and Curvature Analysis of Conjugate Surfaces (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
Via a New Approach”, Mechanism and Machine Theory,
needs it.)
41 (9) , pp.382404.
111
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
112
Thermoelastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of Crankshaft Bearing Considering Crankshaft Deformation under Load
L
h0 c e0 cos(T \ 0 ) tgJ ( y )cos(T D ang \ 0 )
2
where c is radius clearance, e0 and 0 represent eccentricity
vector of journal at midplane of bearing,
ang is angle between
projection of journal rear centerline and eccentricity vector e0,
is angle of journal misalignment.
is the change of oil film thickness caused by elastic
deformation of bush surface of bearing under oil film pressure.
CALCULATION OF ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF BUSH
SURFACE OF BEARING
Fig. 1 Finite element model of connectingrod bearing
The elastic deformations of all nodes on bush surface
under oil film pressure are calculated by deformation matrix
method.
FORMULA OF DEFORMATION MATRIX METHOD
G=Kp (2)
where G is radial deformation matrix of all nodes on bearing
surface under oil film pressure, K is compliance matrix
which is gained by finite element analysis of bearing, and p
is oil film pressure matrix of all nodes on bearing surface.
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF BEARING
(1) Connectingrod bearing
Generally combined together by bolts, bush, cap
and body of connectingrod can be considered as a whole
body in analysis. When dividing model into element, bush is
divided by hexahedron element and other parts of
connectingrod are divided by tetrahedron element. The element
division on bush surface is controlled specially to make nodes
Fig. 2 Finite element model of main bearing
on bush surface correspond with nodes of difference grid used
to calculate oil film pressure of bearing and assure oil film
where,
pressure of bearing can be applied correspondingly on bush h
³ K dz
surface. Finite element model of connectingrod bearing is 1
F0
shown in Fig. 1, which consists of 6625 elements and 12988 0
nodes. h
³ K dz
z
(2) Main bearing F1 z F0
0
Finite element model of main bearing is shown in Fig. 2, F1
which is composed of bush, main bearing cap and tophalf part z
of main bearing housing in cylinder block. Bush is divided by F0
h Uz
³
hexahedron element and other parts of main bearing housing are
F2 ( z z )dz
divided by tetrahedron element. Model of main bearing consists 0 K
of 13877 elements and 4568 nodes. p is oil film pressure, U j is velocity of journal surface and U j
ESTABLISHMENT OF COMPLIANCE MATRIX =R j j, R j is journal radius, j is angular velocity of journal,
The deformations of all nodes on bush surface are U b is velocity of bearing surface and U b =R b b , R b is
calculated when unit oil film pressure is acted on each node bearing radius and b is angular velocity of bearing, is
according to given sequence of nodes on bush surface. The density of lubricant, K is viscosity of lubricant.
elements of a certain row of compliance matrix consist of radial Eq. (3) is solved by finite difference method.
deformation of a certain node when unit oil film pressure is ENERGY EQUATION
acted individually on all nodes of bush surface. The elements of
wT wT wT w 2T wu wv
a certain column of compliance matrix are composed of radial Ucp (u v ) K 2 K[( ) 2 ( ) 2 ] (4)
deformations of all nodes on bush surface when unit oil film Rb wT wy wt wz wz wz
pressure is acted on a certain node. The number of rows and where T is temperature of oil film, u and v are axial and
columns of formed compliance matrix is equal to the number of radial velocity of oil respectively, c p is specific thermal
nodes on bush surface. In this paper, the number of nodes on capacity of oil, and K is heat conduction ratio.
bush surface of connectingrod bearing and main bearing is 468 EQUATION OF SOLID HEAT CONDUCTION
and 396 respectively, thus the number of row and column of w 2Tb 1 wTb w 2Tb 1 w 2Tb Uc wT
compliance matrix for connectingrod bearing and main bearing (5)
is 468 and 396 respectively. wr 2 r wr wy 2 r 2 wT 2 K wt
REYNOLDS EQUATION
where T b is temperature of bearing.
w wp w wp
( F2 ) ( F2 ) RELATION OF OIL VISCOSITYTEMPERATURE
Rb wT Rb wT wy wy The CD30 diesel oil was used and Vogel expression about
F (3) oil viscositytemperature relation was adopted in analysis.
w ( Uh U 1 )
F0 w F wh K 0.5076 u 10 3 exp[3434.6 /(T 22.29)] (6)
Uj Ub ( 1) U
Rb wT Rb wT F0 wt LOAD EQUILIBRIUM EQUATION
If the effect of oil film inertia is not considered, the
113
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
2S h 3 wp
Q2
³0
12K wy y L
Rb dT (10) (b) Midplane
114
Thermoelastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of Crankshaft Bearing Considering Crankshaft Deformation under Load
consideing thermaleffects
not consideing thermal effects consideing thermaleffects
Fig. 4 Maximum oil film pressure pmax of No. 4 main bearing not consideing thermal effects
against crankshaft angle CA in an engine working cycle Fig. 6 End leakage flowrate Q of No. 4 main bearing against
crankshaft angle CA in an engine working cycle
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Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
116
Transient Behavior of ElastoMetalPlastic Journal Bearing during the Stage of Stop
film
RESULTS AND DISCUSION
Simulations for both EMP journal bearings and babbitted
journal bearing are carried out. The geometrical characteristics
of the bearing and the operating conditions used for the
numerical simulation are presented in Table 1. The rotational
speed varies linearly from 1200 rpm to 0 in 10 s. The load is
fixed to 4000 N. The steadystate operating position is used as
the shaft initial position. The rotor doesn’t stop until it reaches
its static resting position in contact with the bearing.
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Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
Nondimensional deformation
Nondimensional deformation
t (s) Bearing Circumferential angle
Fig.3 Nondimensional maximum thermal and elastic length
deformations of the babbitted bush (solid linethermal
deformation, dashed lineelastic deformation) Fig.6 Coupled deformation of the EMP bush
Fig.4 gives the nondimensional maximum thermal and During stopping, boundary lubrication dominating in the
elastic deformations of the EMP bush at different moment. bearing and significant heating can occur in the contact. So the
Thermal deformation is bigger than elastic deformation at the rotor is normally jacked up. But the EMP bush has an extremely
beginning and the opposite result occurs at the end. This is low coefficient of friction. It can avoid the friction problem
because the peak value of pressure increases greatly during successfully. The EMP bearings have no requirement for a
stopping period. Young’s modulus of EMP is much smaller than jacking system during stopping. Furthermore, the coupled
that of Babbitt. The elastic deformation of EMP bush is much thermoelastic deformation of the EMP bush leads to an
bigger than that of the babbitted one. increase in the radial bearing clearance. A cavity is formed on
the EMP bush surface. Some lubricant is sealed in it. Fully
contact of the rotor and bush surface is avoided.
The simulation results also show that the rotor stops at
Nondimensional deformation
9.421 s for the babbitted journal bearing while at 9.837 s for the
EMP journal bearing. This means the rotor speed of EMP
journal bearing is lower than that of the babbitted one when it
contacts the bearing. This also has a positive effect on bearing
operating characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS
For the oil slip on the filmbush interface, the temperature in
the film and in the EMP bush is about 3ć lower than the
t (s) babbitted bush journal bearing during stopping periods.
Fig.4 Nondimensional maximum thermal and elastic Deformations of the active surface due to pressure are quite
deformations of the EMP bush (solid linethermal deformation, large and have to be taken into account. When the rotor stops,
dashed lineelastic deformation) large elastic deformation of the EMP bush results in a cavity on
the bush surface. The hydrodynamic film still separates the rotor
from bush surface. The feasibility of bearing damage decreases.
Fig.5 illustrates the coupled thermoelastic deformation of Utilization of EMP bush prolongs bearing service life.
the babbitted bush. And Fig.6 gives the coupled thermoelastic
deformation of the EMP bush. When the rotor ceases, the
coupled thermoelastic deformation of the babbitted bush is so NOMENCLATURE
small that it has the same effect as roughness. Thus, the friction c = radial clearance (m)
area between bush and rotor is larger than the EMP one. cb = bush specific heat (J/kggK)
cF = lubricant specific heat (J/kggK)
Nondimensional deformation
e = eccentricity (m)
h = film thickness (m)
kb = EMP bush thermal conductivity (W.m1.K1)
kF = lubricant thermal conductivity (W.m1.K1)
m = journal mass (kg)
p = pressure (Pa)
t = time (s)
u , v, w = velocity components (m/s)
vs = slip velocity (m/s)
Bearing Circumferential angle x, y = Cartesian coordinate system
length B = bush thickness (m)
D = journal diameter (m)
Fig.5 Coupled deformation of the babbitted bush Edef = nondimensional elastic deformation
118
Transient Behavior of ElastoMetalPlastic Journal Bearing during the Stage of Stop
Fh , Fv = instantaneous film force components (N) [4] Wu, B.L., Wang, J.Z., 1992, “The operation of the Soviet
L = bearing length (m) thrust bearing pads from spring metalplastic,” Large
Ql = leaking flow (m3/s) Electric Machine and Hydraulic Turbine, 1, pp. 610.
[5] Jin, J., Zhang, G.X., 2000, “Thermoelastohydrodynamic
Qr = recirculating flow (m3/s)
analysis of EMP radial sliding bearing considering the
R = journal radius (m) effects of boundary slip,” Journal of Machine Design, 9,
T0 pp.1619.
= inlet lubricant temperature (ć)
Ta [6] Ma, Z.Y., Dong, Y.X.,2000, “Thermoelastohydrodynamic
= ambient temperature (ć)
lubrication of PTFE thrust bearing,” Journal of Dalian
Tb = bush temperature (ć) University of Technology, 12, pp. 9094.
Tdef = nondimensional thermal deformation [7] Liu, J., Wu, H.J., Liu, Z.M., Wang, Z.M., 2004,
Tr = temperature of the recirculating fluid (ć) “Characteristics of lubricating mechanism of elastic
Db metalplastics bearing and its improvement,” Water
= coefficient of thermal expansion (105K1) Power, 11, pp. 6872.
E = thermoviscosity coefficient (1/K) [8] Gao, R., Wang, X.J., Pan, J.J., Xie, M.C., 2006, “The
H = eccentricity ratio, H e / c experimental research of the ElastoMetalPlastic thrust
P = dynamic viscosity (Pags) bearing during its startup,” Lubrication Engineering, 7,
P0 = initial dynamic viscosity (Pags) pp. 100101, 104.
Q [9] Malik, M.M., Bhargava, S.K., Sinhasan, R., 1989, “The
= Poisson’s ratio transient response of a journal in plane hydrodynamic
T , r, z = cylindrical coordinate system bearing during acceleration and deceleration periods,”
Ub = bush density (kg/m3) SILE Trib Trans, 32(1), pp.6169.
UF = lubricant density (kg/m3) [10] Jain, S.C., Sinhasan, R., Pilli, S.C., 1990, “Transient
Z0 = angular speed (rad/s) response of a journal supported on elastic bearing,”
Tribology International, 23(3), pp.201209.
[11] Khonsari, M.M., Wang, S.H., 1992, “Notes on transient
REFERENCES
THD effects in a lubricating film,” Tribology
[1] Glavatskih, S. B., 2003, “Evaluating thermal Transactions, 35(1), pp. 177183.
performance of a PTFEFaced tilting pad thrust bearing,” [12] Monmousseau, P., Fillon, M., Frêne, J., 1997, “Transient
J. Tribol., 125, pp. 319324. thermoelastohydrodynamic study of tiltingpad journal
[2] Wang, X.J., Zhang, G.X., Zhang, Z.M., 1997, “Slip study bearings—comparison between experimental data and
of the plastic thrust bearing,” Lubrication Engineering, 4, theoretical results,” J. Tribol., 119, pp. 401407.
pp. 1922, 35.
[3] Jin, J., Zhang, G.X., Wang, X.J., 2004, “Experiment and
simulations on lubrication performance of EMP journal
bearing,” Journal of Shanghai University, 2, pp.8589.
119
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
A new model for the free jet breakup is derived from the Ekp + Esp + Eε p = Esc (2)
TAB theory to determine the size of breakup in the energy
conservation law. In addition, the splash behavior of droplets It is believed that speed of droplets will not changed great
after impingement is determined by the newly proposed model, before and after breakup of droplets, so the kinetic energy of
which incorporates both the size and the number models based both sides are equation and could elimination. The surface
on Wu Ziniu’s phenomenological theory. The numerical energy, vibration and deformation energy of "Father" droplet
calculations for several experimental conditions are carried out can be expressed as: Esp = 4π r 2σ ; E = 1 kx 2 = 2 π C 2 ρ r 5ω 2 y 2 ;
kp b
for impinging sprays on a static flat wall. The results indicate 2 3
that the splash ratio increases along with the jet velocity and 1 2 dy Where x = Cb ry m = 4 ρπ r 3
Eε p = mv 2 = π Cb 2 ρ r 5 ( 0 ) 2 ω=
k
the nozzle’s diameter probably as the exponential curve growth 2 3 dt m 3
tendency. The new model generally predicts the splash Combine with mass conservation principle before and after
behavior better than the previous models, and it performs for breakup:
prediction of spattering ratio effectively. The model is useful in 4 3 4 (3)
π r ρ = n1 π r323 ρ
further calculation on the twophase flow air volume fraction 3 3
in the highspeed jet lubrications. It can be solved as a nonlinear equation:
Keywords: Spray; Free jet breakup; Collision; Spattering ratio db (4)
d32 =
4Cb 2 Kyb 2 Cb 2 K ρl db 3 dy0 2
INTRODUCTION 1+ + ( )
3 48σ dt
Generally, the whole process of jet collision is divided into Where, d32 is the sauter mean diameter after breakup.
two phases: free jet breakup and colliding with walls. Reitz
had raised fluctuations breakup (WAVE) model [1] in 1987, Consider the initialization of equation (1) and derivative
believes that jet droplets broken is caused by the rapid growth equation from equation (1):
of KelvinHelmholtz’s instability SAW. This model identifies y0 = y (0) = 0 ; yb =y(t= tb )=1; dyb = dy = 0
the relationship between size of droplet and wavelength of the dt dt t =tb
SAW. Then, numerical Solution is got by iteration.
O'Rourke and Amsden [2] raised the TAB model based on 2. Spattering Models
the Taylor’s match. This way comes from Taylor’s analogy
between the quality system in the spring and the droplet According to Wu Ziniu’s phenomenological theory, diameter
deformation. of droplets which splashed out for impingement can be
About the second phase, spray impingement phenomena is expressed as:
analyzed by most experiments to describe the interaction We
A2 + 8 BWel +A
between droplets and the wall. Mundo et al. [3] pointed out d a = Bs Re d (5)
b
that phenomena of the interaction between droplets and the 2B
wall consists of three representative regimes such as rebound, However, this model is only fit for single droplet.
deposition and spatter. The regime transition criterion between Considering the free jet breakup, we developed a new model
deposition and spatter is determined by the empirical for multidroplets based on Wu Ziniu’s phenomenological
correlation and represented as a function of Reynolds number theory.
and Ohnesorge number of the droplet. We db 2
But very few people directly analysis diameter and number A2 + 8 BWel ( )+A
Re d32 2 (6)
of the spattering droplets from theory. Wu Ziniu [4] was first d a = Bs d32
2B
time developed the relationship of diameters before and after
Where, A = Wel (Wel + 4) ˗ B = Wel (We + 12) ˗ We= ub ρl db ˗
2
impingement from the theory without any experiment
parameters. σ
This paper deals with the development of a new spray/wall ub ρl d b ˗ We Wel is 2, Bs is 4.23.
Re= l
impingement model, which is based on the energy μ
conservation law. Based on the new size model, consider energy conservation
before and after the collision while stability. For a static wall,
THEORY MODELS energy conservation can be expressed as:
1. Jet breakup Model
According to TAB theory [2]:
Ek + Es = Ek' + Es' + Ed' (7)
1 dy0 y0 − Wec (1) Where Ek , Es and Ed represent kinetic energy, surface
y (t ) = Wec + e − (t / td ) [( y0 − Wec ) cos(ωt ) + ( + ) sin(ωt )]
ω dt td energy and dissipated energy, respectively. Parameters of after
Use energy conservation principle, the energy of "Father" the collision are expressed as relevant letters with the
droplet should equal to that of "son" droplets. superscript. All parameters can be expressed as:
120
Analyses on the Splashing Parameters of HighSpeed Oil Impacted a Wall in Jet Lubrications
1 ; Es = π db 2σ ; 1 ;
Ek = ρl ub 2π db 3 Ek ' = ρl ua 2π d a 3n Figure 3 shows that spattering ratio is monotonous increase
12 12
with the increase of jet speed, but the spattering state will
Es ' = Sσ + nπ d a 2σ present saturation and the spattering ratio will no longer
Where n is the number of spattering droplets after the collision; increase sharply when jet speed arrive a certain ratio.
S is the droplet’s surface area for the deposition, details later.
Dissipation can be used a simple model developed by 0.9
spattering ratio
0.6
O˖1.2mm
For isotropic wall, spreading droplets are evenly spread on 0.5
Ƹ˖0.6mm
the wall and final form a hemispherical, see Figure 1. 0.4
acreage: V = π h 2 ( R − 1 h) ; S = 2π Rh 0.2
3 0.1
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
spray jet speed(m/s)
Fig. 3 Effect of jet speed on spattering ratio
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Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITSIFToMM2008 Beijing, China
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