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Jianbin Luo

Yonggang Meng
Tianmin Shao
Qian Zhao

Advanced Tribology

Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008


Jianbin Luo
Yonggang Meng
Tianmin Shao
Qian Zhao

Advanced Tribology
Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008

With 1609 figures


Editors
Prof. Jianbin Luo Prof. Yonggang Meng
State Key Laboratory of Tribology Tsinghua University State Key Laboratory of Tribology Tsinghua University
100084, Beijing, China 100084, Beijing, China
E-mail: luojb@tsinghua.edu.cn E-mail: mengyg@pim.tsinghua.edu.cn

Prof. Tianmin Shao Dr. Qian Zhao


State Key Laboratory of Tribology Tsinghua University State Key Laboratory of Tribology Tsinghua University
100084, Beijing, China 100084, Beijing, China
E-mail: shaotm@tsinghua.edu.cn E-mail: zhaoqian@tsinghua.edu.cn

ISBN 978-7-302-20422-0
Tsinghua University Press, Beijing

ISBN 978-3-642-03652-1 e-ISBN 978-3-642-03653-8


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Content

Advanced Tribology
̣Proceedings of CIST2008 &
ITS-IFToMM2008

Edited by:
Jianbin LUO, Yonggang MENG,
Tianmin SHAO, Qian ZHAO

State Key Laboratory of Tribology,


Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

Tsinghua University Press Springer


1
Preface

Preface
The 5th China International Symposium on Tribology (CIST 2008), conjugated with the 1st International
Tribology Symposium of IFToMM (ITS - IFToMM 2008), was held from September 24 to 27, 2008 in Beijing,
China. The symposium was jointly organized by the State Key Laboratory of Tribology (Tsinghua University), the
State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication (Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of
Sciences), and the Tribology Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society. Increasing activities in the
area of tribology of academia and industry in recent years were discussed during the symposium. Overall, a total of
463 abstracts were accepted for presentation and 378 participants took part in 41 oral sessions or in the poster area.

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support for the symposium from the National Natural Science
Foundation of China, International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science (IFToMM),
STLE (USA), the State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (China),
China University of Mining and Technology, SAE Magnetics (H.K.) Ltd. (Hongkong, China), NSK Ltd. (Japan),
ETT (Eureka Think Tank) (Japan) and Quaker Chemical (China) Co. Ltd. (USA).

The symposium brought tribologists together from industry to academia all over the world for the purpose of
sharing their research information and viewpoints. The topics of the symposium included:

Subjects Organizers
Prof. Yuanzhong Hu (China)
Lubrication
Prof. Jane Wang (USA)
Prof. Zhongrong Zhou (China)
Friction and wear
Prof. Valentin L. Popov (Germany)
Prof. Yonggang Meng (China)
Micro/Nano-tribology
Prof. Dae-Eun Kim (R. Korea)
Prof. Tianmin Shao (China)
Tribology of coatings, surface and interface
Prof. A. Erdemir (USA)
Prof. Shirong Ge (China)
Biotribology
Prof. Zhongming Jin (UK)
Prof. Weimin Liu (China)
Tribo-chemistry
Prof. S. Mori (Japan)
Prof. Xinchun Lu (China)
Industry tribology
Prof. Yongzheng Zhang (China)

We would like to thank all the organizers of the above subjects and the session chairs in the symposium. We
also would like to express our great gratitude to Profs. Siwei Zhang, Qunji Xue, Jianbin Luo, Hugh Spikes, and
Stven Granick, for their excellent plenary talks, to Profs. Y. Kimura, S. M. Hsu, W. M. Liu, Y. G. Meng, A.
Erdemir, and A.G. Wang, for their keynote speeches, to all of the invited presenters and all the participants in the
symposium.

In the social programme on Sep. 27, 2008, some participants took a short tour of the Beijing city, which just
successfully hosted the 29th Olympic Games and the Paralympics in August and September of 2008. Although the

I
Preface

games ended in a splendor of fireworks a few days before the symposium, many participants met the joy, the
warm, and the passion of Beijing in their journey. In the afternoon of Sep. 26, more than 100 participants visited
the State Key Laboratory of Tribology (SKLT), Tsinghua University, as the first state key laboratory in the field of
tribology in China and was established in 1988. Now there are more than 20 full-time staffs, about 20 part-time
research assistants, and 70 postgraduate students working on tribology in the laboratory.

The success of the symposium depends heavily on the colleagues and students in SKLT, and many friends
who played a role in organization. We would like to thank Profs. Yonggang Meng, Tianmin Shao, Hui Wang,
Xinchun Lu, Drs. Xiangjun Zhang, Yu Tian, Qian Zhao, Chenhui Zhang, Haosheng Chen, Jiadao Wang, Dan Guo,
Tianbao Ma, and Ms. Yuhua Qi, Ms. Xiaochen Chen, as well as Dr. Aiyang Zhang, Dr. Jingyun Fan, for their great
contribution to the symposium. We would also like to thank our student volunteers for their excellent works.

We now look forward to the 6th China International Symposium on Tribology to be held in 2011 in Lanzhou,
China.

Shizhu Wen

Jianbin Luo

State Key Laboratory of Tribology

Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

II
Content

Content
Plenary Lectures
Current Industrial Activities of Tribology in China ........................................................................................... Siwei Zhang 3
The Fullerene-Like Nanostructure Hydrogenated Carbon Films with Super-Low Friction .... Qunji Xue, Junyan Zhang 4
Tribology in Nanomanufacturing—Interaction between Nanoparticles and a Solid Surface .......... J. B. Luo, D. Guo 5
Tribology at Small Scales .....................................................................................................................................Steve Granick 11
Frontiers of Research in Liquid Lubrication ................................................................................................. Hugh A. Spikes 12

Keynote Talks
EHL with Grease at Low Speeds ..............................................................Yoshitsugu Kimura, Toshiaki Endo, Daming Dong 15
The Nature of Adhesion and Friction .............................................................................................................Stephen M. Hsu 20
Space Tribology of China ........................................................................................................................................ Weimin Liu 21
Active Control of Sliding Friction ...................................................................................................Yonggang Meng, Yu Tian 22
Superhard and Low Friction Nanocomposite Coatings: Design, Synthesis, and Applications
.............................................................................................A. Erdemir, O. L. Eryilmaz, M. Urgen, K. Kazmanli, V. Ezirmik 23
Tribology of Metal-on-Metal Bearings at High Inclination Angles
............................................................................................................ Reginald Lee, Aaron Essner, Aiguo Wang, Shirong Ge 24

Technical Sessions
ĉ. Lubrication
Key Factors to Induce Cavitation-Erosion (Invited) .................................... Darong Chen, Jiadao Wang, Haosheng Chen 31
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiC-Reinforced HSS-Based Composites with an Interpenetrating
Network for High Temperature Self-Lubrication Applications ...................................... Yanjun Wang, Zuomin Liu 32
Friction and Wear Characteristics of Advanced Space Lubricants (Invited)
................................................................................................Nobuyoshi Ohno, Sobahan Mia, Shigeki Morita, Shingo Obara 38
Lubrication Analysis of Journal Bearing and Rotor System Using CFD and FSI Techniques
................................................................................................................... Huiping Liu, Hua Xu, Peter Ellison, Zhongmin Jin 40
Oil Film Behavior under Minute Vibrating Conditions in EHL Point Contacts
........................................................................................................................Chen Feng, Taisuke Maruyama, Tsuyoshi Saito 42
Different Loading and Motion Applied on Hip Simulators Affects the Lubrication of
Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants...................................................Leiming Gao, Fengcai Wang, Peiran Yang, Zhongmin Jin 44
EHD Lubrication of Different Types of Gears ............................................................................................... Vilmos Simon 46
The Role of Heat Partition in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication (Invited)
.......................................................................................................................H. P. Evans, A. Clarke, K.J. Sharif, R.W. Snidle 48
Influence of Surface Roughness on Elastohydrodynamic Journal Bearings with Non-Newtonian Lubricants
................................................................................................................ Chatchai Aiumpornsin, Mongkol Mongkolwongrojn 50
Theoretical Investigation of Journal Bearings with Non-Newtonian Fluids Included Thermal Effects
................................................................................................................ Mongkol Mongkolwongrojn, Chatchai Aiumpornsin 52
Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film Behavior between Transversely Rough Curved Plates
...........................................................................................................G.M.Deheri, Rakesh M. Patel, Nikhilkumar D. Abhangi 54

III
Content

Engine Lubrication System Analysis and Oil Pump Design Optimization..............................................Quanbao Zhou 56
Temperature-Dependent Rheology and Tribology of Lubrication Greases Investigated with New Flexible
Platform for Tribological Measurements on a Rheometer ............................................... Jörg Läuger, Patrick Heyer 61
Study on Characteristic Parameters of Wear Particle Boundary ...................................................Guobin Li, Delin Guan 64
Viscosity Variation Model and Its Application in Micro/Nano-Scale Clearance
.............................................................................................................................Dong Chun-liu, Zhang Chao-hui, Wang Yan 70
Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings.........Geng Haipeng, Qi Shemiao, Yu Lie 75
Biotribological Properties of Natural Swine Joint Cartilage ...................................................Cui Tao, Xiong Dangsheng 81
Effect of Surface Texturing on Lubrication Film Formation within Non-Conformal Contacts
.....................................................................................I. Kupka, M. Hartl, R. Polišuk, M. Vaverka, M. Vrbka, O. Šamánek 84
Experimental Investigation of Time-Dependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing
.............................................................................................................................Sun Meili, Xia Chengyong, Wang Xiangang 86
Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of LY12 and HPb62-2 Ring Compression
......................................................................................................................Bin Guo, Feng Gong, Chunju Wang, Debin Shan 94
Application of Metal Self-Repairing Additives on Cylinder-Piston Ring Rubbing Pairs
....................................................................................... Lei Wang, X. C. Zhou, Q. Q. Li, C. Q. Yuan, X. P. Yan, Y. H. Chen 98
Wettability Study of Multiply-Alkylated Cyclopentanes (MACs) on Silicon Substrates ..... Ying Wang, Mingwu Bai 102
Numerical Analysis on Hydrodynamics of Circular Translational Polishing under Mixed Lubrication
...................................................................................................................................................................... W. Zhai, P. Feng 104
Micro-Tribological Analysis of POM-MoS2-Compounds ......................................... R. Stengler, S. Schraube, X. G. Hu 109
On Lubrication Characteristics of Dual Tori Double-Enveloping Toroidal Worm Drive
................................................................................................... Yaping Zhao, Wenjun Wei, Xuezhu Dong, Jiancheng Zhou 110
Thermoelastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of Crankshaft Bearing Considering Crankshaft
Deformation under Load .......................................................................................... Jun Sun, Jianglin Liu, Changlin Gui 112
Transient Behavior of Elasto-Metal-Plastic Journal Bearing during the Stage of Stop
................................................................................................................................ Jian Jin, Guoxian Zhang, Xiaojing Wang 116
Analyses on the Splashing Parameters of High-Speed Oil Impacted a Wall in Jet Lubrications
.................................................................................................................. Le Gu, Zhenghuan Ye, Liqin Wang, Dezhi Zheng 120
Interferometry Measurement of Spinning Effect on Sliding EHL ........................................... F. Guo, X. M. Li, B. Fan 122
Effect of Wide Dimples on Planar Contact Lubrication ..... Jiadao Wang, Zhongling Han, Haosheng Chen, Darong Chen 125
Friction Properties and Microstructure of Al-Cu-Fe Nano Films ........................ Zhou Xi-ying, Liu Yan-hui, Xu Zhou 127
Tribological Properties of Ti6Al4V Alloy by FOTS Self-Assembled Monolayers Modification Treatment
............................................................................................................................................... Sun Changguo, Zhang Huichen 130
Influence of Spinning Effect on the Rolling EHL Films ............................................................ X. M. Li, F. Guo, B. Fan 134
A Study on Lubrication Characteristics between Piston Ring and Cylinder Bore of Bent-Axis Type Piston Pump
............................................................Jae-Youn Jung, Ihn-Sung Cho, Il-Hyun Beak, Hyun-Il Shin, Jae-Cheon Jo, Lu Hong 136
The Fabrication and Lubricant Performance of MoS2 Nanotubes Arrays .......................Caihong Sun, Changsheng Li 140
The Research on the Lubricant Aging under Durability Test of the Porous Sliding Bearings
.................................................................................................................. Giemza Boleslaw, Kaldonski Tadeusz, Krol Artur 142
Models for Predicting Friction Coefficient and Parameters with Influence in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
................................................. P. Lafont Morgado, J. Echávarri Otero, J. B. Sánchez-Peñuela Lejarraga, J. L. Muñoz Sanz,
A. Díaz Lantada, J. M. Muñoz-Guijosa, H. Lorenzo Yustos, P. Leal Wiña 144
Elastohydrodynamic Film Thickness in Elliptical Contacts with Rolling and Spinning ........................ Tae-Jo Park 146
Experimental Study on the Tribological Properties of Pure Powder Lubrication under Plane Contact
......................................................................................................................Wang Wei, Liu Xiaojun, Liu Kun, Li Hongxian 151

IV
Content

Hydrodynamic Analysis and Experiment Verification of the High-Pressure Small-Flow Centrifugal Pump
................................................................................................................................ Li Bao-liang, Jiang Qin-Yu, Pan Xing-he 153
Effect of Liquid Surface Tension and Viscosity on Micro-Bubble Induced by External Electric Field
.......................................................................................................................................................... Xie Guoxin, Luo Jianbin 155
Study of Water Lubrication in Sliding Point Contact Friction Pairs with Hydrophobic Surfaces
............................................................................................................ Zhizuo Ma, Chenhui Zhang, Shuhai Liu, Wenshi Zhu 157
A Simplified Numerical Elastic-Plastic Contact Model for Rough Surfaces
............................................................................................. Zhanjiang Wang, Wenzhong Wang, Yuanzhong Hu, Hui Wang 159
Film Characteristics of Grease in Point Contact under Micro-Swaying Motion
.............................................................................................Li Gang, Zhang Chenhui, Luo Jianbin, Liu Shuhai, Lu Xinchun 167
Effects of Solid Body Temperature on the Non-Newtonian Thermal EHL Behavior in Point Contacts (Invited)
....................................................................................................................................................... Xiaoling Liu, Peiran Yang 169
Numerical Analysis on Dynamic Characteristics of Flying Magnetic Head with Ultra Thin Spacing
...................................................................................................................................................... Yao Hua-ping, Huang Ping 171
The Analysis of Higher Guide Bearing Pad Temperature and Its Fault Diagnosis
........................................................................................................................... Mei Gui, Gao Zhi, Liu Ying, Liu Xiangfeng 175
Pitting Life Prediction Based on a 3-D Line Contact Mixed EHL Analysis and Subsurface von Mises Stress
Calculation (Invited) ................................................................................................Dong Zhu, Ning Ren, Q. Jane Wang 178
Numerical Lubrication Simulation of Metal-on-Metal Hip Joints: Ball-in-Socket Model and Ball-on-Plane Model
.......................................................................Wenzhong Wang, Fengcai Wang, Zhongmin Jin, D. Dowson, Yuanzhong Hu 180
Deterministic Simulation of Surfaces in Conformal-Contact Lubrication (Invited)
.....................................................................................................Shangwu Xiong, Chih Lin, Jane Q. Wang, Yansong Wang 182
Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Effect of Surface Texture on Fluid Film Formation
............................................................................................. Zhang Jinyu, Meng Yonggang, Le Chengning, Hideki OGATA 184
Marangoni Stress and Its Effects on the Flow in an Evaporating Sessile Droplet .............. Xuefeng Xu, Jianbin Luo 186
Film Forming Characteristics of Oil-in-Water Emulsion with Super-Low Oil Concentration
................................................................................................................................... Ma Liran, Luo Jianbin, Zhang Chenhui 188
A Piston Lubrication Model Considering the Coupling between the Piston Secondary Motion and the
System Inertia Variation in an IC Engine ......................... Xiaoxiang Zhang, Zhinan Zhang, Ping Wang, Youbai Xie 191
Analysis of the Combined Effect of the Surface Roughness and Inertia on the Performance of High-Speed
Hydrostatic Thrust Bearing .......................................................... Yang Xuebing, Xiong Wanli, Lü Lang, Hou Zhiquan 197
Study on the Efficiency of the New-Style Reducer with the Green Lubricant
...............................................................................................Hu Junhong, Jin Yingli, Guo Dan, Ding Jinyuan, He Weidong 202
Pressure Dependence of the Limiting Shear Stress Coefficient of Liquid Lubricants ......G. T. Y. Wan, P. L. Wong 206
A Method of Dual Number for the Aerodynamic Property Analysis of Gas-Lubricated Mechanism:
Self-Pressurizing Thrust Bearings and Non-Contacting Face Seals ...............Wanfu Xu, Bin Geng, Chunjing Shi 211
A Model for the Calculation of the Micro-Pores Number of Compressively Molded Polyimide Porous
Materials ................................................................................................. Yuping Pu, Jianmin Chen, Peng Zhao, Qunji Xue 216
Frictional Dynamics in a Two Dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova Model with Square Lattice Symmetry
............................................................................................... Ju-na Wei, Cang-long Wang, Wen-shan Duan, Jian-min Chen 220
Advances in investigation of Elasto-Aerodynamic Lubrication in Compliant Foil Bearings (Invited)
.........................................................................................................................................Lie Yu, Shemiao Qi, Haipeng Geng 225
Normal Stress Effects in Journal Bearing Lubrication with Maxwell Fluid
......................................................................................................... Li Xiaodi, Chen Haosheng, Chen Darong, Wang Jiadao 231

V
Content

Ċ. Friction and Wear


Analysis of Bearing Outer Ring Creep with FEM .............................. Jianjun Zhan, Kinji Yukawa, Hiromichi Takemura 237
Effect of Content of MoS2 on Sliding Tribological Behavior of Copper-Based Powder Metallurgy Materials
under Electrical Current .......... Shangguan Bao, Zhang Yongzhen, Xing Jiandong, Sun Lemin, Hu Daochun, Qiu Ming 239
Research on Frictional Wear Properties of C/C Composite with Electric Current
...............................................................................................................L. X. Jia, Y. Z. Zhang, J. Li, L. M. Sun, Y. W. Zhao 242
Friction Behavior of C/C-SiC Braking Composites Fabricated by Warm Compacted-in situ Reaction
..................................................................................................................... Zhuan Li, Peng Xiao, Xiang Xiong, Su-hua Zhu 246
Tribological Properties of Hybrid Ag4SiW12O40 Nanoparticles Multilayer Films
..............................................................................................................Yanbao Guo, Deguo Wang, Siwei Zhang, Yuqi Xiao 250
Study on Fatigue Crack Behavior of Rail in Different Curve Radius ..............Wen Zhong, Wenjian Wang, Qiyue Liu 255
Improvement in Wear Resistance of TiNi Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion and
Annealing Treatment .......................................................................................................................Z. H. Li, X. H. Cheng 257
Self-Healing of a Soft Primer Coating Caused by Plasticization during Sliding against UHMWPE
...............................................................................................................Pieter Samyn, Koenraad Bonny, Gustaaf Schoukens 260
Performance of an Infinitely Long Transversely Rough Hydrodynamic Slider Bearing
....................................................................G. M. Deheri, Chandaniben D. Changela, H. C. Patel, Nikhilkumar D. Abhangi 262
Investigation on Fretting Fatigue Behavior of Ti811 Alloy at Elevated Temperature ...Xiaohua Zhang, Daoxin Liu 264
Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of a Tribological Couple: Spray-Deposited Al-Si/SiCp Composites/Brake Pads
...................................................................................................................................... Teng Jie*, Chen Ding, Chen Zhenhua 268
Wear Behaviors of a Cu-Based Bulk Metallic Glass under Various Gas Atmosphere
........................................................................................................................................ G. Q. Zhang, L. N. Wang, H. Z. Liu 270
A Study of the Correlation between Gear Wear and Vibration ........ Cao Yibo, Xie Xiaopeng, Liu Yan, Ding Tianhuai 273
Study on the Relationship between Microstructural Change in Friction-Induced Deformation Layer and
Friction Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steel .............................. Xue Zongyu, Zhou Sheng, Wei Xicheng, Li Jian 278
Abrasive Wear Behavior of Several Metallic Materials under Simulated Sand-Dust Environment
...................................................................................................................................................... Chunxia Li, Fengyuan Yan 283
Wear Behavior of Plasma-Nitrided 2Cr13 Martensitic Stainless Steel under Air and Vacuum
............................................................................................Yang Jianqun, Liu Yong, Ye Zhuyu, Yang Dezhuang, He Shiyu 285
Sealing Performance and Wear Mechanism of PTFE Oil Seal....................... Ye Zibo, Huang Xing, Liang Rongguang 287
Fretting Corrosion Wear of Synergy between Mechanical and Electrochemical for Biomaterials in Hanks
Balanced Salt Solution.....................................................................................................................Li Ji-wu, A. Iwabuchi 292
Torsional Fretting Behaviors of UHMWPE against Different Counter-Bodies (Invited)
...................................................................................................................Z. B. Cai, M. H. Zhu, J. Yu, S. X. Qu, Z. R. Zhou 298
An Experimental Study on the Rotational Fretting Wear Behavior of LZ50 Steel
.............................................................................................................................J. L. Mo, M. H. Zhu, Z. J. Liao, Z. R. Zhou 300
Comparative Study of Tribological Properties with Different Fibers Reinforced PTFE/PEEK Composites
at Elevated Temperatures .........Mu Liwen, Feng Xin, Zhu Jiahua, Wang Huaiyuan, Sun Qingjie, Shi Yijun, Lu Xiaohua 302
Research on Friction Characteristic of End Faces of Mechanical Seals ............... L. Wei, B. Q. Gu, X. Feng, J. J. Sun 304
Failure Mechanism of Hadfield Steel Crossing ..... F. C. Zhang, B. Lv, T. S. Wang, C. L. Zheng, Q. Zou, M. Zhang, M. Li 309
Synthesis and Tribological Behavior of Surface Coated Cu Nanoparticles in Liquid Paraffin
............................................................................................Ling Zhang, Lei Chen, Hongqi Wan, Jianmin Chen, Huidi Zhou 311
Tribological Behaviors at High Load of MoS2 Films in Vacuum
.................................................................... Xinxin Ma, Gang Wang, Guangze Tang, Yong Liu, Shiyu He, Dezhuang Yang 313

VI
Content

Experimental Study on Running-in of Steel Fiction Pair of Block on Disk in Oil with Micro-and-Nano
Diamond Powder .......................................................................................................... X. P. Xie, Z. G. Wang, S. L. Chen 315
Thermomechanical Properties and Tribological Behavior of CaCO3 Whisker Reinforced
Polyetheretherketone Composites ................................................................. Lin Youxi, Gao Chenghui, Chen Minghui 319
Corrosive Fretting Wear Behavior of a Titanium Alloy TC11 in Artificial Seawater
..........................................................................................................................H. Y. Ding, Z. D. Dai, Y. Zhang, G. H. Zhou 322
Investigation on Rolling Contact Fatigue and Wear Properties of Railway Rail
................................................................................................................... Wenjian Wang, Wen Zhong, Jun Guo, Qiyue Liu 327
Superlubricity Characteristics Using Ceramic Composite Mineral Powder as Lubricating Oil Additive
........................................................................................................................ Yuzhou Gao, Wengang Chen, Huichen Zhang 329
On the Wear-Resistance of Zinc-Based Composites Reinforced by Modified Silicon Phase
........................ Zhao Haofeng, Wang Ling, Wang Wei, Tan Xingxuan, Huang Tingli, Xia Zhengjun, Liu Yanling, Liu Bin 333
On the Wear-Resistance of Low-Alloyed Steel Modified by Inoculants
............................................ Wang Ling, Zhao Haofeng, Yan Kai, Liu Bin, Wang Wei, Chen Xi, Qin Qing, Wang Zhigang,
He Jun, Liu Mengyin, Liu Zhigang, Wu Hongyan 336
Research on Worn Mechanism of Disc-Brake Pair Materials for Drilling Rig
.......................................................................................................................X. H. Wang, S. W. Zhang, D. G. Wang, N. Wu 338
Modelling of Self-Lubrication in Frictional Interaction ......................................................................... I. G. Goryacheva 344
An Asperity-Contact Based Oxidation Model for Fretting Wear with the Presence of Debris
..................................................................................................................J. Ding, S. B. Leen, E. J. Williams, P. H. Shipway 346
Rolling Contact Fatigue of Silicon Nitride Balls under Pure Rolling Condition
..............................................................................................Zhou Jing-ling, Chen Xiao-yang, Zhang Pei-zhi, Wu Guo-qing 348
Influence of Different External Pressure on the Thermo-Mechanical Coupling of the Rough Surface
during Sliding Contact ......................................................................................................J. M. Huang, C. H. Gao, Z. Liu 350
Effect of Transverse Surface Topography on Cavitation Erosion.................. Y. Li, Z. Xu, H. Chen, J. Wang, D. Chen 356
The Theory of Debris Group in Ferrographic Analysis ................................ Tonggang Liu, Xiaohang Tang, Zhiyi Yang 361
A Method to Monitor Nonferrous Debris in Ferrographic Analysis .................Liu Tonggang, Liu Shujin, Yang Zhiyi 366
Interaction between Micro-Particales and Bubbles in Cavitation-Erosion of Hydro-Machinery
........................................................................ Wang Jiadao, Chen Haosheng, Xu Yanji, Qin Li, Li Yongjian, Chen Darong 368
Magnetization of Friction Surfaces and Wear Particles under Tribological Processes ..... Alan Hase, Hiroshi Mishina 370
Wear Progress Prediction of Carbide Tool in Turning of AISI1045 by Using FEM
.................................................................................................... Xie L.-J., Schmidt C., Biesinger F., Schmidt J., Pang S.-Q. 372
Friction and Wear Properties of Fe7Mo6-Based Alloy under the Lubrication of Ethyl-Alcohol
.............................................................................................................................. T. Murakami, H. Mano, Y. Hibi, S. Sasaki 376
Seizure of PEEK and Its Composite at High Sliding Velocity in Oil Lubrication ............. T. Akagaki, M. Kawabata 378
Tribological Behavior of Chromium Alloyed Layer Prepared on Surface of TiAl
................................................................Zhiyong He, Xiaofeng Wang, Ying Fan, Zhenxia Wang, Xiaoping Liu, Zhong Xu 384
Wear Characteristics under Boundary Lubrication Contacts in Phosphorated Starch Based
Electrorheological Fluids ....................................... Chul-Hee Lee, Young-Min Han, Jung Woo Sohn , Seung-Bok Choi 386
Abrasive Wear Mechanisms of Multi Component Ferrous Alloys Abraded by Soft, Fine Abrasive
Particles (Invited) ....................................................................................................De Mello, J. D. B., Polycarpou, A. A. 388
The Analyzes of Mutual Influence of Contact Spots in Sliding Contact of a Periodic Surface and
a Viscoelastic Foundation ..................................................................................................................... Lyubicheva A. N. 390
Different Nano-Fillers on the Tribological Properties of PTFE Nanocomposites
............................................................................................................... Huaiyuan Wang, Xin Feng, Liwen Mu, Xiaohua Lu 392

VII
Content

Study on Surface Passivation Treatment and Tribological Properties of 1Cr18Ni9Ti Stainless Steel in
Hydrogen Peroxide ............... Wang Jihui, Gu Kali, Yuan Chengqing, Sun Xianming, Hu Sheng, Hu Xiaozhong, Li Jian 396
High Speed Tribology: Some Developments on Thermal Behaviors (Invited) ..............Zhang Yongzhen, Qiu Ming 402
Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Cu-Graphite Composite within a Wide Range of Sliding Velocity
.............................................................................................................................................................. Wenlin Ma, Jinjun Lu 404
Tribological Aspects of Control over Frictional Interaction between Solids in the Presence of Liquid Crystals
...............................................................................................................................................S. F. Ermakov, A.V. Mikelionis 406
Effects of the Concentration of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Solution and NaCl Additive on the
Potential-Controlled Friction ................................................................................Siqing He, Yonggang Meng, Yu Tian 408
Study of Wear and Corrosion Properties of Coated Ionic Liquid
..... Zhang Xiaohao, Zhang Xiangjun, Liu Yonghe, Mikhail Kosinsky, Imad Ahmed, Stefan Krischok, Juergen A. Schaefer 413
Deformation Behavior of Al-4Cu-2Mg Alloy during Cold Upset Forging
..................................................................J Babu Rao, Syed Kamaluddin, J Appa Rao, M M M Sarcar, N R M R Bhargava 417
Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Pure Aluminium and Al-Cu Alloys ........ A Narendra Kumar, R Srinivasu, J Babu Rao 422
Tribological Properties of Spark-Plasma-Sintered Al2O3-SrSO4 Self-Lubricating Nanocomposites at Elevated
Temperatures ............................. Yufeng Li, Jiahu Ouyang, Yaming Wang, Yu Zhou, Takashi Murakami, Shinya Sasaki 426
Tribological Behaviors of Some Materials in Sea Water ............................ Jianzhang Wang, Fengyuan Yan, Qunji Xue 430
Nanofretting Wear of Monocrystalline Silicon (100) against Spherical SiO2 Tip in Vacuum
..........................................................................................................Jiaxin Yu, Linmao Qian, Bingjun Yu, Zhongrong Zhou 433
Influence of Surface Finishing Operations on the Reciprocating Sliding Friction and Wear Response of
WC Based Cemented Carbides
..............................................K. Bonny, P. De Baets, W. Ost, S. Huang, J. Vleugels, O. Van der Biest, W. Liu, B. Lauwers 435
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Titanium Reinforced Polybenzimidazole Composites
...................................................................................................................................Lu Yanhua, Chen Jianmin, Zhou Huida 437
Friction and Wear Behavior of Laser Cladding NiAl/hBN Self-Lubricating Composite Coating
.......................................................... Shitang Zhang, Jiansong Zhou, Baogang Guo, Huidi Zhou, Yuping Pu, Jianmin Chen 442
Research on the Wear-Resisting Material Produced by Vacuum Evaporation Pattern Casting
........................................................................................................ Jianxiu Liu, Yongjun Liu, Minxin Zheng, Xiangke Ning 443
Effect of Surface Topography on Friction and Wear of Cast Iron for Cylinder Liners
............................................................................................................................J. Keller, V. Fridrici, Ph. Kapsa, J. F. Huard 447
Wear Resistance Analysis of Hardening Materials for Engine Cylinder .......Jianmin Sun, Qinghui Zhou, Gequn Shu 449
Effects of Speed Sequence on Friction Properties of Sintered Cu-SiO2
..................................................................................................................... Fei Gao, Rong Fu, Baoyun Song, Yves Berthier 454
The Fluid Dynamic Lubrication between Tooth Surfaces of High Order Contact........................................ L. Huran 457
Study on Friction and Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber and Fly Ash Reinforced MC Nylon Composites
.......................................................................................................................... S. H. Zhang, G. Chen, C. Cui, C. Mi, F. Tian 460
Experimental Study of Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Sapphire Substrate
.....................................................................................Wenhu Xu, Xinchun Lu, Guoshun Pan, Jianbin Luo, Chenhui Zhang 464
Friction and Wear of the Ceramic Coating Formed on Magnesium Alloy
....................................................................................................................Fei Chen, Hai Zhou, Qingfeng Zhang, Fanxiu Lv 467
Thermal-Mechanical Couple Simulation of Solid Brake Disc in Repeated Braking Cycles
........................................................................Pyung Hwang, Xuan Wu, Young-Bae Jeon, Qi-Cheng Peng, Hee-Chang Seo 471
Preliminary Applications of King’s ART Technology in Industry ..................Ling Chen, Yayue Zhao, Yuansheng Jin 473
Wear Properties of Potassium Titanate Whiskers Reinforced ZL109 Alloy Composites
..................................................................................................................................................Wei Zhongshan,Wu Shenqing 475

VIII
Content

Mineralogical Mechanochemical Agent Assisted Reconditioning Effects and Mechanism


on Worn Ferrous Surfaces (Invited) ........................................................................... Jin Yuansheng, Yang Zhongxue 477
Experiment Research on the Friction Performance of O-Ring with Different Oil Swelling Ratios
........................................................................................................................... Fu Suhong, Liu Jinli, Liu Nan, Ma Jingxuan 479
Friction Behaviors of Bushing in Rolling Contact with Shaft and Electroless Ni-PTFE-P or
Ni-Al2O3-P Coating ........................................................................................ Dayong Liu, Yiwu Yan, Kalun Lee, Jie Yu 482

ċ. Micro/Nano-tribology
Nano and Micro Indentation and Scratch Tests of Mechanical Properties of Thin Films
.............................................................................................................Norm V. Gitis, Ilja Hermann, Suresh Kuiry, Jun Xiao 489
Synthesis of Nano-MoS2 Particles and Its Role in the Self-Lubrication of Polyacetal-Based Composite
..............................................................................................................Xianguo Hu, Kunhong Hu, Yufu Xu, Ralph Stengler 491
Analysis of a Three-Body Contacting Model with the Adhesive Effect ...............Jeng-Haur Horng, Chin-Chung Wei 493
Analysis of Three-Body Contacting Model with Scale Effect.................................Chin-Chung Wei, Jeng-Haur Horng 495
Adhesion, Friction and Wear Measurements at Microscale
.............................................................................................N. Myshkin, A. Grigoriev, A. Kovalev, W. Scharff, E. Kovalev 497
Fabrication and Nano-Tribological Behaviors of PDDA/Ag NPs Composite Molecular Deposition Films
..................................................................................Xiao Yu-qi, Wang De-guo, Zhang Si-wei, Guo Yanbao, Gao Mang-lai 499
Frequency Shift of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube under Axial Load
.............................................................Kan Biao, Ding Jianning, Cheng Guanggui, Wang Xiuqin, Fan Zhen, Ling Zhiyong 503
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Nano-Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquid Films
............................................................................................................Wenjie Zhao, Deming Huang, Jibing Pu, Mingwu Bai 505
Analysis on Wafer Tilt Effects in CMP Process ..........................................Chao-hui Zhang, Zi-cheng Wang, Yan Wang 507
Size Effects on Friction of C3602 in Cylinder Compression ..............Bin Guo, Feng Gong, Chunju Wang, Debin Shan 509
Investigation on the Tribological Characteristics of Nano/Micro Solid Anti-Wear Additives
in Engine Lubricants ........................................................ Zhang Kejin, Wang Dan, Pan Yanchun, Lu Yun, Han Zhiyong 511
The Influence of Carbon Nanotubes on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Resistance of a Polyamide
Nanocomposite ......................................................................................... B. May, M. R. Hartwich, R. Stengler, X. G. Hu 515
Experimental Investigation of the Frictional Behaviors at Particle-Surface Interfaces in CMP Application
Using an Atomic Force Microscope .............................................................In-Ha Sung, Hung-Gu Han, Hosung Kong 516
Finite Element Simulation and Analysis of Nano-Scale Adhesive Contacts..................... Liu Yuan, Zhang Xiangjun 518
Nano/Micro-Tribological Properties of Ultrathin Functionalized Imidazolium Ionic Liquid Films
on Silicon Wafer ............................................................................................................................. Yufei Mo, Mingwu Bai 520
Micro Asperity Type Induced in Electrostatic Resistance of MEMS ....... Xuejin Shen, Licheng Hou, Xiaoyang Chen 522
Experimental Analysis and Numerical Simulation of the Recess Slider in Magnetic Recording System
with Ultra-Thin Spacing .....................................................................................Rongjun Niu, Hongbin Liu, Ping Huang 528
Effect of Solvents on Frictional Properties of Monolayer Lubricant Films Coated on Magnetic Disk
Surfaces (Invited).............................................. Hedong Zhang, Yasunaga Mitsuya, Yosuke Fujikawa, Kenji Fukuzawa 531
Fly-Ability and Durability Test of Dynamic Fly Height Heads at 1 nm Clearance
.......................................................................................................Ning Li, David B. Bogy, Lanshi Zheng, Yonggang Meng 533
Cavitation Erosion Characteristics of Titanium Alloy Thin Film Prepared by Ion Beam
Enhanced Deposition ...................................................................................... Zhang Huichen, Gao Yuzhou, Zhou Rixue 536
Measurements of Vertical Elongation and Adhesive Force of Nanometers-Thick Lubricant Films
on Magnetic Disks Using Micro Probe for SPM
........................ Yasuji Ohshima, Hedong Zhang, Yasunaga Mitsuya, Masayuki Watanabe, Takashi Sumi, Kenji Fukuzawa 540

IX
Content

Experimental Research on Boundary Slip of Confined Liquids at Micro/Nano Scale and Effect of
Shear Rate and Viscosity .................................................... Wang Xin, Zhang Xiangjun, Meng Yonggang, Wen Shizhu 542
Study on Micro-Scale Gas Slider Bearing with Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method
...............................................................................................................................................Yanrui Zhang, Yonggang Meng 544
Tribological Behaviors of Self-Assembled Dual-Layer Films in Atmosphere and in Vacuum
...........................................................................................Bingjun Yu, Linmao Qian, Jiaxin Yu, Jun Luo, Zhongrong Zhou 546
Research on Fractal Contact Model of Cylinders’ Surface.......................................... Huang Kang, Zhao Han, Chen Qi 548
Friction between Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) Films—a Molecular Dynamics Study
..................................................................................................................................Tianbao Ma, Yuanzhong Hu, Hui Wang 554
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Atomic-Scale Friction in Diamond-Silver Sliding System
................................................................................................................................ Pengzhe Zhu, Hui Wang, Yuanzhong Hu 556
Molecular Dynamics Study on Carbon Nanotubes Sandwiched between Si Surface
...........................................................................................................................................Li Rui, Hu Yuanzhong, Wang Hui 558
Tribological Aspects of Nanoimprint Process (Invited) .......................................................................Zygmunt Rymuza 560
Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Effect of Crystallographic Orientation on Nano-Indentation/Scratching
Behaviors of BCC Iron .............. Cheng Lu, Yuan Gao, Guillaume Michal, Hongtao Zhu, Nam N. Huynh, A. Kiet Tieu 562
3D Misorientation of Cantilevers and Its Impact in Friction Force Microscopy
.............................................................................................................................Guillaume Michal, Cheng Lu, A. Kiet Tieu 564
Coupled Simulative Analysis for Drive Characteristic of Micro-Comb Structure..............................D. Guo, Y. Zhu 566
Relating Friction and Processes Development during Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP)
.............................................................................................................................. Filip Ilie, Tiberiu Laurian, Constantin Tita 571
An Irreversible Thermodynamics Theory for Friction and Wear (Invited) ...........................................Zhendong Dai 576
Fabrication and Flying Test of Silicon Sliders .................................................... Jing Lin, Yonggang Meng, Nanhai Song 579
Surface Damages on Silicon Surfaces Created by Large Silica Cluster Impacts:
Molecular Dynamics Simulation....................................................... Ruling Chen, Jianbin Luo, Dan Guo, Xinchun Lu 582
Silicon Oxide Surface Chemistry and Nano-Tribology (Invited) ............................................................Seong H. Kim 584
Dynamic Testing for Evaluation of HDI Robustness
.............................................................................Zhi Sheng Deng, Li Zhi Su, Eric Lap Pang Lam, Eric Cheuk Wing Leung 586
Effect of Wall Roughness on Electroosmotic Flow in Microchannels .................................................Y. Liu, D. Yang 588
Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring System: Friction and Its Control (Invited) .................................. Yonghe Liu 592

Č. Tribology of Coatings, Surface and Interface


Fundamentals of Friction and Energy Dissipation (Invited) ................................................................... Yuanzhong Hu 597
The Future of Boundary Lubrication by Carbon Coatings and Environmentally Friendly Additives
.......................................................................................... Mi de Barros Bouchet , C Matta , J Michel Martin, L Joly-Pottuz 598
Tribological Behavior of Sputtered Boron Carbon Nitride Coatings and the Influence of Processing Gas
.................................................................................................................... Youming Chen, Shengrong Yang, Junyan Zhang 600
Effect of the Prepared Process on Tribological Properties of Multi-Layer Elastomeric DLC Monolayer
.................................................................................... Ding Jianning, Cheng Guanggui, Kan Biao, Fan Zhen, Ling Zhiyong 602
Tribology Behaviors of in situ Nanoparticles Doped Molecular Deposition Films
................................................................................................................................ Yanbao Guo, Deguo Wang, Siwei Zhang 606
The Friction Property of Hydrogenated Carbon with Fullerene Microstructure after Annealing
........................................................................................................ Qi Wang, Chengbing Wang, Zhou Wang, Junyan Zhang 608
Study of Worn Surface Characterization Based on Singular Entropy........................................Li Guobin, Guan Delin 610

X
Content

An Adaptive Meshless Model for Asperity Thermal Elasto-Plastic Contacts Considering


Temperature-Dependent Material Properties ......................................................................... Geng Liu, Zheng Zhang 612
Thermal Oxidized Coating on Surface of Titanium Alloy for Improvement of Tribological
Properties in Vacuum............................................................................Yong Liu, Zhuyu Ye, Dezhuang Yang, Shiyu He 614
Study on Friction and Wear Properties in Vacuum for -Ray Irradiated PTFE Coatings
......................................................................................................... Yong Liu, Zhuyu Ye, Xingdong Yuan, Dezhuang Yang 618
Friction and Wear Behaviors of Plasma Sprayed Conventional and Nanostructured WC-12Co
Coatings at Elevated Temperature .............................Bin Yin, Yulong An, Huidi Zhou, Fengyuan Yan, Jianmin Chen 621
Wear Behavior of Chromizing-Titanizing Coating .................................. Lou Baiyang, Jin Lingchuan, Xu Bin, Yu Keer 623
Preparation and Polishing Performances of -Al2O3/ Fe2O3 Composite Particles
..................................................................................................................... Qionglin Yan, Hong Lei, Yi Chen, Yuliang Zhu 625
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Friction and Wear Behavior of MoS2/Graphite Coatings in Vacuum
............................................................................................Jianqun Yang, Yong Liu, Zhuyu Ye, Dezhuang Yang, Shiyu He 630
Preparation of Silica / Alumina Composite Abrasives and Their CMP Behavior on Hard Disk Substrate
.........................................................................................................................................................Fengling ChuˈHong Lei 633
Friction Properties of Laser Surface Texturing and Molybdenum Alloying Duplex-Treated Ni-Based Alloy
................................................................................................................................................ Jianliang Li, Dangsheng Xiong 636
Erosion Characteristic in Ultrasonic Cavitation Experiment..................................................................Luo Jing, Li Jian 638
Modification Effects of Potassium Titanate Whisker on the Water Absorption and Tribological
Properties of PTFE Composites .................................. Jiahua Zhu, Yijun Shi, Xin Feng, Huaiyuan Wang, Xiaohua Lu 640
Influence of the C+-Implantation Dose on the Wetting and Adhesion Properties of Silicon Sufaces
........................................................................................................................................................ D. G. Wang, D. K. Zhang 642
The Effect of Laser Induced Oxygen-Diffusion Hardening on the Surface Structure and Scratch
Resistance of Commercially Pure Ti .........................Chen Changjun, Zhang Min, Zhang Shichang, Chang Qingming 649
Structure and Tribological Characterization of TiB2/TiBN Multilayer Coatings Deposited by Magnetron
Sputtering................................................................................................................................... W. S. Lin, J. Chen, J. Zhou 651
First Principles Investigation of Water Adsorption on Fe (110) Crystal Surface Containing N
............................................................................................................................W. Zhao, J. D. Wang, F. B. Liu, D. R. Chen 654
Research on Fabrication and Tribological Properties of Ti-Al Intermetallic Compound Lubricate Film
................................................................................................................................ Zhang Ye, Li Changsheng, Tian Mingxia 658
XPS and SEM Analyses of Self-Repairing Film Formed by Mineral Particles as Lubricant Additives on
the Metal Friction Pairs ............................................................................ Wengang Chen, Yuzhou Gao, Huichen Zhang 660
Study on the Characteristics of Transferred Lubricating Thin Films on Ceramic Surfaces Generated in
Liquid Nitrogen .........................................................................................Le Gu, Liqin Wang, Dezhi Zheng, Xiaomei Jia 665
Cr17Ni14Mo3 Powder Laser Cladding on 45Steel Substrate
......................................................................................................Sun Huilai, Zhao Fangfang, Lin Shuzhong, Qi Xiangyang 667
Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Plasma Sprayed NiCr/Cr3C2 and NiCr/Cr3C2-BaF2 ˜ CaF2
Composite Coatings .......................................................................... Chuanbing Huang, Lingzhong Du, Weigang Zhang 669
Friction and Wear Property of Amorphous Carbon Films Prepared by Ion Beam Assisted Deposition
............................................................................................................................Rong Sun, Shuhui Yu, Ruxu Du, Qunji Xue 676
Research on Silicon Content and Structure Relationship of Amorphous Si-DLC Films by Molecular
Dynamics Simulations ......................................................................................................... H. Lan, T. Kumagai, T. Kato 678
Effect of Deposition Parameters on Nano-Mechanical Properties of DLC Films by PECVD........ H. Lan, T. Kato 682
The Effect of Laser Texturing of Steel Surfaces on Film Lubriction Based on Stribeck Curves
..........................................................................................................................Hongbin Liu, Rongjun Niu, Yonggang Meng 685

XI
Content

Formation and Crystallization Kinetics of Amorphous Alloys.............................................................. N. Li, C. H. Gao 688


Fabrication and Wear Resistance of Ni-CeO2 Nanocomposite Coatings by Electrodeposition under
Ultrasound Condition .................................................................................Yujun Xue, Jishun Li, Wei Ma, Mingde Duan 695
On the Measurement of Slip Length for Liquid on Super-Hydrophobic Surface
.............................................................................................................. Li Jian, Zhou Ming, Cai Lan, Yang Haifeng, Ye Xia 697
Effect of Plasma Surface Niobizing of -TiAl Alloy on Wear Resistance
............................................................................................................... Xiaoping Liu, Bingying Wang, Zhiyong He, Li Cao 699
Tribological Properties and High-Speed Drilling Performance of Zr-C:H:Nx% Coatings with Different
Contents of Nitrogen ........................................................................................................ W. H. Kao, Y. L. Su, S. H. Yao 701
Tribological Behavior of Sputtered CrAlNbN Hard Coatings at Elevated Temperatures
...................................................................................................................................................... G. A. Fontalvo, C. Mitterer 703
The Method of Elastic Coatings Diagnostics from Indentation Data .................. E. Torskaya, S. Chizhik, S. Siroezkin 705
The Effect of Electric Field on Adhesion Force with liquid in MIM Structures
........................................................................Xiong Yi, Zhang Xiangjun, Liu Yonghe, Zhang Xiaohao, Mikhail Kosinskiy 707
Simulation of Friction Composite Behavior Using Heat Treatment
.......................................................................................... Jií Gabryš, Gražyna Simha Martynková, Yafei Lu, Yuxiong Liu 710
In-situ Microtribology with High Local Resolution
.........................................................................Wolfgang P. Weinhold, Eberhard G. Mueller, Ralph Stengler, Michael Stoll 712
Optimization of Energy Efficiency of Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films in the Field of Solar
Cells by Microtribological Rating.................. Jing Yu, Volker Sittinger, Wolfgang P. Weinhold, Carsten Diegelmann 716
Contact Analysis of a Spherical Wear Particle between Elastomeric Seal and Coated Steel Surface
....................................................................................... Tae-Jo Park, Hyun-Dong Cho, Yun-Geon Hwang, Hyun-Gi Chung 718
Effect of Particles Size and Morphology of Selected Compounds of Friction Composite on Friction
Performance ...................................................... Karla Barabaszová, Gražyna Simha Martynková, Yuxiong Liu, Yafei Lu 720
New Technique of DLC Coating Obtaining for Tribology Applications
................................................................................. Chekan N. M., Zhuang Yan, Akulich V. V., Akula I. P., Ladutko E. V. 722
Effect of Spraying Parameters on Microstructure and Thermal Stability of Fe-Based Metallic Glass Coatings
................................................................Li Fuping, Li Jinshan, Kou Hongchao, Jiang Chaoping, Xue Xiangyi, Fu Hengzhi 724
Factors Influencing the Fluid-Assisted Surface Cracking under Rolling-Sliding Contact Loading
.................................................................................................................................................... J. Wang, S. Ioannides, J. Lai 726
Microstructure, Phase and Microhardness Distribution of Laser Deposited Ni-Based Amorphous Coating
............................................................ Jiang Chaoping, Li Jinshan, Kou Hongchao, Dai Jiangbo, Xue Xiangyi, Fu Hengzhi 728
Friction Modifiers Optimization of the Ceramic Composites for Automotive Applications
........................................................................... Gražyna Simha Martynková, Karla Barabaszová, Pavla Thorová, Yafei Lu 730
Friction and Wear Behaviors and Rolling Contact Fatigue Life of TiN Film on Bearing Steel by Plasma
Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition Technique .........Hongxi Liu, Yehua Jiang, Rong Zhou, Baoyin Tang 732
Connectivity Characterization of 3D Surface Topography Based on Mathematical Morphology
.................................................................................................................... Liu Xiaojun, Liu Kun, Wang Wei, Gui Changlin 734
Effect of Microstructure on the Friction Properties of the Electroless Ni-P Deposit
.................................................................................................................................. Y. H. Cheng, Y. Zou, L. Cheng, W. Liu 736
Erosion Behaviors of Elastic Polymer Coatings............................... Zhong Ping, Liao Youwei, Yuan Chengqing, Li Jian 738
Mechanical Properties of the TiAlSiN Coatings by Post Heat Treatments
..................................... Wei-Yu Ho, Chi-Lung Chang, Chih-Wei Chen, Chun-Nane Chen, Li-Wei Shen, Chi-Chun Hwang 742
In-situ Measurements of Surface Temperature Fields on Ring-Block Contact Surface under
Friction Using an Infrared Thermography .............................................................. Tao You, Jianwei Yu, Xiaofen Yu 744

XII
Content

Research on the Preparation, Characterization and Tribological Properties of Ultra-Thin


Self-Assembled Monolayers on the Magnetic Head Surface ......................................... Hu Xiaoli, Zhang Chenhui 748
Super-Hydrophobic and Self-Lubricating Carbon Coating on Ti3SiC2
.............................................................................................Jian Sui, Yanjie Zhang, Shufang Ren, Monika Rinke, Jinjun Lu 750
Corrosion Protection of Ultra-Thin Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Cuprum
................................................................................................................................ Min Zhong, Chenhui Zhang, Jianbin Luo 752
SEM and AFM Study on Nanoparticles Used as Lubricating Oils Additives........................................ Gu Zhuoming 754
Study on Wear Model for Piston Ring and Strengthened Cylinder Wall of Engine ..........Jianmin Sun, Haiqiao Wei 756
State of the Art in Laser Surface Texturing (Invited) ................................................................................... Izhak Etsion 761
La2O3 Effect on Microstructure, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Ni-W Coatings
.......................................................................................................................................................... Baolei Han, Xinchun Lu 763
A Comparative Study of Growth Process and Tribological Behavior between Single Component and
Mixed Alkylsilane Self-Assembled Molecular Films ............................X. K. Wang, Y. H. Liu, J. B. Luo, X. C. Lu 765
The Effect of Surface Morphology on the Friction Behavior of HF-CVD Diamond Films
...........................................................................................................................................................Bin Shen,Fanghong Sun 770
Particles Detection and Analysis of Hard Disk Substrate after Post-CMP Cleaning
........................................................................................... Yating Huang, Xinchun Lu, Guoshun Pan, Bill Lee, Jianbin Luo 772
Hard Wear-Resistant Coatings: A Review .................................................................T. Hoornaert, Z. K. Hua, J. H. Zhang 774
The Cavitation Erosion of the Mild Carbon Steels Implanted with Titanium and Nitrogen
............................................................................................ Liu Fengbin, Wang Jiadao, Chen Darong, Xu Yanji, Zhao Ming 780
Research of the Pits Induced by MnS Inclusions at the Incipient Stage of Cavitation Erosion
................................................................................... Jiang Nana, Liu Shihan, Chen Haosheng, Wang Jiadao, Chen Darong 782
The Water Wettability of the Hydrogenated and Oxygenated Diamond Films
................................................................................................................................ Wang Jiadao, Liu Fengbin, Chen Darong 785
Investigation on the Effect of Transverse Grooves on Friction Force
.......................................................................................................Zhou Gang, Wang Jiadao, Chen Haosheng, Chen Darong 787
Research for Forming Mechanism of Benard Coating Shaped Bi-Unit Composite Structure
.................................................................................................Zhaoliang Dou, Jiadao Wang, Haosheng Chen, Darong Chen 791
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiCN Coatings Prepared by MTCVD
............................................................................................................................ Zhengbing Qi, Peng Sun, Zhoucheng Wang 796
Erosion-Wear Behavior and Mechanism of HVAS Coatings ................................................................ Y. H. Han, L. Li 801
Tribological Properties of Textured Ti Coating Prepared by Masked Deposition.......Yuanyue Zhang, Tianmin Shao 804
A Method of Micro Laser Surface Texturing Based on Optical Fiber Focusing
...................................................................................................................................Yiqian Zhou, Tianmin Shao, Liang Yin 806
Application of Laser in Surface Technology—An Overview of the Research Work Performed
in SKLT (Invited) ........................................................................................................................................ Tianmin Shao 807
Influence of Heat Treatment on Hardness, Elastic Modulus and Bonding Strength of Ti/Ta/TiN/TaN
Nanomultilayer Coatings .............................................................................................................H. F. Gong, T. M. Shao 808
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Titanium Reinforced Polybenzimidazole
................................................................................................................ Yanhua Lu, Jianmin Chen, Haixia Cui, Huidi Zhou 812
Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films Deposition on Glass Using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR)
Microwave Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) System
................................................................................................. Guangan Zhang, Liping Wang, Pengxun Yan, Junyan Zhang 816

XIII
Content

č. Biotribology
The Biotribological Behavior Researches on the -Tocopherol Doped and Gamma-Irradiated UHMWPE
..............................................................................................................................................................Ni Zifeng, Ge Shirong 823
The Effects of Protein and pH on the Tribo-Corrosion Performance of Cast CoCrMo —A Combined
Electrochemical and Tribological Study ............................................................D. Sun, J. A. Wharton, R. J. K. Wood 825
Biotribological Properties of Carburized Titanium Alloys ...............Yong Luo, Shirong Ge, Zhongmin Jin, John Fisher 827
Effect of Corrosion and Biofilm on Friction Behavior in Biotribocorrosion System for Metal-on-Metal
Hip Prosthesis ......................................................Yu Yan, Anne Neville, Duncan Dowson, John Fisher, Sophie Williams 829
A Microscopic Model for Pedestrian Slips Caused by Particle Contamination
................................................................................ Hung-Jung Tsai, Hung-Cheng Tsai, Pay-Yau Huang, Chih-Hsiang Liao 831
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Aspherical Metal-on-Metal Artificial Hip Joints
.................................................................. Qingen Meng, Leiming Gao, Feng Liu, Peiran Yang, Fisher John, Zhongmin Jin 833
Long-Term Contact-Coupled Wear Prediction for Total Metal-on-Metal Hip Joint Replacement
...................................................................................... Muhamad Noor Harun, Zhongmin Jin, Fengchai Wang, John Fisher 835
The Molecular Orientation Induced by Multi-Directional Sliding in the UHMWPE Used for the Artificial
Joint Replacements ........Lu Kang, Eric Lewis, Jagan Mohanraj, Tom Brown, David Barton, Zhongmin Jin, John Fisher 837
Radial Displacements in a Thin Semi-Spherical Layer of Biphasic Articular Cartilage for Use in EHL
Models of Natural Hip Joints .................................................................................. A Félix Quiñonez, J Fisher, Z M Jin 839
Investigations of the Sliding Friction Behaviors of Locusts on Slippery Trapping Plate
...................................................................................................................................... Wang Lixin, Zhang Xin, Zhou Qiang 841
Tribology of Sequentially Irradiated and Annealed UHMWPE with and without Impingement
.......................................................................... Aaron Essner, Lizeth Herrera, Reginald Lee, Jason Longaray, Aiguo Wang 843
Study on UHMWPE Carrying Estradiol to Treat the Particle-Induced Osteolysis
....................................................................... Shuxin Qu, Aiqin Liu, Xiaomin Liu, Shengfu Li, Jie Weng, Zhongrong Zhou 845
Friction and Wear Characteristics of UHMWPE Studied by Orthogonal Method
.................................................................................................................................... Wu Gang, Zhao Chunhua, Zhao Xinze 847
Wear Mechanism of Sliding Tracks between Femoral Head and Acetabular Cup of Artificial Joint
......................................................................................................Wang Shibo, Wang Qingliang, Ge Shirong, Zhang Dekun 851
Dynamic Contacting Characteristic of Natural Articular Cartilage under Reciprocating Sliding
....................................................................................................................................................... Qian Shanhua, Ge Shirong 853
Application of Principal Component Analysis and Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Algorithm to
the Classification of UHMWPE Wear Debris from Artificial Joints
.............................................................................................J. P. Wu, X. P. Yan, C. Q. Yuan, X. C. Zhou, Z. Jin, J. L. Tipper 855
Numerical Surface Characterization of Wear Debris from Artificial Joints Using Atomic Force Microscopy
.............................................................................................................................. C. Q. Yuan, X. P. Yan, Z. Jin, J. L. Tipper 857
A Novel Propelling Mechanism Based on Frictional Interaction for Endoscope Robot
............................................................................................................................................... Young-Tae Kim, Dae-Eun Kim 859
Study on the Release of Estradiol form UHMWPE Loading Estradiol Wear Debris in vitro
...............................................................Xiaomin Liu, Aiqin Liu, Shuxin Qu, Xiaohong Li, Linmao Qian, Zhongrong Zhou 861
A New Method to Simulate Wear within the Patellofemoral Joint of TKR
............................................................................................................................P. Ellison, D. C. Barton, Z. M. Jin, J. Fisher 863
Modification and Tribological Study on Implant Polymers of Hip Prosthesis ......................................Maoquan Xue 865
Dynamic Contact Model of Bio-Adhesive Pads of Animals: Simulation Experiments
..........................................................Xiong Yi, Xiangjun Zhang, Imad Ahmed, Michael Kosinsky, Yonghe Liu, J Schaefer 867
Examination of Biolox®delta from Serum Lubricated Reciprocating Sliding Wear ........... L. Ma, W. M. Rainforth 869
Lubrication of Synovial Joints (Invited) ........................................................................................................ Zhongmin Jin 871

XIV
Content

Ď. Tribo-chemistry
Mechanism and Applications of Chemical and Mechanical Polishing (Invited)
.................................................................................................................................. Xinchun Lu, Guoshun Pan, Jianbin Luo 875
Tribological Performance of Biomass-Oil from Straw Product
............................................................................................................... Xianguo Hu, Qiongjie Wang, Yufu Xu, Xifeng Zhu 876
Extreme Pressure Properties and Mechnism of Bismuth Naphthenate with Sulfur Containing Additives
........................................................................................................ Huanqin Zhu, Jianqiang Hu, Yongguo Zhang, Yiwei Fei 878
Synthesis and Tribology Properties of Stearate Coated Ag Nanoparticles
............................................................................................................... Lei Sun, Xiaojun Tao, Pingyu Zhang, Zhijun Zhang 880
Filtrate Reducer Activity and Antiwear Behavior of Drilling Fluid Doped with an Non-Conventional Additive
.................................................................................. Wei Danping, Geng Zhiyong, Liu Xiaoyu, Yan Lili, Wang Chengbiao 882
Utilization of Industrial and Agricultural Wastes as a Source of Lubricants, Additives and Fuels ....... Wei Danping 884
Effect of Tribochemical Reaction on Friction and Wear of DLC under Lubrication with Ionic Liquids at
High-Vacuum Condition (Invited)
........................................................ Shinya Sasaki, Tsutomu Yagi, Hiroki Mano, Koji Miyake, Miki Nakano, Takao Ishida 886
Tribochemical Reaction of Ionic Liquids on Sliding Metal Surfaces
........................................................ Tsutomu Yagi, Shinya Sasaki, Hiroki Mano, Koji Miyake, Miki Nakano, Takao Ishida 888
The Tribological Properties of Oil-Soluble Nano-Copper and Nano-Silica Particles as Additives of
Lubricating Oils............................................................................................. Jingjing Huang, Xiaohong Li, Zhijun Zhang 890
Preparation and Tribological Properties of Monodispersed Metallic Cu-Sn Alloy Nanoclusters with
Modified Surface .................................................................... Tao Zhao, Rong Sun, Shuhui Yu, Ruxu Du, Zhijun Zhang 892
Tribological Studies on a Novel Borate Ester Containing Benzothiazol-2-yl and Disulfide Groups as EP
and Multifunctional Additive ...................................................................... Yonggang Wang, Jiusheng Li, Tianhui Ren 894
Tribological Behavior of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy against SAE52100 Steel under Ionic Liquid
Lubricated Conditions ........................................................................................Yanqiu Xia, Zhengfeng Jia, Junhong Jia 896
Tribological Characteristics of Magnesium Alloy Using BN-Containing Additives under Boundary
Lubricating Condition ............................................................................ Zhengfeng Jia, Yanqiu Xia, Weimin Liu, Bin Li 899
Synthesis of YPO4 Nanoparticals vis Microemulsion Method and Its Friction Properties of
Lubricating Oils........................................................................................... Limin Zhao, Xin Shao, Yibin Yin, Wenzhi Li 903
A Protective Coating Formed in-situ on the Cylinder Bore in Presence of Mg6Si4O10(OH)8
.............................................................................................................................................. Zhongxue Yang, Yuansheng Jin 905
Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Copper in Organic Phosphonic Acid System Slurry
..........................................................................................Zhang Wei, Lu Xinchun, Liu Yuhong, Pan Guoshun, Luo Jianbin 906
Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Copper Using Ethylenediamine and Hydrogen Peroxide
Based Slurry ..................................................................... Ping Liu, Xinchun Lu, Yuhong Liu, Jianbin Luo, Guoshun Pan 908
Rheological and Tribological Characteristics of Chemically Modified Rapeseed Oil
.............................................................................................................. Li Qinghua, Tao Dehua, Zhang Jianhua, Mo Yunhui 912
Research on Friction-Coatings with Activated Ultra-Thick Tin-Base
................................................................................................................. Mo Yunhui, Tao Dehua,Wei Xicheng, Li Qinghua 915
Surfactants Lubricating Oil Additives (Invited) ........................................................................ S. Plaza, L. Margielewski 920

ď. Industry Tribology
Efficient Tribology Testing of Lubricating Oils with Nano-Additives................................... Norm V. Gitis, Jun Xiao 925
Manufacture and Characterization of C/C-SiC Fabricated by Warm Compacted-in situ Reacted Process
..........................................................................................................................................Li Zhuan, Xiao Peng, Xiong Xiang 926

XV
Content

Experimental Investigations on Relationship between Sorptive Properties, Surface Tension, Contact Angle
and Lubricity of Engine and Gear Oils ...................................................... Tomasz Jan Kaldonski, Tadeusz Kaldonski 928
The Latest Technology of Traction Drive Half-Toroidal CVT ........................................Daping Liu, Takashi Imanishi 930
Long Life Bearing Technologies on Material Aspect ................ Peng Xiangduo, Yasuyuki Shimizu, Nobuaki Mitamura 932
Fault Diagnosis of Gear Using Oil Monitoring Samples and Vibration Data
.................................................................................................................. Cao Yibo, Xie Xiaopeng, Liu Yan, Ding Tianhuai 934
Prediction of Static Performance of Bump-Type Foil Bearings and Validation............ Kai Feng, Shigehiko Kaneko 940
Study on Condition Monitoring in Petrochemical Equipment Using Oil Analysis Technology
...............................................................................................................................Xiaopeng Xie, Wei Feng, Qiansheng Liao 942
Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Polymer-Lining and Their Effect on Coefficient of Friction
.................................................................................................................................Yuxing Peng, Zhencai Zhu, Guoan Chen 947
Machine Condition Monitoring and Remaining Life Prediction Using Integrated Approach
............................................................................................. S. Ebersbach, Zhongxiao Peng, Chengqing Yuan, Xinping Yan 949
Study on Condition Characteristics of Tribo-System and Its Description Method
....................................................................................................Xinping Yan, Chengqing Yuan, Xincong Zhou, Xiuqin Bai 957
Study of Tribological Faults and Their Prevention Approaches in Dredger
.......................................................................................................................... X. P. Yan, Y. H. Chen, A. N. Li, C. Q. Yuan 961
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication and Asperity Contact Simulation of Engine Main Bearing with Flexible
Rotating Crankshaft and Flexible Engine Block ............... Liang Chen, Xigeng Song, Dongxin Xue, Zhangjie Ming 967
Tribology Extenics Condition Evaluation Based on Case Reasoning
.............................................................................................................. Zhao Chunhua, Yu Zhiqiang, Zhao Xinze, Wu Gang 973
Effect of Surface Material on the Cavitation Erosion Noise: Experimental Investigation
............................................................................................................... Ge Han, Chen Haosheng, Chen Darong, Yan Dayun 977
Research on Mechanism of Casing Wear in Sliding-Impact Wear Condition
........................................................................................................Fan Jianchun, Zhang Laibin, Chun Shengli, Yu Huiyuan 980
Durability of Phosphorated Starch Based ER Fluid under Damper........ C. H. Lee, J. W. Sohn, Y. M. Han, S. B. Choi 983
Effect of Different Atmosphere on Dry Friction Behavior of Steel Sliding against Brass at High Speed
...................................................................................................Qiu Ming, Zhang Yongzhen, Du Sanming , Shangguan Bao 989
A Study on the Application of a Mineral Additive in Lubricating Oil for Cylinder Liner
......................................................Yue Wen, Wang Chengbiao, Huang Haipeng, Wen Qingfeng, Liu Yuandong, Liu Jiajun 991
Effect of Ingredients in Slurry Containing Alumina on Polishing of Hard Disk Substrate
.....................................................Jiazhen Sun, Guoshun Pan, Yan Zhou, Yonghua Zhu, Jianbin Luo, Xinchun Lu, Yan Liu 993
Study on Dispersion Stability and Self-Repair Principle of Ultrafine-Tungsten Disulfide Particulates
............................................................................................................................................................ Shi Chen, Mao Daheng 995
Research on Micro-Abrasion Performances of TiN Coating in Simulated Body Fluid
................................................................................................................................ Weijiu Huang, Guo Wang, Zhaofeng Li 1000
Micro-Abrasion-Corrosion of Ti6Al4V Alloy in Simulated Artificial Hip Joint Environments
................................................................................................................................ Weijiu Huang, Guo Wang, Ziqin Zheng 1005
Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of NiP Alloy for Hard Disk Drive Substrates
.............................................................................................................. Weiming Lee, Zuqiang Qi, Wanjia Lu, Jianbin Luo 1011
The Material Removal Rate of Metal Polishing Process ..............................................Yeau-Ren Jeng, Pay-Yau Huang 1013
Tool Life Modelling for High-Speed Milling ...............................................................................Wu Delin, Zhou Yunfei 1015
Nano-Scratching-Induced Damages and Their Effect on Fracture Properties of a Single Crystal Sapphire
...........................................................................................................................................Yufu Liu, Y. Kagawa, K. Shiraki 1017
Interfacial Forces in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (Invited) ................................................ Dedy Ng, Hong Liang 1019
Influence of Water on the Tribological Behavior of Collector Materials against Railway Contact Wires at
High Sliding Speeds ........................................................................... L. M. Sun, D. C. Hu, B. Shangguan, Y. Z. Zhang 1020
Index of Authors ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1025

XVI
Proceedings of CIST2008 &
ITS-IFToMM2008

Plenary Lectures
Current Industrial Activities of Tribology in China

Current Industrial Activities of Tribology in China

Siwei Zhang
Chinese Tribology Institution (CTI), CMES
China Petroleum University, Beijing, China

Abstract: A recent investigation of the industrial China in 2006, the Chinese industrial enterprises can save
application of tribology in China is presented. This work 414.8 hundred million USD per year, namely, 1.55% of
is aimed mainly at finding out the current situation of gross national product (GNP) in 2006.
industrial activities of tribology and proposing some On the basis of the investigation, a general view of the
recommendations with the emphasis on the energy and current industrial activities of tribology in China was
material savings in the process of manufacture and obtained which has a practical significance for the
operation of machinery. Eight representative industries international community of tribology, and some
were selected as the investigated objects, namely recommendations dealing with industrial application,
metallurgical industry, energy (coal, electric power) and research and education were made and delivered to the
petrochemical industries, railway transport, automotive government departments concerned.
industry, agriculture machinery, shipping industry, aerospace Finally, the author highlights the green tribology from the
industry and military equipment. view point of ecological balance and sustained development.
It was found that owing to application of tribology, the Green tribology is considered as an important way to
sum total of the estimated potential savings of the first 6 propel the society forward sustainedly. It might be one of
investigated objects above mentioned is 103.61 hundred the key directions of technological progress of tribology in
million USD (according to the exchange rates in November striding forward towards the new century.
2006) per year. The first three contributors of savings are
automotive industry, metallurgical industry and railway (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
transport. Based on the above figure and the statistical data needs it.)
of value-added of industry of all industrial enterprises in

3
Plenary Lectures—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

The Fullerene-Like Nanostructure Hydrogenated Carbon Films with Super-Low Friction

Qunji Xue, Junyan Zhang


State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China

Abstract: Carbon-based thin films have been subject of and the lattice spacing of 3.34±0.02 Å of the bulk graphite
extensive research over the last decade due to their are observed by HRTEM. Nanoindentation is an attractive
excellent properties, such as low friction coefficient, technique for analyzing the mechanical properties of thin
chemical inertness, infrared transparency, and high films independently of the substrate. The significant finding
hardness. The hardness of carbon-based films is usually for the nanoparticles hydrogenated carbon films with
linked to the presence of sp3 C–C bonds and these films are thickness of 1500 nm is the elastic recovery which is as
called diamond-like carbon. Recently, it was shown that high as 85%. The friction coefficient as a function of the
some nonhydrogenated carbon and carbon nitride films sliding time of the fullerene-like hydrogenated carbon films
containing a high number of sp2 bonds exhibit very against Si3N4 ball was assessed on a reciprocating
interesting properties, such as high hardness (up to 55 GPa) ball-on-disk tribotester. We found that the fullerene-like
combined with an extreme elasticity (elastic recovery of hydrogenated carbon films exhibited not only high hardness
85%). The combination of a hard and at the same time an and high elasticity concurrently, but also super-low friction
elastic material has been attributed to a ‘‘fullerene-like’’ coefficient (μ=0.009) in ambient atmosphere with 20%
microstructure. The fullerene-like materials composed of relative humidity. The low-temperature deposition process
graphene multilayers, onions and nanotubes together with allows the fullerene-like structure carbon films to be
amorphous structures have been already synthesized by deposited atop hard or magnetic thin films to supply a
different physical vapor deposition techniques. Here, we super-low friction protective layer. Moreover, the finding
reported that fullerene-like nanostructure hydrogenated of the fullerene-like structure carbon films in this study will
carbon films can also be fabricated by plasma chemical definitely open a new avenue of carbon films’ research and
vapor deposition—pulsed glow discharge. The fabricated applications.
fullerene-like nanostructure hydrogenated carbon films
possess high hardness and high elasticity, more importantly, (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
the films exhibit ultra-low friction under ambient condition needs it.)
with 20% relative humidity.
The fullerene-like nanostructure characterized by
curved graphite planes with interval of approximately 3.4 Å

4
Tribology in Nanomanufacturing—Interaction between Nanoparticles and a Solid Surface

Tribology in Nanomanufacturing—Interaction between Nanoparticles and a Solid Surface

Jianbin Luo, Dan Guo


(State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China)

ABSTRACT of feature size below 0.35m. It is a process using abrasive,


Nanomanufacturing is a new area brought up in recent corrosive slurry to physically grind flat and chemically remove
years, which is defined by NSF (The National Science microscopic topographic features on a wafer so that subsequent
Foundation, USA) as encompassing all processes aimed toward processes can begin from a flat surface. But the material
building of nanoscale (in 1D, 2D, or 3D) structures, features, removal mechanism of CMP, such as how to measure the
devices, and systems suitable for integration across higher movement of nano-particles? what will happen when a particle
dimensional scales (micro-, meso- and macroscale) to provide in collision with the worked solid surface? how to get a super-
functional products and useful services. Nanomanufacturing smooth surface in CMP? These are not fully understood. In the
includes both bottom-up and top-down processes. Tribology paper, our recently works on the interaction of nanoparticles
becomes very important in nanomanufacturing, particularly in and a solid surface in CMP processes are introduced.
process of chemical mechanical material removal, contact
printing, assembly and joining, scanning probe lithography etc.
In the present paper, the characteristic of liquids in a nano-gap, INTERACTION OF NANOPARTICLE WITH A SOLID
the collision, adsorption, and desorption of nano-particles with SURFACE - EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
a solid surface, and the surface modification in nanofacturing
have been discussed. In order to investigate the interaction between a
nanoparticle and a solid surface, the movement of nanoparticles,
Keywords: Tribology, Nanomanufacturing, Nanoparticles, CMP
the collision between a nanoparticle and a solid surface etc.
should be observed. A series of experiments surrounding the
INTRODUCTION interaction of nanoparticles with a solid surface are introduced
H. Rohrer, the 1986 Nobelist, said in a letter to Jiang in the paper.
Zemin in 2003 (the president of China from 1989 to 2003):
“150 years ago, the emergence of micron concept set a new Observation of nanoparticle’s movement [4,5]
accuracy assessment standard, and then became a firm
A system for the nanoparticle observation is developed as
technological base of the industrial revolution. The countries
shown in Fig.1, which includes a fluorescence microscope with
that learnt it initially, mastered and made the best use of it have
high resolution, an Evolution QE cooled charge coupled device
gotten a tremendous predominance in the industry development.
camera, an image processing software, a syringe pump, and
Similarly, the future technology will belong to the countries
other assistant equipment. The seed nanoparticle has a shell of
that take the nanotechnology as the new accuracy standard
SiO2 and the fluorescein inside with diameters about 40±5 nm.
advisably, learn and use it firstly.” At present, after developing
The excitation wavelength of the particle is 454 nm, and the
nano-science and nano-technology for many years, the key
point is how to turn them into manufacturable technology or
industry products. Nanomanufacturing redefined by NSFC
includes manufacturing of nanoscale structure, manufacturing
with nano-precision, and integration across higher dimensional
scales (micro-, meso- and macroscale). It includes both
bottom-up and top-down processes. Many of nano- manufacturing
processes are related to the tribology, such as scanning probe
lithography, assembly and joining, material removal processes
in CMP (Chemical Mechanical Planarization) and so on.
Nanomanufacturing brings some new challenges to the
tribology. For example, in the nanomanufacturing of hard disc
driver, the areal density is increased from 40 Gb/in2 to 500
Gb/in2 then to 1000 Gb/in2, the fly height of magnetic head is Fig.1 The apparatus for nano-particle observation
accordingly reduced from 15 nm to 4 nm then to 2 nm, which
results in a lot of problems such as how to get an atomic
smooth surface, how to get a special surface with low energy
and self-lubricated, and how to get a fly height about 2-3
nanometers [1]. In the nano-printing process, the width of lines
will be down to tens of nanometer, therefore, the compactedness
of space with deformed material and geometric distortion of the
pattern is closely related to the nano-rehelogy and adhesion in
the solid/liquid interface [2,3]. For the nanomanufacturing in
integrate circuit (IC), one difficulty is the planarization for the
different layers with different hardness, e.g. Cu layer, barrier
layer (Ta), and medium layer (SiO2). Chemical mechanical
planarization (CMP) is the most effective planarization tool in
the manufacture of IC and become the indispensable technology Fig.2 Trajectories of seed particles in a flow [4 ]

5
Plenary Lectures—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Velocities of particles
800 Velocities of liquid

700 sample1 200ul/min


V(um/s)
600

500

400

300

200

100

0 500 1000 1500 2000 Fig. 5 Collision, adsorption, and desorption of a nanoparticle
X (um)
on a solid surface [ 6]
Fig.3 Velocity distributions of solid phase in a micro channels

Fig.4 The particle trajectories in a water droplet during


evaporation process [5]

emission wavelength is 592 nm. Using the experimental


apparatus, the movement of thses seed nanoparticles in water
flowing through a micro-channel with a width and a depth of 2
mm was observed. In the system, the fluid is driven by an
injection pump. Consecutive images of these seed particles in
the flow are acquired at intervals of 50 ms, and then identified
and tracked as shown in Fig.2. From trajectories of particles,
Fig. 6 Images of the adsorbed fluorescent particles when the
the velocity of an individual particle can be calculated, and then
abrasive concentration is 15wt%. (a), pre-impact image at the
the velocity profile of the solid phase in the flow can be
impacting speed of 1 m/s; (b), post-impact image at the
obtained. From Fig.3, it can be seen that nanoparticles followed
impacting speed of 1 m/s; (c), pre-impact image at the
the flow in micro channels, and therefore, fluorescent
impacting speed of 3 m/s;(d), post-impact image at the
nanoparticles can be used as the seeds to track the flow of
impacting speed of 3 m/s. [6]
microfluids. Trajectories of nanoparticles in a water droplet
also can be observed during its evaporation process as shown in
As shown in Fig. 6 where the length of the space bars is
Fig.4.
10 m, many adsorbed fluorescent nanoparticles can be
observed when the abrasive concentration is 15 wt%. Fig. 6a
Collision of nanoparticles with solid surface [6,7] and 6b were taken before and after the impact respectively at
In order to find whether the collisions in the CMP process the impacting speed of 1 m/s. From such two figures it can be
can contribute to material removal, an experiment under seen that the number and the position of the adsorbed particles
controlled conditions at a temperature of 29 oC with a relative are almost the same after the impacting. A similar situation also
humidity of about 30% was carried out in the experiment, and can be seen in Fig. 6c and 6d when the impacting speed
the variation of the images of fluorescent nanoparticles increases to 3 m/s. The experimental results indicate that the
adsorbed on a glass surface after impact was checked by the adsorbed nanoparticles can hardly be removed from the solid
fluorescent microscope system mentioned above. The aim is to surface by the hydrodynamic effect of the impacting liquid and
provide a new method for investigating the material removal by the collisions of the impacting nanoparticles if the impacting
mechanism in a CMP process. speed, the impacting time, and the particle concentration of the
Driven by an injection pump, a cylindrical slurry jet impacting liquid are less than 3 m/s, 1.5 minute, and 15 wt%
spouts from a nozzle exit of the system and impacts normally respectively. Based on the assumption that the bonding energy
on a lower surface of a cover-glass as shown in Fig. 5. The between the adsorbed particles and the solid surface is not
distance between the nozzle exit and the lower glass surface is higher than that among atoms of the surface layer of the
less than 1 mm. Fluorescent nanoparticles had been already polished disc, it can be deduced that the effect of the collision
deposited on the glass surface by placing a deionized water between the abrasives and the wafer surface on the material
droplet with fluorescent nanoparticles on the surface and removal can be negligible under the experimental condition.
allowing it to dry before the impact test and the coverglass had However, if the speed and the particle incidence angle changed,
been put into a sealed box for about 8 hours to ensure that the what would happen?
nanoparticles were firmly adsorbed on the surface. Another experiment on cylindrical liquid jet containing

6
Tribology in Nanomanufacturing—Interaction between Nanoparticles and a Solid Surface

deionized water and SiO2 nanoparticles impacting obliquely on atom pileup also can be found on the surface and its maximum
a surface of a single crystal silicon wafer at a speed of 50 m/s height is approximately 15 Å. In addition, there are a few
with an incidence angle of 45º was performed as shown in Fig. crystal grain packets in which the lattice is distorted, and the
7 and Fig. 8 which is a picture captured by a high speed video orientations of the lattice fringes in the packets deviate from
camera. that of the matrix of the Si wafer.

Fig.7 Schematic of a cylindrical slurry jet impacting a silicon


wafer

Fig. 9 TEM images of the surfaces under different impact


conditions with an exposure time of 30 s. (a) without particles;
(b) with particles [7]

Fig.8 The pictures captured by a high speed video camera


Fig.10 AFM image of the surface with the exposure time of 10
The microstructure of the impacted surface was examined
min [7]
by using a high resolution transmission electron microscope
and an atomic force microscope (AFM). Some crystal defects,
lattice distortion, grain refinement, and the rotation of grains in
the surface layer of the silicon wafer exposured to the
impacting liquids, i.e. DI water and a slurry with nanoparticles,
for 30 s have been observed as shown in Fig. 9. However, when
the exposure time is extended to 10 min, an amorphous layer
containing crystal grains is exhibited in the subsurface, and
many craters, scratches, and atom pileups can be found in the
surface.
Compared with the TEM image of the solid surface
impacted by the DI water without any obvious damage on the
surface (Fig. 9a), it can be found that there are many significant
elliptical damage regions with different sizes on the Si(100)
surface impacted by a slurry with SiO2 nanoparticles as shown
in Fig 9b. Impacting pits also can be found by AFM as shown
in Fig. 10. It can be seen that the width and length of a pit is
about 50 and 130 nm, respectively, and at one end of the pit Fig.11 Cross-section HTEM images of the specimen subsurface
there is a nose which is 13 Å higher than the surface according with the exposure time of 10 min [7]
to the cross-section profile of the pit. This suggests that an
atom pileup occurs on the surface after particles impact on the In summary, when the incident speed and angle change,
surface. some damage regions can be found on impacted surface or in
In the cross-section of the tested specimen for the the surface layer due to the impacting of nanoparticles.
exposure time of ten minutes as shown in Fig. 11, it can be HRTEM observation from different locations in a damaged
found that there is a damaged layer with a thickness about 15 region with the exposure time of 30 s shows the existence of
nm where the lattice fringes have been transited into an heavy and heterogeneous deformation in the surface layer with
amorphous silicon state from a crystalline silicon matrix. An many crystal defects, lattice distortion, and the refinement of

7
Plenary Lectures—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

grains. With the increase of the exposure time, many pits and
scratches on the surface, an amorphous layer in the surface
layer, and an atom pileup in the outlet region of the scratch can
be found.

MOLECULAR DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF NANO-


PARTICLES IMPACTING ON A SOLID SURFACE
Theoretical analyses have been done by Duan et al. and
Chen et al. [8-12] for the investigation of a collision process of
a nanoparticle to a Si or SiO2 surface. Effects of the incident
angle, energy, cluster size, on the trajectory of a nanoparticle,
the deformation, temperature, and pressure distribution in the Fig.14 Side cross-section and look down views of the
damaged region, and the material remove rate of the surface transformed region under the impacting of a SiO2 cluster with a
layer are investigated by molecular dynamic simulation. Fig. 12 diameter of 5.4 nm at a speed of 4313 m/s
shows the schematic diagram of a nanoparticle cluster impact
on a crystal silicon surface in a wet or dry condition for the
molecular dynamics simulation.

Fig.15 Temperature distribution and pressure change with time


at a speed of 4313 m/s in a dry impacting process

Fig.12 Schematic diagram of a nanoparticle cluster impact on


crystal silicon at wet or dry condition [12]

As illustrated in Fig. 13, different shapes of the damaged


region are created on the surface when the incident angle
changes. In the whole range of the incident angle from 0 to 75嘙,
the shapes of the depressed regions exhibit a continuous change.
Fig. 16 Critical velocity of extrusion formation under different
The smaller the incident angle is, the wider and shallower the
incident angle
shape becomes. There are hill-shaped atom pileups at the rim of
the depressed region, when the incident angle is within the
The molecular dynamic simulation and analysis indicate
range from 15° to 75°. For the incident angle of 0° the
that the silicon surface is extruded due to combinational effects
trajectory of the particle determines the formation of any pileup;
of thermal spread, phase transformation, and crystallographic
and for the incident angle of 15° the penetration depth is so
slip with the impact of a larger silica cluster. Fig. 14 shows a
small that the atoms of the surface cannot be extruded out to
cross-section and a planform of the transformed region under
form any pileup. When the incident angle is larger than 75°, the
an impacting of a SiO2 cluster with a diameter of 5.4 nm at a
pit and the atom pileup become too smaller to be observed as
speed of 4313 m/s. The temperature and pressure distribution
shown in Fig.13.
are shown in Fig. 15 during a dry impacting. It is found that the
extrusion on the silicon surface will be in embryo during the
impact unloading stage and will grow up during the cluster
rebounding stage. Furthermore, the critical impact velocity to
induce the formation of extrusions on silicon surface is
associated with the incidence angle of the cluster as shown in
Fig.16. The result is useful to the optimizing of the CMP
process parameters of silicon wafers. Furthermore, the critical
velocity of the pileup on the silicon surface is affected by the
incidence angle rather than the particle size. It reaches the
minimum at the incidence angle of 45°.
It is also found that the water film reduces the contact
temperature, and has little effect on pressure. The impacted
surfaces after a wet collision is more smooth than that after a
Fig.13 The configurations of the silicon surface after a dry collision. There is a best size region of particles where
nanoparticle impacts at an angle of 90° (a); 75° (b); 60° (c); 45° MRR is highest as seen in Fig. 17, which is related to the unit
(d); 30 (e) and 15°(f) [8,13] area energy in impacted region. [12-14].

8
Tribology in Nanomanufacturing—Interaction between Nanoparticles and a Solid Surface

Fig. 17 Dimension size effect in simulation and CMP process

ADVANCEMENT IN CMP PROCESS Fig.19 Surface modification of nanoparticle


There are many problems in the CMP process, such as:
1. The agglomeration of nano-particles in CMP process
will result in scratches on a polished surface.
2. Adhesion of nanoparticles on the polished surface will
make much trouble to the cleaning process.

Fig.20 The roughness analysis of hard disk substrate surface


before and after surface modification of particles

Fig. 18 The surface of a substrate disc of a hard disc driver


(HDD) after CMP

As shown in Fig. 18, it can be obviously seen the scratches


due to the agglomeration of nano-particles and many adhesion
particles on the HDD substrate surface after CMP. An idea to
solve these problems is using the surface modification of
nanoparticles to reduce adhesive force between the particle and
the disc surface as shown in Fig. 19 where the surface of a
silica nanoparticle is modificated organic molecules. Through
Fig. 21 Al2O3 particles before and after surface modified by
graft copolymerization of siloxanes, functional groups such as
PBTCA
–OH, -NH2, -COOH and so on which are marked as R1 and R
in Fig. 19 are immobilized on spheral silica particles and act as
flexible molecular brush in chemical mechanical polishing.
Surface loose materials which are caused by chemical
corrosion or oxidization are removed softly through
deformation grinding and chemical binding. The roughness Rz
of the hard disk substrate surface polished by modified silica
particles is improved from 0.114 nm to 0.089 nm as shown in
Fig. 20. We can also see from Fig. 20 that the surface defects
such as microscratches, pits, and particle contaminations are
decreased greatly.
In the primary CMP of hard disk substrate, Al2O3 particles
are often used as abrasive, which are easy to agglomerate and Fig. 22 Result of primary CMP of hard disk substrate using
lead to scratches in the surface. Surface modification of Al2O3 particles modified by PBTCA
nanoparticle can improve the problem. Fig. 21 shows the Al2O3
particles before and after surface modified by PBTCA. Figure CONCLUSION
22 shows Ni-P surfaces of hard discs roughly polished by using In summary, the interaction between a nanoparticle and a
a slurry with Al2O3 particles before and after modified by solid surface is very complicated. Our research works indicate
PBTCA. It can be seen the surface roughness is reduced from that there is a best size region of particles and best incidence
13 Å to 2.2 Å. angle range for the MRR in the CMP process. The surface

9
Plenary Lectures—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

modification of nanopartilces will reduce the agglomeration of [7] Xu J., Luo J.B., Lu X.C. et al., 2005, “Atomic scale
nanoparticles, the number of micro/nanoscratch, and the deformation in the solid surface induced by nanoparticle
number of adhesive particles on the solid surface. Smaller size impacts”, Nanotechnology, 16, pp.1-6.
and soft surface of particles, and a lower friction coefficient are [8] Duan F.L., Luo J.B., Wen S.Z., Wang J.X., 2005,
in favor of getting a smoother surface in CMP process. It also “Atomistic structural change of silicon surface under a
indicates that tribology is very important in the nanoparticle collision”, Chinese Science Bulletin, 50(15),
nanomanufacturing. pp. 1661-1665.
[9] Chen R.L, Luo J.B, Guo D., Lu X.C, 2008, “Extrusion
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS formation mechanism on silicon surface under the silica
cluster impact studied by molecular dynamics
The work is financially supported by the International Science
simulation”, Journal of Applied Physics, 104(10),
& Technology Cooperation Project and NSFC with the Grant
pp.104907.
No. 50721004.
[10] Chen R.L., Luo J.B., Guo D., Lu X.C., 2008, “Phase
transformation during silica cluster impact on crystal
silicon substrate studied by molecular dynamics
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[1] Yang M.C., Luo J.B., Wen S.Z. et al., 2001, Research Section B-Beam Interactions with Materials
“Investigation of X-1P coating on magnetic head to and Atoms, 266(14), pp.3231-3240.
enhance the stability of head/disk interface”, Science in [11] Chen R.L., Luo J.B., Guo D., Lu X.C., 2009, “Energy
China, 44 (Supp.), pp. 400-406. transfer under impact load studied by molrcular dynamic
[2] Shen M.W., Luo J.B., Wen S.Z. et al., 2001, “Nano- simulation”, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 11, pp.
tribological properties and mechanisms of the liquid 589-600.
crystal as an additive”, Chinese Science Bulletin, 46(14), [12] Chen R.L., 2008, “The collision mechanism between the
pp.1227-1232. silica cluster and the silicon surface studied by molecular
[3] Wang H., Hu Y.Z., and Guo Y., 2004, “Molecular dynamics simulation”, PHD Disertation of Tsinghua
dynamics study of the interfacial slip phenomenon in University, China.
ultrathin lubricating film”, Lubrication Science, 16(3), [13] Luo J.B., Hu Y.Z., and Wen S.Z., 2008, Physics and
pp.303-314. Chemistry of Micro-/Nanotribology, ASTM International,
[4] Xu X.F., Luo J.B., and Yan J., 2008, “A PIV system for Maryland in USA.
two-phase flow with nanoparticles”, Int. J. Surface [14] Wang Y.G., Zhao Y.W., 2007, “Modeling the effects of
Science and Engineering, 2(1/2), pp.168-175. cohesive energy for single particle on the material
[5] Xu X.F., Luo J.B., 2007, “Marangoni flow in an removal in chemical mechanical polishing at atomic
evaporating water droplet”, Applied Physics Letters, scale.”, Appl Surf Sci, 253, pp9137-9141.
91(12), pp.124102.
[6] Xu X.F., Luo J.B., Lu X.C., Zhang C.H., Guo D., 2008, .
“Effect of nanoparticle impact on material removal”,
Tribology Transactions, 51(6), pp718-722.

10
Tribology at Small Scales

Tribology at Small Scales

Steve Granick
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA

Abstract: The design of tribological interfaces is often the prominent two-dimensional fluids known as
motivated by a quest to minimize friction and wear. Many phospholipid bilayers. The issues discussed in this talk
of the most important advances of recent years come from point the way to possible new strategies for energy-saving
new techniques capable of characterization at small scales during fluid transport and have relevance to filtration,
and even at the level of individual molecules. This talk will colloidal dynamics, and microfluidic devices.
tests of the Stokes-Einstein equation in molecularly-thin
films, of modifying the boundary conditions of fluid flow, (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
from stick to slip, and of extending tribology research to needs it.)

11
Plenary Lectures — Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Frontiers of Research in Liquid Lubrication

Hugh A. Spikes
Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, UK

Abstract: The level activity in tribology research areas of very active current research will then be discussed,
worldwide is currently higher than it have ever been, including the texturing of surfaces to reduce friction,
largely due to three linked drivers, the need to save energy research in thin film, boundary lubrication and the
and reduce CO2 emissions, demand for improved quality of application of high performance computing to simulate
life and rapid progress in machine minaturisation. This lubricated systems.
presentation will explore how these drivers are influencing
current research in tribology, with a particular focus on (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
their impact on liquid lubrication. A number of specific needs it.)

12
Proceedings of CIST2008 &
ITS-IFToMM2008

Keynote Talks
EHL with Grease at Low Speeds

EHL with Grease at Low Speeds

Yoshitsugu Kimura*
The Univ. of Tokyo/Kagawa Univ., 5-21-10-4 Nagayama, Tama-shi, Tokyo, 206-0025 Japan

Toshiaki Endo, Daming Dong


Kyodo Yushi Co., Ltd., 2-2-30 Tsujido-kandai, Fujisawa, 251-8588 Japan

ABSTRACT down to nanometer range implying that their film thickness


Film thickness of grease in rolling contact is determined by followed the EHL theory. However, some fluids like polymer
ultrathin-film optical interferometry, where increase in solutions were found to provide exceptions to this rule forming
thickness is found at low speeds having the thickness depending films thicker than the prediction by the EHL theory at low
on both base oils and thickeners. A characteristic horse shoe speeds.
observed at low speeds shows the film is formed mainly by EHL Grease fell into this group [1]. The thick film of grease at
effect. Analysis employing the Carreau-Yasuda viscosity low speeds has been understood to be caused by the residual
equation is made based on the rheology of grease to describe the film [2] or the passage of thickener agglomerations [3]. The
feature of the change in the EHL film thickness. present work is to examine more details of grease film at low
Keywords: EHL, Film Thickness, Grease speeds.

“SLIM” EXPERIMENT
INTRODUCTION
It may be a simple interpretation of elastohydrodynamic Apparatus
lubrication (EHL) with grease that the base oil alone performs The spacer layer imaging technique (SLIM) [1] was
lubrication and the thickener serves as its retainer. This is employed to observe grease film between a glass disk and a
almost true at high speeds where the apparent viscosity of steel ball in pure rolling contact. The glass disk had a
grease decreases to a low value comparable to that of the base chromium coating and a silica spacer layer on it. As shown in
oil. At low speeds, on the other hand, the thickener causes Fig.1, two ways of image processing were used. One was to
the apparent viscosity of grease to increase until it behaves like determine the central film thickness from the wavelength of
a solid, and some lubrication mechanism particular to grease is the maximum constructive interference on an intensity vs
expected to prevail. Since low-speed rolling contact bearings wavelength curve, while the other was to determine the general
with grease lubrication are widely used in practice, film shape over the contact from the interference image.
understanding the particular lubrication mechanism of grease
is of considerable importance for optimum selection of its Sample Greases
constituents. Five sample greases marked A to E are listed in detail in
Today, we have an excellent means to study this Table 1. All these greases were prepared with synthetic
mechanism, namely ultrathin-film optical interferometry, hydrocarbon as the base oils. Greases A to C were made with
which has made it possible to determine the thickness of EHL base oils of different viscosity 25, 81 and 741 mPa᱅s at 25°C,
film at very low speeds [1]. On log-log plots of the central film respectively, and with the common thickener, lithium stearate.
thickness vs entrainment speed, most fluids showed linearity Greases D and E were made with the same base oil as B and

General film
shape
CCD camera

Spectrometer
Microscope

Film thickness
Steel ball Glass disk measurement
Cr/SiO2

Load
Fig.1 Schematic of the interferometry setup
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed.

15
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Table 1 Sample greases 1000

Central film thickness/nm


Sample grease A B C D E

Base oil Synthetic hydrocarbon 100


Viscosity(25ć)
25 81 741 81 81
mm2/s
Aliphatic 10 ƺ E
Thickener Li-St Li-OHSt
diurea Ƶ B
Concentration, mass% 15 13 15 18 13
ƶ D
1
Penetration 60w 235 237 242 242 244
0.001 0.01 0.1 1
Entrainment speed/ms-1
with different thickeners, where D with lithium
hydroxystearate, and E with aliphatic diurea. The thickener Fig.3 Film thickness of greases with different thickeners
concentration was 13-18 mass% for the greases to have a
consistency number 3. greases form the film of the same thickness at higher speeds
for the same base oil. However, the film thickness at low
Conditions and Procedure speeds differs with different kinds of thickeners. Greases B and
Experiments were made under a normal load of 20N and at D made with lithium soap as thickener behave similarly.
stepwise decreasing speeds from 1 to 0.002m/s. The Grease E with aliphatic diurea as thickener forms much thicker
temperature was kept at 25-27°C. Although starvation was film than B and D keeping the minimum thickness at about
observed in certain practical applications, a grease pool was 100nm. At lowest speeds, the film thickness with E showed
intentionally formed at the entrance to the contact by a pair of fluctuations and data were not recorded.
scoops to avoid starvation for providing well-defined
conditions. Film Shape
Two interference images for grease A are given in Fig.4
Film Thickness with the inlet on the right. As was expected under a flooded
Results with different base oil viscosity are given in Fig.2. condition, an image (b) taken at a high speed, 0.22ms-1, shows
The solid symbols represent the central film thickness with the a typical horse shoe having the side and rear constrictions.
sample greases A to C, the mean values of three readings at However, at a low speed, 0.004ms-1, (a), where the central film
each speed step, while the three lines show the central film thickness is almost the same as (b), the horse shoe is also
thickness formed by the base oil which was used for each of observed, although the image was often distorted by the
the greases. passage of thickener agglomerations. Figure 5 is a time
sequence of the film shape taken at the lower speed, 0.004ms-1,
1000
showing the presence of the horse shoe more clearly. Similar
Central film thickness/nm

results are obtained with all other sample greases and it is


reasoned that the EHL effect is dominating at this low speed
100
being responsible for the increase in the film thickness,
although the passage of thickener agglomerations disturbs the
10  C
film shape.
 B
 A
1
0.001 0.01 0.1 1
Entrainment speed/ms -1

Fig.2 Film thickness of greases with different base oils

At higher speeds, the grease made with higher-viscosity


base oil forms thicker film as was expected. The central film
thickness of each grease falls on a straight line implying that it
follows the EHL theory, the thickness being in proportion to (a) Grease A at 0.004ms-1 (b) Grease A at 0.22 ms-1
the 0.67th power of the speed, but slightly larger than the
thickness with the base oil alone. On decreasing speeds, Fig.4 Interference images of the EHL contact
however, the central film thickness of grease deviates from the
linearity. After taking a minimum it increases again with the
further decrease in the speed forming a shallow V-curve. At the
lowest speed in the present experiments, the thickness with the
greases becomes larger than that with the base oil alone by two
orders of magnitude and the effect of the base oil viscosity
becomes insignificant. Although C does not show this increase
at low speeds, seemingly it will occur at lower speeds than the
5s 10s 15s 20s 30s
lowest limit in this experiment, 2mms-1.
Figure 3 shows results for the greases with the same base
Grease A at 0.004ms-1
oil but with different thickeners, B, D and E. The general
features are similar to those found in Fig.2. The three sample Fig.5 Time sequence of the images

16
EHL with Grease at Low Speeds

RHEOLOGY OF GREASE Results and Interpretation


Typical records at 1Hz are given in Fig.7, in which the
Apparatus and Procedure applied shear strain J and the measured shear stress W are plotted
For explanation of rheological characteristics of greases, against time; it should be noted that the magnitude of the
Herschel-Bulkley model, Bauer model or Bingham model has ordinate is different for the three records. In response to the
been used, which states that flow occurs when shear stress sinusoidal change in J, W varies generally in a sinusoidal manner.
exceeds a yield point. However, those models cannot describe At low shear rate, (a), those changes occur in the same phase
showing that the grease behaves as an elastic solid. On the other
the characteristic V-curve found in Figs.2 and 3. Then, prior to
hand, at high shear rate, (c), delay becomes evident in Wby an
an EHL analysis, rheological behavior of grease A was
angle G implying that transition from elastic to viscoelastic
determined on a cone-on-plate rheometer.
behavior takes place; G should become S/2 for perfect viscosity
which occurs at much higher shear rate beyond the capacity of
the present rheometer.
These behaviors are formulated such that
J J 0 cos(Zt ) ; J ZJ 0 sin(Zt ) , (1)
Sample where J is the shear strain and J is its amplitude, J the shear
Sample 176
grease
grease strain rate, and Z the angular speed of the oscillation. Then the
measured shear stress W is approximated by
W W 0 cos(Zt  G ) (2)
I20mm with its amplitude W0 and the phase delay G.
For a simplifying EHL formulation, an assumption is made
Fig.6 Schematic of the cone-on-plate rheometer that a generalized viscosity of the sample grease K* is defined by
K * W 0 / J0 . (3)
The essential feature of the rheometer is illustrated in Fig.6.
The clearance between a cone having 20mm diameter and 176° 105
Generalized viscosity/Pas

apex angle and a plate was filled with the sample grease. The  1Hz  2Hz
 5Hz  10Hz
cone was driven in a sinusoidal angular oscillation manner to 104  20HzǂǂƸ 50Hz
give a uniform shear strain in the sample and the average torque 3
over 5s transmitted to the plate was recorded to determine the 10
shear stress. The frequency of the oscillation was set to a 102
constant and the amplitude of the shear strain was increased
from 0.01 to 1000% in 25 steps, and this series of measurement 101
was repeated for different frequencies from 1 to 50Hz with new Grease A
100
grease samples. In the cases of high frequencies, 20 and 50Hz,
10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103
the maximum shear strain was 100% because of the capacity of -1
Shear rate/s
the rheometer. All measurement was conducted at 25°C.
Fig.8 The generalized viscosity of grease B
0.5
5 W0 J0 Figure 8 gives thus determined generalized viscosity of
WˈkPa
Jˈ

0 0
grease A in a function of the shear rate and the oscillation
0 1 2 3 4 5
frequency; the arrays of symbols represent its measured values
-5 and a chain curve is the apparent viscosity Ka approximated by
-0.5
the Bauer model to give the best-fit envelope.
(a) J0 = 4.6%, G = 0.43 In the low shear rate region, K* becomes smaller than Ka
1 showing the effect of viscoelasticity and, with decreasing shear
50
rate, K* tends to level off. In this region, K* is dependent on
WˈkPa

both the shear rate and the oscillation frequency, and the higher
Jˈ

0
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 the frequency the broader the region. In the medium shear rates,
K* asymptotically approaches Ka with increasing shear rate,
-50
-1 where K* depends on shear rate but becomes irrelevant to the
frequency. At much higher shear rates, say 105s-1 or higher,K*
(b) J0 = 46%, G = 0.85 is expected to approach a low viscosity of the base oil which is
1.5 independent of the shear rate or the frequency. These features
500
have commonly been found for all the sample greases.
WˈkPa
Jˈ

0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5
REPRESENTATION OF RHEOLOGY
-500
-1.5
Carreau-Yasuda Equation
(c) J0 = 460%, G = 1.30 For incorporating such non-Newtonian behavior into a
simplified EHL formulation, the Carreau-Yasuda equation [4]
Fig.7 Examples of the records of the rheometry K * ( P1  P2 ) 1  (OJ )a
( n 1) / a
>
 P2 (4) @

17
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

is employed to represent the atmospheric viscosity, and the has to be determined. For this purpose, the “time scale of
above-determined values of the generalized viscosity are used observation” tp is introduced to compare those two conditions.
for K*. This is an empirical equation used for describing In the rheometry, tp is defined by the reciprocal of the oscillation
rheology of polymer melts or polymer solutions, and depicts a frequency, while for the EHL contact it is defined by the passing
transition of a generalized viscosity K* from the first, high time of the ball/disk surface across the Hertzian area.
Newtonian viscosity P at low shear rates to the second, low Then the procedure of the EHL calculation at a specific
Newtonian viscosity P at high shear rates. The three entrainment speed is as follows:
parameters are used to characterize the transition: it occurs at (1) Determine tp for the entrainment speed.
lower shear rate for larger O and becomes smoother for smaller (2) Assume a tentative film thickness and determine the
a and more gradual for smaller n values. average shear rate in the EHL contact by assuming a
parabolic speed distribution across the film.
Rheological Parameters (3) Determine the generalized viscosity by eq. (4) for the
given tp and the average shear rate.
105 101 (4) Determine the film shape by eq. (5) for a load which gives
Grease A the half width of the two-dimensional Hertzian contact b
being equal to the radius of the Hertzian contact a in the
104 100 experiment.
/Pas  /s
(5) Solve the Reynolds equation with the generalized
P1 
O viscosity K* with the pressure dependent viscosities
103 10-1 Pand Pgiven by eq. (6).
(6) Adjust the parallel film thickness h1 and repeat the step (5)
until the established reduced pressure q=(1-e-Dp)/D at the
102 10-2 inlet to the Hertzian zone sufficiently approaches 1/D.
10-1 100 101 102 103 The resultant value h1 gives the estimate of the central film
Frequency / Hz thickness.

Fig.9 The rheological parameters, P and O Calculation Results


The central film thickness thus calculated is shown by the
For application to the present case, it is reasonable to use the triangular symbols in Fig.10. Although direct quantitative
high value of K* at the lowest shear rate for P and the viscosity comparison with the results of point-contact EHL in Figs.2 and
of the base oil for P. The observed value of P is plotted in 3 is inadequate, some features common to those Figures are
Fig.9 as a function of the oscillation frequency. The value of O found in this result. That is, the film thickness falls on a straight
is also taken as a function of the oscillation frequency as shown line at high speeds showing that the EHL theory with a constant
in the same Figure. Further, a=0.5, n=0 is assumed to get the atmospheric viscosity holds, while with decreasing speed it
best fit to the measured values. With these assumptions, the deviates from the linearity and increases once again drawing a
solid curves in Fig.8 result with reasonable agreement with the V-curve.
measured values.
10000
Central film thickness/nm

ELASTOHYDRODYNAMICS
1000
The Ertel-Grubin Theory
The possibility of predicting the thick EHL film formation 100
at low speeds is then examined by the two-dimensional Er
tel-Grubin theory. 10
It assumes that the film shape is given by the sum of the Grease A
parallel film thickness h1 and elastic deformation following the 1
Hertz theory h2, 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
2 ­° x x2 § x2 x2 ·½° Entrainment speed/ms-1
h2 bpmax ®  1  ln¨ 2   1 ¸¾ (5)
E °̄ b b2 ¨b b 2 ¸°
© ¹¿
Fig.10 EHL film thickness calculated with K*
where E is Young’ modulus of the solid, b the half width of a
two-dimensional Hertzian contact, pmax the maximum Hertzian The valley characterizing the V-curve is caused by a feature
pressure, and x the coordinate along the contact surface. The of the curves in Fig.8. At medium shear rates, the increase in the
dependence of two viscosities of the lubricant Pand Pon frequency implies the decrease in tp, and the decrease in tp
pressure is assumed to be given by causes the decrease in K*. In EHL, the increase in the
P P Ep) (6-1) entrainment speed means the increase in the mean shear rate to
P Pexp(Dp) (6-2) increase the film thickness, but it also decreases tp so that the
with the viscosity-pressure coefficients DandE. Then the decreased K* causes the decrease in the film thickness. The
Reynolds equation is solved as described below. imbalance of these opposing effects results in the V-curve.

Procedure of Calculation CONCLUSIONS


The generalized viscosity defined by the Carreau-Yasuda
equation depends on the oscillation frequency, and its value for The ultra-thin optical interferometry has revealed increase
corresponding conditions in the rheometry and EHL conditions in the thickness of EHL film of grease at low speeds, the

18
EHL with Grease at Low Speeds

increase depending on the base oil viscosity and the thickeners. [2] Cann, P. M. E., 1996, “Understanding grease lubrication,”
Analysis based on the Carreau-Yasuda viscosity equation Proc. 22nd Leeds-Lyon Symp. on Tribology, pp.573-581.
employing the generalized viscosity of grease determined by [3] Hurley, S., Cann, P. M., 1999, “IR spectroscopic analysis of
rheometry shows the feature of the change in the EHL film grease lubricant films in rolling contacts,” Proc. 25th
thickness. Leeds-Lyon Symp. on Tribology, pp.589-600.
[4] Bair, S., 2002, “The shear rheology of thin compressed
REFERENCES liquid films,” Proc. IMechE, 216, pt.J, pp.1-17.
[1] Spikes, H. A., Cann, P. M., 2001, “The development and
application of the spacer layer imaging method for
measuring lubricant film thickness,” Proc. IMechE, 215,
pp.261-277.

19
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

The Nature of Adhesion and Friction

Stephen M. Hsu
City University of Hong Kong, Hong kong, China

Abstract: When the scale shrinks to nanometer, one of the on the contact area. This paper will describe the interplay
key issue is that the surface forces begin to exert of these factors in our measurement of adhesion and
considerable influence on the very nature of adhesion and friction under various conditions using AFM and
friction in a nanoscale contact. There is also an interplay Nanoindenter. Results suggest that we need to define our
between adhesion and friction since both of these processes terms very carefully and deconvolute the basic processes to
involve energy dissipation. At the same time, the nature of gain an insight into the true nature of the adhesion and
contact also may change from single scale contact to friction processes.
multiscale sequential contacts. Since adhesion is a function
of real contact area, and Amoton's Law suggests that (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
needs it.)
friction is independent of contact area, the two separate
processes when combined may present results dependent

20
Space Tribology of China

Space Tribology of China

Weimin Liu
Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, China

Abstract: In recent years, China’s exploration on outer (MACs), ionic liquids etc. The physical properties,
space has been advanced, putting forwards a lot of new including the thermal stability, low temperature fluidity and
challenges to Chinese tribology society. Stable and extremely low saturated vapour pressure, were optimized to
Efficient lubrication is one of the key issues to guarantee meet the requirement for space applications. For the solid
the operation of components under motion in spacecrafts. lubrication, a number of self-lubricating composites or
The complexity of lubrication arises from the harsh alloys, multilayer films with special nanostructures and
environment conditions in space, including the ultra-high compositions, diamond-like carbon film etc were prepared
vacuum, UV and atomic oxygen irradiation, large and the properties were investigated. These lubrication
temperature gap etc. State Key Laboratory of Solid techniques can render ultra-low friction and low friction
Lubrication (LSL) has been actively involved in the noise, prevention of cold welding in intermittent operating
China’s aerospace exploration for decades and provided a conditions, and extend lubricant endurance life. Simulated
variety of lubrication solutions to rockets, satellites and labs and facilities were built up in LSL, allowing for
spacecrafts. A brief review was given on the state-of-art on-ground evaluation of their performance inclusive of the
space tribology research in LSL. In the aspect of fluid service life and the failure mechanism.
lubrication, a number of liquid lubricants was developed or
under developed, including the synthetic silicon oil, (The whole paper will be supplied by the author if reader
polyalphaolefin (PAO), multiple substituted cyclopentanes needs it.)

21
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Active Control of Sliding Friction

Yonggang Meng, Yu Tian


State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, China
(Extended Abstract)

ABSTRACT lubricated condition, thus the friction coefficient increased


Reducing friction is strongly and endlessly demanded in a significantly. While turning the external voltage down, the
variety of engineering applications for saving energy and sodium lauryl sulfate re-adsorbed on the metal surface
improving machine performance. Meanwhile, high friction again and results in a quick decrease of friction coefficient.
is beneficial to many applications such as braking, traction The amplitudes of the friction coefficient change could be
driving and friction damping. It is desired that sliding controlled by the applied voltage as shown in Fig. 2. The
friction can be controlled actively so that the magnitude of response time of friction coefficient to the external control
friction coefficient of a tribosystem in service is able to be voltage could be in sub second.
manipulated timely in response to specific requirements of
practice. For a class of the tribosystems including steel/steel,
ceramics/steel and ceramics/silicon sliding contacts lubricated
by aqueous solutions, it has been found that by imposing an
external electric field friction coefficient can be indeed
reduced or enhanced several times, depending on the
polarity and magnitude of the applied electric field as well
as the surfactants in the aqueous solution. Moreover, the
change in friction coefficient is recoverable between the
charged and non-charged states, and its response time to the
external potential is in the order of sub-second. Both of the Fig. 1 Typical results of friction control.
electrophoresis of surfactants and the electrolysis of water
under electric fields are probably involved in the dramatic
change of sliding friction.
Key words: active friction control, aqueous lubrication,
voltage

INTRODUCTION
Friction is an archaic phenomenon that occurs everywhere
between two relatively moved and contacted objects.
During the last decades, fundamental studies of friction
have been developed down to molecular and atomic level Fig. 2 Average friction coefficient applied different
that has been called nanotribology. Micro/nano-tribology voltages under the same load and sliding speed.
has been widely investigated with modern apparatuses as
atomic force microscopy, atomic-force microscope, surface Experiments wth many other friction pairs of steel/steel,
force apparatus, and quartz crystal microbalance to reveal ceramics/steel and ceramics/silicon sliding contacts and
tribological origins at molecular and atomic level. Self solutions have been done. They showed similar results and
assembled molecularly thin film adsorbed on surfaces have verified the feasibility of the active friction control method
been found could change friction by orders of magnitude in aqueous lubrication.
while remain other conditions the same. We have verified
the feasibility of this active friction control through tuning REFERENCES
the adsorption and removing of the thin films on metal. 1. Y. Meng, B. Hu, Q. Chang, control of local friction of
metal/ceramic couples in aqueous solutions with an
TYPICAL RESULTS electrochemical method, Wear 260 (2006) 305-309.
Results of a typical metal/ceramic couples lubricated with 2. H. Jiang, P.L. Wong, Y. Meng, S. Wen, An indirect
aqueous solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate, and controlled electric field effect on the friction of boundary-lubricated
by applying a voltage are shown in Fig. 1. Upon the couples, Lubr. Sci. 15 (3) (2003) 275-292.
applying of a negative external electric potential on the 3. Q. Chang, Y. Meng, S. Wen, Influence of interfacial
metal part, the anionic surfactant film adsorbed are potential on the tribological behavior of brass/silicon dioxide
removed from the metal surface, and results in a worse friction couple, Appl. Surf. Sci. 202 (2002) 120-125.

22
Superhard and Low Friction Nanocomposite Coatings: Design, Synthesis, and Applications

Superhard and Low Friction Nanocomposite Coatings: Design, Synthesis, and Applications

A. Erdemir, O. L. Eryilmaz
Argonne National Laboratory, Energy Systems Division, Argonne, IL 60439-USA

M. Urgen, K. Kazmanli, V. Ezirmik


Istanbul Technical University, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Istanbul-Turkey

Abstract: During last decade, there has been an dry and lubricated sliding conditions. Employing advanced
overwhelming interest in the design and development of analytical tools (such as time-of-flight secondary ions mass
superhard and low-friction nanocomposite coatings for a spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and
wide range of engineering applications. During the same Raman spectroscopy) we ascertained the chemical nature of
period, great strides have been made in both the physical tribofilms forming on sliding surfaces of these
and chemical vapor deposition technologies, and as a result, nano-composite films and correlated these findings with
numerous coating architectures based on nano-composite their superior friction and wear properties. Overall, crystal
and/or –layered morphologies are have become readily chemical model used in this study seems to provide a new
available in recent years. In this paper, we introduce a scientific insight into the design and production of next
fundamental approache to the design and development of generation nanocomposite coatings that are ideal for harsh
such coatings. Specifically, we introduce a crystal-chemical tribological conditions. Some of the recent field test results
model that can help indentify the kinds of coating will be presented in support of the very unique mechanical
ingredients that are needed in such nano-composite and tribological properties of these designer coatings.
coatings for achieving ultra-low friction and wear on
sliding surfaces. Using this model, we recently designed (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
and synthesized a series of nano-composite coatings and needs it.)
confirmed their superior tribological properties under both

23
Keynote Talks—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Tribology of Metal-on-Metal Bearings at High Inclination Angles

Reginald Lee, Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ, USA Aaron Essner, Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ, USA
Aiguo Wang, Stryker Orthopaedics, Mahwah, NJ, USA Shirong Ge, China University of Mining & Technology,
Xuzhou, China

ABSTRACT
Although metal-on-metal hip bearings generally experience (bedding-in wear) followed by low steady state wear.
low wear in vivo and in simulator testing, high cup inclination High inclination angles result in rim loading of the bearing.
angle has been shown to dramatically increase wear. A recent As the area of conformance reaches the rim of the acetabular
study has shown that metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings cup, asymmetrical contact occurs which may result in higher
converge to a specific contact area regardless of bearing size, contact pressures. These high pressures prevent the bearing
clearance, or even contact mode. This evidence points to a from reaching low steady state wear. The hypothesis is that
relationship between contact pressure and wear rate such that run-away wear will occur if this conformance area reaches the
as the contact pressure is reduced (due to the formation of a rim of the cup resulting in rim loading.
conforming surface contact, aka. the wear scar) the wear rate Run-Away Wear
will approach a low-steady state value. This research suggested
that the run-away wear that leads to extremely high MoM wear
may be due to the inability of the specific bearing to reach a Steady-State Wear
low contact pressure. Total Wear
Rim loading prevents the formation of the conformance
area in a symmetrical manner which may lead to high contact Bedding-In Wear
pressures. Building on previous research which proposes the Wear Cycles
interdependencies of the wear rate, total wear, and contact
pressures of bearings at proper inclination angles, this study
will determine the effect of high inclination angle on the wear
rate, total wear, and contact pressure behavior of MoM bearings.
Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to determine the
contact pressures of MoM bearings with increasingly larger
wear patches simulating increasing wear volume. This analysis
was performed with various cup angles to determine the effect
of inclination angle on the contact pressure of the MoM
bearing through its wear process.
This study confirms the hypothesis that high cup
inclination angle leads to run-away wear. Additionally, large Steady-State Wear Run-Away Wear
diameters reduced the effect of high inclination angles. Low Fig. 1 Run-Away wear occurs when the conformance area
bearing clearance does not affect the ability of the bearing to reaches the rim of the acetabular cup
reach low contact pressures but reduced the amount of wear
volume required to reach low contact pressures. The results of METHODS
this study agrees with the clinical results regarding high
inclination angles for MoM bearings and illustrates a method Generic MoM bearings were created in ProEngineer
to engineer MoM bearings for good tribological performance. Wildfire 2.0 for FEA analysis in this study. Acetabular cups are
similar to commercially available bearings with 40mm or
Keywords: Tribology, Lubrication, Wear, Pressure, Contact
56mm internal diameter (ID) and a 46mm or 62mm outer
INTRODUCTION diameter (OD). Material properties for the acetabular cup were
taken for generic Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum alloy with
Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have experienced a 220GPa modulus and 0.3 Poisson’s ratio. Femoral heads are
resurgence in recent years due to good wear performance and spherical with a small flat for loading and a diameter slightly
the availability as a large diameter resurfacing bearing. Despite smaller than its respective acetabular cup resulting in a head to
its generally good wear performance [1-2], high cup cup diametric clearance of 150um or 400um. To ensure perfect
inclination angles have been shown to cause extremely high conformance between the femoral head and the acetabular cup
wear in vitro and in hip simulator testing due to rim loading wear scar, a nearly incompressible head was used (220,000GPa
[3-4]. This run-away wear phenomenon is not currently well modulus).
understood and is not explained by traditional FEA was performed using Mechanica with at least 330
elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theories that are often solid element (up to 9th order edges) preferentially located at
applied to these bearings [5]. A recent study suggests that the the contact area. A half model with symmetry was used for
wear performance of MoM bearings relies heavily on the contact analysis between the components to reduce analysis
contact pressures generated by the bearing through the wear time. The acetabular cup was oriented at 35°, 50°, and 65°
process [6]. As wear occurs, an area of conformance (wear area) respective to the horizontal with the femoral head oriented
is formed which reduces contact pressures and therefore vertically. Loading of 1250N (simulating 2450N full model
reduces wear. This mechanism explains the biphasic wear loading) was applied superiorly through the femoral head. This
pattern of MoM bearings starting with a period of high wear model simulates implantation angles of approximately 45°, 60°,
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. and 75° due to the 10-15° medial orientation of the load path in
Aiguo.wang@Stryker.com
24
Tribology of Metal-on-Metal Bearings at High Inclination Angles

40mm at 35 Degrees

Maximum Contact Pressure (Mpa)


90 40mm at 50 Degrees 
the hip joint. 75
40mm at 65 Degrees
56mm at 65 Degrees
Critical Pressure
Wear scars were virtually generated on the acetabular cups 60 

by removing spherical sections from the superior point of the 45  = Inclination Angle
 = Wear Area Angle
acetabular cup. The radius of curvature of this section matched 30

the corresponding femoral head. The size of the wear scar was 15

measured as a function of the angular distance of the wear scar 0


14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36

edge from the superior point. This size was varied from 15° to Wear Area Angle (Degrees)

35°. This encompasses the contact area sizes that are found in a Fig. 3 Contact pressure behavior of 40mm bearing at 35º, 50º,
5 million cycle wear study. and 65º and 56mm at 65° with increasing wear scar size
Wear simulation data for 40mm bearings with 400um 5
40mm Diameter Bearing

Volumetric Wear to Reach


clearance at 35º was used to correlate wear rates and contact 4 56mm Diameter Bearing

Steady State (mm3)


pressures [6]. Contact pressures were then determined for each
3
bearing size, inclination angle, and wear scar size as detailed
above. Wear performance was then extrapolated from these 2
contact pressures to determine the ability of each bearing
1
condition to reach low steady state wear.
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
RESULTS Diametric Clearance (mm)
A linear correlation between contact pressure and wear rate Fig. 4 Effect of Diameter and Clearance on the Volume of
was observed at higher contact pressures (R2=0.84) for the Wear Required to reach Steady State
40mm bearing with 400um clearance. Below a critical contact
pressure of 14.5MPa, a constant low wear rate of less than DISCUSSION
2mm3/mc was found. This suggests that this type of bearing This study has shown a correlation between contact
will reach low wear rates after reaching this critical contact pressure and wear rate for MoM bearings. The contact pressure
pressure. Furthermore, the volumetric wear required for this is shown to dramatically decrease with the formation of a
bearing to bed-in can be determined by the volume removed conformance area which results in reduction of wear. High cup
from the acetabular cup to reach this critical contact pressure. inclination angle is shown to cause rim loading which may
A contact pressure plot for 40mm bearings with 400um lead to high contact pressures and therefore high wear. This
clearance at 35º, 50º, and 65º is shown in Fig. 2. While contact corresponds to clinical and simulator studies showing high
pressures for 35º and 50º inclination angle bearings inclination angles causing extremely high wear rates.
successfully reduced to 14.5MPa, the 65º bearing never Furthermore, this study has demonstrated the effect of bearing
reduced to this level. Fig. 3 compares the contact pressures of diameter and clearance on this contact pressure model.
the 35º and 65º bearings with a large wear area. While the 35º Increased bearing diameter has been shown to promote the
bearing shows a uniform and low contact pressure, the 65º reduction of contact pressures while decreased bearing
bearing shows non symmetrical contact resulting in high clearance will reduce the wear required to reach a low contact
contact pressures. The 50º bearing reached a low steady state pressure. These results suggest that while implantation angle is
pressure despite slight asymmetry due to the wear area the primary factor in MoM wear rates and is dictated by
extending to the rim. This shows that our hypothesis is surgical procedure, certain design parameters can be
partially correct in that extreme rim loading can cause high engineered to reduce the risk of run-away wear and produce a
contact pressures while mild rim loading may still result in more clinically forgiving bearing.
good wear performance.
REFERENCES
[1] Rieker CB, Kottig P. In vivo tribological performances of
231 metal on metal hip articulations. Hip International.
2002 Apr-Jun; 12(2): 73-76.
[2] Rieker CB, Schön R, Köttig P. Development and validation
of a second-generation metal-on-metal bearing: laboratory
studies and analysis of retrievals. J Arthroplasty. 2004
Fig. 2 Contact pressure (MPa) after wear at 35º (left) and 65º Dec;19(8 Suppl 3):5-11.
(right) inclination angle viewed along the load path [3] Brodner W, Grübl A, Jankovsky R, Meisinger V, Lehr S,
Gottsauner-Wolf F. Cup inclination and serum
Bearing size and clearance also had an effect on this concentration of cobalt and chromium after metal-on-metal
process. With all other features constant, increased bearing total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2004 Dec;19(8 Suppl
diameter was shown to be more tolerant of higher inclination 3):66-70.
angles. This is due to the increase in available surface for the [4] Vassiliou K, Elfick AP, Scholes SC, Unsworth A. The effect
conformance area to form prior to reaching the rim. Even at of 'running-in' on the tribology and surface morphology of
65º a 56mm bearing with a 400um clearance was found to metal-on-metal Birmingham hip resurfacing device in
reach the critical contact pressure (Fig. 2). Bearing clearance simulator studies. Proc Inst Mech Eng [H]. 2006
was found to have an effect only on the total volume required Feb;220(2):269-77.
to reach a low contact pressure. This is due to the fact that the [5] Jagatia M, Jin ZM. Analysis of elastohydrodynamic
relationship between volumetric wear and the area of lubrication in a novel metal-on-metal hip joint replacement.
conformance is proportional to the effective radius of the Proc Inst Mech Eng [H]. 2002;216(3):185-93.
contacting geometry. Reduced bearing clearance will increase [6] Lee R, Essner A, Wang A. Tribological considerations in
the effective radius which results in decreased wear required to primary and revision metal-on-metal arthroplasty. J Bone
form a specific area of conformance (Fig. 4). Joint Surg Am. 2008; 90(8 Suppl 3). In press.
25
Proceedings of CIST2008 &
ITS-IFToMM2008

Technical Sessions
Technical Sessions:

ĉ. Lubrication
Key Factors to Induce Cavitation-Erosion

Key Factors to Induce Cavitation-Erosion

Darong Chen, Jiadao Wang, Haosheng Chen


State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, China

˄Extended Abstract˅

ABSTRACT when a minus external voltage such as -9 V was applied. The


The cavitation-erosion is induced by the collapse of bubbles in results from different surface polarization potentials also
water. Therefore it should mainly be attributed to the fluid flow. showed the similar trend.
However, the effects from the micro particles in water, solid
wall surface topography and material physical characteristics
on the cavitation-erosion have been reported here, and the
experiment results have proved that they are key factors to
induce cavitation- erosion.
Keywords: cavitation-erosion; micro particle; surface
topography
(a) (b) (c)
INTRODUCTION Fig. 1 Typical results of cavitation-erosion from (a) tap , (b)
The cavitation-erosion is induced by the collapse of bubbles in drink and (c) deionized water.
water. Cavitation increases fluid’s resistance and then leads to
loss of mechanical efficiency. The cavitation-erosion in
turbo-machinery, ship propellers and nearby naval structures
leads to corrosion and pitting of metal surface and unwanted
cavitation noise. Researchers have been thought that erosive
damage of underwater vehicles is induced directly by cavitation.
The generation of cavitation-erosion involves bubbles or
Fig. 2 Surface topographies.
cavities generation, collapse of bubbles and material damage
induced by the micro-jets and shockwaves [1-2]. However, (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b)
there are seldom experiments directly proving the mechanism,
and seldom reports on the detail of the bubble collapse near the
solid wall in fluid field. Here, micro particles in water, solid
surface topography and material physical characteristics were
investigated and the results proved that they are key factors
inducing the cavitation-erosion. Fig. 3 Typical results of cavitation-erosion for different
surfaces in Fig.2.
TYPICAL RESULTS
In the experiment, a typical rotating-disk testing machine was 9V 0V -9V
employed [3]. The material of the samples used in the
experiments was steel 45 without heat treatment. The diameter
of the rotating-disk was 300 mm. In order to produce enough
bubbles in close proximity to sample surface, the height of the
samples was 1 mm out of the disk surface. The central velocity
of the samples was 30 m/s. The temperature of the water in the
experiments was kept at room temperature. In the following Fig. 4 Results of cavitation-erosion under different external
experiments, the other experiment factors were same but the voltages.
discussed one. Fig. 1 shows typical results of cavitation from
tap, drink and deionized water, in which the number of micro REFERENCES
particle became less and less. From the figure, the number of 1. R. T. Knapp, Cavitation, 1970, McGraw Hill, New York.
pits on the surface was directly proportional to that of the micro 2. G. Bruno, R. Pecha, Mie scattering from a sono- luminescing
particles in water. In the deionized water, there are nearly no bubble with high spatial and temporal resolution, Phys Rev E
pits. Fig. 2 shows three surfaces with different topographies. 61(2000) 5253-5256.
Fig. 3 shows the corresponding results of cavitation-erosion. 3. J.D. Wang, H.S. Chen, Q. Li, Y.J. Li, D.R. Chen, Key roles
From Fig. 2 and 3, the surface topography was a crucial factor of micro-particles in water on occurrence of cavitation-erosion
inducing the cavitation- erosion. Fig. 4 show typical results
of hydro-machinery, Chinese Science Bulletin 53 (2008)
under different external voltages. In the figure, the
cavitation-erosion was the most serious when an external 9 1603-1607.
voltage was applied, while the cavitation-erosion was reduced

31
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiC-Reinforced HSS-Based Composites with an


Interpenetrating Network for High Temperature Self-Lubrication Applications
Yanjun Wanga,b,* , Zuomin Liua
a. Institute of Tribology, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
b. School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China

ABSTRACT mechanical and frictional properties of such materials are poor


Porous M3/2 type high speed steel (HSS) preforms in many cases. Because that the general mix-sintering method
reinforced with both TiC and Cu3P were fabricated using a kind causes two side effects on sintering characteristics and material
of complex as pore forming agent via vacuum sintering process. lubricating properties. One is that the continuity of substrate
The porous preforms were infiltrated with Pb-Sn-Ag based hard-phases destroyed by solid lubricant phase and thus reduce
solid lubricants using a self-made vacuum high pressure both material strength and wear resistance of the sintered
infiltration furnace to create almost fully dense self-lubrication composites. The other is that the low melting-point solid
composites,where both solid lubricant phase and matrix phase lubricants was partially burned or oxidized at high sintering
were interpenetrating throughout the microstructure. By means temperature, which damaged their lubricating properties
of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive drastically [5,6]. A novel method to overcome these of the
X-ray spectrometer (EDS), it was found that Pb-Sn-Ag based self-lubrication composites is to infiltrate molten solid
solid lubricants are well dispersed and embedded in the HSS lubricants into an ordered porous sintering body called preforms
matrix. The hardness, microstructure and crushing strength of [7]. Preliminary experiments have revealed that the physical
the sintered preforms and the composites were evaluated. The properties of such composites depended to a large degree on the
friction and wear properties of the materials were estimated by properties of preforms [9] and the tribological properties was
a pin-on-disc wear machine under dry conditions at room based on squeezing the lubricant phase out, which led to the
temperature, 300, 500, 600, 700 and 800 ć. The hardness, formation of a surface film protecting the friction surfaces
crushing strength and wear resistance of the preforms and the against seizure and scoring (self-lubrication effect) [10]. And
composites were improved significantly by the additions of the main problem of sintering HSSs preforms was a high
both TiC and Cu3P more than by only TiC. It is evidence that sintering temperature and a narrow sintering window [1].
very little densification of pore walls occurs during solid state The present work represents a new approach producing
sintering of M3/2 HSS preforms. However, higher densification TiC-reinforced HSS-based self-lubrication Composites with an
is achieved in the case of supersolidus sintering. By adding 7 interpenetrating network. It was fabricated by forming an
wt.% Cu3P and 15 vol.% TiC into the HSS matrix, the best orderly microporous HSS preform and infiltrating the preform
comprehensive properties of mechanics and tribology have bulk with molten solid lubricant. The work presented was
been obtained for the preforms and the composites. The concerned with the following:
composites infiltrated with Pb-Sn-Ag based solid lubricants 1. The feasibility of achieving low friction coefficients and
showed very low friction coefficient and wear rate at elevated low wear at high temperature in the self-lubrication HSS-based
temperature. composites with an interpenetrating network.
Keywords: Self-lubrication materials; Gas pressure infiltration; 2. Searching for new chemical compositions which could
Friction and wear; Solid lubricant; High speed steel overcome the main problems with sintering HSSs, a high
sintering temperature and a narrow sintering window.
1. INTRUCTION 3. The evaluation of mechanical properties and tribological
Nowadays, sintered high-speed steels (HSSs) are no longer characteristics of the newly formed materials.
used primarily as cutting material. They are well established
today in many other applications as structural, tool, anti-wear 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
and bearing materials where the excellent compressive strength 2.1. MATERIALS
and wear resistance, as well as suitable self-lubrication and The major material powders used in this study were high
thermal stability are required [1]. As self-lubricating materials speed steel (HSS) M3/2, TiC and Cu-Cu3P. The chemical
for bearing applications under severe sliding conditions, composition and grain size of the material powders were listed
external lubricants such as oil, grease or solid lubricants can be in Table 1. The mixture of TiH2, CaCO3 and stearic acid were
excluded, and the design can be simplified [2, 3]. Previous selected as the complex pore forming agent (PFA), which were
research has shown that additives CaF2 or MoS2 and TiC added prepared by mixing 40 Vol.% TiH2, 59 Vol.% CaCO3 and
into the metal matrix can change the microstructure and 1Vol.% stearic acid in an agate mortar by an agate pestle. And
mechanical properties, and also improve the high temperature the Pb-Sn-15Ag-0.7RE compound was chosen as solid
lubricating properties of the composites [4]. Unfortunately, the lubricants for the infiltration process.
Table 1 The grain size and chemical composition of matrix powders
HSS M3/2, % wt
TiC (purity,%) , Cu3P (content of P, % wt )
C Cr W Mo V
99.0 5.0̚8.0
1.10 4.05 6.06 5.70 2.90
Size (μm) 20~25 10 55 ~73

* E-mail address: ynjnwang@yahoo.com (Y. J. Wang)

32
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiC-Reinforced HSS-based Composites with an Interpenetrating Network for
High Temperature Self-lubrication Applications

 The matrix powders (chemical composition of the matrix of pins (I12×10 mm) were allowed to slide against a rotating
powders were listed in Table 2) were thoroughly mixed with 8 disc (I50×10 mm). The pin specimens were rounded to have 8
Vol.% of complex PFA powder in a ball mill for two hours. mm diameter radius at one end with a surface roughness of 1.6
These milled powder mixture were then uniaxially die-pressed μmcenter-line average (CLA).The counter discs were Ti-Al
with 600 MPa to reach the desired form. After compaction, the coated materials with a hardness of HV 19.42 GPa. The disc
green compacts were sintered at temperatures of 1250 ć during surface was polished to produce a final surface roughness of
1 hour in a pilot vacuum furnace at a heating rate of 5 ć/min. 0.32 μm. The friction and wear tests were conducted at room
A vacuum of 10 1  10 2 mbar was used in lower temperature temperature, 300, 500, 600, 700 and 800 ć in the laboratory air
range (up to 900 ć) and the vacuum of 10 2  10 3 mbar was environment. A normal load of 50 N, a sliding speed of 0.139
used in higher temperatures range (above 900 ć). The m/s and a sliding duration of 2 hours were used in each test.
TiC-reinforced HSS-based self-lubrication composites were An optical microscope was used for measuring the
then produced by infiltrating molten Pb-Sn-15Ag-0.7RE diameter of wear scar on pin samples. The wear volume was
compound into above preforms at 800 ć, using a self-made calculated using the following procedure [10]:
vacuum high pressure infiltration furnace. Sd 4
V ( 2)
Table 2 The chemical compositions of the matrix powders 64r
A B C D E F G H I Where d is the wear scar diameter (mm) and V is the worn
volume (mm3).
TiC, Vol.% 0 5 10 15 15 15 15 15 20
A scanning electron microscope (SEM, HITACHI X-650,
HSS M3/2, Vol.% 100 95 90 85 85 85 85 85 80 Japan) equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS,
Kevex Super Quantum) was used to characterize the pin and disc
Cu 3 P, % wt 0 0 0 0 5 6 7 8 0
wear surfaces to clarify wear mechanisms.

2.2. PHYSICAL PROPERTY EVALUATION 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Bulk density U and open porosity p0 were determined via
3.1. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
the Archimedes method with de-ionized water as the liquid For intuitive comparison, the physical properties of the
medium. The theoretical density U 0 was calculated by using preform and the composites are given in Table 3. It is observed
the mixture law. The total porosity p of the sintered compact that percentage porosity increased with increase in TiC content.
was calculated by the following equation: This was also reflected in the densification parameter. The
p ( U 0  U ) / U 0 u100% (1) crushing strength and the macrohardness of sintered samples
did not vary greatly as the TiC content increases. For M3/2
The compression strength tests were carried out on cylindrical HSS reinforced with 15 vol.% TiC, the additions of up to 7
samples (diameter = 12 mm, height = 10 mm) using a wt.% Cu3P resulted in a increase in the values of density,
compression strength testing machine with a crosshead speed of crushing strength and microhardness. With 7 wt.% Cu3P
8.0u10-6 m/s. The micro-hardness was measured using a micro addition, a maximum crushing strength of 1078.1 MPa and a
sclerometer. highest microhardness of 830.6 N·cm-2 were observed. With
further addition of Cu3P, a slightly decrease of the crushing
2.3. WEAR AND FRICATION BEHAVIOR strength and microhardness were observed. Reverse result was
Friction and wear properties of the composites were obtained in the relationship between open porosity and Cu3P
investigated using a high temperature wear tester under dry addition.
conditions. The composites and the matrix preform in the form

Table 3 Physical properties of preforms and composites


Sample A B C D E F G I
-3
Density Residual (g.cm ) Preform 5.83 5.78 5.59 5.67 5.69 5.70 5.68 5.48
Opening porosity (% ) Preform 12.4 14.9 18.0 17.1 16.8 16.5 17.2 19.8
Preform 987.6 956.2 898.8 976.3 980.6 989.2 978.4 865.4
Crushing strength (MPa)
Composite 1020.4 989.6 979.9 1048.4 1059.3 1078.1 1054.4 948.4
Preform 788.6 798.5 818.0 816.5 818.6 828.7 819.6 808.6
HV (N·cm-2)
Composite 803.5 808.9 820.8 823.5 830.6 832.9 831.5 817.5

3.2. FRICTION MEASUREMENTS The reference materials, the composite ‘D’ and composite
Fig. 1 shows the friction coefficient (μ) versus temperature ‘B’ showed almost the same average friction coefficient of 0.36
for self-mated couples, respectively, of preform D, composite with the composite ‘G’ exhibiting the lowest average friction
‘D’, composite ‘G’, and composite ‘B’ specimens. At room coefficient of 0.28 in a range temperature of 300 °C to 600 °C.
temperature, the observed values of μ for composites were 3.3. MEAN WEAR VALUES
slightly lower than that of the preform. However, at higher Fig. 2 shows the mean wear rate obtained under
temperatures, the three composites showed significantly low experimental conditions similar to those recorded in Fig. 1. It
values of the friction coefficient compared to the preform. The can be seen that The small, approximately linear increase in
advantages of a lower friction were maintained at all wear rate over the test temperature range of 300–800 °C for the
temperatures above room temperature.

33
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

magnitude than that of the preform at 300 °C–800 °C, as


1.2
expected. The lowest total duration wear rate of the pin was
1.0 found for M3/2 HSS with additives of 15 vol.% TiC and 7
wt.% Cu3P (composite G).
Preform D
0.8
Composite D
3.4. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION
Friction Coefficient

Composite G
In Fig. 3, the typical variations of the friction coefficient with
0.6
Composite B sliding duration are presented for the preform and composites.
It can be seen that the friction coefficients of composites
0.4
infiltrated with Pb-Sn-Ag based solid lubricants were much
lower than that of the preform, which had no solid lubricant
0.2
infiltrated. The lowest and most stable friction coefficient was
obtained for composite with additives of 15 vol.% TiC and 7
0.0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 80 wt.% Cu3P (composite G), which showed very stable friction
Temperature ć)
(
Temperature (ć) coefficient, with an average value of 0.28. For the preform, at
Fig. 1 Friction coefficients in a range of temperatures up high temperature, the galling seizure occurred eventually. The
seizure event was accompanied by a sudden increase in wear
to 800 ćfor the composites D and G and preform D
rate, heavy noise and vibration. Therefore, the test was stopped
after 90 minutes.
0.1 1.2 1–Preform D
Preform D 2–Composite D
0.01 Composite D 1.0 3–Composite G

Friction coefficient
Composite G
0.001 Composite B 0.8
Wear rate (mm 3/Nm)

IE-04 0.6
1
2
IE-05 0.4

IE-06 0.2 3

IE-07 0.0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 80
ć)
Temperature(ć)
Temperature ( 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Time (min)
Fig. 2 Wear rate in a range of temperatures up to 800 ć Fig. 3 Friction coefficient of the preform and the
for the composites D and G and preform D composites versus sliding duration under a normal load of
50 N and a sliding speed of about 0.139 m/s at 600 ć
composite materials results in very small differences in wear
behaviour between 300 °C and 800 °C , whereas the increase of
about two order of magnitude in the wear rate of preform at
300 °C–700 °C. This suggested differences in wear
mechanisms in these two conditions. The trend was shown that
the wear rate of the composites was lower by two orders of

Fig. 4 SEM topographies of worn surface of (a) the preform D, (b) the composite D and (c) the composites G sliding against
TI-Al ceramic coated materials at 600 ć

3.5. MORPHOLOGY OF THE WORN SURFACE any lubricating film had been founded (as shown in Fig. 4 a).
Typical features of the worn surfaces of the preform and the While on the worn surface of the composite D and G infiltrated
composites at 600 0C under a load of 50 N for 2 hours sliding with Pb-Sn-Ag based solid lubricants, a thin lubricating film
duration are shown in Fig. 4. existed. Comparing the topographies of the two composites, it
It can be seen that there were obvious furrow marks and can be observed that the worn surface of the composite G with
adhesive traces on the worn surface of the preform D, but no additives of 7 wt.% Cu3P was smooth along the sliding

34
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiC-Reinforced HSS-based Composites with an Interpenetrating Network for
High Temperature Self-lubrication Applications

direction: no plastic deformation or fatigue cracks could be reinforced with TiC was mainly composed of Fe2O3, (Fe,Cr)7C3,
found (as shown in Fig. 4 c). Whereas the worn surface of the Ti8C5, Cr3Ti3O, Cr2Ti and Al2O3, and no elemental Pb, Sn and
composite D with no additives of Cu3P was much rougher (as Ag phases were found (Fig. 5). On the wear surface layer of the
shown in Fig. 4 b). composites infiltrated with Pb-Sn-Ag based lubricants, the
The XRD patterns of the worn surface of preform D, composite elemental Pb, Sn, Ag and Cu intermetallic compounds and
D and composite G were shown in Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.It oxides were formed (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7).
can be seen that the wear surface layer of high-speed steel

1-Ti 2-(Fe,Cr)7C3 3-Ti8C5 4-Cr3Ti3O 5-Cr2Ti 6-TiC


Fig.5 XRD spectra of the worn surface of preform D sliding against TI-Al ceramic coated materials at 600 ć

1-Fe2O3 2-PbWO4 3-SnO2 4-Ag5Pb2O6 5-Ag2WO4 6-Fe3Sn 7-PbO 8-Ag3Sn


Fig.6 XRD spectra of the worn surface of composites D sliding against TI-Al ceramic coated materials at 600 ć

35
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

1-Fe2O3 2-PbWO4 3-CuO 4-SnO2 5-SnW4 6-Ag3P11 7-Ag2WO4 8-Ag5Pb2O6 9-Cu3Sn 10-Ag3Sn 11-PbO
Fig.7 XRD spectra of the worn surface of composites G sliding against TI-Al ceramic coated materials at 600 ć

3.6. DISCUSSION difference of thermal expansion coefficient between the solid


It is evidence that the intensity lies mainly on the felted lubricant phase and the matrix base. At lower temperatures, such
intensity of sintered necks when micropore materials endure as 25 C, obvious thermal expansion or melt of Pb-Sn-Ag based
outer pressure stress. Previous research has shown that solid lubricants hardly happens. As a result, the composites do
additives greatly affect the mechanical properties of M3/2 not show the self-lubricating property. At higher temperatures,
sintered high speed steels [11]. During sintering, TiC particles such as 300-800 C, occurrence of obvious thermal expansion
will react with M3/2 to form Ti-MC type carbides at the and partly melt of the Pb-Sn-Ag based solid lubricant makes it
TiC-M3/2 interface. On the other hand, TiC has a good possible for the lubricant to be dispersed to the friction surface
thermo-dynamical stability and will disperse as hard particles and thus makes self-lubrication possible (Fig. 1) .
in the steel’s matrix. The properties of TiC enable it to enhance Therefore the Tribological properties of self lubrication
the sintering strength of the steels and improve their wear composites, which consist of a relatively stiff matrix and soft
resistance. However, the materials manufactured in this work second phase, depend on the physical and mechanical properties
showed that the addition of hard particles TiC slightly reduced of surface films, and also their origin. The ability of
the crushing strength. Reduction of crushing strength may be self-lubrication materials to form such films during sliding is the
attributed to decreasing of sintered density (Table 3) and grain primary factor for the excellent tribological properties of these
growth. materials. Under higher surface temperature, elemental Pb, Sn
The liquid phase sintering of HSS falls into the supersolidus and Ag contained in the composites flow through the porous
category, which involves densification by melt formation in a structure and are furnished to the contact surface to form
pre-alloyed powder compact by heating it above its solidus PbWO4, SnO2, Ag5Pb2O6, Ag2WO4, Fe3Sn, PbO, and Ag3Sn
temperature. The addition of Cu3P to these TiC reinforced HSS intermetallic compounds and oxides, providing thereby certain
was found to increase densification of sintered necks through lubrication during friction process (Fig.6 and Fig. 7). The
an additional transient liquid phase sintering. During transient addition of Cu3P in TiC reinforced high speed steel formed
liquid phase sintering in the presence of the Cu3P melt, solid some intermetallic compounds and oxides on the wear surface,
solution strengthening of the sintered necks was apparent along such as Cu3Sn and CuO (Fig. 7), which could enhance the
with the decrease in porosity. The enhancement of densification self-lubrication and wear resistance. The synergistic effect of
after increase in hardness is evident (Table 3). Therefore, with the intermetallic compounds and oxides in wear surface and the
addition of Cu3P to these TiC reinforced composite, the debris on wear surface of the alloy contributes to the further
crushing strength and the microhardness of the composites reduction of the friction coefficient.
were improved. Excessive amount of Cu3P (>7 wt.%) caused
formation of continuous grain boundary films. These weak 4. CONCLUSIONS
films degrade overall mechanical properties of the sintered 1. The mechanical properties and wear characteristics of
composites. The Cu3P content in the pre-alloyed powders must HSS-based self-lubrication composites with an interpenetrating
be appropriate so that the mechanical property and the porosity network are increased significantly with the addition of 15
of the sintered materials are optimized. vol.% TiC and 7 wt.% Cu3P.
Self-lubrication of porous composites infiltrated with solid 2. In the steady-state stage hard TiC diminishes wear and
lubricants based on two preconditions [12]. One is that the Cu3P reduces both friction and wear. The intended purpose is
lubricants in holes can reach the sliding surface during friction. their incorporation.
The other is that the lubricants have a good lubricating effect. It 3. The formation and presence of a ‘protective’ lubricating
is usually considered for porous self lubrication materials that film is an essential part of the morphology of worn surfaces in
solid lubricant is forced to the surface by capillarity or the tribo-system. For the TiC and Cu3P reinforced high speed steel

36
Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiC-Reinforced HSS-based Composites with an Interpenetrating Network for
High Temperature Self-lubrication Applications

infiltrated with Pb-Sn-Ag based lubricants, the formation of [5] Sun X. L., Liu Y., Lu Y., 2001, “P/M metal-matrix
lubricating film on the contacting interface reduces the value of high-temperature solid self-lubricating materials,” Powder
the friction coefficient to 0.28 and the wear rate to 6.3×10-6 Metallurgy Technology 19, PP. 86–92.
mm3/Nm at high temperature (600 C). In contrast, for preform [6] Liu Z. M., 2007, “Elevated temperature diffusion
without infiltrated solid lubricants, the observed value of self-lubricating mechanisms of a novel cermet sinter with
friction coefficient is 1.10 and the wear rate 5.3×10-3 mm3/Nm. orderly micro-pores”, Wear, 262, PP. 600-606.
[7]Mattern A., Huchler B., Staudenecker D., et al., 2004,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “Preparation of interpenetrating ceramic–metal composites”,
The authors would like to thank National Natural Science Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 24, PP. 3399-3408.
Foundation of P.R. China for the financial support (ID: [8] Sang K. Z., Lu Z. L., Jin Z. H., 2002, “A Study of the SiC
50275110 and 50775168). Composite Ceramics for Self-lubrication,” Wear 253, PP.
1188-1193.
REFERENCES [9] Michalski J., Wejrzanowski T., Gierlotka S. et al., 2007,
[1] Sustarsic B., Kosec L., Dolinsek S. et al., 2003, “The “The preparation and structural characterization of
characteristics of vacuum sintered M3/2 type HSSs with Al2O3/Ni–P composites with an interpenetrating network,”
MoS2 addition,” Journal of Materials Processing Journal of the European Ceramic Society 27, PP.831-836.
Technology, 143-144, pp. 98-104. [10] Bushe N. A., Goryacheva I. G., Makhovskaya Y. Y., 2003,
[2] Zsidai L., De Baets P., Samyn P., et al., 2002, “The “Effect of aluminum-alloy composition on self-lubrication of
tribological behavior of engineering plastics during sliding frictional surfaces,” Wear 254, PP.1276-1280.
friction investigated with small-scale specimens,” Wear 253, [11] Zalisz Z., Watts A., Mitchell S.C., et al., 2005, “Wronski,
pp. 673–688. Friction and wear of lubricated M3 Class 2 sintered high
[3] Xiang D. H., Shan K. L., 2006, “Friction and wear behavior speed steel with and without TiC and MnS additives”, Wear
of self-lubricating and heavily loaded metal–PTFE 258, pp701–711.
composites”,Wear 260, pp.1112-1118. [12] Sang K. Z., Lü Z. L., Jin Z. H., 2002, “A study of the
[4] Liu Z. M., Childs T.H.C., 2004, “The study of wear SiC-L composite ceramics for self-lubrication”, Wear 253,
characteristics of sintered high speed steels containing pp1188-1193.
CaF2, MnS and TiC additives at elevated temperature”,
Wear 257, PP.435–440.

37
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Friction and Wear Characteristics of Advanced Space Lubricants

*Nobuyoshi Ohno, Saga University, Mechanical Sobahan Mia, Saga University, Mechanical Engineering,
Engineering, 1, Honjo, Saga, 840-8502 JAPAN 1, Honjo, Saga, 840-8502 JAPAN
Shigeki Morita, Saga University, Mechanical Shingo Obara, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency,
Engineering, 1, Honjo, Saga, 840-8502 JAPAN 2-1-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8505 JAPAN

(Extended Abstract)

ABSTRACT EXPERIMENTAL
Synthetic oils and greases are used for space lubricant. So, it SAMPLE OIL AND GREASES
is important to know the performances of these lubricants. The Two kinds of base oil and four kinds of greases using these
base oil 815Z and 2001A and the greases 600EF, 601EF and base oils were used as sample. PFPE 815Z and MAC 2001A
602EF with base oil 815Z and grease R2000 with base oil are the base oil where as 600EF, 601EF, 602EF and R2000 are
2001A were considered as the test lubricants in this study. The the tested greases. Properties of the base oils and greases are
highest wear scar has found for base oil 815Z but it showed the given in Table1 and Table 2 where ρ is the density, ν is the
lowest coefficient of friction, whereas greases 600EF, 601EF kinematic viscosity, VI is viscosity index, α is pressure-
and 602EF showed lower wear scar and considerable friction viscosity coefficient and M is the molecular weight.
coefficient. Investigating these phenomena, authors found that
the base oil 815Z contains the acetal group (-OCF2O-). At high
EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND METHOD
shear rate in EHL conjunction the viscosity was decreased by
Friction and wear experiments were carried out using a
mechanical shear. Hydrogen fluoride occurred with the
conventional 4-ball wear tester. The balls arrangement of the
decomposition of acetal group. It increases the wear rate of the
test is shown in Fig.1. The steel balls of 19.05 mm in diameter
contact surfaces. But that decomposition does not occurred in
and 5.7nm in mean surface roughness was used in the
the greases with base oil 815Z and showed better result as
experiments. All experiments were conducted at constant load
space lubricant.
for each ball of w=564N (corresponding mean Hertzian
Keywords: Tribology, Space Lubricant, Friction, Wear
pressure of 2.6GPa and Hertzian diameter of dH=0.521mm),
upper rotating ball speed of 60rpm, test duration of 60min and
INTRODUCTION
at room temperature of 22~25°C. Friction was measured by
Liquid lubricants are frequently used in space mechanisms means of a torsion bar to which the bottom of oil container was
because they are associated with low mechanical noise, no clamped.
wear in the elastohydrodynamic regime, ease of replenishment,
ability to remove wear debris and insensitivity to environ- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
mental factors [1]. Friction and wear behavior of space
lubricants are vital under boundary lubrication condition for The photograph of wear scar area of all tested
longevity of space mechanisms. Now a days perfluoropoly- samples has shown in Fig.2 mentioning base oil as O
ether (PFPE) and multiply alkylated cyclopentane (MAC) are and grease as G. Higher wear scar has found for base oil
well known liquid lubricant for space appliances. Also some 815Z, investigating the causes used 815Z oil at 85.5
greases of these base oils are used. In this study, authors’ hour bearing life test [4] was also tested. On the other
considered two kinds of base oils and four kinds of greases. hand wear scar area and friction coefficient is plotted in
PFPE 815Z is one of the base oil and the greases using this base Fig.3. Results shown low wear scar has found except for
oil are 600EF, 601EF and 602EF. Another base oil is MAC
815Z oil but comparatively low friction coefficient has
2001A and grease R2000 is produced using this base oil. Mainly
friction and wear behavior of these oils are examined using found for 815Z oil where as friction coefficient for other
4-ball wear testing machine. It has found that the wear scar area samples are lies on normal value of 0.1~0.12. The low
of base oil 815Z increased extremely compared with greases. wear scar area of greases 600EF, 601EF and 602EF has
Investigation found the permanent viscosity loss occurred in the found which are made using base oil 815Z. The
fresh 815Z oil and hydrogen fluoride (HF) generated with the chemical decomposition and permanent viscosity loss
decomposition of acetal group (-OCF2O-) [2][3]. occurred during the test of 815Z fresh base oil, which
Table㧝 Properties of base oil has not occurred in greases or used 815Z oil [4].
Fluid ρ, g/mL ν, mm2/s α,GPa-1 M Rotating ball
VI
name 288 K 313 K 373 K 313K g/mol
815Z 1.8580 139.1 42.7 343 11.9 9200
2001A 0.8513 103.2 14.4 137 10.7 910

Table 2 Properties of grease


Fixed ball
Grease Grease Penetration,
Base oil Additive
name Thickener Worked
600EF 815Z PTFE 288 -
601EF 815Z PTFE 287 O. I
602EF 815Z PTFE 273 MoS2
R2000 2001A Sodium soap 276 -
Fig. 1 Main part of test apparatus
38
Friction and Wear Characteristics of Advanced Space Lubricants

liquid
(D) (C) (B) (H)(G) (I) (A)
300 (F)
(E)
Phase line for 815Z

T, K
solid
Phase line for 2001A
200
815Z
2001A
Hertzian
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
− GPa
p,
Fig.2 Wear scars of fixed steel ball
(A): Hertz pressure, (B): 5 min, (C): 10 min, (D): 20 min
(E): 40 min and (F): 60 min wear test for 815Z oil
(G): 20 min, (H): 40 min, (I): 60 min wear test 2001A oil

Fig.5 Phase diagram of 815Z and 2001A oil

Wear behavior of the base oils are again investigated using the
applied average pressure on it. Figure 4 has shown the time
dependants wear scar for the base oils mentioning the average
pressure of each point. These points are plotted on the phase
diagram as shown in Fig.5. This graph has shown that the base
oil 815Z was on liquid phase on the test conditions and
permanent viscosity loss occurred as a result, large wear scar
has found at the contact region. It has reported that the
permanent viscosity loss decreases from liquid phase to solid
phase [3]. In case of 2001A, at the applied average contact
pressure the oil stayed at solid region and reduced the wear.

Fig.3 Relation of wear scar area A and friction coefficient Ǵ


CONCLUSION
To prevent the HF generation and permanent viscosity loss of In this study it has found the wear scar area of PFPE 815Z
815Z oil, greases using this base oil are preferable. Among this oil increases extremely compared with other space lubricants.
greases 602EF showed lower wear due to the effect of it MoS2. In case of 815Z oil, permanent viscosity loss occurred by
It also found the bearing life increases using 601EF greases [4]. chemical decomposition and the generation of HF at the
Where as wear scar area of grease R2000 increased 22% contact region and originated large wear. To reduce the wear
compared with its base oil MAC 2001A. Wear scar of base oils scar and increase the life of contact mechanism greases of
is as 815Z>2001A but for friction coefficient 815Z<2001A. In 815Z base oil is preferable. The friction coefficient of 815Z oil
case of greases wear scar is R2000>601EF>600EF>602EF and is lower than the greases. In case of MAC oils wear scar of
friction coefficients is in reverse order as R2000<601EF grease R2000 increases compared with its base oil 2001A.
<600EF<602EF.

REFERENCES
[1] Jones, W.R., Jr. at el., 1994, “The preliminary Evaluation
of Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications by Vacuum
Triobometry,” 28th Aerospace Mech. Symp., NASA Lewis
Research Center, Cleveland, OH.
[2] Ohno, N., 2007, “EHL behavior of liquid lubricants for
space application,” Journal of Japan Society for Design
Engineering, 42, 1, pp.9-14.
[3] Mia, S., Komiya, H., Hayashi, S., Morita, S., Ohno, N.,
Obara, S., 2007, “Viscosity loss in PFPE lubricant for
space applications under EHL conditions,” Tribology
Online, 2(2), pp. 54-58.
[4] Ohno, N., Komiya, H., Morita, S., Mia, S., Satoh, N.,
Obara, S., 2007, “Bearing Fatigue Life Tests in Advanced
Base Oil and Grease for Space Application,” Proc. STLE
Fig. 4 Time dependants wear scar for 815Z and 2001A oil Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, CD-ROM, pp.1-24.

39
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Lubrication Analysis of Journal Bearing and Rotor System Using CFD and FSI Techniques

Huiping Liu*/Theory of Lubrication and Bearing Institute, Hua Xu/Theory of Lubrication and Bearing Institute,
Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an Shannxi, 710049, China Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an Shannxi, 710049, China
Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering,
University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Peter Ellison/ Institute of Medical and Biological Zhongmin Jin/ Institute of Medical and Biological
Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
Along the development of software and hardware, more using ADINA 8.4.4 (ADINA R&D Inc, Watertown, USA) [3].
and more complex engineering problems can be predicted Firstly, a pure fluid bearing simulation was conducted to
using a computational approach. For a complex bearing-rotor analyze the hydrodynamic lubrication to check the suitability
system, several lubrication models have been developed based of CFD for a given bearing gap. Then, a squeeze-film
on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique where lubrication model was built to validate the method of FSI.
a general Navier-Stokes equation is usually considered. In this Finally, a fully coupled bearing-rotor FSI model was analysed
paper, three different journal bearing models were simulated to study the interaction of the bearing and rotor. The
using a CFD and Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) technique to parameters for the lubrication model of a finite length journal
investigate the interaction of the lubrication of the journal bearing are listed in Table 1.
bearing and the dynamics of the shaft: a pure fluid bearing
model, an FSI squeeze-film model and a bearing-rotor FSI Table 1 Parameters of the models
model. The first two models were built to compare the CFD Parameters Value
and FSI methods with the solution predicted from the classical Diameter D=0.03 m
Reynolds equation and two different boundary conditions
Radial clearance C=30 μm
were adopted, Sommerfeld and Gumbel. The results of both of
these models were compared with the analytical solutions and Length L=0.015 m
good agreements were found. The combined CFD and FSI Viscosity 0.04 Pa.s
method was subsequently used to study the lubrication
performance of the rotor-bearing system. An elastic shaft was In all models, the fluid was assumed to be incompressible
used in the full coupled bearing-rotor FSI model, as well as and laminar. Non-slip condition was set between fluid-solid
the Gumbel boundary condition. The load applied on the interfaces. Zero pressure was set on the two ends of the
model included a vertical load and a rotation, representative of bearing. Sommerfeld and Gumbel boundary conditions were
real working conditions of an experiment of marine journal applied in the simulations. Sommerfeld boundary condition
bearing. Future more complex models will be developed to allowed subambient pressure, while the Gumbel boundary
investigate more realistic rheological properties of the condition was implemented by setting pressures as zero in the
lubricant and the complex interactions between the lubrication divergent region.
of the journal bearing and the dynamics of the shaft using the A typical case was considered for the pure fluid bearing
CFD and FSI method. simulation, with an eccentricity ratio of 0.789 away from the
Keywords: Journal bearing; Computational Fluid Dynamics outer wall centre and 30.887 degrees from the vertical
(CFD); Fluid Structure Interaction(FSI); Lubrication direction in the pure fluid bearing simulation. And its outer
wall was stationary and the inner wall had a rotational speed
1. INTRODUCTION (2750 rpm) along its shaft axis.
As the important parts of rotary machines, a large number In the two FSI models, the material of the shaft was
of journal bearings and rotors are required. Therefore, it is assumed to be isotropic linear elastic with a Young’s modulus
important to investigate the performance of the rotor bearing of 210 GPa and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.3. The mesh density
system. Numerical methods such as the finite difference and adopted depended on the load of each model, and mesh
the finite element are usually used to solve the Reynolds sensitivity was checked to ensure the accuracy of the results.
equation to predict the lubrication performance. However, Two fluid structure interface pairs were used in the models to
many studies have been recently conducted with a general connect the fluid and solid structure together.
CFD approach. Guo et al. [1] developed some models for In the squeeze model, the length of bearing was 0.15 m,
bearings and squeeze film damper with CFD and calculated five times its diameter (i.e. L/D=5) to reduce the influence of
the static and dynamic characteristics. Almqvist and Larsson the axial flow. The load applied on the shaft was 200 N and
[2] investigated the thermal transient rough EHL line contact the shaft was assumed to fall from the center line of the
problem with CFD and found that the commercial CFD code cylinder. In the bearing-rotor FSI model, the load applied was
could be modified to solve their lubrication model. However, 2212.25 N and a rotational speed of 2750 rpm along its shaft
there has been no study where an FSI approach is used to axis was applied to the shaft, representative of the working
analyze the combined effect of hydrodynamics and elasticity conditions in an experiment of marine journal bearing.
and dynamics of bearing surfaces. The aim of this study was to
apply a CFD and FSI method to the lubrication of a 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
bearing-rotor system. Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 show the pressure distribution within the
fluid under an eccentric rotational motion according to various
2. ANALYSIS
boundary conditions. For these typical pure fluid bearings, the
Three different models were developed in this study by analytical load capacity of oil film were 2212.25 N.
*Corresponding author: E-mail address: menlhu@leeds.ac.uk, No negative pressure was allowed with the Gümbel
Tel㧦+44 113 343 2179. boundary condition as shown in Fig. 2. To obtain the load

40
Lubrication Analysis of Journal Bearing and Rotor System Using CFD and FSI Techniques

capacity, the inner surface pressure within the convergent Small differences were observed on the predicted
region (Fig. 1) and the whole inner surface pressure of Fig. 2 squeeze-film velocity. In the analytical solution, no
were integrated respectively. The load capacities from side-leakage was allowed and therefore the drop distance was
integration are compared with the given value of 2212.25 N, expected to be smallest at a given time as shown in Fig. 4.
in Table 2. Fig. 5 shows the fluid pressure distribution according to the
Gumbel boundary condition for the CFD FSI bearing-rotor
model.

Fig. 2 Fluid pressure


Fig. 1 Fluid pressure
distribution according to
distribution according to
Gümbel boundary condition
Sommerfled boundary
condition
Table 2 Comparison of load capacity
Gümbel Sommerfeld
Load-carrying (N) 2236.7 2219.66
Error 1.10% 0.33%
Small differences of the predicted load were found Fig. 5 Fluid pressure distribution with Gumbel boundary
between the CFD method and the given load based on the condition for the CFD FSI journal bearing model
Reynolds equation. The CFD method was further used to build The predicted maximum hydrodynamic pressure in Fig. 5
the FSI model for the bearing-rotor FSI system. was found to be smaller than the pure fluid bearing model as
Fig. 3 shows the pressure distribution of the FSI squeeze-film shown in Fig. 2. This may be due to the elastic deformation of
lubrication model. The pressure was approximately evenly the shaft. Further studies will be carried out to verify this.
distributed along the axial direction expect towards the two
ends where the side-leakage became important. 4. CONCLUSION
Small differences of the predicted lubrication parameters
were found between the analytical solutions based on the
Reynolds equation and the CFD/FSI approach. The CFD/FSI
models will be used in future studies to in future studies to
investigate more complex lubrication problems such as the
realistic rheological of the lubricant and the complex
interactions between the lubrication of the journal bearing and
the dynamics of the shaft using the CFD and FSI method.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The research was supported by China scholarship council.
The funding source is gratefully acknowledged.
Fig. 3 Fluid pressure distribution of FSI squeeze-film
model according to Gümbel boundary condition REFERENCES
Fig. 4 shows the comparison of the non-dimensional drop [1] Guo, Z.L., T. Hirano, and R.G. Kirk,
distance between the CFD-FSI models and the analytical 2005,"Application of CFD analysis for rotating
solution (based on hydrodynamic lubrication where the machinery - Part I: Hydrodynamic, hydrostatic bearings
hydrodynamic pressure was not expected to cause appreciable and squeeze film damper," Journal of Engineering for
deformation) [4]. Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions of the Asme.
1.2
127(2): pp. 445-451.
1
[2] Almqvist, T. and R. Larsson, 2008,"Thermal transient
rough EHL line contact simulations by aid of
Non-dimensinal drop distance

0.8 computational fluid dynamics," Tribology International.


Analytical
41(8): pp. 683-693.
0.6 Sommerfeld
Gümbel
[3] ADINA R&D, I., 2006,"ADINA System 8.4
0.4 Documentation."
[4] A. rchibald, F.R., 1956,"Load capacity and time
0.2
relations for squeeze films," Trans. Asme. 78: pp. 28-35.
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (s)

Fig. 4 Comparison of squeeze-film velocity between FSI


models and the analytical solution

41
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Oil Film Behavior under Minute Vibrating Conditions in EHL Point Contacts

Chen Feng/NSK China Technology Center


(Kunshan NSK Co., Ltd., 258 South Huang Pu Jiang Rd.
Kunshan E&T Development Zone Jiangsu, 215335, China)

Taisuke Maruyama/Basic Technology R&D Center Tsuyoshi Saito/Basic Technology R&D Center
( NSK Ltd. , 1-5-50, Kugenuma-Shinmei, Fujisawa, ( NSK Ltd. , 1-5-50, Kugenuma-Shinmei, Fujisawa,
Kanagawa Prefecture 251-8501, JAPAN) Kanagawa Prefecture 251-8501, JAPAN)
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
We expressed the degree of amplitude as a AC servomotor
non-dimensional parameter of amplitude ratio and found that Thrust bearing
we could restrain fretting wear by setting the amplitude ratio to 51305
more than 1.6 and by using a high viscosity lubricating oil.
Therefore, as a result of measuring oil film thickness under
conditions of minute oscillations with a ball-on-disk EHL test
rig, we can understand that an oil film is formed if the Minute vibrating
amplitude ratio is set to more than 1.6.
Keywords: Tribology, Fretting, Wear, EHL, oil

INTRODUCTION
Rolling bearings, which can be found in any machine with
a moving part, may suffer from fretting wear on the rolling
element or raceway surface as a result of two metallic surfaces Load
that contact each other under conditions of cyclic motion
Fig. 2 Fretting test equipment
(oscillatory tangential displacement) of small amplitude. We
know that minute oscillations produce fretting wear, but much
remains unknown about exactly how much oscillation is
Table 1 Test conditions
required to generate fretting damage.
In this study, we converted experimental data, such as Temperature 25 °C
degree of oscillation into specific amplitude and degree of Test bearing Thrust ball bearing 51305
damage into specific damage. We discovered a condition Poly-alpha-olefin oil (PAO)
where fretting was inhibited. We measured the thickness of oil Oil 30 mm2/s @ 40 °C
film at the point of minute oscillation using a ball-on-disk test 411 mm2/s @ 40 °C
machine, and investigated the relationship between specific Maximum vibrating speed 20 mm/s
amplitude and minimum oil film thickness under oil-bath Maximum contact pressure 3.2 Gpa
lubrication. Amplitude ratio 0.5 to 1.9
Cycle number 104
EXAMINATION OF FRETTING WEAR
Amplitude ratio [1] can be expressed as A/D, where A is
Fretting wear is one kind of adhesion wear, and there are a
amplitude, and D is Hertz contact diameter (see figure 1). This
lot of protrusions that are higher than those of a non-damaged
parameter expresses the degree of minute oscillations.
area. Therefore, we measured the maximum height Ry of the
damage trace and evaluated the degree of damage. Then, we
Hertz contact area adopted a flat disk specimen made of SUJ2 steel with the
A/D䋾1
A/D䋽1 mirror-finished side being used as the lower race of the thrust
D A/D䋼1 bearings. Unevenness of the abrasion trace was restricted to the
maximum height of Ry through the use of a light interference
Minute microscope, and measured the area including the entire
vibrating A damage trace. Furthermore, we determined the ratio of the
maximum height Ry before examination (almost 0.1 um) and
after examination as the damage ratio, and quantified the
damage. Figure 3 shows the relation between amplitude ratio
Fig. 1 Example of amplitude ratio and damage ratio. Figure 4 illustrates damage trace results.
We tested the thrust bearing assuming that the ability to
Using proprietary fretting test equipment (see figure 2), we form an oil film remains constant under uniform load and
conducted a fretting wear test on a thrust bearing. An AC maximum vibrating speed. In this case, we assumed that oil
servomotor was used to create minute vibrations that acted film thickness is affected by viscosity in a steady state. Figure
upon the race of a thrust bearing under oil lubrication. Table 1 3 supports this theory because the damage ratio decreases if we
list the test conditions. In this test, we used two kinds of set the amplitude ratio to more than 1.6 and use high-viscosity
lubricating oil of differing viscosities. lubricating oil.

42
Oil Film Behavior under Minute Vibrating Conditions in EHL Point Contacts

conditions using an EHL test machine after making the load


and maximum vibrating speed uniform.
㪈㪇㪇㪇 㪧㪘㪦㩷㪊30mm
㪇㫄㫄㪉㪆㫊
/s 2
We applied load to the underside of a glass disk specimen
㪧㪘㪦㩷㪋㪈㪈㫄㫄㪉㪆㫊
411mm2/s using a ball specimen in order to observe the interference
fringe by shining the contact area with a white light. Oil film
thickness was then calculated using the wavelengths of this
㪛㪸㫄㪸㪾㪼㩷㫉㪸㫋㫀㫆

㪈㪇㪇 interference fringe. However, only the ball specimen was


vibrated while the disk specimen remained stationary in this
test. In addition, we used the spacer layer method [3] in order
to measure thickness on the order of 50 nm or less. Table 2
㪈㪇 lists the test conditions and figure 5 illustrates the test results.

Table 2 Test conditions


Temperature 25 °C
㪈 Poly-alpha-olefin oil (PAO)
㪇 㪇㪅㪌 㪈 㪈㪅㪌 㪉 㪉㪅㪌 Oil 30 mm2/s @ 40 °C
411 mm2/s @ 40 °C
㪘㫄㫇㫃㫀㫋㫌㪻㪼㩷㫉㪸㫋㫀㫆 Maximum vibrating speed 20 mm/s
Fig. 3 Comparison of damage ratio and amplitude ratio Maximum contact pressure 0.37 Gpa
Amplitude ratio 0.6 to 4.3
Slide-to-roll ratio 200 %

PAO䇭30
PAO䇭 mm2/s
30mm PAO䇭30
PAO䇭 mm2/s
30mm
Amplitude ratio 䋽0.5 Amplitude ratio 䋽2.0
㪍㪇 㪧㪘㪦㩷㪊㪇㩷㫄㫄㪉㪆㫊
30mm2/s
㪤㫀㫅㫀㫄㫌㫄㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷㪽㫀㫃㫄㩷㫋㪿㫀㪺㫂㫅㪼㫊㫊䋬㫅㫄

㪧㪘㪦㩷㪋㪈㪈㫄㫄㪉㪆㫊
411mm2/s
㪌㪇

㪋㪇

㪊㪇

㪉㪇

㪈㪇
PAO䇭411mm2/s
PAO䇭 PAO䇭411mm2/s
PAO䇭
Amplitude ratio 䋽0.5 Amplitude ratio 䋽2.0 㪇
㪇 㪇㪅㪌 㪈 㪈㪅㪌 㪉 㪉㪅㪌 㪊 㪊㪅㪌 㪋 㪋㪅㪌
㪘㫄㫇㫃㫀㫋㫌㪻㪼㩷㫉㪸㫋㫀㫆
Fig. 5 Comparison of minimum oil film thickness and
amplitude ratio

Figure 5 confirms that an oil film is formed if when the


amplitude ratio exceeds 1.6, and that it becomes thicker, which
increases viscosity.

CONCLUSION
Fig. 4 Trace damage and direction of oscillation
1. Whereas an oil film is not formed when the amplitude
However, the damage ratio is not affected by the viscosity of ratio less than 1, there is no difference in damage ratio
the lubricating oil when amplitude ratio less than 1. In this case, even if oil viscosity is changed.
we determined that this damage form is Mindlin slip [2] as 2. Fretting wear can be restrained by setting the amplitude
shown in figure 4 because there is no damage in the center of ratio to more than 1.6 and by using high viscosity oil
the trace. In other words, there is an area of adherence where because a thick oil film is formed.
sliding does not occur in the contact area. Therefore, we
assume that an oil film is not formed. REFERENCES
[1] Sakagami, Proceeding of JAST Tribology Conference
MEASUREMENT OF MINIMUM OIL FILM THICKNESS Tottori, Nov 2004, 69.(Japanese)
We studied the relation between minimum oil film [2] R.D.Mindlin, Trans.ASME, J.Appl.Mech., 71, 3(1949)259.
thickness and amplitude ratio under minute vibrating [3] Westlake, F.J., PhD thesis,University of London(1970).

43
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Different Loading and Motion Applied on Hip Simulators Affects the Lubrication of
Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants

Leiming Gao / University of Leeds Peiran Yang/ Qingdao Technological University


(iMBE, Leeds, LS2 9ND, UK) (School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao, 266033,
PR China)
Fengcai Wang / University of Bath (Department of Zhongmin Jin / University of Leeds
Mechanical Engineering, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK ) (iMBE, Leeds, LS2 9ND, UK)

(Extended Abstract)

ABSTRACT
assumed to be Newtonian, iso-viscous and incompressible [7],
The transient elastohydrodynamic lubrication for
and the corresponding viscosity of 0.001 Pa s was used in this
metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip replacement was numerically
study. The cup inclination angle to a horizontal position (x
solved under three gait loading and motion patterns, according
axis) for the three hip simulators is shown in Table 2.
to Leeds Mk I hip simulator, Leeds ProSim and ISO standard,
respectively. The Reynolds equation for pressure calculation
was solved in spherical coordinate system using the multi-grid
method and the elastic deformation of both acetabular cup and
femoral head was obtained by spherical FFT technique. Full
numerical solutions of EHL were obtained including the
pressure and film thickness distribution, for MOM hip
replacement under the three gait patterns. Large variations in
the film thickness were observed for different patterns,
especially when the three dimensional load applied on. For
example, the film thickness was significantly increased using
Leeds Mk I pattern. This may result in large difference of hip
simulator wear testing.
Keywords: Transient, Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication, Metal-
Fig. 1 The anatomic configuration of a MOM hip joint
on-Metal Hip Joint, Hip Simulator, Loading and Motion
replacement under three dimensional load and motion
INTRODUCTION
Table 1 Typical parameters for MOM hip implants
Total hip replacement has been the most successful surgical
treatment for hip joint diseases for almost fifty years. The Radius of femoral head 14 mm
requirement of long term survival of these artificial hip joints Radius of acetabular cup 14.03 mm
has led to alternative materials for the bearing surfaces, such as Elastic modulus of metal 210 GPa
metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip replacement, and the demand Elastic modulus of fixation 2.27 GPa
of hip simulator testing in terms of wear has also been Cup wall thickness 9.5 mm
increased. For MOM hip bearings, large variations in wear Equivalent fixation thickness 2 mm
have been observed in both different hip simulator studies [1, Poisson’s ratio 0.3
2], and clinical studies [3]. Since the wear resistance is
significantly affected by lubrication for MOM articulation, it is
Table 2 Cup inclination angle for the three patterns (deg)
necessary to investigate the influence of different patterns of
hip simulators on the lubrication in order to understand the Leeds Mk I Leeds ProSim ISO 14242-1
wear of MOM hip bearings. 45 35 30

Gait studies [4] have shown that human hip joints are subjected A general ball-in-socket model was adopted to solve the
to three-dimensional load and motion: a vertical load applied transient lubrication for the above MOM hip replacement. The
in the superior-inferior (S-I) direction, two horizontal loads Reynolds equation combined with the force balance equations
imposed in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medium-lateral were solved using the multi-grid method with three levels and
(M-L) directions respectively; and the flexion-extension (FE), 257 by 257 nodes in the finest level. The elastic deformation of
the abduction-adduction (AA) movement, and the the contact surfaces of both the acetabular cup and the femoral
internal-external rotation (IER). In this study three gait patterns head was obtained by a spherical FFT technique. Details of
from Leeds Mk I hip simulator, Leeds ProSim and ISO equations, numerical methods and convergent criterion can be
standard 14242-1 were concerned [5], including both found in [8, 9]. The loading and angular motion curves in a
simplified and three dimensional loading and motions. walking cycle are shown in Figure 2. The cycle time of 1
second was divided into 100 time steps for Leeds Mk I and
MATERIALS AND METHOD ISO, 127 time steps for Leeds ProSim hip simulator. The
program codes were written in Campaq Visual Fortran and run
A typical MOM total hip replacement was employed with a
on an AMD Athlon 64 (3800+) PC with CPU of 2.4GHz
femoral head diameter of 28 mm, made from Cobalt
frequency. It cost 1-3 hours to calculate one walking cycle and
Chromium alloy [6], as shown in Figure 1. The material and
after 3-4 cycles the converged results were obtained.
geometrical properties are listed in Table 1. The lubricant was

44
Different Loading and Motion Applied on Hip Simulators Affects the Lubrication of Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants

CONCLUSIONS

The variation of maximum pressure mainly depends on the


dynamic vertical load. Large variations in the film thickness
were observed for different patterns. For the results using
Leeds Mk I pattern, the horizontal load components were
concerned, which was found to translate the contact area
substantially in the corresponding direction. This induced
significant squeeze-film action and enhanced the
hydrodynamic load generating capacity. As a result, the film
thickness was significantly increased, particularly during the
swing phase, and correspondingly the overall film thickness.
The results using ISO pattern has good agreement with the
calculation by Wang and Jin [8], in which only the vertical
load and FE motion were concerned. This indicated the IER
and AA motion has little effect on the lubrication as their
values are much smaller than the main FE motion. The present
finding offers some explanations to the large variation in wear
of MOM bearings under different operating conditions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported by EPSRC (UK).

REFERENCES

Fig.2 Loading and motion gait curves used for lubrication [1] Smith, S.L., Dowson, D., Goldsmith, A.A.J., 2001, “The
analysis: (a) Leeds Mk I (b) Leeds ProSim and (c) ISO effect of diametral clearance, motion and loading cycles
upon lubrication of metal-on-metal total hip replacements,”
RESULTS Proceedings of I Mech E, Part C, 215 (1), pp.1-5.
The maximum pressure and minimum, centre film thickness [2] Firkins, P.J., Tipper, J.L., Ingham, E., 2001, “Influence of
variations in a converged walking cycle are shown in Figure 3. simulator kinematics on the wear of metal-on-metal hip
prostheses,” Proceedings of I Mech E, Part H, 215 (H1),
pp.119-121.
[3] Fisher, J, Jin, Z.M., Tipper, J., Stone, M., Ingham, E., Stone,
M.H., Farrar, R., Fisher, J., 2006, “Tribology of alternative
bearings,” Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, 453,
pp.25-34.
[4] Paul, J. P., 1967, “Forces transmitted by joints in the human
body,” Proceedings of I Mech E, 181(3J), pp.8-15.
[5] Barbour, P.S., Stone, M.H., Fisher, J., 1999, “A hipjoint
simulator study using simplified loading and motion cycles
generating physiological wear paths and rates,” J of Eng. in
Med, 213, pp.455̄467.
[6] Jagatia, M., Jin, Z.M., 2001, “Elastohydrodynamic
lubrication analysis of metal-on-metal hip prostheses under
steady state entraining motion,” Proceedings of I Mech E, Part
H, 215 (H6), pp.531-541.
[7] Cooke, A.V., Dowson, D., Wright, V., 1978, “The rheology
of synovial fluid and some potential synthetic lubricants for
degenerate synovial joints,” Engineering in Medicine, 7,
pp.66-72.
[8]Wang, F.C., Jin, Z.M., 2008, “Transient elastohydrodynamic
lubrication of hip joint implants,” J of Tribology-Transactions,
ASME, 130, 011007.
[9] Gao, L.M., Meng, Q.E., Wang, F.C., Yang, P.R., Jin, Z.M.,
2007, “Comparison of Numerical Methods for EHL Analysis
of Metal-on-Metal Hip Implant: Multi-grid verses
Newton-Raphson,” Proceedings of I Mech E, Part J, 221,
pp.133-140.
Fig. 3 Maximum pressure, minimum and centre film
thickness variations against time in a converged walking (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
cycle: (a) Leeds Mk I (b) Leeds ProSim and (c) ISO needs it.)

45
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

EHD Lubrication of Different Types of Gears

Vilmos Simon, Budapest University of Technology and Economics,


H-1111 Budapest, Muegyetem rkp. 3, Hungary, e-mai: simon.vilmos@gszi.bme.hu

(Extended Abstract)

ABSTRACT
∂ ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ∂ ⎡F ⎤
⎜⎜ F2 ⎟⎟ = − ⎢ 3 (U1 − U 2 )⎥ −
The full thermal elastohydrodynamic analysis of lubrication
of spur, helical, hypoid, and different types of cylindrical and ⎜ F2 ⎟+
∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ∂x ⎣ F0 ⎦
double enveloping worm gears is performed. The theory is
implemented by computer programs. By using these programs
∂ ⎡ F3 ⎤
⎢ (V1 − V2 )⎥ + ρ(W1 − W2 )
the influence of gear design, operating conditions and lubricant
− (1)
characteristics on maximum pressure and temperature in the oil ∂y ⎣ F0 ⎦
film, on EHD load carrying capacity of the gear pair and on
energy losses in the oil film in different types of gears is inves-
The full energy equation is applied
tigated. Part of the obtained results is presented and discussed.
Keywords: EHD Lubrication, Gears, Load Capacity, Friction
⎛ ∂T ∂T ∂T ⎞ ⎛ ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ⎞
ρc p ⎜⎜ u +v +w ⎟⎟ − k 0 ⎜ + + ⎟
⎜ ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ⎟
INTRODUCTION ⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
During the last decades many theoretical and experimental ⎡⎛ ∂u ⎞ 2 ⎛ ∂v ⎞ 2 ⎤
⎛ ∂p ∂p ⎞
works have been directed towards the analysis of elastohydro- = α T T⎜⎜ u + v ⎟⎟ + η⎢⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
dynamic lubrication in line and point contacts, but only a few ⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎢⎣⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎥⎦
paper is published on EHD lubrication analysis of gears. The (2)
papers are written by Sato and Takanashi [1], Wu and Huang
[2], Huang et al. [3], Yu et al. [4], He and Wei [5], Kong et al. The equation governing the heat transfer in gear teeth is
[6] and by Simon [7-9]. Laplace's equation
Recently, some of the main topics in lubrication analysis are
the effect of surface roughness on EHD lubrication and the
∂ 2 Tm ∂ 2 Tm ∂ 2 Tm
nanoscale oil films. Valuable experimental results are pre- + + =0 (3)
sented by Luo et al. [10] and Luo and Li [11]. ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2
The full thermal elastohydrodynamic analysis of lubrication
of spur, helical, hypoid, and different types of cylindrical and where m=1 for the driving and m=2 for the driven gear tooth.
double enveloping worm gears is performed. The EHD lubri- The composite normal elastic displacement of the contact-
cation analysis is based on the simultaneous solution of the ing surfaces in point (x,y), caused by the pressure distribution
Reynolds, elasticity, energy, and Laplace's equations. The oil p(X,Y), is given by
viscosity variation with respect to pressure and temperature
and the oil density variation with respect to pressure are in-
p(X, Y )
x max y max
cluded. The real geometry and kinematics of the different types d (x , y ) = K d ∫ ∫ dXdY (4)
of gears is applied, thus the exact geometrical separation of the x min y min (x − X ) 2 + ( y − Y ) 2
mating surfaces is included into the oil film shape and the real
relative velocities of these surfaces are used in the Reynolds
The viscosity variation with respect to pressure and tem-
and energy equations. As the governing equations represent a
perature and the density variation with respect to pressure are
highly nonlinear integrodifferential system, the finite differ-
included:
ence method and numerical integration are used to attain the
pressure and temperature distributions in the oil film, the tem- α p −β (T − T0 ) ⎛ α 1p ⎞
η = η0e η η ; ρ = ρ0 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ (5)
perature distribution in the gear teeth, and the elastic displace- ⎝ 1 + β1p ⎠
ments of the contacting surfaces.
The corresponding computer programs are developed. By
In the viscosity-pressure relationship the exponent α η is
using these programs the influence of design parameters, oper-
ating conditions and lubricant characteristics on maximum constant in the case of Barus equation and it is pressure de-
pressure and temperature in the oil film, on EHD load carrying pendent in the Roeland’s expression.
capacity of the gear pair, and on energy losses in the oil film in The EHD load carrying capacity of the oil film is calculated
different types of gears is investigated. from the pressure by simple integration

x max y max
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
The pertinent equations governing the pressure and tem-
W= ∫ ∫ p ⋅ dx ⋅ dy (6)
x min y min
perature distributions and the oil film shape are the Reynolds,
elasticity, energy, and Laplace's equations. Point contact EHD
lubrication analysis is applied because of the theoretical point The friction factor is defined by the ratio of the frictional
contact of mismatched (modified) gears. force to the load and it can be written as
The following general Reynolds equation is used FT
fT = ( 7)
W

46
EHD Lubrication of Different Types of Gears

1,5
The details of the presented theoretical background are de-
scribed in Refs. [7-9].
k T max
kf T
RESULTS

Factors k T max ; k W ; k f T
kW kW
1,0
By using the corresponding computer programs the influ-
k T max
ence of design and operating parameters of helical, hypoid and
worm gears on EHD lubrication characteristics is investigated. kf T
A small part of the obtained results, namely, the influence of 0,5
speed on EHD load carrying capacity (W), friction factor (fT),
maximum pressure (pmax) and temperature (Tmax) in the oil film
is shown in Figs. 1 – 3. It can be concluded that the speed has a
significant influence on all these parameters, especially in the
region of its lower values. 0
0 2500 5000 7500 10000
N W [rpm]

Fig. 3 Influence of speed on EHD lubrication


characteristics in worm gears

REFERENCES
[1] Sato, M., Takanashi, S., 1981, “On the
Thermo-elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of the Involute
Gear”, Proceedings, International Symposium on Gearing
and Power Transmissions, Tokyo, I., , pp. 307-312.
[2] Wu, H., Huang, W., 1988, “Full Thermal EHD Analysis on
the Cylindrical Worm Gearing with Cylindrical Worm
Gearing with Double Circle Arc Profile”, Proceedings of
International Conference on Gearing, Zhengzhou, pp.
489-494.
[3] Huang, C., Wen, S., Huang, P., 1993, “Multilevel Solution
of the Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Concentrated
Contacts in Spiroid Gears”, ASME Journal of Tribology,
115, pp. 481-486.
[4] Yu, T., Zhang, S., Li, J., 1997, “A New Numerical Method
for the Solution of Helical Gear Thermal EHL Problem”,
Proceedings of MTM'97 International Conference on Me-
chanical Transmissions and Mechanisms, Tianjin, pp.
840-842.
[5] He, H., Wei, Y., 1997, “Analysis of Elastohydrodynamic
Lubrication of Plane Re-Enveloping Hourglass Worm
Gearing”, Proceedings of MTM'97 International Confer-
ence on Mechanical Transmissions and Mechanisms, Tian-
jin, pp. 660-663.
[6] Kong, S., Sharif, K., Evans, H.P., Snidle, R.W., 2001,
“Elastohydrodynamics of a Worm Gear Contact”, ASME
Journal of Tribology, 123, pp. 268-275.
[7] Simon, V., 1981, “Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Hy-
poid Gears”, ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 103 pp.
195-203.
[8] Simon, V., 1988, “Thermo-EHD Analysis of Lubrication of
Helical Gears”, ASME Journal of Mechanisms, Transmis-
sions and Automation in Design, 110, pp. 330-336.
[9] Simon, V., 1997, “EHD Lubrication Characteristics of a
New Type of Ground Cylindrical Worm Gear Drive”,
ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 119, pp. 101-107.
[10] Luo, J., Wen, S., Huang, P., 1996, “Thin Film Lubrication,
Part I: Study on the Transition Between EHL and Thin Film
Lubrication Using Relative Optical Interference Intensity
Technique”, Wear, 194, pp. 107-115.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS [11] Luo, J.B., Liu, S., 2006, “The Investigation of Contact
The author would like to thank the Hungarian Scientific Ratio in Mixed Lubrication”, Tribology International, 39,
Research Fund (OTKA) for their financial support of the re- pp. 409-416.
search under Contract No. K62722. (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
needs it.)

47
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

The Role of Heat Partition in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

H.P. Evans* Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff A. Clarke Cardiff School of Engineering
University, Newport Road, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
K.J. Sharif Cardiff School of Engineering R.W. Snidle Cardiff School of Engineering

(Extended Abstract)

ABSTRACT
The paper discusses the difficulties in distinguishing and the way in which heat passes to the surfaces depends on
between non-Newtonian lubricant models of the shear thinning dissipation and conduction in the film, which must be
and the limiting shear stress types commonly used for rolling considered in any study of thermal behaviour of lubricated
sliding contacts in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL). It contacts as recognised in [3].
is shown that the ability of the lubricant rheological model to More recently sophisticated numerical analyses of EHL have
replicate experimental heat partition behaviour is a much more been developed [e.g. 4,5] and such models have generally been
discriminating test in determining the correct rheological used to predict traction behaviour and component flash
behaviour than the ability to reproduce traction curves temperatures. Recent work has seen the thermal
observed in experiment. non-Newtonian EHL models extended to cover variable ratio
Keywords: Heat Partition, non-Newtonian, Traction, EHL traction drive transmissions [6], starved contacts [7], rough
surfaces [8], and mixed lubrication conditions [9]. However
there is little published work on heat partition between the
INTRODUCTION
contacting components. The problem has been considered for
Analysis of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) is Newtonian [3] and non-Newtonian [10] lubricant models, and
commonly carried out for situations where there is inherent the differences between predicted and measured heat partition
sliding between the contacting surfaces as well as the behaviour has been addressed by the current authors [11,12].
entrainment action that gives rise to lubricant film formation.
Examples of this kind of contact are those occurring between
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
the teeth of power transmission gears, between cams and
tappets, and between the power transmission elements in This paper compares the results of heat partition calculated
toroidal traction drives. It is well known that the using EHL models with those determined experimentally [13].
conventional exponential dependence of viscosity with In these experiments the load and friction is measured, along
pressure in such models is capable of predicting film formation with the temperature at thermocouples located 3 mm below the
with a high degree of accuracy. On the other hand the surface of the disk. A conduction analysis of the test disk and
prediction of friction is inaccurate unless some form of shaft combination has been carried out [12] to find the
non-Newtonian lubricant behaviour is adopted. temperature variation in the disk by solving the following
When sliding occurs in EHL contacts, heat is dissipated in the equation,
lubricant film and is conducted into the contacting components, ∂T ⎧ ∂ 2T 1 ∂T ∂ 2T ⎫ (1)
which are consequently heated and attain higher temperatures. = α⎨ 2 + + ⎬
∂t ⎩ ∂r r ∂r ∂z 2 ⎭
The way in which the total heat generated is shared between
the two surfaces is referred to as the heat partition behaviour of subject to appropriate boundary conditions. This determines
the contact and the paper reviews the difficulties of correctly the temperature, T, averaged in the circumferential sense. The
predicting this partition in EHL contacts over a range of temperature at the thermocouple position of the two disks was
operating conditions. matched with experiment by adjustment of the heat partition
Different non-Newtonian models can match the measured factor, ß, defined as the proportion of the total heat dissipated
friction characteristics reasonably well, but this property of the passing into the faster moving disk. Values of ß were
contact is not a discerning measure as far as distinguishing obtained as shown in Figure 1 for a number of experiments
between different non-Newtonian models is concerned. In carried out over a range of kinematic conditions using a gas
contrast, the ability of different models to replicate turbine lubricant and both transverse ground and superfinished
experimental heat partition measurements is a sensitive disks.
distinguishing factor between shear thinning and limiting shear
stress models, which are the two main rheological formulations
used for these calculations. This observation is advanced as
evidence that the predominant non-Newtonian mechanism in
high shear rate conditions, such as those in gear tooth contacts, ß
is that of limiting shear stress with associated lubricant slip.
Furthermore, measurement of heat partition behaviour is
proposed as a discriminating property of the lubricant that can
be measured experimentally and used to justify selection of the
lubricant model to be used in EHL analysis situations. ΔTus / °C ms-1
Many workers [e.g. 1,2] have developed methods to calculate
flash temperatures and heat partition in dry contact. However, Fig. 1 Variation of ß with ΔTus from experiment
their approaches do not consider the EHL film where the heat
The values of ß were found to follow a trend curve expressed
is dissipated. If heat is generated throughout the thickness of
in terms of the product of the temperature difference between
the film the highest temperatures occur within the film itself,
the surfaces, ΔT, and the sliding velocity, us.
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed.
48
The Role of Heat Partition in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

THERMAL EHL ANALYSIS plane and the results shown in Figure 3 are obtained by
A thermal EHL point contact analysis was carried out for locating this slip plane at the highest temperature surface in the
all the smooth surface test conditions for which experimental oil film which for these experiments is at, or close to the faster
data were available. Three lubricant viscosity formulations moving surface.
were adopted and each was combined with two non-Newtonian
rheological models. These were an Eyring shear thinning CONCLUSIONS
model Thermal EHL models are unable to predict heat partition
ηγ& = τ 0 sinh(τ τ 0 ) (2) correctly for the conditions analysed unless the heat is
relating the resultant shear rate, γ& , and the resultant shear dissipated in a slip plane. All the models run have the correct
friction characteristic and heat partition is thus a discerning test
stress, τ, where η is the viscosity and τ0 is a model constant; of the applicability of a rheological model in these
and the Bair and Winer limiting shear stress model circumstances.
ηγ& = −τ L ln(1 − τ τ L ) (3)
where τL is the limiting shear stress which is proportional to ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
pressure. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support
These analyses were carried out with temperature boundary of EPSRC (GR/T05059) for this work.
conditions corresponding to those observed and calculated for
the experiments, and parameters τ0 and τL were selected to give REFERENCES
the measured friction values. In each case the heat flux
passing into the solid surfaces was integrated in order to [1] Blok, H., 1937, “Theoretical study of temperature rise of
determine ß. The values of ß obtained are shown in Figure 2 surfaces of actual contact under oiliness lubricating
for five of the rheological combinations adopted together with conditions.” In Proceedings of General Discussion on
the trend line for the experimental values taken from Figure 1. Lubrication, Part 2, pp 222-235 (IMechE, London).
[2] Tian, X. and Kennedy, F.E., 1994, “Maximum and average
flash temperatures in sliding contacts”, Trans. ASME Jn of
Tribology, 116, pp 167-174.
[3] Manton, S.M., O'Donoghue, J.P. and Cameron, A., 1967,
“Temperatures at lubricated rolling / sliding contacts”,
Proc Instn. Mech. Engrs, 182, pp 813-823.
[4] Cheng, H.S., 1965, “A refined solution to the thermal
ß elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rolling and sliding
cylinders”, Trans ASLE, 8, pp 397-410.
[5] Sui, P.C., & Sadeghi, F., 1991, “Non-Newtonian thermal
elastohydrodynamic lubrication”, Trans ASME Jn of
Tribology, 113, pp 390-397.
[6] Sharif, K.J., Evans, H.P., Snidle, R.W., Newall, J.P., 2004,
Modelling of film thickness and traction in a variable ratio
ΔTus / °C ms-1 traction drive rig, Trans. ASME, Jn of Tribology, 126,
Fig. 2 Variation of ß with ΔT.us determined from EHL pp 92-104.
analysis with five rheological models [7] Yang, P, Wang, J., & Kaneta, M., 2006, “Thermal and
non-Newtonian numerical analyses for starved EHL line
contacts”, Trans. ASME Jn of Tribology, 128, pp 282-290.
[8] Chang, L., 1992, “Traction in thermal elastohydrodynamic
lubrication of rough surfaces”, Trans. ASME Jn of
Tribology, 114, pp 186-191.
[9] Zhu, D. and Hu, Y.-Z., 2001 “A computer program package
for the prediction of EHL and mixed lubrication
ß characteristics, friction, subsurface stresses and flash
temperatures based on measured 3-D surface roughness”,
Tribology Transactions, 44, pp 383-390.
[10] Johnson, K.L. and Greenwood, J.A., “Thermal analysis
of an Eyring fluid in elastohydrodynamic traction”, 1980,
Wear, 61, pp 353-374.
[11] Clarke, A,. Sharif, K.J., Evans, H.P. Snidle, R.W., 2006,
ΔTus / °C ms-1 “Heat partition in rolling/sliding EHL contacts” Trans
Fig. 3 Variation of ß obtained with slip plane model ASME Jn of Tribology, 128, pp 67-78.
[12] Clarke, A,. Sharif, K.J., Evans, H.P. Snidle, R.W., 2007,
Comparison of Figures 1 and 2 shows that the EHL analyses “Elastohydrodynamic modelling of heat partition in
lead to a completely incorrect evaluation of the heat partition rolling-sliding point contacts” Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs
factor. This is because all of these models result in the heat Part J, Jn of Engng Tribology, 221, pp 223-235.
being dissipated throughout the lubricant film. The only [13] Patching, M.J., Kweh, C.C. Evans, H.P. and Snidle, R.W.,
model that leads to values of ß that correspond approximately 1995 “Conditions for scuffing failure of ground and
to the experimental data is the model that uses a Barus superfinished steel disks at high sliding speeds using a gas
viscosity formula combined with the limiting shear stress turbine engine oil.” Trans ASME Jn. of Tribology Vol 117,
model. For this model most of the heat is dissipated in a slip pp 482-489, 1995.

49
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Influence of Surface Roughness on Elastohydrodynamic Journal Bearings


with Non-Newtonian Lubricants
Chatchai Aiumpornsin Mongkol Mongkolwongrojn
Electro-Mechanical Engineering Lab, ReCCIT, Faculty of Associate Professor, Electro-Mechanical Engineering Lab,
Engineering, KMITL, Bangkok, 10520, Thailand, ReCCIT, Faculty of Engineering, KMITL, Bangkok, 10520,
chataium@gmail.com Thailand, kmmongko@kmitl.ac.th
(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT In this present paper, the effects of elastic deformation
This paper describes the effect of surface roughness of the bearing liner, the variation of viscosity with
and elastic deformation of bearing liner on the static and pressure and flow rheology, and the roughness of
dynamic characteristics of journal bearings. A non- bearing liner surface were incorporated to obtain the
Newtonian power law model was used in the the static and dynamic performance characteristics of the
calculation for the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime. journal bearing under heavy load.
The modified Reynolds equations with elasticity equation
were formulated for the elastohydrodynamic journal MATHEMATICAL FORMULATIONS
bearing under heavy load conditions. Finite difference Reynolds equation. The modified Reynolds
method with multi-grid multi-level technique were equation for finite journal bearing using power law
implemented to obtain the oil film pressure profile, oil lubricants, can be written as :
film thickness profile, load capacity, and attitude angle
at various surface roughness parameters and various ∂ ⎛⎜ ρh3 ∂p ⎞⎟ ∂ ⎛⎜ ρh3 ∂p ⎞⎟ U ∂ρh ∂ρh
+ = + (1)
power-law index. The characteristics of the rough surface r ∂θ ⎜⎝ 12nμ * ∂θ ⎟⎠ ∂z ⎜⎝ 12 μ * ∂z ⎟⎠ 2r ∂θ
2 ∂t
journal bearing under elastohydrodynamic lubrication
n −1
presented in this work were compared with the rough ⎛U ⎞
μ * = m⎜ ⎟ (2)
surface journal bearing. under hydrodynamic lubrication. ⎝h⎠
The results show that the roughness pattern, elastic
deformation and power-law index significantly affect the Film Thickness Equation. The film thickness h is
static and dynamic characteristics of journal bearings h = c(1 + ε cos(θ − Φ )) + δ J (rθ − Ut , z ) − δ B (rθ , z ) + D(θ ) (3)
under severe operating conditions. Where δ J and δ B are random roughness amplitudes of the
Keywords : Journal bearing, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, journal surface and bush surface respectively. D (θ ) is
Non-Newtonian power-law model, Surface Roughness effect,
the radial elastic deformations determined using the
and dynamic characteristis. following thin liner model.
(1 +ν )(1 − 2ν )t h ( )
INTRODUCTION D(θ ) = pθ (4)
Hydrodynamic lubrication theory of rough surfaces (1 −ν )E
has been investigated by several researchers. Their Viscosity – Pressure Relation. According to
results shown that the stability improves significantly for Roelands law, the viscosity consistency can be expressed as
a very rough surface bearing with smooth surface journal.
Ramesh and Majumdar [1] used the nonlinear transient
⎧ ⎡
( ⎤⎫
)
m = m0 exp⎨[(ln(m0 ) + 9.67 )]⎢ 1 + 5.1 * 10 −9 p − 1⎥ ⎬ (5)
⎩ ⎣
zp

⎦⎭
method to show the effects of surface rough parameter
and surface pattern parameter with different L/D ratio. Density – Pressure Relation. The fluid density ρ is
Turaga and Majumdar [2] studied the influence of the ⎛ 0.6 * 10 −9 p ⎞⎟
roughness parameter on bearing characteristic. ρ = ρ 0 ⎜1 + (6)
⎜ 1 + 1.7 * 10 −9 p ⎟
The performance characteristic of hydrodynamic journal ⎝ ⎠
bearing is affected by the non-Newtonian lubricants. Load capacity . The force due to the hydrodynamic
Raghunandana and Majumdar [3] studied the stability of pressure on the journal in the x − y coordinate system are
journal bearing. Weng and Chen [4] combined effects of L 2π L 2π
non-Newtonian Lubricant and surface roughness on the Fx = − ∫ ∫ pr cos θdθ dz and F y = − ∫ ∫ pr sin θdθ dz (7)
stability of dynamically loaded short length journal 0 0 0 0
bearing. The non-Newtonian lubricants having higher Journal bearing stability. The solutions for
power-law index give better stability, and the effect of dimensionless critical mass and the whirl ratio are
surface roughness are significant especially in the range Bxx K yy + K xx B yy − B yx K xy − Bxy K yx
of high eccentricity ratio. MΩ 2 = (8)
For bearing under severe operating conditions, the Bxx + B yy
elastic deformation of the bearing liner and the variation
of lubricant viscosity varies with pressure have significant Ω2 =
(K xx )( )
− Ω 2 M K yy − Ω 2 M − K xy K yx
(9)
influence on the performance of journal bearings system. Bxx B yy − Bxy B yx
Singh et al.[5] studied the effects of bearing liner flexibility
on the static and dynamic performance characteristics of RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
an elliptical journal bearing. Konsari and Wang [6] found The elastohydrodynamic lubrication problems of
that material properties and boundary conditions play an journal bearing require solution of the coupled Reynolds
important role on the thermoelastohydrodynamic equation and elasticity equations. The simultaneous
c
characteristics of journal bearing. solution were solved numerically using finite difference
f

50
Influence of Surface Roughness on Elastohydrodynamic Journal Bearings with Non-Newtonian Lubricants

method combined with multi-grid multi-level techniques for parameter increase. Load capacity of EHL increases
length to diameter ratio and the radial clearance to radius when speed increases. Figure 2 shows that the transverse
ratio of the journal bearing at 1.0 and 0.0015 respectively. roughness pattern improve the stability region specially at
The speed of the smooth surface journal are 8000 and surface roughness parameter more than 0.4.
10,000 rpm respectively and the bearing liner surface are Figure 3 and 4 show the effects of power-law index
rough with various roughness parameters for transverse on load capacity and mass parameter. The journal operate
surface roughness pattern and longitudinal surface at speed 5000 rpm and eccentricity ratio equal to 0.75.
roughness pattern. The characteristics of elasto- The power-law index are 0.95, 1.0 and 1.05. The liner
hydrodynamic journal bearings in this work are compared surface is transverse pattern. Figure 4 shows mass
with the characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearing. parameter of EHL increase when power-law index increases.
CONCLUSIONS
270
The influence of surface roughness on the static and
Load Capacity (kN)

γ = 9, 8000 rpm

250 dynamic characteristics of journal bearing are examined


γ = 9, 10000 rpm
theoretically.
230 γ = 1/9, 8000 rpm
1) For isothermal conditions, higher load capacity for
γ = 1/9, 10000 rpm journal bearing under EHL when compared with
210
HD, γ = 1/9, 10000 rpm journal bearing under hydrodynamic lubrication.
190 2) Surface roughness parameter and surface roughness
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 pattern are insignificant effect on load capacity, but
Roughness Parameter transverse roughness surface improve the stability
region specially at high roughness surface parameter.
Fig. 1 Effect of surface roughness on load capacity 3) Lubricants with higher power-law index gives higher
load carrying capacity and better stability.
0.6
0.5
γ = 9, 8000 rpm NOMENCLATURE
Mass Parameter

0.4 γ = 9, 10000 rpm F = hydrodynamic force (N)


0.3 γ = 1/9, 8000 rpm
K = dimensionless stiffness coefficient
0.2 γ = 1/9, 10000 rpm
M = dimensionless mass parameter
p = fluid film pressure, (Pa)
0.1 HD, γ = 1/9, 10000 rpm

0.0
t = time, (s)
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 U = tangential velocity of surface, (m/s)
Roughness Parameter z = coordinate axis in axial direction
Fig. 2 Effect of surface roughness on mass ε = eccentricity ratio of journal bearing
parameter θ = circumferential angle, (rad)
Ω = whirl ratio
550 γ = surface pattern parameter
Load Capacity (kN)

500
450
n = 0.95, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm
n = 1.0, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm
Λ = roughness parameter = σ / hmin
400 n = 1.05, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm
350 HD, n = 1.0, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm REFERENCES
300
250 [1] Ramesh, J., and Majumdar, B.C., 1995, “Stability
200 of Rough Journal Bearings Using Nonlinear
150 Transient Method”, ASME Journal of Tribology,
100
Vol. 117, pp. 691-695.
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
[2] Turaga, R., Sekhar, A.S., and Majumdar, B.C., 1999,
Roughness Parameter
“The Effect of Roughness Parameter on the
Fig. 3 Effect of power-law index and surface Performance of Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings
roughness parameter on load capacity With Rough Surfaces”, Tribology International, Vol.
32, pp. 231-236.
0.30 [3] Raghunandana, K., and Majumdar, B.C., 1999,
“Stability of Journal Bearing Systems Using Non-
Mass Parameter

0.25 n = 0.95, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm

0.20 n = 1.0, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm Newtonian Lubricants : a Non-linear Transient


n = 1.05, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm
0.15 Analysis”, Tribology International, Vol.32, pp.179-184.
HD, n = 1.0, γ = 1/9, 5000 rpm
0.10 [4] Weng, Cheng-I., and Chen, Chien-Ru, 2001, “Linear
0.05 Stability of Short Journal Bearings with Consideration
0.00 of Flow Rheology and Surface Roughness”,
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Tribology International, Vol. 34, pp. 507-516.
Roughness Parameter [5] Singh, D.V., Sinhasan, R., and Prabhakaran Nair, K.,
Fig. 4 Effect of power-law index and surface 1989, “Elastothermohydrodynamic Effects in
roughness parameter on mass parameter Elliptical Bearings”, Tribology International, Vol. 22,
pp. 43-49.
Figure 1 shows the load capacity of Journal bearing [6] Khonsari, M.M., and Wang, S.H., 1991, “On The Fluid-
under hydrodynamic lubrication are smaller than Journal Solid Interaction in Reference to Thermo
bearing under elastohydrodynamic lubrication. In case of elastohydrodynamic Analysis of Journal Bearings”,
EHL, the load slightly decrease when the roughness ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 113, pp. 398-404.

51
Technical Sessions-Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing , China

Theoretical Investigation of Journal Bearings with Non-Newtonian Fluids


Included Thermal Effects
Mongkol Mongkolwongrojn Chatchai Aiumpornsin
Associate Professor, Electro-Mechanical Engineering Lab, Electro-Mechanical Engineering Lab, ReCCIT, Faculty of
ReCCIT, Faculty of Engineering, KMITL, Bangkok, 10520, Engineering, KMITL, Bangkok, 10520, Thailand,
Thailand, kmmongko@kmitl.ac.th chat@sau.ac.th

(Extended Abstract)

,~ +00 ,(""-PooXl , "'If,}:


ABSTRACT
This paper describes the static and dynamic (1)
characteristics of journal bearings lubricated with non-
Newtonian lubricants based on Carreau viscosity model. The
time-dependent modified Reynolds and the non-adiabatic
energy equations have been formulated based on non-
Newtonian Carreau fluids to obtain the static and dynamic
'" +00 ,(Po - ProXl , "'If,}: (2)

characteristics of journal bearing in thermohydrodynamic where flo and floo are limiting viscosity at very low and very
lubrication regime. The simultaneous system of modified high shear rates respectively. n is the power-law exponent
Reynolds and non-adiabatic energy equations included the
which describes the slope of viscosity as a function of shear
heat conduction in the bearing bush were solved numerically
rate in the shear thiuning regime and a is time constant. 1 is
with initial conditions and boundary conditions using finite
the second invariant of the strain rate tensor.
difference technique. The linearized bearing reaction enables
the journal motion can be approximated to obtain the spring
and damping coefficient. Simulation results are presented for (3)
pressure distribution, temperature distribution, load carrying
Adopting the perturbation method and using the continuity
capacity and friction force with varying eccentricity ratio.
equation, we obtain the modified Reynolds equation for
The stability of the journal bearing with non-Newtonian
finite journal bearing using Carreau law lubricants.
Carreau fluid was examined and. compared with the results
I
t oA 12fl Ir 2
3 3
obtained for journal bearing with non-Newtonian Power-law o
(h op 0 ( h op U J oh oh (4)
fluid. l
roB 121J roB * oy roB + at
Keywords: Hydrodynamic journal bearing, Non-Newtonian n-1
Carreau fluids, thermal effect, static and dynamic characteristics fl * = floo + (flo - floo )(1 + a21* 0 (5)

INTRODUCTION
* 2[Ou*J2(OflJ
1J=fl+ - - (6)
OZ 01 1=1'
The performance characteristics of journal bearing with
non-Newtonian behavior have been studied by a number of Under the non-adiabatic assumption and neglecting the
investigators. Williams [lJ analyzed the lubrication equation temperature variation across the film thickness, the energy
by using the Rabinowitsh model. Knight [2J and lang [3J equation for an incompressible fluid with laminar flow can be
analyzed the non-adiabatic solution of journal bearings. written as
Based on the Power-law model, the journal bearing for a
,ocJ[UJh -~~J aTm -[~ apJ aTml
given eccentricity ratio, shear-thinning effects tend to l 2 121) rae rae 121' 3y 3y J (7)
decrease the pressure , load capacity , friction force , and
increase attitude angle. However, the relationships between 6kl
= - ( TJ-2Tm+TBI)+fl - + - -
,uj h (ap)2 +h- - ,aPJ
3
-
23
(
h h 121' rae 121' 3y
shear rate and shear stress of the pseudo-plastic fluids
frequently appears to be a Newtonian fluid with very high RESULT & DISCUSSION
viscosity at low shear rates and then to be a Newtonian fluid The numerical results on the performance characteristics
with lower viscosity at higher shear rates, and so the power- of journal bearings lubricated with non-Newtonian lubricants
law or cubic equation model can't predict this non-linear based on Carreau viscosity model are calculated. The journal
behaviors accurately. bearings have length to diameter ratio equal to 1.0 and radial
The aims of this paper are to investigate the static and clearance ratio equal to 2XlO- 5 .
dynamic characteristics of journal bearing when the
lubricants are in transition state from non-Newtonian fluid to -v;- 1-000- r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
Newtonian fluid behavior as increasing journal speed. "
C
;>,
Carreau viscosity model is proposed in this work to formulate .:;; 0-100
o Carrcau model
the Reynolds and non-adiabatic energy equations for a finite o
.~
width hydrodynamic journal bearing by using perturbation
:: 0.010 -
technique. Both equations were simultaneously solved using
~
finite difference method. §: Power- law
< 0-001 -1-------.,....-----~----!

10 100 1000 10000 100000


THEORY Journal Sp eed (rpm)
The relationship between shear stress and shear rate for
Fig. 1 Comparison of Carreau viscosity model with
the non-Newtonian fluid can be represented by Carreau
Power-law model
viscosity model as

52
Theoretical Investigation of Journal Bearings with Non-Newtonian Fluids Included Therrnal Effects

stability characteristic than the journal bearing using Power-


2.5 , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
law model specially at high speed.
--10000 rpm

2 • 6000 rpm
--1000 rpm
60 , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
c;- --10000 rpm
c.. - - - ,10000 rpm,
~ 1.5
50
X 1000 rpm, Power-law • 6000 rpm
e Z 40 --1000 rpm
:::l
1/1
~ - - - ·10000 rpm, Power-law
~ 30
1/1
e
c..
X 1000 rpm, Power-law

0.5 ~ 20

10

o 50 100 150 200 250 300 o L~~~===-,--------,------,-J


Circumferential angle (degree) o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Fig. 2 Film pressure profile in circumferential Eccentricity Ratio
direction
Fig. 4 Variation of Load capacity with journal speed

325 .------------------~
16 , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
11l
--10000 rpm 11l
III --10000 rpm
• 6000 rpm :iE • 6000 rpm
~ --1000 rpm
~ 12 --1000 rpm
~ 320
e - - - ·10000 rpm, Power-law
oS! - - - ,10000 rpm, Power-law
.a X 1000 rpm, Power-law c:
o X 1000 rpm, Power-law
e
Q) 11l
c.. c: 8
Q)
E 315
Q)
I-
E
Cl

310 -1---,...---,.-----,-----,------,------1
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

o 50 100 150 200 250 300 Eccentricity Ratio


Circumferential angle (degree)
Fig. 5 Comparision of the stability chart based on
Fig. 3 Film temperature profile in circumferential Carreau model and that based on power law model
direction
CONCLUSIONS
The significant different between Non-Newtonian The characteristics of journal bearing lubricated with
power-law fluid and Carreau fluid are obviously occurred as Carreau viscosity fluid are compared with the journal bearing
the speed increased as showed in Figure 1. The film pressure lubricated with Power-law fluid, and can be concluded as
and temperature distribution at bearing mid plane along the 1) The formulation of Reynolds equation and non-
circumferential direction of journal bearing for eccentricity adaiabatic energy equation of journal bearings with non-
ratio equal to 0.8, operated speed at 1,000, 6,000, 10,000 rpm Newtonian Carreau viscosity model were presented.
as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3 respectively. The film 2) When increasing the journal speed, the load
pressure and temperature increases when increasing the carrying capacity using Carreau lubricant is higher than the
journal speed. The rate of increasing in film pressure and load carrying capacity using Power-law lubricant.
temperature due to increasing of speed becomes small at high 3) The journal bearing lubricated with Carreau
speed. Both higher pressure and higher temperature are lubricant has better stability characteristic than the journal
obtained for Carreau model when compared with Power-law bearing lubricated with Power-law lubricant specially at high
model at 10,000 rpm. At this operating condition, the speed.
lubricant become Newtonian fluid for Carreau model as
shown in Figure 1. Therefore the viscosity of the Carreau REFERENCES
model lubricant is constant while the viscosity for the Power- [lJ Williams, P.D., and Symmons, G.R., 1987, "Analysis of
law lubricant continue to decrease with the increase of the Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings Lubricated with non-
journal speed. Newtonian Fluids", Tribology International, Vol.20,
The effects of speed on the load capacity for the journal No.3, pp.119-124.
bearing are shown in Figure 4. The load capacity increases [2J Knight J.D., and Barrett L.E., 1988, "Analysis of Tilting
with increasing of journal speed. The difference between the Pad Journal Bearings With Heat Transfer Effects",
load capacity calculated using Power-model and the load pp.128-133.
capacity calculated using Carreau viscosity model are [3J Jang J.Y., and Khonsari M.M.,1997, "Performance
significant for bearing operated speed at 10,000 rpm. Analysis of Grease Lubricated Journal Bearings
Figure 5 shows the relationship between critical mass Including Thermal Effects", Vol.l19, pp.859-867.
and eccentricity ratio at various speeds. The journal bearing
lubricated non-Newtonian Carreau lubricants has better

53
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film Behavior between Transversely Rough


Curved Plates
G. M. Deheri1, Rakesh M. Patel2, Nikhilkumar D. Abhangi3*
1. Department of Mathematics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat, India.
2. Department of Mathematics, Gujarat Arts and Science College, Ellis Bridge, Ahmedabad, Gjarat, India.
3. Research Student, Department of Mathematics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat, India.

ABSTRAT
An endeavor has been made to analyze the They concluded that the application of magnetic fluid
magnetic fluid based squeeze film behavior between lubricant enhanced the performance of the squeeze film
two transversely rough curved plates, when the curved bearing system. However, they assumed that the plates
upper plate approaches the stationary curved lower were flat. But in actual practice, the flatness of the plate
plate. The lubricant used is a magnetic fluid in the does not endure owing to elastic, thermal and uneven
presence of an external magnetic field oblique to the wear effects. With this end in view Bhat and Deheri [8]
radial axis. The roughness of the bearing surface is discussed the effect of magnetic fluid lubricant on the
modeled by a stochastic random variable with nonzero configuration of Ajwaliya [4], considering the two
mean, variance and skewness. The associated Reynolds plates determined by exponential functions. They found
equation is solved with appropriate boundary that magnetic fluid lubricant improved the performance
conditions to obtain the pressure distribution, which is, of the bearing. Further, Bhat and Deheri [9]
then used to get the expression for load carrying investigated the magnetic fluid based squeeze film
capacity. To present a comparative study we consider behavior in curved porous circular disks. Patel and
the curvature of exponential form, hyperbolic form and Deheri [10] analyzed the performance of magnetic fluid
secant form to represent the film thickness. The results based squeeze film between two curved plates lying
are presented graphically. It is found that the load along the surfaces determined by secant functions. In
carrying capacity increases with increasing addition, Patel and Deheri [11] studied the magnetic
magnetization. It is seen that the bearing suffers in fluid based squeeze film between curved plates along
general, owing to the surface roughness. It is observed the surfaces governed by hyperbolic functions. In the
that negatively skewed roughness increases the load above three studies it was found that the magnetic fluid
carrying capacity. The adverse effect induced by the lubricant enhanced the performance of the bearing
standard deviation, positive variance and positive system.
skewness can be compensated up to certain extent by By now, it is well-known that bearing
the magnetization parameter taking an appropriate surfaces particularly after having some run in and wear
choice of curvature parameters. develop roughness. In order to study and analyze the
Keywords: Magnetic Fluid, Squeeze film, Transverse effect of roughness of the bearing surfaces on the
roughness, Reynolds equation, Load carrying capacity. performance of the squeeze film bearings various
Introduction methods have been resorted to. Several investigators
The performance of squeeze film behavior have proposed a stochastic approach to mathematically
between various geometrical configurations of flat model the random character of the roughness (Tzeng
surfaces was discussed by Archibald [1]. Murti [2] and Seibel [12], Christensen and Tonder [13, 14, 15]).
analyzed the behavior of squeeze film trapped between Christensen and Tonder [13, 14, 15] presented a
curved circular pates describing the film thickness by comprehensive general analysis for surface roughness
an expression of an exponential function. Modifying (both transverse as well as longitudinal) based on a
the approach of Murti [2], Gupta and Vora [3] analyzed general probability density function by developing the
the performance of squeeze film behavior between approach if Tzeng and Seibel [12]. Subsequently, this
curved annular plates. In all the above cases the lower method of Christensen and Tonder [13, 14 and 15]
plate was taken to be flat. Ajwaliya [4] considered the formed the basis of the analysis to study the effect of
problem of squeeze film behavior taking the lower plate surface roughness on the performance of the bearing
also to be curved. He also studied the squeeze film system in a number of investigations (Ting [16],
between curved annular plates choosing the curvature Prakash and Tiwari [17], Prajapati [18], Guha [19],
of an exponential form to represent the film thickness. Gupta and Deheri [20]). Also, Andharia, Gupta and
All the above studies conventional lubricant. Verma [5] Deheri [21- 22] dealt with the analysis of the effect of
and Agrwal [6] investigated the squeeze film surface roughness on the performance of a squeeze film
performance by taking a magnetic fluid as a lubricant. bearing using the general stochastic analysis for
Subsequently, Bhat and Deheri [7] analyzed the describing the random roughness. However, in these
squeeze film between porous annular disks using a discussions conventional lubricants were used.
magnetic fluid lubricant with the external magnetic Efforts have been directed to present a
field oblique to the lower disk. comparative study on the behavior of magnetic fluid
3* Corresponding Author based squeeze film between transversely rough curved
nikhil.abhangi@gmail.com

54
Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film Behavior between Transversely Rough Curved Plates

circular plates lying along the surfaces determined by curvature parameters. The load carrying capacity
different trigonometric functions and exponential decreases and then increases with respect to the lower
function. plate curvature parameter while exactly the opposite
Main Equation The associated Reynolds equation for happens with respect to the upper plate curvature
the film pressure p is obtained as parameter. The upper plate curvature parameter

( )
1 d ⎡ d ⎤ . increases the load carrying capacity while the lower
⎢ rg ( h) p − 0.5μ 0 μ H 2 ⎥ = 12 μ h0 , plate curvature parameter decreases the load carrying
r dr ⎣ dr ⎦ capacity in the hyperbolic case and exponential case.
g ( h ) = h + 3h α + 3h (σ + α ) + ε + 3σ α + ε + α
3 2 2 2 2 3 Comparatively this effect is less for exponential shape,
as can be seen from Figure 16 in the respective cases.
Key-References
Some of the figures tend to suggest that the
¾ Verma, P.D.S., Magnetic fluid based squeeze
adverse effect induced by the standard deviation,
film, International Journal of Engineering
positive variance and positive skewness can be
Sciences, Vol. 24(3), (1986), pp. 395-401.
compensated upto some extent by the magnetization
¾ Bhat, M.V. and Deheri, G.M., Squeeze film
parameter by considering an appropriate choice of
behavior in porous annular disks lubricated with
curvature parameters. However, this compensation is
magnetic fluid, Wear, Vol. 151, (1991), pp.
upto a considerably large extent in the case of
123-128.
negatively skewed roughness especially, when negative
¾ Christensen, H. and Tonder, K.C., Tribology of
variance is involved. The decreased load carrying
rough surfaces: Stochastic models of
capacity due to the lower plate curvature parameter gets
hydrodynamic lubrication. SINTEF report no.
further decreased owing to the standard deviation of the
10/69 – 18, 1969.
roughness. The increased load carrying capacity
¾ Christensen, H. and Tonder, K.C., Tribology of
introduced by the upper plate curvature parameter gets
rough surfaces: Parametric study and
substantially increased by the positive effect of
comparison of lubrication models. SINTEF
magnetization in the case of negatively skewed
report no. 22/69 -18, 1969.
roughness.
¾ Christensen, H. and Tonder, K.C., The
Therefore, this article makes it clear that the
hydrodynamic lubrication of rough bearing
roughness must be given due consideration while
surfaces of finite width. ASME-ASLE
designing such magnetic fluid based bearing system,
Lubrication conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1970,
albeit a proper choice of curvature parameter has been
paper no. 70-Lub-7.
taken into consideration. Even if a strong magnetic
¾ Gupta, J.L. and Deheri, G.M., Effect of
field is brought in and an appropriate choice for
roughness on the behavior of squeeze film in a
curvature parameters is made, roughness needs to be
spherical bearing, Tribology Transactions,
accounted for from longevity point of view.
(1996), 39, pp. 99-102.
Key-Figures
Results and Discussion
It is found that load carrying capacity
2.07
W increases significantly in all the cases with respect 2.02
1.97
to the magnetization. Further, it is clearly seen that the W 1.92
effect of magnetization is most sharp in the hyperbolic 1.87
1.82
case. The five figures Figure 2-6 indicate that the effect 1.77
of μ ∗ is almost negligible upto the value of 0.01 for 1.72
the exponential case and hyperbolic case while in the 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
case of secant function the effect of μ ∗ is negligible μ∗
upto 0.001. ε∗=−0.02 ε∗=−0.01 ε∗=0
The bearing suffers in general owing to the ε∗=0.01 ε∗=0.02
surface roughness. The load carrying capacity
decreases with respect to the standard deviation 2.02
associated with roughness for all the cases which can 1.92
be seen from Figure 7-10. This negative effect is more
in the case of the surface determined by the hyperbolic W 1.82
functions. The negatively skewed roughness increases 1.72
the load carrying capacity for all the shapes, while
1.62
positive ε * decreases the load carrying capacity (cf. -0.01 -0.005 0 0.005 0.01
Figure 11-13). This effect of ε * is comparatively α∗
sharp in the hyperbolic case. Almost similar are the ε∗=−0.02 ε∗=−0.01 ε∗=0
trends for the variance (cf. Figure 14-16). ε∗=0.01 ε∗=0.02
A symmetric nature (Figure 16) is observed
in the case of the secant function with respect to the (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if the
reader needs it.)

55
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Engine Lubrication System Analysis and Oil Pump Design Optimization

Quanbao Zhou
Jaguar and Land Rover, Engineering Centre, W/4/031, Whitley, Coventry, CV3 4LF, UK

ABSTRACT ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENT


The engine's lubrication system is crucial to engine's AND PRESSU REREGULATION
durability, NVH and performance etc. Modern engine Figure 1 shows a typical engine minimum oil pressure
lubrication system has both lubrication and hydraulic functions. curve to support the main and big end journal bearings and
other hydraulic functions. Usually the pump is sized to meet the
For lubrication, it has to ensure the bearings, piston assembly,
low speed and hot oil condition. As an example, this engine
cam and tappet interfaces etc. to be all properly lubricated. For required 1.0 bar oil pressure to drive the VCT unit at 1000 rpm.
hydraulic, it has been used to actuate variable cam timing This oil pressure has to be achieved regardless of the oil
(VCT) units, cam profile switch (CPS) tappets and hydraulic temperature which, according to the engine and vehicle test
lash adjusters (HLA) etc. These functional requirements data, can reach 140 ºC in the worst case. Also the pump and
determine the oil pump size and pressure setting, which in turn bearings are designed to last for the whole engine life. The
largely determine the power consumption of the oil pump. bearing clearance increase and pump performance degradation
against the engine running time have to be considered in the
In this paper, an analytical approach was adopted to
model. Once the pump has been sized to meet that point, the
improve the pump performance using advanced 1D and 3D fixed positive displacement pump will deliver more oil than
(computational fluid dynamics) simulation on both pump and what engine needs at the other operating condition (higher
lubrication circuit. engine speed and/or lower oil temperature).
Keywords: Engine, Lubrication, Oil Pump
3.0
INTRODUCTION
Main gallery oil pressure (bar)

2.5
In an engine's lubrication system, the most critical
component is the oil pump. Usually component design 2.0
engineers find it difficult to specify two important parameters PRV pressure
associated with the oil pump, i.e. the pump size (capacity) and 1.5 setting point
the pressure relief valve setting, especially at the concept 1.0
design stage of the new engine when no representative
hardware is available to test. Clearly undersized and/or 0.5 pump sizing point
under-pressurised pump is undesirable as it can cause engine
0.0
failure or degraded performance. If this is found in the middle 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
stage of the engine development, engineers have to fight for a Engine speed (rpm)
bigger package space for the oil pump and often find
Engine demand Pump delivery
themselves unpopular due to the effect on other systems and
extra cost to the programme. On the other hand, oversized Fig.1 Engine lubrication system demand and pump delivery
and/or over-pressurised oil pump may work properly without
any problem but the penalty is the hidden high power loss. More oil delivery to engine than what it needs will generate
Usually, engineers tend to size a bigger pump to protect the higher oil pressure than what engine requires. The energy used
engine and try to downsize it later if the tests prove so. to generate the higher oil pressure is just wasted. There is a
Although this route is safer, it could waste the precious clear trend in the next 3 to 5 years to increase the use of variable
packaging space and also be expensive. flow oil pump in the automotive engine. However, this topic is
Several researchers tried to address the above issue by beyond the scope of this paper.
To limit the excess oil pressure to the engine, most pumps
using various CAE (computer aided engineering) tools [1-5].
use a simple pressure relief valve (PRV). Figure 2 shows three
However, due to the complexity, many only focused on the
typical PRV designs. Figure 2a is a commonly used pump exit
pump only or the lubrication circuit only. Very little has been
pressure regulated PRV (called conventional PRV or standard
done to combine these two sub-systems (pump and lubrication
PRV in this paper). It uses the pump exit pressure to determine
circuit) together. In this paper, the commercial 3D CFD codes
the PRV position. When the pump exit pressure force is
were used for both the oil pump and the lubrication circuit. The higher than the pre-setting spring force, the PRV will open
3D CFD pump model enabled the pump internal geometry, so the excess oil will flow back from the discharge side to
including suction and discharge side porting, to be optimised, the suction side, leaving less oil for engine. In this case, the
therefore, the filling to be improved and the cavitation damage pre-load spring force has to be determined to accommodate the
to be eliminated. The lubrication circuit 3D CFD model pressure loss from the pump exit, via various pipes, junctions,
enabled the accurate pressure loss at the complex casting bends oil cooler and filter etc. to the final main oil gallery. It also
and junctions to be predicted. These pressure loss data were needs to consider the bearing clearance change and PRV
then fed into a 1D CFD lubrication circuit model to determine spring relaxation at the end of engine life. The alternative to
the right oil pump size and pressure relief valve setting. Figure 2a is called a smart PRV, as shown in

56
Engine Lubrication System Analysis and Oil Pump Design Optimization

P1, at pump To suction P1, at pump To suction To suction


P1, at pump
exit side exit side side
exit

P2, to main P2, to main


gallery gallery

a) b) c)
Fig. 2 a) Conventional PRV; b) Smart PRV; c) Hybrid PRV.

Figure 2b. In this case, the pump exit pressure has no influence notorious headache for both conventional and smart PRV
on the PRV position. Instead, the main gallery oil pressure P2 systems.
determines when to open the PRV to re-circulate the excess oil
back to the suction side. 7
The pumps equipped with the conventional PRV always

Pump exit pressure P1 (bar)


6
suffer from the high power loss simply because the pre-load on
5
the spring has to be set for the worst case. For example, if the
pressure loss from the pump exit to the main gallery is 2.3 bar at 4

6800 rpm and 140 ºC oil temperature, the PRV open pressure 3
has to be set at >4.8 bar when the minimum required main
2
gallery oil pressure is 2.5 bar. However, at normal operating
condition, say 2000 rpm and 100 ºC oil temperature, the 1

pressure loss from the pump exit to the main gallery could be as 0
little as 1.0 bar. That means the pressure setting catered for the 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

condition of high speed and high oil temperature is a penalty for Main oil gallery pressure P2 (bar)
the lower speed and lower oil temperature. STD PRV Smart PRV Hybrid PRV P1=P2 as boundary
With the smart PRV shown in Figure 2b, the pressure loss
variation from the pump exit to the main oil gallery under Fig. 3 Three PRV systems and their working boundaries
different oil temperature doesn't affect the PRV pressure setting
anymore. This enables the PRV to be operated with a lower OIL PUMP SIZING
pressure setting. At the worst engine operating condition, i.e.
As described earlier, the size of the oil pump is usually
the high speed and high oil temperature, both conventional and
determined by the low speed (such as 1000 rpm) hydraulic
smart PRV systems should meet the minimum required main
requirement (such as the minimum pressure of 1.0 bar to drive a
gallery pressure and therefore the pump exit pressure should be
VCT unit etc.) at the highest possible oil temperature (such as
same. The oil flow and drive torque on the pump should be
140 ºC). This requires the oil pump to deliver a given amount of
same as well. Under the lower speed and/or lower oil
oil to the engine. The 1D CFD lubrication circuit analysis codes
temperature, however, the conventional PRV system will suffer
such as AMESim and Flowmaster are commonly used to define
from higher pump exit (and main gallery) pressure than that
the minimum oil flow rate required.
with the smart PRV, therefore higher power consumption.
Figure 4 shows a typical Flowmaster lubrication circuit
Typically 0.2 to 0.4% fuel economy benefit can be achieved
model. Pipes, standard T junctions and 90 degree bends etc. can
using the smart PRV.
be pulled out from Flowmaster's build-in library. However,
However, the smart PRV has its own problem. The long
complex junctions, bearings, oil filter and cooler etc., have to
distance between the pump exit and the gallery sensing point
be defined using customer specific model to get the acceptable
and the partially empty oil circuit at the engine start means
accuracy. Often a localised 3D CFD analysis is needed to
there will be a significant time delay between the pump exit
quantify the local pressure loss for complex casting geometries.
pressure signal and the main gallery pressure signal. For
For oil pump sizing exercise, the oil pump can be represented
example, at the cold start, the pump exit pressure could reach
by a proper pump model or a simple flow source or pressure
>15 bar before the main gallery being pressurised. Since the
source. When the model is ready, to tune the pump capacity or
pump exit pressure has no influence on the smart PRV position,
the flow rate from the flow source (or the pressure if the pump
the PRV will remain closed. This could cause pressure spikes to
is represented by a pressure source) until the required oil
the lubrication system. This problem could not be easily solved
pressure to drive the VCT unit is reached under the specified
using the over-pressure relief valve (OPRV) unless there is
engine speed and oil temperature. The oil flow rate and the
enough package space to allow a big open orifice for the OPRV.
pressure at the pump exit, together with the engine speed and
To address this issue, the author of this paper invented a hybrid
oil temperature, are the parameters for the oil pump sizing.
PRV (patent pending), as shown in Figure 2c. In this design,
both the pump exit pressure and main gallery pressure have
influence on the PRV position. Figure 3 shows the operating PRESSURE SETTING FOR PRV
boundaries of all three PRV designs. Contrary to the pump sizing point, the PRV pressure setting
The other advantage of the hybrid PRV is that it is not has to be done at the maximum engine speed. In this example,
sensitive to the system oil pressure pulsation which is a the setting point is to guarantee a minimum 2.5 bar

57
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Fig. 4 A Flowmaster model for a V8 gasoline engine

oil pressure at the main gallery at 6800 rpm engine speed with the next big task is the pump design. Here we focus on the most
5W30 oil at 140 ºC in the whole engine life. Again this can be commonly used oil pump for engines - fixed flow gerotor oil
modelled using the 1D CFD codes. The oil flow rate and the pump. The principle should be applicable to other type of oil
pump exit oil pressure (or the pressure loss from the pump exit pump. Nowadays, few engine OEMs do the internal oil pump
to the main gallery) are needed to determine to the PRV spring design. In most cases, engineers will send the pump sizing point,
stiffness and pre-load for the conventional PRV and hybrid PRV. PRV setting and packaging space out to oil pump suppliers and
For the smart PRV, this information is not needed. let them design the pump.
Figure 5 shows an example of the gerotor oil pump and the
Small sealing
land computational mesh. The pump rotates anti-clockwise and is
divided into two main domains: suction side (left) and
discharge side (right). The suction side is connected to a
pick-up pipe, picking oil from a sump. The discharge side
connects to the engine block so feeds to the oil cooler and filter,
and then to bearings and other lubrication points. The suction
side is always under vacuum while the discharge side above the
ambient pressure. Normally, there is no direct flow path (except
small clearance leakage) between the suction side and the
discharge side. However, when the PRV is open, the oil in the
discharge side can flow directly back to the suction side,
Big sealing
leaving less oil to engine hence less pressure.
land
Oil return Each gerotor pump has an inner rotor and an outer rotor.
channel Pump exit
The eccentricity between two rotors is the key to enable the
to engine
pump to pump fluid. In the suction side, when the pump rotates
(anti-clockwise), the pockets formed by the inner and outer
Pick-up pipe rotor gradually open up (i.e. volume of each pocket increases).
This generates the local vacuum which sucks the oil in. When
Fig. 5 A gerotor oil pump and computational mesh the pocket volume reaches the maximum, two big sealing lands
on housing and cover (or back plate) seal the oil so it can not
OIL PUMP DESIGN AND ANALYSIS connect to both suction and discharge sides. Further rotation,
When the pump size and PRV pressure setting are known, the pocket volume will decrease (compressing oil) and also

58
Engine Lubrication System Analysis and Oil Pump Design Optimization

connect to the discharge side. When this pocket reaches the A full 3D CFD transient analysis was done with the pump
small sealing lands, its volume decreases to the minimum so rotating at 6800 rpm with oil temperature at 140 ºC and 10%
most oil is squeezed out. When it passes the small sealing lands, aeration. Several issues were identified from the analysis. The
its volume will increase and start to suck oil again. It is not first one is the poor filling on the suction side. The oil flow from
difficult to understand from the pocket motion described here the pick up pipe has to battle against the shear direction
that the filling into the pockets at the suction side affects the generated from the high speed rotor rotation before entering the
volumetric efficiency and cavitation. pockets formed between inner and outer rotors. The second
Nearly all gerotor oil pumps suffer from cavitation at high problem was due to the poor porting design on the discharge
speed: some above 6000 rpm when well designed, some >3000 side. The high shearing velocity forced the oil to the small dead
rpm if badly designed. Cavitation in a gerotor oil pump is end and the oil has to turn 180 degree back to exit (Figure 7).
always associated with poor filling to those pockets in the This caused huge pressure pulsation in that region. Figure 8
suction side, especially when the pocket volume is small but shows the pressure contours of the whole pump at two different
expands quickly. When the oil can not fill the whole pocket time steps. The pressure at the dead end varied from 2 to 20 bar.
(due to high resistance or poor flow etc.), the vacuum inside the The third problem was that the oil return channel for the PRV
pocket will make the trapped air bubbles in oil bigger or didn't help the filling at all. Instead, the highly accelerated
vaporise the local oil. These bubbles and/or vapour will make return oil flow has a tendency to go into the pick up pipe
the filling even more difficult so when the pocket reaches its (caused NVH problems). The combined consequence was that
maximum volume, a significant part of it may be occupied by the pump suffered severe cavitation damage on the durability
bubbles and vapour. When the pocket moves into the discharge cycle test. The high oil pressure pulsation near the dead end
side, high pressure will collapse the bubbles, causing caused fixing break and back plate crack.
cavitation.
Figure 6 shows the outer rotor after 180 rig durability test.
The cavitation damage is clear and severe. To help to
understand the root cause and provide the guidance to the new
design, a 3D CFD oil pump transient analysis was requested. At (a)
that time, the internal research showed that the best gerotor oil
pump 3D CFD transient model was to use CFD-ACE+.

(b)

Fig. 6 Cavitation damage on the outer rotor

Dead end

Fig. 8 Low pressure (a) and high pressure (b) at different


crank angle

Figure 9 shows the simulated contour plot of the volume


fraction in each pocket at one specific time step. The blue
colour means 100% oil while the red 100% air. Due to
centrifugal force, the air is always close to the inner rotor. The
interesting part of the simulation was the bubble disappearing
process. From the 3D animation, it was clear that the location of
the cavitation to the outer rotor was close to what the code
predicted. The disadvantage of this simulation was that it took
two weeks to run the model for one operating condition with a
time step of 2 degree crank angle. This was several years ago
Fig. 7 Velocity plot on the plane 1 mm above the bottom face and it is now possible to reduce the run time to 8 hours thanks to
to the rotor. 6800 rpm, 140 C oil temperature and 10% aeration the faster computer and improved code such as Pumplinx.

59
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

The pump was later completely re-designed. Figure 10


shows the re-designed oil pump. Due to the time constrain, no
3D CFD transient model was built. Instead we did localised 3D
CFD analysis using Fluent. Figure 11 shows the oil filling rate
to each pocket on the suction side. The re-designed pump had
much better filling for pockets 1 and 2, critical for initial
cavitation forming. We also used the CFD to optimise the oil
jets (for timing chain) locations. These jets draw oil direct from
the discharge side but the orifice is only 0.75 mm in diameter.
To prevent them from being blocked by debris, we relocated
them from the near swirl region to the higher velocity stream.
The new pump was tested without any cavitation damage. The
measured pressure pulsation of the new pump was reduced
from the original pump's 18 bar (peak to valley) down to 2 bar.
Since the new design was lead by the internal analysis and
Fig 9 Simulated oil and air volume distribution at 6800 rpm, realised by working together with the pump supplier, both
140 ºC oil temperature with 10% aeration, old pump companies benefited from the cost saving and increased
knowledge base.

CONCLUSION
Engine lubrication system requirement and three pressure
regulation methods, including the newly invented hybrid PRV
system, were discussed in the paper. Steps from pump sizing,
PRV presetting to oil pump design and optimisation, and their
associated analytical tools were described. The example given
in this paper showed that, by adopting the right tool at each
design stage, it is possible to reduce the design and
development time by offering the 'right first time' concept
design. There is no doubt that individual's knowledge and
experience and team work, including working with supplier, are
Fig. 10 New pump geometry the keys to the delivery of a robust oil pump and lubrication
system.
Pocket 3
Pocket 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Pocket 2
Thanks are given to Jaguar Cars Ltd for permitting the
Pocket 5 publication of this paper.
Pocket 1
REFERENCES
[1] Jiang, Y. and Perng, C-Y., “An efficient 3D transient
computational model for vane oil pump and gerotor oil pump
7
simulations”, SAE paper 970841.
6 Old pump [2] Manco, S. et al, “Gerotor lubrication oil pump for IC
New pump
engines”, SAE paper 98268.
Flow rate (g/s/mm2)

5
[3] Neyrat, S. et al, “Modeling and analysis of an automatic
4
transmission internal gear oil pump with cavitation”, SAE
3 2005-01-2448.
[4] Senatore, A. et al, “Fluid-dynamic analysis of a high
2
performance engine lubricant circuit”, JSAE 20077289 or SAE
1 2007-01-1963.
0
[5] Tao, W. et al, “Robust Optimization of engine lubrication
Pocket 1 Pocket 2 Pocket 3 Pocket 4 Pocket 5 system”, SAE paper 2007-01-1568.

Fig. 11 Filling rate on the suction side at 6800 rpm, 140 C oil
temperature

60
Temperature-Dependent Rheology and Tribology of Lubrication Greases Investigated with
New Flexible Platform for Tribological Measurements on A Rheometer

Temperature-Dependent Rheology and Tribology of Lubrication Greases Investigated with


New Flexible Platform for Tribological Measurements on A Rheometer

Jörg Läuger, Patrick Heyer

61
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

62
Temperature-Dependent Rheology and Tribology of Lubrication Greases Investigated with
New Flexible Platform for Tribological Measurements on A Rheometer

63
Technical Sessions — Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Study on Characteristic Parameters of Wear Particle Boundary

Guobin Li1, Delin Guan1


1
Marine Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, P. R. China

ABSTRACT corner is taken as the angle between the tangents. However,


As the product of wear process, the wear particles this says nothing about the roundness of the corner.
record rich information to reflect the state of equipment Comparing the three shapes, A, B and C, shown in Figure 1,
inner abrasion. Analysis of wear particles in lubricating or using such a methodology would give excellent results in the
hydraulic oils becomes one important branch of diagnosing case of the two shapes on the left; but, for the shape on the
the wear states of machine parts. The extracting right, the apex angles will be underestimated giving values
characteristic parameter is an indispensable means to that are sharper than the corners or protrusions actually are.
analyze wear particle. In this paper, a method to extract the It is clear that this definition of a corner does not function
characteristic parameter of wear particle boundary based on well in the case of such rounded protrusions.
chaos theory has been discussed. The concept of boundary
wave has been firstly conducted, and then based on the
Shannon entropy and the theory of phase reconstruction,
the concept and the arithmetic of the singular entropy has
been conducted. It was shown that the boundary wave of
wear particle is characterized as chaos, so the singular
entropy could be used to describe the complexity of
boundary of wear particle. Therefore the singular entropy
could be considered as one of characteristic parameters of (A) (B) (C)
wear particle. Fig. 1 Shapes of A, B and C
Keywords: wear particle, characteristic parameter, chaos Other recent methods of determining angularity include
theory, singular entropy the calculation of the fractal dimension of the particle
boundary [10-13]. Stachowiak [13] gave an extensive
1 INTRODUCTION review of the methods which used the calculation of the
Abrasion is one of causes resulting in the damage of fractal dimension of the particle boundary and discusses
machine. Wear particles, suspended in lubricant, are their limitations. The method most commonly employed to
important information carriers which reflect the state (extent, determine the complexity of a particle boundary is known as
position and type) of equipment inner abrasion. Different the structured walk, and also the Richardson method.
wear types are characteristic of different wear particles, and However, it is difficult to determine fractal scaleless band
wear particles shape character (such as shape, surface when calculating fractal dimension, this reduce the precision
texture) corresponds closely to worn mechanism, it is an and efficiency and is not computationally realistic. The same
evidence that the wear particles identification becomes one reasoning is valid for those methods which used the Fourier
of important branches for machine fault diagnosis, but the Transform to generate descriptions of shape [14]. With
numerical characterization and classification features of respect to Fourier methods, the disadvantage of not knowing
wear particles extraction is still largely an unsolved problem which parts of the boundary contribute to the process of
[1, 2]. abrasion is compounded by the fact that, in order to generate
It is generally assumed that the boundary shape of a wear the descriptors associated with sharp corners requires an
particle is interrelated with abrasive processes. However, to infinite number of coefficients [8] to be calculated and this is
date, the determination of shape remains one of the most not computationally realistic.
difficult problems in both powder technology and wear In this paper, an approach extracting the boundary wave
particle analysis [3-8]. Hawkins [8] presented an historical of wear particle is proposed, this boundary wave is
review of quantitative methods available for determining characterized by chaos, and then based on information
angularity from particle outline and silhouettes. A more entropy and the theory of phase reconstruction, the singular
recent discussion was given by Verspui et a1 in [9]. They entropy is conducted for the first time, which is used to
concluded that the theories described in the literature are describe the complexity of boundary of wear particle.
either laborious or not suitable in image analyzing systems.
Their alternative methodology involved determining the 2 EXTRACTION METHOD OF BOUNDARY WAVE
angularity from curvature plots. However, in order to OF WEAR PARTICLE
estimate the curvature of the contour it is necessary to take Two-dimension closed boundary curve may be obtained
the second derivative of a position vector and this amplifies by an image processing computer, which can reflect the
the effect of pixilation noise introduced by the digitization shape character of wear particle, but is still two-dimension
process. The next stage in the algorithm is to determine the surface. A new concept of boundary wave of wear particle is
begin and end points of a corner. These are defined as points putted forward in order to avoid the complexity which is
where the curvature is zero or passes through a positive brought on by the high dimension network model and
minimum. The next stage of the algorithm is to calculate the deviated study object. Figure 2 shows one-dimension wave
tangents through the begin and end points. The angle of the which is formed by two-dimension closed boundary curve
according to a certain expanding rules. The material method
 is described in detail as follows.
Corresponding author. Tel.: +0086-411-84726029,
E-mail: guobinli88@yahu.com ˂ liaohe2005@tom.com

64
Study on Characteristic Parameters of Wear Particle Boundary

is the fractal dimension. The correlation dimension, D2,


estimates the lower bound of v, [16]. For a time series, if the
value of D2 is computed over the original signal, the lower
limit of m is fixed at: m>2D2+1. As the result of the
Rosenstein et al. algorithm often works well when m is
smaller than Takensc criterion [15].
A common choice for the reconstruction delay W is the
time at which the autocorrelation function
Fig. 2 Boundary curve and boundary wave of wear particle 1 N τ
N
C(τ ) = (zi  z )(zi +τ  z ) (5)
i =1
In each boundary curve, fi(xi,yi) for i=1,2,˜˜˜,N denotes
(where z is the arithmetic means) has the first zero, which
the position of each pixel, N refers to the number of pixel
point, and the actual distance between adjacent pixels zi is makes the coordinates linearly uncorrelated as it is shown in
[15], the Rosenstein et al. algorithm also works well for a
zi ( xi 1  xi ) 2  ( y i 1  y i ) 2 (1) wide range of W.
The wave formed by zi can reflect shape character of After reconstruction the dynamics, this algorithm locates
boundary curve, and is defined boundary wave. the nearest neighbor of each point on the trajectory. The
nearest neighbor, Zj, is found by searching for the point that
3 CHAOTIC PROPERTIES ANALYSIS OF BOUNDARY minimizes the distance to the particular reference point, Zj.
WAVE This is expressed as
Chaotic properties of systems with many degrees of d j (0) min Z j  Z j (6)
z ˆj
freedom, such as moving hard spheres or disks, have been
studied frequently. Extensive simulation work has been where dj(0) is the initial distance between the jth point and
carried out on the Lyapunov spectrum, and the low densities its nearest neighbor, and • denotes the Euclidean norm.
analytical calculations have been performed for the largest In the algorithm, imposing the additional constrain that
Lyapunov exponent, the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, and the nearest neighbors have a temporal separation greater than
smallest positive Lyapunov exponents. In this paper, the
chaotic property of boundary wave is investigated by the mean period of the time series: j  ˆj ! mean period .
Lyapunov exponents and entropy. This allows considering each pair the neighbor as nearby
3.1 Lyapunov exponent algorithm initial condition for different trajectories. The largest
It is a significant problem to determine whether a
Lyapunov exponent, O1, is then estimated as the mean rate of
dynamical system present chaos. Calculating the largest
the nearest neighbor separation.
Lyapunov exponent has been a good method to solve this
distinguishing problem, a positive one implies chaos. Many The largest Lyapunov exponent O1 can be defined using
researchers made great efforts to find out a robust and stable the following equation: d(t ) = Ce λ1t , where d(t ) is the
approach to calculate it. average divergence at time t and C is a constant that
In our research, the largest Lyapunov exponent of normalizes the initial separation. From this definition, we
boundary wave of the wear particle was computed according
assume the jth pair of nearest neighbor diverges
to the algorithm proposed by Rosenstein et al [15] for the
approximately at rate given by the largest Lyapunov
follow mentioned reasons.
The method is fast because it uses a simple measure of exponent:
exponential divergence. d j (i)  C j e λ1 (iΔt ) (7)
The method works well with small data sets.
where Δt is the sampling period of the time series, d j (i )
The first step of this algorithm involves reconstructing
the attractor dynamics from a simple time series. Let us look is the distance between the jth pair of nearest neighbors after
at a time series {z}, which is written by iΔt seconds, and C j is the initial separation. Taking
{z } = (z1 , z 2 ,!, z N )T (2) logarithms in both sides of eq. (7),
Where log d j (i)  log C j + λ1 (iΔt ) (8)
N: sample size Eq. (8) represents a set of approximately parallel lines (for
T: denoting transposition of vector j = 1,2, !, M ), each with a slope roughly proportional to
Defining the time lag and the embedding dimension as W and
m respectively, we have reconstructed time series {z} O1. The largest Lyapunov exponent is easily and accurately
calculated using a least-square fit to the average line defined
{Zi } = (zi , zi +τ ,!, zi +(m1)τ )
T
(3) by
Where 1
y(i) = log d j (i) (9)
i = 1, 2 ," M  Δt
The relationship between M and W , m may be written as Where • denotes the average over all values of j. This
process of averaging is the key to calculate accurate values
M = N  (m  1)τ (4)
of O1 using small, noisy data sets.
The Takensc embedding theorem gives only a sufficient 3.2 Singular entropy algorithm
condition for the embedding dimension m: m>2v+1, where v Entropy is a central concept in the field of Information

65
Technical Sessions — Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Theory and was originally introduced by Shannon in his


seminal paper [17], in the context of communication theory.
(a) Step 1
Since then, this concept and variants thereof have been
extensively utilized in numerous applications of science and
engineering. We quantify the complexity of boundary wave
of the wear particle with the aid of Shannon entropy. From
the information theoretic perspective, the Shannon entropy
reflects the complexity of chaotic dynamical system; it
should increase when the chaotic behavior of the boundary
(b) Step 2
wave of the wear particle is developed.
In this section, we first define the Shannon entropy of
each embedding dimension m as follows
M
ΔH m =  Pj ln(Pj ) (10)
j =1

Where
Pj = L j L (11)
(c) Step 3
j +m1
Lj = z
i= j
i (12)

N
Fig. 3 The first three steps in constructing the Koch curve
L =  zi (13)
According to fractal method, the level of complexity of
i =1
the Koch curve is increasing as the growth of the number of
Based on the Shannon entropy, the singular entropy of
steps. We extract the boundary waves of the previous
boundary wave is defined as
m 1 step Koch curve as shown in Figure 4, its large
H = ΔH k p = ( ΔH k p ) p (14) Lyapunov exponent and singular entropy are
k =1 calculated, as shown in Table 1.
Here • p is the p-norm operation. The complexity of the
boundary wave is described by using the singular entropy. 6

4 APPLICATIONS 4
z(×102)

In this section, we firstly discuss the singular entropy of


the Koch curve to prove the efficiency of method putted
forward in the paper, then apply the singular entropy to 2
identify the different type of wear particles.
4.1 Application of singular entropy to extraction of Koch
curve character 0
0 5 10 15
Before applying the singular entropy to investigate the N(×103)
complexity of the boundary wave of the wear particle, the (a) Step 1
boundary wave of the Koch curve has been extracted, and
8
then its large Lyapunov exponent and singular entropy have
calculated to justify the algorithm improved in this paper.
The Koch curve is generated by iteration as follows. The 6
z(×102)

initiator, the initial or k=0 step, is a unit line element. The


first step, k=1, called the generator, involves removing the 4
middle one-third of the unit line and replacing it with two
line segments each one-third in length as shown in the figure. 2
The figure now contains four equal line segments. In the
next step, k=2, each of the four line segments is replaced by 0
the (scaled) generator, leading to a figure with 16 segments. 0 5 10 15 20
The procedure is repeated endlessly, k  , to generate the N(×103)
Koch curve as shown in Figure 3. (b) Step 2

66
Study on Characteristic Parameters of Wear Particle Boundary

10
z(×10 )
2

0
0 5 10 15 2
N(×103)
(b) Cutting particle
(c) Step 3
Fig. 4 Boundary wave of Koch curve

Table 1
The chaos parameters of boundary wave of koch cure
Large Lyapunov
Parameter Singular entropy
exponent
k=1 0.041 73.4010
k=2 0.039 76.9916
(c) Laminar particle
k=3 0.046 79.6781

We can see from Table 1 that all large Lyapunov


exponents are positive, so the boundary waves are chaos,
and the singular entropy is related to the complexity degree
of Koch curve. The more complex the Koch curve is, the
bigger the singular entropy is. So the singular entropy can
reflect Koch curve character.
4.2 Application of singular entropy to extraction of wear
particle character
In order to extract the character of wear particle using
(d) Fatigue chunk particle
the method putted forward in the paper, the five typical wear
particles selected from Anderson’s abrasive particle’s atlas
were studied as shown in Figure 5.

(e) Grave-slippage particle


Fig. 5 Wear particle image with different boundary shape

We can see from Figure 5 that each kind of wear particle


has its own profile character as a result of its own generating
mechanism. The difference of five particles is evidence. The
(a) Spherical particle boundary wave of each type of wear particles has been
extracted by using the method improved in the paper as
shown in Figure 6.

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Technical Sessions — Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

6 if the chaos parameter is regarded as a parameter to


describe wear particle character. The large Lyapunov
4
exponent has been calculated as shown in Table 2.
z(×102)

Table 2
2 Large Lyapunov exponent of wear particle boundary wave
Particle Large Lyapunov exponent
Spherical 0.025
0 Cutting 0.032
0 5 10 15
3 Laminar 0.028
N(×10 )
(a) Spherical particle
Fatigue chunk 0.034
Grave-slippage 0.037
4

It is shown from Table 2 that all large Lyapunov


3
exponents are positive, so the boundary waves have chaos
z(×102)

character, and the wear particle boundary character can be


2 described using the chaos parameter.
4.2.2 The singular entropy of the wear particle boundary
1 wave
In this section, the singular entropy of the wear particle
0 boundary wave is calculated as shown in Table 3. For
0 2 4 6 8
N(×103) comparing the different parameters of the wear particle
(b) Cutting particle boundary, the fractal dimension was also calculated. It can
be concluded from Table 3 that the singular entropy of the
6
boundary wave corresponds very well to the fractal
dimension of the boundary. According to fractal theory, the
4 fractal dimension reflects the complexity degree of the wear
z(×102)

particle boundary, so the singular entropy can describe the


character of the wear particle boundary and reflects its
2 complexity degree. Comparing to the fractal dimension, the
singular entropy can improve the accuracy of the wear
particle identification.
0
0 5 10 15 Table 3
N(×103) Large Lyapunov exponent and fractal dimension of wear
(c) Laminar particle
particle boundary
6
Singular Fractal
Particle
entropy dimension
4 Spherical 66.2424 1.0221
z(×102)

Cutting 70.5068 1.0981


Laminar 74.1053 1.0899
2
Fatigue chunk 77.6246 1.1699
Grave-slippage 79.6088 1.2612
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 5 CONCLUSIONS
N(×103) Wear particles recognition and analysis are important
(d) Fatigue chunk particle basis to monitor equipment wear state and diagnose troubles.
8 In this paper, a method to extract characteristic parameters
and describe profile of wear particle based on chaos theory is
6 putted forward. The new boundary wave of wear particle is
defined. The large Lyapunov exponent proves that the
z(×102)

4 boundary wave has chaos character. The singular entropy is


improved by the Shannon entropy, which can reflect the
2 complexity degree of the wear particle boundary. The
superiority of the singular entropy has been verified by
0 comparison made between the fractal dimension and the
0 5 10 15 20 singular entropy of the wear boundary. So the singular
N(×103) entropy is regarded as a parameter of wear boundary and can
(e) Grave-slippage particle be used to identify the different type of the wear particles.
Fig. 6 Boundary wave of wear particle
4.2.1 The large Lyapunov exponent of the wear particle ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
boundary wave The authors would like to acknowledge the support of
It is very important to estimate the chaos character the Science Foundation for The New Scholars of Ministry of

68
Study on Characteristic Parameters of Wear Particle Boundary

Education of China (200801511018). [10] Podsiadlo P. and Stachowiak G.W., 1998, “Evaluation
of boundary fractal methods for the characterization of
REFERENCES wear particles”, Wear, 217, pp. 24-34.
[1] Raadnui, S., 2005, “Wear particle analysis-utilization of [11] Hamblin M.G. and Stachowiak G.W., 1993,
quantitative computer image analysis:A review”, “Comparison of boundary fractal dimension from
Tribology International, 38, pp. 871-878. projected and sectioned particle images: Part II.
[2] Bahadur S. and Badruddin R., 1990, “Erodent particle Dimension changes”, J. Comput. Assisted Microsc.,
characterization and the effect of particle size and shape 54, pp. 301-308.
on erosion”, Wear, 138, pp. 189-208. [12] Hamblin M.G. and Stachowiak G.W., 1993,
[3] Raadnui S. and Roylance B.J., 1995, “The classification “Comparison of boundary fractal dimension from
of wear particle shape”, Lubr. Eng., 51, pp. 432-437. projected and sectioned particle images: Part I.
[4] Winte R.E. and Hutchings I.M., 1974, “Solid particle Technique evaluation”, J. Comput. Assisted Microsc.,
erosion studies using single angular particles”, Wear, 29, 54, pp. 291–300.
pp. 181-194. [13] Stachowiak G.W., 1998, “Numerical characterisation of
[5] Stachowiak G.W., 1998, “Numerical characterization of wear particle morphology and angularity of particles
wear particles morphology and angularity of particles and surfaces”, Tribology , 31, pp 139 - 157.
[14] Peng Z. and Kirk T.B., 1997, “Two-dimensional fast
and surfaces”, Tribol. Int., 31, pp. 139-157.
Fourier transform and power spectrum for wear particle
[6] Allen M., Brown G.J. and Miles N.J., 1995,
analysis”, Tribology Int, 30, pp. 583-590.
“Measurement of boundary fractal dimensions: review
[15] Rosenstein M.T., Collins J.J., Carlo C.J.De, 1993, “A
of current techniques”, Powder Technol., 84, pp. 1-14.
practical method for calculating largest Lyapunovs
[7] Meloy T.P., 1977, “Fast Fourier transforms applied to
exponents for small data sets”, Physica D, 65, pp.
shape analysis of particle silhouettes to obtain
117-134.
morphological data”, Powder Technol., 17, pp. 27-35. [16] Grassberg P. and Procaccia I., 1983, “Characterization
[8] Hawkins A.E, 1993, “The shape of powder-particle of the strange attractors”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 5, pp.
outlines”, John Wiley, New York. 346-349.
[9] Verspui M.A., Vander Velden P., Slikkerveer P.J., 1996, [17] Shannon C.E., 1948, “A mathematical theory of
“Angularity determination of abrasive particles”, Wear, communication,” Bell Sys. Tech. Journ., 27, pp.
199, pp. 122-126. 379-423 and 623-656.

69
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Viscosity Variation Model and Its Application in Micro/Nano-Scale Clearance

Dong Chun-liu, Zhang Chao-hui*, Wang Yan

School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China

ABSTRACT various surface energetic influences considerations.


The transition layer model which is used to account for the
viscosity variation in micro-scale gap is presented in this paper.
The Reynolds equation based on the model is thus deduced
accordingly and numerical simulations are afterwards
conducted to analyze the 3D lubrication features. Discussion
on the relationships between the pressure and the viscosity of
the oil close to the solid walls, velocity of the solid walls, the
outlet height, as well as the ratio of transition layer, were
conducted. The numerical simulation results show that: 1.the
higher the ratio of transition layer was, the greater its influence
on the dynamic pressure distribution became; 2. it proved the
existence of the transition layer and it could explain the
characteristics of the lubricant such as size-effects in Fig. 1 Relationship between the effective viscosity
micro-scale gap. Consequently, the simulation results accord and the film thickness [12] for various materials
well with the actual situation, which validates the model. The coated surfaces. An abrupt increase in isoviscosity
transition layer model will provide guideline for the analysis of appears with the film thickness down to a critical
the lubrication properties and future applications such as the value
design of MEMS/NEMS.
Keywords: Micro/nano-scale clearance, Lubrication, Viscosity, Based on the aforementioned studies, many researchers
Transition layer further studied the viscosity change of the micro/nano-scale
clearance and obtained many promising results. But they only
considered from the lubrication mechanism, which were
INTRODUCTION
complicated and far from being practical. Luo et al. proposed
In recent years, the nanotechnique has been an essential an ordered layer model [13] that has drawn broad concerns.
technique widely adopted for manufacturing industry. As According to the model, the dynamic film governed the
device size shrinks, nanotribology related problems have running process if the dynamic film is enough thick, the
become more and more significant and can not be neglected lubrication process belongs to hydrodynamic lubrication (HDL)
[1,2]. Lubrication at micro/nano-scale has thus involved into a or EHL; whereas as the total films reduced to the nanometer
hot issue [3]. In MEMS/NEMS, surface-to-volume ratio grows scale, the film properties were mostly determined by the
with the miniaturization of device and surface phenomena, ordered lubricant film and the lubrication regime transited to
such as the surface energy effects, will dominate the TFL. As the ratio of the ordered film increased, the order of the
lubrication characteristics [4]. Lubrication at nano or lubricant molecular arrangement also increased; the ordered
sub-micro scale differs strongly from that of conventional degree of the lubricant molecules gradually decreased from the
cases, either due to the solvation pressure character [5] or due direction perpendicular to the surface to the center of the
to the confined circumstances [6,7], as well as meniscus force lubrication film. Consequently, it caused the viscosity close to
or capillary force between two contact asperities with water the solid walls changed rapidly. Actually, when the film gets
droplet mediated [8]. thin, molecules will be layered, and the viscosity will be a
The thin film lubrication (TFL) was proposed in 1990s to function of layering [14].
account for the new lubrication state [9,10], the lubrication Up to date, however, feasible theory prediction for the
phenomena in this regime are different from that in characteristics of lubrication with clearance of nano scale,
elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) wherein the film which is a very prevailing lubricant state in MEMS/NEMS, is
thickness is strongly related to the speeds and different from a far cry. It gives impetus to put forward a new model in the
those in boundary lubrication wherein the film thickness is present work.
mainly determined by molecular dimension and characteristics
of the lubricant [11]. Luo and Wen studied the influence of 1. VISCOSITY TRANSITION LAYER MODEL
friction pair surface’s physicochemical properties on viscosity
of lubricant [12]. The results revealed that the effect of the Viscosity is an important parameter for lubrication, which
solid walls on the viscosity could be negligible when the film is usually regarded as a constant in the conventional
thickness was large enough; however, the effective viscosity lubricating process on occasion of that it is inherently the
increased sharply when the film thickness decreased down to property of the lubricant. For gap between two solid walls in
micro/nano scale. As shown in Fig.1, the isoviscosity (the relative motion reduces to nano scale, however, the surface
effective viscosity) appears an abrupt increase while the film energy effects of solid walls will exert great influence on the
thickness decreases down to a critical value. This heralds a lubricant, thus resulting in viscosity variation. As mentioned
transition to TFL and implies a transitional layer of the before, a transition lubricant layer with a variation viscosity
lubricant affiliated to the solid walls. In the experiment, the can be regarded existing, as shown in Fig.2. In the transition
solid wall surfaces were modified by TiO2, Cr, Ti, or Al for layer, the boundary close to the two surfaces is as that takes on
solid properties. The other boundary further flows like the bulk
fluid film.
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. zhhzhang@bjtu.edu.cn

70
Viscosity Variation Model and Its Application in Micro/Nano-Scale Clearance

Fig. 3 Force analysis of micro cell

wp w§ wu · (5)
¨ eff ¸
wx wz © wz ¹
Similarly, we can get the y-direction and z-direction
Fig. 2 Viscosity transition layer model equations:
wp w wv (6)
(Keff )
wy wz wz
The effective viscosity of the lubricant in the whole gap wp (7)
can be modified as follows: 0
wz
eff 0M z (1) where u is the velocity in x-direction, and v is the velocity in
where eff is the effective viscosity , 0 the viscosity of the y-direction.
Velocities in the x and y directions are obtained by
conventional fluid layer respectively. M(z) the modified integrating equation (5) and (6):
wp z z z 1
equation which can be described as follows: u ³
wx Keff
0
dz  c1 ³
0
c
Keff 2
(8)

­ M1 z  d z d 1 wp z z z 1
°
M z ® 11 d z d h  2 (2)
v ³
wy Keff
0
dz  c3 ³
0
c
Keff 4
(9)

°M z h   d z d h where ci (i = 1-4) is integral constant, which is determined


¯ 2 2
through boundary conditions.
  1 1 wp
M1 z 0
z (3) u2  u1  F1
1 0 0 c2 u1 , c1 wx
F0
  2 2
M2 z 0
h  z  (4) wp
2 0 0 v2  v1  F1
c4 v1 , wy
c3
where h is the height of the whole lubrication film; 1 and 2 F0
are the heights of transition layer one and transition layer two; h 1 h z
1 and 2 are the boundary viscosities near the solid surfaces
where F
0 ³ 0 Keff
dz ˗ F1 ³0 Keff
dz

respectively, which are decided by the properties of the fluid Further, fluxes in x and y directions are listed as follows:
and the solid walls, 0 the viscosity of the bulk fluid layer. For 1 wp F2 F
qx ( F2  1 )  (u2  u1 ) 1  u2 h (10)
simplicity, linear variation (eqs (3) and (4)) is adopted to Keff wx F0 F0
describe viscosity variation in the transition layer as the height 1 wp F2 F
qy ( F2  1 )  (v2  v1 ) 1  v2 h (11)
of transition layer is very small. It is noted that eff can be Keff wy F0 F0
Finally, continuity equation for incompressible fluids
either greater than or less than 0 , depending on practical
reads: w (q )  w (q ) 0 , the modified 3D Reynolds
situations. In addition, M(z) can vary with respect to wx
x y
wy
coordinates x and y for heterogeneity solid surfaces. equation is obtained as follows:
w ª§ F12 · wp º w ª§ F12 · wp º
2. REYNOLDS EQUATIONS FOR TRANSITION LAYER «¨ F2  ¸ »  «¨ F2  ¸ »
wx ¬© F0 ¹ wx ¼ wy ¬© F0 ¹ wy ¼ (12)
MODEL
wh w §F ·
Based on the force balance condition of micro cell as u2  u2  u1 ¨ 1 ¸
wx wx © F0 ¹
shown in Fig.3, we can get the x-direction force balanced
h z2
equation: where F
2 ³ 0 Keff
dz

71
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

3. CALCULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION is improved with the viscosity of the solid walls increasing. It
3.1 Lubrication properties predicted with the transition proves that the transition layer model can reflect the variation
layer model of viscosity in real time.
The modified 3D Reynolds equation can be solved by Velocity contribution to lubrication performances is plotted
using multi-grid method [15]. For all computations, we set in Fig.5. Other parameters are adopted as follows: hin =100m,
u 2 0 , 0 = 0.02 Pa  s , 1 K2 K , 1 = E2 = E . hout = 50N m, I1 = I 2 = 0.06Pa  s, E1 h = E2 h = 0.1 . Fig.5
Pressure vs. ratio of /0 is plotted in Fig.4. Other (a) shows 3D pressure distribution for velocity of 0.1m/s. Fig.5
parameters used in the computation process are adopted as (b) shows the pressure distribution in z-y plane at center in x
follows: hin = 100 Nm , hout = 50Nm , u1 = 0.4m / s , direction under various u1 .The largest pressure increases
from 4.11KPa to 16.46KPa. Fig.5 (c) gives the pressure
1 /h = 2 /h =0.1. Fig.4 (a) shows 3D pressure distribution for distribution in z-x plane at center in y direction. The largest
viscosity of 0.03 Pa ˜ s . Fig.4 (b) shows the relationship pressure increases from 9.84KPa to 39.37KPa .It can be seen
between pressure and ratio of /0 in z-y plane at center in x that the larger the velocity is, the greater the pressure becomes,
which is due to the wedge effects.
direction under variousK. The largest pressure increases from
14.05KPa to 16.46KPa. Fig.4 (c) gives the pressure
distribution z-x plane at center in y direction. The largest
pressure increases from 33.60KPa to 39.37KPa. Increment in
viscosity of the transition layer will give rise to increase of
pressure.

(a) 3D pressure distribution

(a) 3D pressure distribution

(b) Pressure in z-y plane

(b) Pressure in z-y plane

(c) Pressure in z-x plane


Fig. 5 Pressure with different velocity u 1

The shear force of the solid walls acting on lubricant


increases as the velocity increases. According to the references
(c) Pressure in z-x plane [6,9], it is found that the increase of shearing is conducive to
Fig. 4 Pressure with different viscosity K increasing the ordered degree of lubricant, and as its ordered
degree increases, the viscosity of oil close to the solid walls
The effective viscosity of the fluid in the whole clearance also increases. The result leads to increase of the effective

72
Viscosity Variation Model and Its Application in Micro/Nano-Scale Clearance

viscosity of the whole clearance thereby it makes the pressure 0.1. Fig.7 (b) gives pressure distribution in z-y plane at center
increase in addition to the wedge effect. in x direction under various G h . The largest pressure
Pressure vs. outlet height relation is shown in Fig.6. Other increases from 16.46KPa to 28.49KPa. Fig.7 (c) gives the
parameters are used as follows hin = 100 Nm , u1 = 0.4 m / s , relationship between pressure and the ratio of the transition
I1 = I2 = 0.06 Pa  s, 1 /h = 2 /h = 0.1 , Fig.6 (a) shows 3D layer in z-x plane at center in y direction. The largest pressure
increases from 39.37KPa to 68.13KPa. When the transition
pressure distribution for outlet height of 50m. Fig.6 (b) gives
layer accounts for less percentage, it has less influence on the
pressure distribution in z-y plane at center in x direction under
pressure distribution, on the other hand, however, the larger the
various hout . The largest pressure decreases from 16.46KPa to ratios of the transition layer are, the more significant its
5.57KPa. Fig.6 (c) gives the relationship between pressure and influences on pressure are. Clearly, improving transition layer
the outlet height in z-x plane at center in y direction. The thickness will also enhance the effective viscosity, thus it can
largest pressure decreases from 39.37KPa to 6.40KPa. We can cause fluid pressure increase.
conclude that the larger the outlet height is, the less significant
its influence on pressure becomes, which due to ratio of the
transition layer decreasing.

(a) 3D pressure distribution

(a) 3D pressure distribution

(b) Pressure in z-y plane

(b) Pressure in z-y plane

(c) Pressure in z-x plane


Fig. 7 Pressure with different 1 /h = 2 /h
(c) Pressure in z-x plane
Fig. 6 Pressure with different hout values 3.2 Croucher application of the transition layer model
According to the above studies on the lubricating
Influence of the ratio of the transition layer is shown in characteristics of the transition layer model, it is possible to
Fig.7. Other parameters used are listed as follow: hin 100Pm ˈ investigate lubrication characteristics of a system downsizing
to micro/nano scale, such as MEMS, NEMS and micro/nano
hout 50Pm,u1 0.4m/s,K1 K 2 0.06Pa ˜ s . Fig.7 (a) shows
devices.
3D pressure distribution for the ratio of the transition layer of The magnetic disk drive system [16] shown in Fig.8 is used

73
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

for data recording application. Fig.8 (a) is a schematic view ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


and the writer head for magnetic recording system is shown in The work is financially supported by National Natural
Fig. 8 (b). The read-write operation is performed under steady Science Foundation of China (50705006) and Beijing Natural
conditions where a load-carrying film is formed to separate the Science Foundation (3082015).
slider from the disk. So it is of importance for the work
reliability of the device that keeps the clearance of the motion
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4. CONCLUSIONS
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74
Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings

Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings

Geng Haipeng,Qi Shemiao,Yu Lie

Institute of Mechatronics and Information Systems, Xi’an 710049, China

ABSTRACT fully understand the basic operating fundamentals uniquely


In order to analyze the performance of Gas Foil Bearings, a inherent in compliant foil bearings as well as the data required
coupled finite element method (FEM) is developed in this paper. to validate computer models, the absence of reliable
The compressible gas lubricated Reynolds equation is performance-prediction methods and design guidelines has
transformed into a typical elliptic partial differential equation
become one of the most critical technical hurdles which impede
and solved by FEM. The elastic deformation equation and the
contact boundary conditions between foils are solved by the application and widespread use of compliant foil bearings.
nonlinear contact finite method. A generalized numerical For the research of compliant foil bearings, excellent
solving method for the elasto-aerodynamically coupled contribution was made by Heshmat[4~6]. An improvement was
lubrication problem in the foil bearing is given with mesh made to the Walowit model[7-10], and the model presented by
mapping relationship between the two kind of finite element Heshmat has become a classical method for analysis of both
solving process above mentioned. The structural stiffness of
static and dynamic characteristics of foil bearings. In the
the foil bearings with different parameters is estimated by
using the numerical method. It is helpful to decide the Heshmat model, action of the support bump foils was separated
structural parameters of the foil bearing. first and dealt with alone from the whole foil bearing for
Keywords: Lubrication, Foil Bearing, structural stiffnessˈ simplicity, and the dynamic characteristics of the bump foils
contact mechanics was described by the structure stiffness and damping
coefficients[11].
INTRODUCTION In formulating the equations governing the
Gas Foil Bearings (GFBs) are a proven alternative to elastohydrodynamics of the foil bearing, the following
rolling element bearings for high speed applications. GFBs assumptions for the foils are made by Walowit and Heshmat
(Fig.2) [7], [11]:
eliminate lubrication, have no DN limit, and withstand high
temperature operation. However, GFBs show little damping
and have limited load capacity. Gas Foil Bearings have been
widely applied in a number of turbo-machineries such as air
cycle machines and turbo compressors, and recent
investigations indicate that foil bearings can also find its usage
in the integrated high performance turbine engine technology
(Fig.1).
I 0
M 0 Fig.2 Configuration of bump foil

T0 (a) The foil is assumed not to “sag” between bumpsˈbut


rather to follow the deflection of the bumps themselves.
T
(b) The deflection of the foil in response to the acting forces
is dependent on the local effect only, i.e., on the force
Ob
e acting directly over the particular point.
x
e0 (c) The top foil does not deflect relative to the bumps, but
Oj hg
rather follows the deflections of the bump themselves.
Z
M (d) The applied load is concentrated on the top center of the
bump.
(e) The stiffness of the foil is taken to be uniformly
distributed and constant throughout the bearing surface.
The stiffness, K B , is independent of the amount of bump
y deflection.
Fig.1 Schematic of typical foil bearings (f) Deflection of the segment between two bumps is
neglected.
(g) The bumps do not separate from the housing surface.
In spite of the successful application of this oil-free (h) All deformations are elastic, no permanent deformation
supporting technology in engineering, theoretical researches on occurs.
static, especially dynamic performances of compliant foil (i) Bump deformations in the transverse direction is constant
bearing seem rather difficult and far behind experimental and uniform.
(j) Horizontal displacement of the bumps is from the fixed
investigations because of complexity[1~4]. As summarized by end to the free end.
Radil and Dellacorte, for lack of the in-depth research needed to The governing equations for determining radial and

75
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

tangential deflections wi and vi , respectively, of and elastic prominent, the structural stiffness of the foil bearing is
intrinsically nonlinear and obtained after the relationship
curved foil (Walowit and Anno,1975) are obtained according to
Timoshenko’s simply supported beam theory: between the press distribution of gas film and the deformation
of foils is obtained through the iterative solution. It is obvious
DB § d 2 wB ·
¨ ¸  wB M that there is the structural stiffness of the foil bearing for every
RB2 © dT
2
¹ eccentricity.
(1) We founded generalized solution framework for GFBs in
According to the assumptions above mentioned, we finally
literature[18-19].In generalized solution framework of elasto-
obtain the radial and tangential deflections of the single bump
foil. Thus, the rigidity of the bump is reflected through the aerodynamic lubrication for aerodynamic compliant foil
constant value K B : bearings, we adopt the nonlinear contact finite element method
to solve the interactions between the springs part in foil bearings,
WB EB t 3 then a finite element method is developed for the calculation of
KB (2)
wB 2(1  vB2 )l03 aerodynamic lubrication through transforming the compressible
The deflection of the foil under the imposed hydrodynamic gas lubricated Reynolds equation into a typical elliptic partial
pressure is assumed to be proportional to the local pressure, we differential equation, then the coupled gas lubricated Reynolds
have equation, the elastic deformation equation and the contact
h C  e cos(T  I0 )  ( p  p a ) / K B (3) boundary conditions between foils is solved through a the finite
To obtain more accurate information on the deflection of element grid mapping middle part, and the elasto-aerodynamic
bump foil, Ku, C.-P. R. and Heshmat.H ˈ establish a coupled numerical solution of the compliant foil bearings is
comprehensive model ,consider the link effect between two obtained. Using the method above mentioned, the structural
adjacent bump and the various forces and geometric parameters stiffness of the foil bearing under different eccentricity is
that affect bearing, and further develops the solution theory of solved.
the bump foil in the literature[4]ˈthe experimental data and the
theory analysis both show that the bumps near the fixed end
THOERY AND NUMERICAL SOLVING METHOD
have a much higher stiffness than those near the free end. But
this kind of variable bump stiffness so far has not been used to In order to solve the elasto-aerodynamic coupled problem
solve the coupled elasto- aerodynamic lubrication problem for in foil bearing, the researchers in the fields is always devoting to
the compliant foil bearings instead of constant bump stiffness introducing the finite element method into the solving process
[12]. of the elasto-aerodynamic coupled problem in foil bearings. In
To increase the load capability, many kind of the elastic
order to analyze the performance of the foil bearing, the
supports such as springs, bump foils and rubber etc are adopted,
compressible gas lubricated Reynolds equation and the problem
and the adjacent top foils even are joined[14]-[16]. In the
of foil deformation are firstly respectively solved.
previous analysis, the interaction between the elastic support
The Reynolds equations which is used to describe the
and the top foil has been shy away from because of structural
compressible gas lubricated problem may be written as(Fig.1):
complexity. The analytical difficulties are largely due to the
lack of proper modeling and limited empirical evidence w PH 3 wP w PH 3 wP w (4)
( ) ( ) 6U ( PH )
showing the dynamic interaction between the hydrodynamic wI P wI wZ P wZ wI
gas film and the foil support structure. This deficiency is Where M I  T , z Z P H 6PZ R 2 , Z is
,h ,/ ,p ( )
exacerbated by the absence of physical modeling of the material R Pa C Pa C
coatings introduced to reduce frictional drag during start-up and angle velocity, C is nominal film gap, H is eccentricity ratio,
shut-down. Since the operating parameters are not well
Pa is environmental press. Thus the dimensionless
quantified, each foil bearing is now essentially a custom-piece
of hardware, with resulting variability even in identical units compressible gas Reynolds equations is written as:
and limited scalability[17]. w wp w wp w (5)
( ph 3 ) ( ph 3 ) / ( ph)
From the point of the author, this method mentioned above wM wM wz wz wp
seems doubtful and problematic because the foil bearings are
Let s ph , 3 p 2 h 2 .Thus
usually constructed asymmetrically. According to the method
presented by Heshmat, values of structural stiffness and w wp w h w– wh
( ph3 ) [ – ]
damping for a foil bearing are not independent, and parameters wM wM wM 2 wM wM (6)
of the motion of the rotor are also enveloped in the structural h w 2 – 1 wh w – wh w – w2h
  – 2
stiffness and damping. This means that even for a 2 wM 2 2 wM wM wM wM wM
certain-structure foil bearing with bump foils supported, its
w wp w h w– wh
stiffness and damping cannot be predicted alone. To a great ( ph3 ) [ – ]
wz wz wz 2 wz wz (7)
extent, the Heshmat model can provide an estimation. The
h w 2 – 1 wh w – wh w – w2h
so-called structure stiffness according to the Hsehmat model has    –
2 w z 2 2 wz w z wz w z wz 2
only a statistic meaning.
Owing to the correlation between the structural stiffness of And then, the equation 5 is written as:
the foil bearing and the load distribution upon it is very

76
Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings

w 23 w 23 2 w2h w2h that the lengths of the triangle sides are unchanged during
(  ) (  )3 deformation. In order to reduce of the calculation scale, we use a
wM 2
wZ2 h wM 2 wz 2
set of curves or surfaces to denote a rigid body, thus only the
1 wh w – wh w – 1 ws
 [  ]  2/ (8) boundary points are needed, and rigid body profile is
h wM wM wz wz h wM
constructed with these points. Using the flexible to rigid body
The Equation 8 is a typical elliptic PDE:
contact, we can analysis the all kinds of contact including with
’ ˜ (c’u )  au f (9)
preload and without preload. In the contact analysis process, the
Through transforming the compressible gas lubricated contact state is necessarily detected. The contact state has the
Reynolds equation into a typical elliptic PDE (partial three following cases(Fig.4)
differential equation) form, thus the lubricated Reynolds
equation can be solved by finite element method, and a finite Rigid Body
(set of curves or
element program is developed for the calculation of Deformable Body
surfaces)
(set of elements)
aerodynamic lubrication. 
 n
The elastic deformation problem of foils in the compliant 'u A
foil bearing was always being analyzed by the analytic method
based on the beam theory, but the method reckon without the D D
effect of the three dimension deformations of foils upon the A
press distribution of gas film. In our work, the foil deformations Case 1 2 3 4

are solved by the shell theory, the contact mechanics behavior d


between foils is simulated by the nonlinear contact finite
element method. Fig.4 The schematic of contact
If a solid object is meshed a finite element system, the
motion of the discrete system may be written as[18] Case 1: Contact not detected when
 
Ii ( X I , t ) ri (t )  FiI (t )[ X I  RI ] (10) 'u A x n | D  d | (14)
in which X I is position of point in rigid body, t is Case 2,3: Contact detected when
 
time, RI is some reference point in the undeformed body, ri is 'u A x n d D (15)
Case 4: Penetration detected when
the position of the point in the deformed body, and FiI is a
 
constant deformation gradient. Using a polar decomposition on 'u A x n !| D  d | (16)
with:
the deformation tensor, 
'u —— incremental displacement vector of node

X(I) X(I) n ——unit normal vector with proper orientation
/iI (t )
z r0 (t ) r(t )
D ——contact distance (h/20 or t/4,h is the length
element edge and t is the thickness of shell)
I Fs ——separation force (Maximum Residual)
o Case 1: Node A does not touch, no constraint applied.
Case 2: Node A is near rigid body within tolerance,
x
contact constraint pulls node to contact surface if
y F  Fs
Fig.3 Rigid body motion Case 3: Node A penetrates within tolerance, contact
constrain pushes node to contact surface.
The rigid body motion equation may be constructed from the Case 4: Node A penetrates out of tolerance and increment
finite element model(Fig.3). gets split (loads reduced) until no penetration.

Ii ( X I , t ) ri (t )  / iI (t )[ X I  RI ] (11) A grid mapping interface is also developed to solve


elasto-aerodynamically coupled lubrication problem in
The polar decomposition of the deformation gradient may be
compliant foil bearings by the [p,e,t] meshing rule. The solving
given as step of the elasto-aerodynamic coupled problem is given as
FiI / iJ U JI where / iI / iJ G JI and / iI / jI G ij (12) follows (Fig.5):
1) The finite element model of bearing is firstly established
The equation (13) is also expressed in matrix form and the meshing information (including node and element)
)(X, t ) ri (t )  (t )[X  R] (13) of the bearing carrying face is extracted.
Thus, we can express the rigid motion using Eq(13) and impose 2) The mesh mapping relation is established with the
constraints to make the stretches unity. For example, in two information which is extracted in the first step.
dimensions we can represent the motion in term of the 3) The gas lubricated Reynolds Equation is solved by the
displacements of the vertices of triangle and apply constraints initial gas film gap which is supposed.

77
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

4) The gas dynamic force is loaded on the structure Equation is renewedly solved.
deformation FEA model, and the structure deformation 6) The step 4 and step 5 is iteratively calculated until the
of bearing are obtained. iterative solution is convergent.
5) Through changing the gas film gap by the elastic An elasto-aerodynamic problem solving environment is
deformation of bearing, the gas lubricated Reynolds established based on the iterative step above mentioned.

Extract the node


Form the element
inforamtion of the
information
bearing inner face

Load the gas Solving Reynolds


dynamic Equation
force
[p,e,t] mesh

Stucture deformation
FEA Model
Transform the press into
node force

Fig. 5 Solving Framework of the Elasto-aerodynamic coupled problem

lubricate gas would leak from two side of the foil bearing. The
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS contact status between the bump foil and the top foil in foil
The primary goal of the investigation is determining the bearing is also investigated with this method (Fig 8). The
micro-deformations of the top foil. At the same time, the investigation of the contact status between foils is helpful to
contact status between the bump foil and top foil is also be the design of the gas foil bearing.
investigated. A certain aerodynamic compliant foil bearing is
calculated based on the presented theory by the method above
mentioned (Parameters from Table1, geometry from Fig.1).

Table 1 Bearing Parameters


Bump pitch 2.8mm
Bump length 2.0mm
Thickness of bump foil 0.08mm
Bump height 0.28mm
Thickness of top foil 0.18mm
Rotate speed 60000rpm
Width of foils 60mm
Radius of top foil 25mm
(a)¦=0.3
Nominal gap 50­m

Fig.6 shows the pressure distribution under different


eccentricity. The pressure distribution under small eccentricity
is much smoother than under big eccentricity. Owing to the
elasticity and flexibility of the top foil and the bump foil, the
radial deformation of top foil approaches uniform, except for
the two ends and side edges of the top foil. We observe that the
radial deformation of top foil under small eccentricity is
obviously different from under big eccentricity (Fig.7). The
edge effect is propitious to increasing the load capacity of foil
(b)¦=0.8
bearing. With the eccentricity increasing,the gas film pressure
distribution is more abrupt. The deformation of top foil at the
Fig.6 Dimensionless pressure distribution
highest section is very large under big eccentricity, thus the

78
Numerical Solving Method for the Structural Stiffness of Gas Foil Bearings

thus the structural stiffness is nonlinear. But the structural


stiffness of the gas bearing may be roughly estimated by
Pn  Pn 1
[K ] (17)
u n  u n 1
Pn , u n are respectively the convergence value of the gas
film and the radial deformation of the top foil.

CONCLUSIONS
A generalized numerical solving method for the elasto-
aerodynamically coupled lubrication problem in the gas foil
(a)¦=0.3 bearing is given with mesh mapping relationship between the
two kind of finite element solving process above mentioned.
The contact status between foils is also investigated with
this numerical method.
The structural stiffness of the foil bearings with different
parameters is estimated by using the numerical method, which
is helpful to design the bump foil.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work is supported by the National Natural Science
(b)¦=0.8 Foundation of China (Grant No. 50635060), the National
Fig.7 Radial deformation of top foil Program on Key Basic Research Projects of China (Grant Nos.
2007CB707705 and 2007CB707706) and the National
High-tech Research and Development Program of China
(Grant No. 2007AA050501).

REFERENCES
[1] Radil, K., Howard, S., Dykas, B., The role of radial
clearance on the performance of foil air bearings, Tribology
Transactions, 2002, 45(4): 485-490.
[2] Dellacorte, C., Valco, M. J., Load capacity estimation of foil
air journal bearings for oil-free turbomachinery applications,
Tribology Transactions, 2000, 43(4): 795-801.
[3] Howard, S. A., Dellacorte, C., Valco, M. J. et al.,
Steady-state stiffness of foil air journal bearings at elevated
temperatures, Tribology Transactions, 2001, 44(3): 489-493.
[4] Ku, C.-P. R., Heshmat, H., Compliant foil bearing structural
stiffness analysis: part I - theoretical model including strip
and variable bump foil geometry, Journal of Tribology,
(a)¦=0.3
Transactions of the ASME, 1992, 114(2): 394-400.
[5] Ku, C.-P. R., Heshmat, H., Structural stiffness and coulomb
damping in compliant foil journal bearings: theoretical
considerations, Tribology Transactions, 1994, 37(3):
525-533.
[6] Heshmat, H., Ku, C.-P. R., Structural damping of self-acting
compliant foil journal bearings, Journal of Tribology,
Transactions of the ASME, 1994, 116(1): 76-82.
[7] Walowit, J.,Gas lubricated foil bearing technology
development for propulsion and power system, Technical
report, Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory, 1973.
[8] J.A.Walowit,J.N.Arno.Modern Development in Lubrication
Mechanics,Applied Science Publishers,Ltd,London,1975.
[9] Heshmat, H., J.A.Walowit, O.Pinkus. Analysis of
gas-lubricated foil journal bearings, Journal of Lubrication
Technology, Transactions of the ASME, 1983 105(10):
(b)¦=0.8 647-655.
Fig.8 Contact status between top foil and bump foil [10] Heshmat, H., J.A.Walowit, O.Pinkus. Analysis of
gas-lubricated compliant thrust bearings, Journal of
The structural stiffness of the foil bearing is key to the Lubrication Technology, Transactions of the ASME, 1983
stiffness and damp of the gas foil bearing. But the structural 105(10): 638-646.
stiffness would change with eccentricity and contact status,

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Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

[11] Ku, C.-P. R., Heshmat, H., Structural stiffness and [15] D Sudheer Kumar Reddy, S.Swarnamani. Analysis of
coulomb damping in compliant foil journal bearings: aerodynamic multileaf foil journal bearing. Wear,1997,
parametric studies, Tribology Transaction, 1994, 37(3): (209): 115-22.
455-462. [16] C A Heshmat, H Heshmat. An Analysis of Gas Lubricated
[12] Salehi, M., Swanson, E.E. and Heshmat, H. Thermal Multileaf Foil Bearings with Backing Springs[J]. ASME,
Features of Compliant Foil Bearings - Theory and Journal of Tribology,1995,117(7):437-443.
Experiments, Journal of Tribology, Transactions of the [17] Luis San Andres. Gas bearing will soon be widely
ASME, Volume (2001),123 (3):566-571. used.Turbomachinary International. 2004 (5):35.
[13] Foil Gas Bearing With Compression Springs: Analyses and [18] Yu Lie,Qi ShemiaoˈGeng Haipeng. A generalized solution
Experiments, Journal of Tribology, Transactions of the of elasto-aerodynamic lubrication for aerodynamic
ASME,2007, 129(3):628-639. compliant foil bearings.Science in China Ser.E Engineering
[14] K P Oh, S M Rohde. A Theoretical investigation of the and Materials Science 2005, 48(4):441-449.
Multileaf Journal Bearing. Journal of Applied Mechanics. [19] Geng HaipengYu Lie,Qi Shemiao. Software Framework
1976(6):237-242. for Solving of the Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Problem.
Ruhua yu mifeng,2006(2):42-45.

80
Biotribological Properties of Natural Swine Joint Cartilage

Biotribological Properties of Natural Swine Joint Cartilage


*
Cui Tao , Xiong Dangsheng

˄Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology,
Nanjing 210094, People’s Republic of China, E-mail: cuitao11111@163.com˅

ABSTRACT resistance and corrosion resistance stronger. The 316L stainless


The biotribological properties of natural swine joint steel was grounded with 400 # and 600 # sandpaper and then
cartilage under various load, velocity and lubrications were polished (Ra
0.08).
investigated by a pin-on-disk tribometer. The experimental EXPERIMENT METHODS
results show that the friction coefficients and wear rates of the
cartilage under various lubrications are difference, the lowest With a very sharp bone knife in the first joint surface with
friction and the lowest wear was obtained under calf serum the size of a nail was removed from the natural swine articular
lubrication. Under the same experiment conditions, the friction cartilage. The articular cartilage practical was put into a
coefficients of various position of the cartilage are difference cylinder pin and its surface was exposed on the end of pin and
and friction coefficient of top area of the swine joint cartilage pressed by ball with the radius of 5 mm. The tribology
was the lowest and the far away from the area, the high friction experiment of the natural swine articular cartilage was
coefficient was obtained. conducted on a self-made ball-on-disk tribometer. The fresh
Keywords: cartilageˈ swine jointˈfriction and wearˈcalf serum natural swine articular cartilage was used as the hemispherical
pin sample while the counter material was 316 L stainless
INTRODUCTION steel( Ra
0.08). Experiment was conducted at room
temperature, relative humidity of 45 %, lubricated by distilled
The joint prosthesis after implantation should have a water, saline and plasma. Experimental applied load were 1.5
ball-joint friction and wear in the body [1-2]. In view of the N, 2N and speed was 84r/min. each test lasted for four hours.
active and healthy life, artificial joints will be different from Because the articular cartilage absorbed moisture and gain
natural joint, for which biological research on live bone weight, it was necessary for it to reach saturation in the water
friction characteristics is needed. So that the series of to ensure the accuracy of measurement. Cartilage particular
conditions occurred inside after the joint replacement can be particles were weighted by BP211D-(0.01 mg) electronic
predicted, thereby guiding the selection of materials. The direct balance. Swine articular cartilage particles and stainless steel
use of human experiments on living bone is not realistic. Given samples were clean with ethanol. The worn surfaces of
that the joint of animal and human is similar, natural swine articular cartilage were observed by the optical microscope. A
articular cartilage was used to test friction and wear in this sample with the same size with no friction experiment was
experiment. The tribological test of fresh swine articular used as the weight measurement reference.
cartilages was developed by the pin-on -disc friction and wear
testing machine simulating artificial joints in the actual RESULTS
conditions, such as counter-body, movement, loading and
environmental media. EFFECT OF LUBRICATION ON FRICTION AND WEAR
PROPERTIES
EXPERIMENT DETAILS Fig. 1(a) shows the curve of the friction coefficient of
SAMPLE PREPARATION swine articular cartilage varied with time at a speed of 84 r /
min and a load of 1.5 N under the lubrication of dry friction,
The biotribological properties of natural swine joint cartilage distilled water, saline and plasma. With the extending time, dry
is made in the department of the pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction coefficient of friction was stable at 0.06. Friction
fresh natural swine articular cartilage was used as the coefficient lubricated by distilled water was similar with that
hemispherical pin sample.The sample for the disc, is the main lubricated by normal saline, which were both stable at 0.080.
material for the 316 L stainless steel. Experiments on samples Steady friction coefficient under plasma lubrication was about
is fresh swine articular cartilage that were bought from the 0.016. The friction coefficient and wear rates decreased in the
market . In order to ensure the freshness of articular cartilage order of stem friction, distilled water, saline and plasma.
and comparability of the experiment, the sample was came Under dry friction, with the extension of time, the friction
from the same pigs that were slaughtered in the day. First, take heat leaded to water loss and weakened the lubrication role of
the joint admission down from the long bone with hand saws, the organic matter, resulting in friction coefficient increasing.
then clean the meat processing residue of the joint surface, and In the absence of lubricants, the direct contact with stainless
remove the soft tissue or oil film. With a very sharp bone knife steel caused serious water loss(Fig.1(b)). Under the lubrication
in the first joint surface with the size of a nail was removed of distilled water and saline lubrication, friction coefficient
from the natural swine articular cartilage. The articular decrease at the initial time because joint surface absorbed
cartilage practical was put into a cylinder pin and its surface water and joint activity was improved. After a period, friction
was exposed on the end of pin and pressed by ball with the coefficient increased due to serious water loss induced by
radius of 5 mm. compacting stress. The friction coefficient was lowest under
Experiment on the use of natural swine articular cartilage is plasma lubricating, because the presence of plasma fibrinogen,
a porous viscoelastic material, which is full of liquid, with -, -and -globulin, which forms a loose connection between
depressed surface and rough shape. Articular cartilage has a the network structure. A layer of protective lubricating film
good elastic modulus, and thermal expansion of strength, wear

81
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

deposited on the frictional contact surface not only reduced the (b)
0.10
friction factor, but also reduced wear [3] .

Friction coefficient μ
A
0.08
B
0.20 C
0.18 (a) dry friction 0.06
distilled water
Friction coefficient,

0.16
brine 0.04
0.14
piasma
0.12
0.02
0.10
0.08 0.00
0.06 0 50 100 150 200 250
0.04 Sliding time(min)
0.02
0.00
Fig.2 Three different locations on swine articular
0 50 100 150 200 250 cartilage(a) and its friction coefficient(b) (speed 84r/min, load
Sliding time,min 1.5N, plasma lubrication)

50
45 (b) dry friction
distilled water WEAR SURFACE ANALYSIS
40
brine
Wear mass,mg

35 Fig.3 gives worn surface morphologies of swine articular


plasma cartilage in dry friction, distilled water, saline and plasma
30
25 lubrication system at a speed of 84 r / min and a load of 1.5 N.
20 Under lubrication in dry friction, the original joint surface
15 shows a large number of biotribological traces, a large number
10 of small pit and massive flake. Under lubrication in distilled
5 water, the original joint surface shows a few small pit and
0 massive flake. Under lubrication In the saline-lubricating ,the
1.5 2.0 original joint surface shows similarly to the situation under
Load, N
Fig.1 The friction coefficient(a) and wear mass loss (b) lubrication in distilled water. Under the lubrication of plasma,
under different lubricant( speed 84r/min, load 1.5N) the joint surface showed some slippery tracks, the surface did
not appear pit because of the presence of plasma fibrinogen, -,
-and -globulin. These plasma protein polymer deposited on
the frictional surface formed a layer of protective lubricating
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LOCATIONS ON FRICTION film.
PROPERTIES
Fig.2(a) shows three different locations on the same swine
articular cartilage(Marked with A, B, C respectively). As
shown in Fig.2(a), A joint head for the articular cartilage in and
around the roots, B for the joint first in the forefront around the
articular cartilage, C for head of the joint front of the articular
cartilage. Fig. 2(b) gives the friction coefficients of three
different locations on a swine articular cartilage varied with
testing time at a speed of 84 r / min and a load of 1.5 N,
lubricated by plasma.
The initial friction coefficients were high, 0.095, 0.092
and 0.083 for location A, B and C respectively. The friction
coefficient decreased with the increase of sliding time and at
the last they were stable at 0.016, 0.013, 0.01 for location A, B,
and C. The head of the joint front of the articular cartilage
(marked C) had a lowest friction coefficient. Because the
location of the articular cartilage and joints often Waterloo to
friction and wear and lubrication of regular contacts, friction
coefficient minimum.

(a)

82
Biotribological Properties of Natural Swine Joint Cartilage

CONCLUSIONS
The friction coefficient and wear rate of natural swine
articular cartilage decreased in order of dry friction, distilled
water, saline and plasma. The friction coefficient is lowest
under the lubrication of plasma because of the presence of
plasma fibrinogen, which forms a protective lubricating film.
The different parts of the same joint articular cartilage show
different properties in friction under the same experimental
conditions .The smallest wear and friction coefficient was
obtained on the head of the joint front of the articular cartilage
due to regular contact and biotribological. The far away from
 the area, the high friction coefficient was obtained.
In a variety of conditions, the original joint surface shows a
large number of biotribological traces, with pits and massive
flake particles sheded from the surface. The wear and tear of the
surface of stainless steel friction is the most rough. Under the
lubrication of plasma, the joint surface showed some slippery
tracks, the surface did not appear pit.

REFERENCES
[1] Anderson, J.M., in: Ratner, B.D., Hoffman, A.S., 1996, “An
Introduction to Materials in Medicine,” Biomaterials
Science:165-173.
[2] Williams, R.L., Brown, S.A., Merritt, K., 1988,
“Electrochemical studies on the influence of proteins on the
corrosion of implant alloys,” Biomaterials, 9, pp.181.
Fig.3 worn surface morphologies of swine articular cartilage in [3] Huang, X.L., Zhu, H., Ge, S.R., 2005, “A study on
the dry friction, distilled water, saline and serum (84 r/minˈ biotribology behavior of natural swine articular
1.5N) (a) dry friction (b) distilled water (c) saline (d) serum cartilage.lubrication and seal” 170(4)pp.16-23.

83
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China 

Effect of Surface Texturing on Lubrication Film Formation within Non-Conformal Contacts





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Effect of Surface Texturing on Lubrication Film Formation within Non-Conformal Contacts

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85
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Experimental Investigation of Time-Dependent Oil Film Pressure


in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing

Sun Meili*, Xia Chengyong, Wang Xiangang

Research Institute of Bearings, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China

ABSTRACT Dynamically loaded journal bearing test apparatus


Schematic of the dynamically loaded journal bearing test
In this paper, in order to investigate the time varying oil apparatuses are shown in Fig.1ǃFig.2. The drive systemǃshaft
film pressure and distribution, a journal bearing was run under and test journal in both test apparatuses are same. A pressure
both static load and dynamic load with running frequency being transducer is mounted at the position of the maximum
identical to excitation frequency. The transient oil film pressure eccentricity in the test journal. The shaft is hollow so that the
and the entire oil film distribution were collected transducer wire could be led out. Because the transducer rotates
simultaneously. The correspondence between the periodical along with test journal, a collector ring was installed to make
pressure at a point on the journal and the transient oil film rotational signal nonrotation. To produce dynamic loads, the
distribution were analyzed. Based on the mass conserving test journal 5 with a small eccentricity is fixed to the rotational
boundary theory, these results, including the cycle of the axis by the adjustable screws 11. Therefore, the excitation
measured transient pressure, were compared with the frequency is identical to running frequency. The static
theoretical prediction. The relevant conclusions were made to eccentricity can be changed by means of adjusting the height of
provide reliable experimental evidence for further study on the journal bearing block 10 with clearance gauge . Adopting
boundary condition of dynamically loaded journal bearings. apparatus shown in Fig.1, the 45einner taper reflector 4
Keywords: dynamically loaded journal bearing, test apparatus,
jackets outside the plexiglass sleeve 8 so that the transient oil
inner taper reflector, transient, oil film pressure, cavitation
film pressure and the full oil film distribution could be
distribution
collected simultaneously. The reflector and MD4256C
high-speed camera CCD were used to obtain the full oil film
Introduction picture. The speed can obtain 1000 frames per second .In order
to mark the maximum eccentricity and the distribution of
After the formulation of Reynolds Equation, researchers cavitation transiently in the full oil film picture, the pointer 7
have presented serial static-loaded boundary conditions for the was mounted at the position of maximum eccentricity of the
solution of Reynolds Equation, such as Sommerfeld boundary test journal 5 end surface as well as the scale of 00ˉ3600
condition, Reynolds boundary condition, mass conservation was carved on the plexiglass end plate 6. When collecting the
boundary condition. For the above boundary conditions, the measured transient pressure of one cycle, the apparatus shown
mass conservation boundary condition is more acceptable as far in Fig.2 was used. 12 pressure sensors were mounted by axial
as static load condition is concerned. Excitations like symmetry in the circle of the steel-made sleeve. The pressure
earthquake, unbalance dynamic load, and factors like system sensors distribution is shown in Fig.3 .The transient was
instability, can cause intense vibration and even disaster in ascertained by allocating a key phase bore in the rotating axis
large rotor systems, oil whip being a well known example of corresponding to the maximum dynamic eccentricity. At the
such problem. Calculation of non-stationary oil film forces of key phase bore, a displacement transducer was set up to gain
journal bearings under dynamically loaded condition is needed pulse signal. and the pressure distribution at a point on the
for their analyses. Significant errors of the calculated forces can sleeve could be acquired too. In addition, the accurate
be caused by adopting improper boundary conditions, such as positional collection could be carried out if investigators are
Reynolds condition which suits only stationary working interested in pressure of some region. By rotating bearing
condition. The time varying cavitations in oil films of journal sleeve, the dense region of sensor distribution aims at angle
bearings have unegligible influence on bearing characteristics. wanted. In order to avoid forming oil film friction force, a pair
Therefore on dynamic performance and stability of the rotor of pins was designed to restrict rotation of the bearing sleeve.
system, lots of researchers perform experiments on bearings
which can straightly simulate real condition of dynamically
loaded bearings. B.D.Jacobson and B.J.Hamroc, for the first
time, shot the cavitation pictures in dynamically loaded journal
bearing with high-speed camera CCD in 1983. Kawase.T and
Someya.T collected the ferny shape and O-shape of cavitations
in 1985, and acquired tensile pressure. D.C.Sun and
D.E.Brewe[1] performed some experiments in 1993, which
made the simultaneous acquisition of oil film pressure and
photograph of oil film available, but the shaft didn’t rotate, and
errors of test bearing invalidated the results. However,
cavitation pictures in all of the above mentioned researches
cannot exactly show us time-dependent distribution and
transfer rule of oil film at the same cycle, because these
pictures are not sort of entire distribution of oil film. Therefore,
it’s necessary to study time-dependent oil film distribution and
pressure field in dynamically loaded journal bearings.
Fig.1 Schematic of dynamically loaded journal bearing test
* sunml@mail.shu.edu.cn. apparatus for cavitation

86
Experimental Investigation of Time-Dependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing

0. Collector ring 1. Displacement transducer 2. Rotating axis 3. Investigation of time-dependent oil film pressure and
Key phase bore 4. 45°Inner taper reflector 5. Test journal 6. oil film transfer
Plexiglass end plate 7. Pointer 8. Plexiglass sleeve 9. Pressure As shown in Fig.1, the pressure sensors were mounted in
sensor 10. Journal bearing block 11. Adjustable screw 12. the journal and the sleeve material is plexiglass. The oil film
Annular lamps and lanterns 13. High-speed camera CCD 14. pressure, the phase and oil film picture were collected
Computer simultaneously. The working conditions are as follows: room
temperature 25°, full oil pool, journal diameter 80mm,
length-to-diameter ratio 0.75, clearance-to-radius 1%, dynamic
eccentricity 65.65­m, static eccentricity 100­m, dynamic
viscosity 0.03Pa.s, the shaft rotates counter-clockwise, rotation
speed 900r/m.
Theoretical results is available by using
five-point-difference method based on mass conservation
boundary to solve Reynolds Equation. Film thickness is known
because type of dynamic load is identical-frequency. To
compare with experimental results, one whole cycle is divided
into fifty equal pieces to calculate transient oil film pressure.
Each piece is at interval of 7.2e. In oil film distribution
pictures, places marked with black points (filled with "o") are
complete-film zone, while the others are cavitation zone.
Numbers marked in oil film pressure picture can be referred to
the title of oil film distribution picture. All angles in all
captions of the figures in this paper are the position of
maximum dynamic eccentricity.
The whole-oil-film distribution picture is shown in Fig.4. In
Fig.2 schematic of dynamically loaded journal bearing test comparison with theoretical results, the circle of whole-oil-film
apparatus for transient oil film pressure distribution picture was outspreaded at the oil inlet. By the
1. Test journal 2. Pressure sensor 3. Steel sleeve 4. Sleeve method of coordinate transform, the distortion was eliminated
support structure 5. Roller bearing and quite ideal photos of cavitation distribution of
whole-oil-film were attained. The black mark was mounted at
the position of maximum dynamic eccentricity to distinguish
transient position. The transient oil film pressure distribution
picture collected is shown in Fig.5. The picture of transfer of
the cavitation region is shown in Fig.6 at the position of
maximum dynamic eccentricity.

Fig. 4 The whole-oil-film distribution picture


Fig. 3 allocation of pressure sensor
Data Acquisition
For the TR81 displacement sensor, which contains a
preamplifier, its induction distance is 5mm, and the input
voltage is in range of ±15VDC. One pulse signal was obtained
while the shaft rotated one cycle. The Honeywell 26PCF
pressure sensor were used in the journal and bearing, which
have a full scale pressure of 100psi; and the nominal full output
is 100mv.A NI-6062E data collecting card, along with SC-2311
signal disposal module,were use to conjunct with a PC, which
can convert the pressure signals into digital data. The software
was programmed by using Labview language to perform the
operations of data collectingǃdata storeǃdata display and data Fig. 5-1(1) experimental pressure distribution at a point on the
disposal. journal, 900r/min

87
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Fig. 5-1(2) theoretical pressure distribution at a point on the


journal, 900r/min

Fig. 6-4 180° transient oil film distribution

Fig. 6-1 0°transient oil film distribution

Fig. 6-5 240° transient oil film distribution

Fig. 6-2 60° transient oil film distribution

Fig. 6-6 300° transient oil film distribution

In fig.5-1, as can be seen, oil film pressure increases rapidly,


then, decreases slowly. Pressure vibration appears at points near
the -0.4 bar, which shows that cavitation destruction is complex.
But it has some rules, the wave shape repeat well. The pressure
-0.4 bar in experiment indicates that oil film fracturation is not
Fig. 6-3 120° transient oil film distribution at atmospheric pressure, but is under atmospheric pressure. The

88
Experimental Investigation of Time-Dependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing

results of maximum pressure calculated by mass conserving


boundary theory were less than experimental ones. Pressure
curve shape is commendably compared to experimental results.
The results indicated that it is improper to consider that
cavitation usually occurred at atmospheric pressure when
dynamic eccentricity is less than static eccentricity. That is to
say negative pressure should be taken into account.
The oil film distribution pictures form Fig.6-1 to Fig.6-6 are
corresponding to the figures in Fig5-1. As can be seen in Fig.6,
in the experiment, cavitation occurred around 150eand was
earlier than static load and theoretical results, and the region of
cavitation is larger. The loaded oil film transferred in a certain area.
collection and comparison of transient oil film
pressure at a point on bearing
Experimental results shown in this section are acquired by
NI-6062E card based on test rig No.2. This test rig is planted 12
pressure sensors along the outer circumference of sleeve. The
detailed positions of those pressure sensors are shown in Fig.3.
These sensors, in terms of its angle, can be marked orderly as Fig.7-3 (90°ˈCH3) compare between test end theoretical result
27e, 63e, 90e, 108e, 126e, 144e, 162e, 180e, 198e, 234e,
270 e, 306 e. The following parameters are experiment
conditions:1) clearance to radius ratio is 2.6ă,2) dynamic
eccentricity is 65.5 ­ m, 3)static eccentricity is 50 ­ m,
4)angular velocity of shaft is 1000r/min.

Fig.7-4 (108°ˈCH4) compare between test end theoretical


result

Fig.7-1 (27e
, CH1) compare between test end theoretical result

Fig.7-2 (63 ° , CH2) compare between test end theoretical Fig. 7-5 (126°ˈCH5) compare between test end theoretical
result result

89
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Fig.7-6 (144°ˈCH6) compare between test end theoretical


result
Fig7-9 (198°ˈCH9) compare between test end theoretical
result

Fig.7-7 (162°ˈCH7) compare between test end theoretical Fig7-10 (234°ˈCH10) compare between test end theoretical
result result

Fig.7-11 (270°ˈCH11) compare between test end theoretical


Fig.7-8 (180°ˈCH8) compare between test end theoretical
result
result

90
Experimental Investigation of Time-Dependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing

Fig.7-12 (306°ˈCH12) compare between test end theoretical


result
Fig.7 pressure distribution at 12 points on bearing,
(1000r/min)
Fig.8-2 dynamic eccentricity at 57.6°
In Fig.7, from CH1 to CH3, pressure peak decrease
gradually. At the top of pressure curve of CH4, the curve comes
to a point. From CH5 to CH10, the peak has the detachment
phenomenon, which means one peak turning to two, and the
hypo-high-peak shifts right in turn. From CH11 to CH12 the
pressure double-peak incorporates. From the Fig.7, both the
second cavitation region and the oil re-form region, theoretical
value is smaller than experimental one, but in the other regions,
theoretical value is bigger than experimental one. The former is
nearly as 5 times as the latter. As can be seen from the
experimental results, the pressure curve has different forms. 12
pressure distribution curves take on periodicity and repeat quite
well. The variation relates to its position and the maximum
eccentricity movement track as well as other relevant factors.
collection and comparison of transient oil film
pressure
To attain transient oil film pressure, the pressure collected
at CH1ǃCH2ǃĂǃCH12 at the same transient moment was
plotted by polynomial curve fitting. Therefore, the cycle of the
measured transient pressure distribution on bearing was got.
The comparisons of one cycle of the measured transient
pressure distribution on bearing and theoretical results are as Fig.8-3 dynamic eccentricity at 79.2°
following figures.

Fig.8-1 dynamic eccentricity at 22.8° Fig.8-4 dynamic eccentricity at 100.8°

91
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Fig.8-5 dynamic eccentricity at 122.4°

Fig.8-8 dynamic eccentricity at 180e

Fig.8-6 dynamic eccentricity at 136.8°

Fig.8-9 dynamic eccentricity at 216e

Fig.8-7 dynamic eccentricity at 165.6e

Fig.8-10 dynamic eccentricity at 228e


Fig.8 compare of transient oil film pressure in one cycle

92
Experimental Investigation of Time-Dependent Oil Film Pressure in a Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing

Because the pressure sensor is not sensitive enough and one point on the journal in one cycle when the dynamic
uncertain time-lag when multi-channel sensor gathered signals, eccentricity is less than static eccentricity. But on some
so all these were not able to be taken into consideration during occasions, such as transient oil film pressure and the dynamic
collecting transient oil film pressure. Thus, the experimental eccentricity being more than static eccentricity, they did not
data is discrete and the result is not satisfactory. But its trend match well. Sometimes, the deviation of experimental value
should be observed and relevant data disposal skills need to be and theoretical one came out widely. Therefore, a further
further improved. In Fig.8, the pressure peak of experimental research should be done on theory of dynamic load.
results move along the circumference direction, which accords Though the pressure of oil film in dynamically loaded
with theory. This phenomenon is considerable especially in the bearings was complicated, the oil film pressure curve at a point
change of transient pressure. In this very condition, some was submitted to a good rule, which indicated inherent physical
transient moment had double-peak phenomenon, and the discipline. Experimental results offered credible and reliable
smaller one may has something to do with oil inlet. However gist to do a further research on theory of dynamic load.
results don't expectedly match theory results.
Reference
Summary [1] B. D. Jacobson, B. J. Hamrock : High-Speed Motion Picture
From the above results, both transfer and pressure of oil Camera Experiments of Cavitation in Dynamically Loaded
film in dynamically loaded bearings are more complicated than Journal Bearings Journal of Lubrication Technology 1983.7
in static ones. It is improper to consider that oil film usually vol 105 , pp:446-452.
fractures at atmospheric pressure on dynamic condition, so [2] D.C.Sun & D.E.Brewe: Simultaneous Pressure Measurement
negative pressure should be taken into account. when the and High-Speed Photography Study of Cavitation in a
dynamic eccentricity is bigger than static eccentricity, excellent Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing. Transaction of the
boundary in solving static loaded bearings cannot explains ASME 1993 Vol. 115, pp: 88-95.
transient oil film pressure and time-dependent oil film pressure [3] Kawase.T & Someya. T: An Investigation into the Oil Film
distribution as well as double-peak phenomenon. Summing up Pressure Distrbution in Dynamically Loaded Journal
the results of experimental and theoretical comparison, some Bearing. Elsevier Science Publishers 1985, 1-10.
conclusions were made as follows. [4] Chen Xiaoyang, Sun Meili, etc. Experimental investigation
1. A 45einner taper reflector was used to collect the 360e of time-dependent cavitation in an oscillatory squeeze film,
full oil film distribution pictures, which offers a new method to Science in China Ser. G Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy
research cavitation. 2004 Vol.47 Supp. 107-112.
Cavitation destruction occurred below atmospheric [5] Sun Meili, Zhang Zhiming, etc, Experimental Study of
pressure at low rotating speed, so negative pressure should be Cavitation in an Oscillatory Oil Squeeze Film, Tribology
considered. Transactions, Vol.51,Issue 3, 2008, pp:341-350.
Based on mass conserving boundary theory, the
experimental results of pressure matched that of theory well at

93
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of LY12 and HPb62-2 Ring Compression
*
Bin Guo, Feng Gong , Chunju Wang, Debin Shan

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin institute of Technology, Harbin150001, China

ABSTRACT at 350ć for 1 hour in nitrogen atmosphere.


Ring compression test is a widely used method to determine
the friction factors for metal forming. Experimental research Table 1 Chemical composition of LY12 (wt.%)
and numerical simulation of ring compression were Cu Mg Mn Al
investigated in this paper. The materials were aluminum alloy 4.45 1.423 0.508 Balance
LY12 and copper alloy HPb62-2. The standard ring specimen
ratio of 6:3:2 was used. The experiments have been carried out Table 2 Chemical composition of HPb62-2 (wt.%)
on the lubrication condition of talc powder, vaseline, vegetable Cu Pb Sn Fe Ni Zn
oil and without lubricant. DEFOERM 2D software was used to 61.822 1.651 0.285 0.206 0.185 Balance
simulate the ring compression test. The friction calibration
curves were determined according to the finite element analysis SPECIMENS AND SETUP
results. The results showed there were some differences which After heat treated, the materials were manufactured into
can not be neglected between the two curves, especially the ring specimens. The outer diameter, inner diameter and height
deformation is large. The friction coefficients of different are 6mm, 3mm and 2mm.
lubrication were obtained according to the friction calibration The ring compression experiments were carried out at
curves, which is quite useful for the numerical simulation of room temperature in a universal test machine with a strain rate
metal forming process. H =0.01/s. The compression ratio is 50%. In order to
Keywords: Friction calibration curves, Finite element analysis, investigate the friction factors under different lubrication states,
Ring compression test, Aluminum alloy LY12, Copper alloy the tests were carried out on the lubrication states of talc
HPb62-2. powder, vaseline, vegetable oil and without lubricant.
FRICTION MEASUREMENT METHOD
INTRODUCTION A schematic of ring compression can be seen in Figure 1.
Friction between workpiece and tool is one of the most
important problems in metal forming. Because friction affects
the material deformation, forming load, product surface quality
and dies wear characteristics, it is very important to know the
friction factor. There are many methods to determine the
friction factor, such as cylinder compression [1], backward
extrusion [2], double cup extrusion [3, 4], ring compression
and so on [5-7], among which ring compression test is the
most widely used these years. The common method for
evaluating the friction factor is to compare the experimental
results to the theoretical friction calibration curves which
determined based on the upper bound theorem or energy
theorem and did not consider the difference of the materials
[8-10]. But in fact, the friction is unequal in the contact area for
different materials because of different material properties.
Even if the shape of specimens is the same before and after Fig. 1 A schematic of ring compression
deformation, the friction factor may still different. If use the
theoretical friction calibration curves to determine the friction In a ring compression test, the inner diameter of the ring
factors, the great error may be attained. So it is very important increases when the friction is low, while the inner diameter of
to get the friction factor for different materials. the ring decrease when the friction higher than the critical
With the development of the finite element method, the value.
metal forming process can be accurately simulated, and the The reduction in height h and average reduction in inner
friction calibration curves can also be determined by numerical diameter d can be calculated by the following equations:
simulation [11-12]. To get the friction calibration curves of
LY12 and HPb62-2 and study the difference of the friction hd  hi
'h u 100% (1)
factors for different materials in the same deformation way, hd
numerical simulation and experimental research of ring
d d  di
compression for LY12 and HPb62-2 were investigated in this 'd u 100% (2)
paper. dd

EXPERIMENTAL Where hd is the height of the ring before deformation, hi is


MATERIALS the height of the ring after deformation, dd is the inner diameter
The specified chemical composition of LY12 and HPb62-2 of the ring before deformation, and di is the average inner
are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. The materials were annealed diameter of the ring after deformation. If h and d is known,
the friction factor can be determined from the friction
*Corresponding author. E-mail: gongfeng186@163.com

94
Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of LY12 and HPb62-2 Ring Compression

calibration curves.

FINITE ELEMENT MODELING


In an attempt to determine the friction calibration curves of
LY12 and HPb62-2, DEFORM 2D software was employed in
the simulation of ring compression.
The necessary material parameters for the finite element
analysis were obtained from cylinder compression tests. The
shape and dimensions of the specimens were in accordance
with China standard GB/T 7314-2005. The cylinder
compression experiments were carried out at room temperature
in a universal testing machine with a strain rate H =0.01/s. The
compression ratio is 50%. The flow stress- true strain curves as
shown in Figure 2. (a) LY12
500

400
Flow stress(MPa)

300

200

100

0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
True strain (b) HPb62-2
Fig. 3 Specimens after deformation: 1 talc powder, 2 without
(a) LY12 lubrication, 3 vaseline, 4 vegetable oil
600

500

The deformed shape of LY12 from numerical simulation


Flow stress(MPa)

400
under different friction factors can be seen in figure 4, it is clear
that the inner diameter of the ring decreases with the increase of
300
the friction factor. This means an excellent agreement on
200
experimental research and numerical simulation in terms of the
deformed shape.
100

0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
True strain
(b) HPb62-2
Fig. 2 Stress-Strain curves of LY12 and HPb62-2

The ring compression specimen ratio of 6:3:2 was used.


Because the problem is axis symmetrical, half of the cross
section of the specimen was used. A total of 300 quadrilateral
elements were used to model the billet, while both the top die
and bottom die were treated as rigid bodies. The velocity of the
top die is 0.02mm/s. The friction factor between the die and
workpiece were 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,
0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0, respectively.
Fig. 4 Deformed shape of LY12 with different friction factors
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The specimens after deformation in the ring compression The deformed shape of LY12 and HPb62-2 from numerical
experiments are shown in figure 3. It is clear that the deformed simulation under the same friction factor can be seen in figure
shapes of the rings are different for different lubricants. The 5. It shows that the inner diameter of the LY12 is smaller than
inner diameter of the ring is enlarged for the lubricant with a that of HPb62-2 under the same friction factor, which means
low friction factor such as vegetable oil, while reduced for the that if the average diameter is the same after deformation, the
lubricant with a high friction factor such as talc powder. friction factor of LY12 should be lower than HPb62-2.

95
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

oil has a lowest friction factor of m=0.18 for LY12 and m=0.10
for HPb62-2. Vaseline, without lubrication and talc powder
have higher values. For all the lubrication states, the friction
factors of the lubricants for LY12 are all larger than HPb62-2
according to the friction calibration curves determined by
numerical simulation.

Table 3 Friction factors for LY12


Lubrication state h(%) d(%) m
talc powder 37.89 15.88 0.41
vaseline 37.47 1.74 0.22
vegetable oil 36.88 -2.78 0.18
without lubrication 36.92 5.56 0.27
Fig. 5 Deformed shape of LY12 and HPb62-2 under the same
Table 4 Friction factors for HPb62-2
friction factor
HPb62-2 h(%) d(%) m
talc powder 33.91 5.82 0.34
The friction calibration curves of LY12 and HPb62-2
vaseline 35.11 -6.36 0.14
determined according to the finite element results can be seen
vegetable oil 35.22 -11.67 0.10
in figure 6. It shows that the shape of the 2 figures look the
Without lubrication 36.52 0.03 0.21
same and the difference of the friction factor for the 2
materials is small while the friction factor is small. For
example, the reduction of height is 50% and the reduction of
inner diameter is -3%, the friction factor is 0.15 for LY12 and CONCLUSIONS
0.16 for HPb62-2. But the difference is large and cannot be According to the numerical simulation and experimental
neglected while the friction factor is large. For example, the research of ring compression, the following results can be
reduction of height is 50% and the reduction of inner diameter concluded:
is 40%, the friction factor is 0.7 for LY12 and 0.9 for HPb62-2. 1. Friction calibration curves of LY12 and HPb62-2 were
determined by numerical simulation. The friction
80
calibration curves were different for different materials,
0
0.02
sometimes the difference cannot be neglected, especially
60 0.04 while the friction factor was large.
Reduction in inner diameter (%)

0.06
40 0.08 2. The friction factors of LY12 and HPb62-2 on the
0.10
0.15
lubrication states of talc powder, vaseline, vegetable oil
20 0.2 and without lubrication were 0.41, 0.22, 0.18, 0.27and 0.34,
0.3
0.4 0.14, 0.10, 0.21, respectively.
0
0.5
0.6
-20 0.7
0.8
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
0.9
-40 1.0
The financial support from the National High-Tech
Research and Development Program (2006AA04Z316) and
-60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Heilongjiang Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young
Reduction in height (%) Scholar (JC-05-11) are greatly acknowledged.
(a) LY12
80
REFERENCES
0
0.02 [1] Ebrahimi, R., Najafizadeh, A., 2004, “A new method for
60 0.04 evaluation of friction in bulk metal forming,” Journal of
Reduction in inner diameter (%)

0.06
40 0.08 Materials Processing Technology, 152, pp.136-143.
0.10
0.15 [2] Shen, G., Vedhanayagam, V., Altan, T., 1992, “A method
20 0.2
0.3
for evaluating friction a backward extrusion-type forging,”
0
0.4 Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 33,
0.5
0.6 pp.109-123.
-20 0.7
0.8
[3] Buschhausen, A., Weinmann, K., Lee, J.Y. et al., 1992,
-40
0.9 “Evaluation of lubrication and friction in cold forging
1.0
using a double backward extrusion process,” Journal of
-60 Materials Processing Technology, 33, pp.95-108.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Reduction in height (%)
[4] Engel, U., 2006, “Tribology in microforming,” Wear, 260,
pp.265-273.
(b) HPb62-2
[5] Sofuoglu, H., Gedikli, H., 2002, “Determination of friction
Fig. 6 Friction calibration curves of LY12 and HPb62-2
coefficient encountered in large deformation processes,”
Tribology International, 35, pp.27-34.
The reduction in height h and reduction of inner diameter
[6] Bakhshi-Jooybari, M., 2002, “A theoretical and
d of the experimental specimens can be calculated by equation
experimental study of friction in metal forming by the use
(1) and equation (2). Then the friction factors can be determined
of the forward extrusion process,” Journal of Materials
from figure6. The friction factors for LY12 and HPb62-2 can be
Processing Technology, 125-126, pp.369-374.
seen in table 3 and table 4. The results show that the vegetable

96
Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of LY12 and HPb62-2 Ring Compression

[7] Petersen, S.B., Martins, P.A.F., Bay, N., 1998, “An [10] Fereshtech-Saniee, F., Pillinger, I., Hartley, P., 2004,
alternative ring-test geometry for the evaluation of friction “Friction modelling for the physical simulation of the bulk
under low normal pressure,” Journal of Materials metal forming processes,” Journal of Materials Processing
Processing Technology, 79, pp.14-24. Technology, 153-154, pp.151-156.
[8] Li, L. X., Peng, D. S., Liu, J. A. et al, 2000, “An [11] Rudkins, N., Hartley, P., Pillinger, I. et al., 1996, “Friction
experimental study of the lubrication behavior of A5 glass modelling and experimental observations in hot ring
lubricant by means of the ring compression test,” Journal of compression tests,” Journal of Materials Processing
Materials Processing Technology, 102, pp.138-142. Technology, 60, pp.349-353.
[9] Robinson, T., Ou, H., Armstrong, C. G.., 2004, “Study on [12] Hu, Z., Zhu, L.H., Li, J.Q., 1997, “Numerical simulation
ring compression test using physical modelling and FE on ring compression- A new approach to determine
simulation,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, calibration curves of friction coefficient,” Acta Metallugica
153-154, pp.54-59. Sinica, 33, pp.337-344.

97
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Application of Metal Self-Repairing Additives on Cylinder-Piston Ring Rubbing Pairs

Lei Wang1 , X.C. Zhou1* , Q.Q. Li1,C.Q. Yuan1, X.P. Yan1 ,Y.H. Chen2
1
Reliability Engineering Institute, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063, PR China
2
Yangtze River Waterway Bureau

agents, antiwear additives, extreme pressure additives, and


ABSTRACT friction modifiers. They were integral parts of fully formulated
The metal self-repairing additives can be used in situ lubricating oils for reduced friction coefficient, lowered wear
auto-repair worn surface of the long-term running machine parts. rate and increased load-carrying capacity[4,5]. To extend the
The basic composition of the metal self-repairing additives was reconditionable damage wear region and avoid the system runs
magnesium silicate hydroxide of empirical formula in non-reconditionable region, some metal self-repairing
[Mg6(Si4O10)(OH)8]. The auxiliary components were additives as special wear reconditioning additives were needed
metallurgical activator and deoxidizer. And this metal to develop, so that surface damage wear could be effectively
self-repairing was applied to a dredger named “HJ18”. The and efficiently reconditioned[6,7], the metal self-repairing
effects of the application were analyzed by spectra analysis. additives main constituent was magnesium silicate hydroxide
The spectral data showed that the running conditions which of empirical formula [Mg6(Si4O10)(OH)8]. And the technique
included running time and lubrication volume, etc had great which can be initiated by the tribosystem itself in a real-time
impact on the formation of the auto-restoration layer. manner and in situ in presence of a proprietary worn-damage
Laboratory experiment showed that there were a series of reconditioner should be nominated as auto-reconditioning
chemical and physical changes occurred when the magnesium technology of worn metal surfaces [8,9].
silicate hydroxide of empirical formula [Mg6(Si4O10)(OH)8] Presently, the metal self-repairing additives was mainly
was added into the oil in given conditions, then a certain used in trains, cars and construction machinery. But in ship,
thickness smooth layer was formed on abrasion surface. especially which with complex and harsh conditions such as
Keywords: Lubrication, metal self-repairing additive, dredger, the research and the use of this additives were absent.
magnesium silicate hydrate, dredger However, the loss caused by wear and tear in dredger was
extremely serious. If the metal self-repairing additives can be
INTRODUCTION added to the lubrication cycle system of dredger’s diesel engine
efficiently, great significance will be made in the facet of
Lubricant and additive manufacturers were facing many
lowering wear, reducing failures and improving the efficiency
challenges in order to satisfy all requirements both for high
of the dredger .
performances of fluid-depended machinery and in bionomics
and environment friendship[1]. These requirements address EXPERIMENTS
creative developments of lubricant formulation technology for
achieving both advanced lubrication regimes and positive 1. Study on dredger
compatibility with the full fluid-depended system[2,3]. On commission of the Yangtze River Waterway Bureau, the
Academia and industry had devoted concentrated effort to metal self-repairing additives have been added to the dredger
develop triboadditives chemistry to enable the targets. named“HJ18” which was being serviced in Qingdao. Table 1
Traditional triboadditive family members included oiliness showed the case of all the diesel engine of this dredger.

Table 1 The case of all the diesel engine of the “HJ18”


Propulsion Diesel
Item Dredging Pump Diesel Generator
Engine
number of cylinders 6 8 12
cylinder bore 240 160 128
power (Kw) 1200 640 329
speed (rpm) 600-1000 930 1500
lubrication volume (L) 950 310 55
lubrication brand CD40 CD40 SAE40
lubrication consumption (kg/h)
0.8+10% 0.55-0.60 0.50-0.60
exhaust temperature (ć) 340-360 430-450 390-410
The lubrication brand of the propulsion diesel engine and The used lubrication was analyzed by spectral analysis, the
the dredging pump diesel were CD40 which was manufactured contents of Fe, Cr, Mg, Al can be easily quantified in 30
by GW Co. Correspondingly, and that of the generator was seconds. The spectral data of port engine oil (added the metal
Castrol SAE40. The metal self-repairing additives which self-repairing additives) and starboard engine oil (not added)
produced by OS Co. have been blended in a traditional were recorded automatically during analysis course. The
lubricant with a 1‰ dose according to the manual. The used difference between the two engines’ oil can be easily seen
lubrication in the dredger has been replaced by new lubrication according to the spectral data. In the same way, the difference
in order to avoid other factors ( such as water and the failure between the oil of generator 2(added) and generator3# (not
lubricants and so on) influencing the result before the added) can be obtained. More over, this additive also had been
experiment. The new lubricant brand shown in table 1. added in dredging pump diesel lubrication in order to study its
effect under harsh conditions. The oil had been sampled by
* Corresponding Author professionals every 15 days , and there were eight times in all.

98
Application of Metal Self-Repairing Additives on Cylinder-Piston Ring Rubbing Pairs

2. laboratory experiment )H

In order to study the influence of operating conditions on 

formation of the reconditioned layer, the pin-on-disk tester 


SRUWHQJLQH
(MMW-1) was used to do the friction and wear experiment in 
Lab, The results showed that a certain thickness smooth layer  VWDUERDUG
HQJLQH
was formed on abrasion surface in given conditions, but the 
micro-crack and the micro-pores still exist. 
The experimental materials were Cast Iron(for disk) and 35        
#
Steel(for pin). The disk was 10 mm thick, with external
&U
diameter of 54 mm and inner diameter of 38 mm, with
hardness of 42~52.8 HRC and surface roughness of 

0.76~1.07 μm . The pin was I 4.8×12.7 mm and with surface 


SRUWHQJLQH
roughness of 0.8~1.02 μm . The lubrication brand was SAE40 

 VWDUERDUG
with a flash point of 232ćand a pour point of -20ć. HQJLQH

The disk and pin were cleaned by propanone firstly, then
labeled, dried and weighed. Its surface feature can be obtained 
       
by Optical Microscope. The samples were divided into two
groups, observation group(added the self-repairing additives) 0J
and control group(not added), and the total wear time was 3h.

After completed the experiments, Optical Microscope was used 
to observe the surface feature again and find the differences.  SRVWHQJLQH

 VWDUERDUG
DISCUSSION HQJLQH


1. The results of the real ship test 
       
New lubricant’s spectral data were shown in Table 2. All the
contents of elements were low(FHİ1.8ppm, Crİ0.5ppm, Al $O
İ1.4ppm,Mgİ4.9ppm) except the content of Mg in Castrol

SAE40 lubricant (257ppm). 
 SRUWHQJLQH
Table 2 The spectral data of the new lubricant 
ELEMENT  VWDUERDUG
HQJLQH
ITEM Fe Cr Mg Al 


Great Wall CD40 1.8 0.1 4.9 1.4        
Castrol SAE40 0.6 0.5 257 0.8
Fig. 1 The spectral data comparison between port engine
oil and starboard engine oil
Figure 1 was the test data comparison between port
engine(added the self-repairing additives)oil and starboard
engine(not added)oil , the results displayed that the wear rates Figure 2 was the spectral data comparison between
rose gradually, but the port engine oil had higher contents of Fe, generator2# oil(added) and generator3# oil(not added), and the
Cr, Mg, Al than the starboard oil. In port engine oil ,the content curves was quit irregularly, especially in the
contents of Fe, Al rose from 20ppm to 43.2ppm and from generator3# oil which did not add the self-repairing additives.
6.9ppm to 11.4ppm gradually; respectively, in starboard engine In the generator3# oil, the contents of the Fe, Cr, Al rose
oil ,the two elements rose from 12.7ppm to 32.5ppm and from steeply, and at the fifth sample reached their maximum(Feİ
4.6ppm to 9.3ppm. The rising curve of two elements in the port
129ppmCrİ8.6ppmAlİ22.2ppm ; on the contrary, in the
engine oil was consistent with the starboard engine oil.
generator2# oil, the Fe, Cr, Al contents were low and changed
However, the contents of Cr, Mg changed differently: in the
port engine oil, the Cr content increased rapidly up to 9.2ppm little(Fe İ 33.4ppmCr İ 4.1ppmAl İ 10.6ppm which
on the fourth sample then changed smoothly, and the Mg means that the wear of the generator2# changed smoothly
content presented vertical line ascending and up to 315ppm; in However, these elements contents decrease sharply at the sixth
the starboard engine oil, the contents of the Cr, Mg were and seventh sample separately in the 2# and 3#generator’s oil .
showed an steady increasing tendency, and at the eighth sample The major cause was that new lubricants had been added into
reached their maximum(Cr İ 5.3ppm,Mg İ 127ppm). This the two lubrication systems separately before the two samples.
difference was caused by adding of the self-repairing additives The content of Mg were not significantly changed, and
into the oil. stayed in a range of 233~276ppm, according to the table 1 and
From table 1, the conclusion was reached that the metal table 2,the content of Mg came from Castrol SAE40 lubricant.
self-repairing additive didn’t function obviously in the port It was easy to see the element contents in the oil of
engine oil. Because the lubrication volume size was too large generator2# (added) were lower than generator3# (not
and the effective composition of the additives couldn’t circulate added),because the contents of self-repairing additives were
sufficiently in the lubricant cycle system, the self-repairing enough to exhibit restorative effects and came to the conclusion
additives were too low to work effectively. that the metal self-repairing additives showed better function on
the generator.

99
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

)H &U

 
 
 SRUWHQJLQH

 *HQHUDWRU
 *HQHUDWRU GUHGJLQJSXPS

GLHVHO



 
               

&U 0J






 SRUWHQJLQH
*HQHUDWRU 
*HQHUDWRU GUHGJLQJSXPS
 
GLHVHO
 


       
       

$O
0J





 SRUWHQJLQH

 *HQHUDWRU
 GUHGJLQJSXPS
 *HQHUDWRU GLHVHO





        
       

$O Fig. 3 The test data comparison between port engine and


dredging pump diesel




 2. The results of pin-on-disk experiment


*HQHUDWRU
*HQHUDWRU
 From the microscopic image (500 h ) (figure 4) of
 pin-on-disk experiment (under the condition of 400N and
 300r/min), it was very obvious that the abrasion surface
        changed from rough to smooth after adding the self-repairing
additives, and a certain thickness smooth layer was formed. It
Fig. 2 The test data comparison between generator2# and
can be further deduced from the observed results that the main
generator3#
components of the self-repairing additives can adhere on the
micro-crack and the micro-pores to repair the damage and crack,
Considering the lubrication brand may influence the effect
but when it came to the large crack and holes, the additives
of the self-repairing additives, the spectral data of port engine
failed to function.
oil and dredging pump diesel oil were contrasted in Figure
As for the influence of the wear medium, the oil (SAE40)
3.Both the port engine and dredging pump diesel were added
had been changed with water when other working condition
the same lubrication .In the dredging pump diesel oil, the
contents of Fe, Cr, Al had few changes(Fe
12.8ppm, was invariable ,from its microscopic image (500h) (figure 5),
Cr
1.2ppm, Al
2.5ppm), but the Mg content was lower in it can be easily seen that the thickness smooth layer wasn't
earlier stage (10.7ppm), and steep rose in the later stage formed on the surface in water, instead a lot of mottling and
(1044ppm),which has been caused by the high concentration of micro-crack appeared. The test piece was soaked by emulsion
the self-repairing additives. In a word, according to the figure 3, and was eroded when wore in water.
the metal self-repairing additives showed well function on the
dredging pump diesel as well as on the generator, which meant
that the additives can exhibit good effect in different lubrication.
)H




SRUWHQJLQH


 GUHGJLQJSXPS
GLHVHO


 
        400N ,300r/min not added

100
Application of Metal Self-Repairing Additives on Cylinder-Piston Ring Rubbing Pairs

(3)The self-repairing additives just repaired the micro-crack


and the micro-pores, and made the abrasion surface
changed from rough to smooth, however, the metal
self-repairing additives couldn’t exhibit restorative effects
on water. Therefore, it can be inferred that, there were a
series of chemical and physical changes occurring and a
certain thickness smooth layer was formed on the abrasion
surface, when the magnesium silicate hydroxide of
empirical formula [Mg6(Si4O10)(OH)8]was added in the
oil under certain condition.
400N ,300r/min added ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Fig. 4 Comparison of surface by added the metal self-repairing
additives and not added is conducted when the conditions are The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to
400N and 300r/min the Yangtze River Waterway Bureau for its support on this
project.

REFERENCES
[1] HuangY, 2004, “Research on self-reconditioning
material technology for wear of metals applied in
automobile engines,” Journal of Shenyang Normal
University(Natural Science),03,pp.2-4.
[2] Ouyang P, Chen G,X, Li H,F ,2006,”Researching Trend
of Traditonal Antiwear Agents in Lubricating Oils,”
Lubrication Engineering,06,pp5-7.
400N ,300r/min added [3] YangHe,JinY,S,KazuhikoYamashita,2006,“Experim-en
Fig. 5 The surface morphology after added the metal self- tal Study of Applying Mg6(Si4O10)(OH)8 Reconditioner
repairing additives in water medium to Simulative Journal Bearing” Lubrication
Engineering, 07,pp14.
CONCLUSIONS [4] ChenW,G,GaoY,Z,ZhangH,C,2006,“Investiga-tion of
the Effects of Lubricant Oil With Silicate Particles as
The metal self-repairing additives showed better function on
Additive on the Wear Resistance of Friction Pair,”
the generator and the dredging pump diesel than on the port
China Surface Engineering,01,pp34-37.
engine, which caused by the running condition and running time,
[5] FuJ,G,WangHui,ChenLi,2007, “Development Status
and it came to the conclusion that a reconditioned layer with a
and Trends of Serpentine Ore,” Hydrometallurgy of
certain thickness (sub-micro level) was generated on the
China,03,pp5-6.
substrate under given conditions of dredge. Then, the friction
[6] TianBin,WangC,B,MaX,D,2006, “ Effect of a Cermet
and wear experiments in Lab showed that a certain thickness
Additive in Lubricating Oil on the Wear Performance of
smooth layer was formed on the abrasion surface.
Steel Cast Iron Friction Pair,”Lubrication
(1) Both the generator and the dredging pump diesel were
Engineering,09,pp6-9.
continuous running, but the push diesel engine was
[7] Zhang Zh,Y,YangHe,Li S,H,2004, “Application
alternate running for the requirement of conditions.
Research of Auto reconditioner for Worn Metals on DF
Combined with the spectral data, the metal self-repairing
Locomotive Diesel Engines,” Lubrication
additives showed better function in the continuous running
Engineering ,04,pp10-11.
conditions.
[8] Dong W,D,MaW,J,Huang Yan,2005, “ Eflect of the
(2)Lubrication volume was another restrictive factor. The
Auto-restoration Material and Technology Applied in
volume of the port engine is 950 L, which was obviously
Engine of Automobile and Ship”, Foundry,04,pp9-11.
greater than the dredging pump diesel (310L) or the
[9] Jin Y. S., Li S. H., Zhang Z. Y. Yang H. & Wang F.
generator(55L). Therefore, the lubrication volume was so
2004,“Insitu Mechanochemical Reconditioning of
large that the effective composition of the additives
Worn Ferrous surfaces, ” Tribology International, 18 ,
couldn’t circulate sufficiently in the lubricant cycle system.
pp562-567.

101
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Wettability Study of Multiply-Alkylated Cyclopentanes (MACs) on Silicon Substrates


Ying Wanga,b , Mingwu Baia, *
a
State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
b
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China

Extended Abstract 0.05% (w/v) was spun cast onto the aforementioned three
In order to investigate the influence of surface microtextures kinds of silicon substrates at a speed of 3000 rpm, thus
on the wettability, Multiply-alkylated cyclopentane, a novel monolayer films were formed.
hydrocarbon mobile lubricant, was deposited on silicon surface 2.3 Characterization of the films
treated by different cleaning and etching processes. Using an
atomic force microscope, measurement on the silicon surface The static contact angles for ultrapure water on the samples
was made to fully characterize the surface. Contact angles of were measured with a DSA100 contact-angle meter. At least
water on these surfaces were measured using a DSA100 five replicate measurements were carried out for each
contact angle meter. The result indicates the wettability of the specimen, and the measurement error was below 2°. The film
hydroxylated silicon wafer and the silicon wafer with a morphologies were examined with an atomic force microscope
monohydride-terminated surface is better than the cleaned (AFM) (Nanoscope IIIa, Digital Instrument), using tapping
silicon wafer, which are mainly caused by topological scanning mode. The nano-adhesive behavior of the films was
structure changes of the surface. Furthermore, the characterized with an AFM controlled by CSPM4000
nano-adhesion property was also measured. The different electronics, using the contact mode. Commercially available
behavior in adhesion forces is due to the differing surfaces of rectangle Si3N4 cantilever with a normal force constant, 6N/m
the silicon wafers. and a Si3N4 tip with a radius of less than 10nm (Budgetsensors
Keywords: Etching; hydroxylated; monohydride-terminated; Instruments Inc) was employed. To avoid influence of
adhesion molecules which may transfer to the tip on the AFM/FFM
experiment, the tip was scanned on a cleaved mica surface to
1. INTRODUCTION remove these physical adsorbed molecules. The force distance
Multiply-alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs), a novel curves were recorded and the pull off force reckoned as the
hydrocarbon mobile lubricant, are a mixture of the di- and adhesive force, which was given by
tri-substituted (2-octylodecyl) cyclopentane. They have F=KcZp
excellent viscosity properties, thermal stability and low Where Kc is the force constant of cantilever and Zp is the
volatility for use as lubricant and is presently gaining wide vertical displacement of the piezotube, i.e., the deflection of
acceptance on actual space application [1, 2]. MACs may also the cantilever [6, 7]. In data processing, a test of ten
have the potential as lubrication in the measurements was made for each sample. All the tests were
micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) application. While conducted at room temperature and a relative humidity of
MACs have been observed to dewet bearing steel surfaces [3] 45%.
and it was wondered if this represented a long-term life threat.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Controlling the wettability is quite important in the study of
nano-adhesion and nano-friction. Since silicon has been the
3.1. Wettability
most widely used material in the MEMS [4], this paper studied
Contact angles of MACs films on three kinds of silicon
the wettability of MACs on silicon wafers treated by different
substrates were measured, as shown in Table 1. The contact
cleaning and etching processes. The nano-adhesion property
angle of the cleaned silicon wafer increased very little. It may
was also measured.
indicate that MACs were unwetted on cleaned silicon wafer
2. EXPERIMENT DETAILS and there were little MACs adsorbed on it. The contact angles
2.1. Materials of the hydroxylated silicon wafer and the H-Si(100) increased
P-doped single-side polished single-crystal silicon (1 0 0) by about 20° after coated with MACs. This result indicates that
wafers (obtained from GRINM Semiconductor Materials Co. MACs were adsorbed on the substrates and made them more
Ltd., Beijing) about 0.5mm thick were used as the substrate. hydrophobic, which may be resulted from the apolar ü
MACs were synthesized by reacting dicyclopentadiene with (CH2)nüCH3 (hydrophobic) groups.
alcohols of various chain lengths to produce a lubricant with a
selectable range of physical properties [5]. The solvent 3.2. Surface topological structure
n-hexane (purity >98%) was used as received. The topological structures of the samples were observed by
2.2. Substrates and film preparation AFM, as shown in Fig. 1, the thicknesses of which are 2.5±0.3
The silicon wafers were first ultrasonicated sequentially in nm. It can be clearly seen that the cleaned silicon wafers are
acetone, ethanol and acetone each for 5 min and then rinsed unwetted and there are little MACs adsorbed on it, which is
with adequate ultra-pure water and dried by N2. The cleaned consistent with the result of contact angle measurement. The
silicon wafers were hydroxylated by immersing in a piranha Table 1 List of the contact angles of the samples used in this
solution, a mixture of 7:3 (v/v) 98% H2SO4 and 30% H2O2 at article
90ć for 30 min. Other cleaned silicon wafers were immersed Substrates Without With MACs
in 40% deaerated aqueous NH4F solution for 5-7 min to obtain MACs (°) (°)
a monohydride-terminated surface, that is, H-Si(100). Wafers Cleaned silicon 46.8 51.8
were then rinsed with adequate deaerated ultra-pure water and wafer
dried by N2. Then we got three kinds of substrates: the cleaned hydroxylated 2 25.9
silicon wafers; the hydroxylated silicon wafers and the silicon wafer
H-Si(100). H-Si(100) 74.9 94.1
The solution of MACs in hexane with a concentration of

Corresponding author. Tel: +86 931 4968080; Fax: +86 931 4968163. E-mail address: mwbai@LZB.ac.cn
102
Wettability Study of Multiply-Alkylated Cyclopentanes (MACs) on Silicon Substrates

3.3. Adhesion
The adhesive forces measured from the pull-off point on each
sample are presented in Fig. 2. It shows that the adhesion force
for the hydroxylated silicon wafer with MACs is the largest in
the three. This may be induced by the partly exposed
hydroxylated silicon wafer, which can increase the capillary
force and further increase the adhesion force. It also can be
seen that the adhesion force for the H-Si(100) with MACs is
the smallest. This may be resulted from the partly exposed
monohydride-terminated surface, which can decrease the
adhesion force. This may also explain why the adhesion force
for the cleaned silicon wafer with MACs is between the above
two samples. We may conclude that the difference in adhesion
forces is due to the differing surfaces of the silicon wafers. The
result of the adhesion force is consistent with the contact
angles measurements.

4. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we studied the wettability of MACs on silicon
wafers treated by different cleaning and etching processes. The
wettability of the hydroxylated silicon wafer and the H-Si(100)
is better than the leaned silicon wafer, which are mainly
caused by topological structure changes of the surface. The
Fig. 1 AFM images of MAC films. (a) Cleaned silicon wafer different behavior in adhesion forces is due to the differing
with MACs. (b) Line section analysis of (a). (c) Hydroxylated surfaces of the silicon wafers. In the future, we will further our
silicon wafer with s. (d) Line section analysis of (c). (e) research in this aspect and mainly focus on the study of the
H-Si(100) with MACs. (f) Line section analysis of (e) influence of surface microtextures on the wettability of MACs
for the practical application as lubrication for MEMS.
wettability of the hydroxylated silicon wafer and the H-Si(100)
is better. It is well known that the wettability of solid surface is REFERENCES
decided both by topological structure and chemical structure [8, [1] Venier C.G., Casserly E.W., 1991, “Multiply-alkylated
9]. MACs, which have no functional groups, are physically cyclopentanes (MACs): a newclass of synthesized
adsorbed on the substrates. This indicates that the wettability hydrocarbon fluids,” Lubr. Eng., 47, pp.586–591.
changes of the samples are mainly caused by topological [2] Dube M.J., Bollea D., Jones W.R., Marrcheti M., Jansen
structure changes of the surface. M.J., 2003, “A new class of synthetic hydrocarbon fluid
lubricant for space applications,” Tribol. Lett., 15, pp.3–8.
1. Si-OH-MAC
[3] Pochard, M., Prat, P., Vergne, P., Sicre, J., 1994,
250 2. Si-MAC “Thermocapilliary Migration of Lubricants in Space
3. Si-H-MAC Environments,” Proc. 4th Int. Tribology Conf., Austrib ’94,
Adhesive forces(nN)

200 Frontiers of Tribology, Perth, Australia.


[4] Spearing S.M., 2000, “Materials issues in
150 microelectromechanical systems (MEMS),” Acta Mater.,
48, pp.179–196.
100 [5] Venier C.G., Casserly E.W., 1990, “Lubricants comprising
novel cyclopentanes cyclopenta-dienes, cyclopentenes and
50 mixtures thereof and methods of manufacture,” U.S. Patent
4, 929.
0 [6] Xiao, X.D., Qian, L.M., 2000, Langmuir, 16, 8153.
1 2 3
[7] Tsukruk, V.V., Bliznyuk, V.N., 1998, Langmuir, 14, 446.
Fig. 2 Adhesive forces of hydroxylated silicon wafer with [8] Wenzel R.N., 1936, Ind. Eng. Chem., 28, 988.
MACs (1), Cleaned silicon wafer with MACs (2) and H-Si(100) [9] Cassie A.B.D., Baxter S., 1944, Trans. Faraday Soc., 40,
with MACs (3) 546.

103
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Numerical Analysis on Hydrodynamics of Circular Translational Polishing under Mixed Lubrication

WZhai , P. Feng

School of Mechatronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin150001, P.R. China

ABSTRACT Reynolds equation with G-W asperity contact pressure


Based on the kinematics relation of CTP, the quasi-stable equation, and film thickness equation without taking into
CTP model of mixed lubrication is established in polar account the pad deformation.
coordinates, which includes the average Reynolds equation, In this paper, the pad deformation due to fluid pressure and
average clearance equation, pad deformation equation, asperity contact pressure is further considered in the film thickness
contact equation and load balance equation. These model equation. Through a numerical solution procedure similar to
equations are solved by the finite difference method, and the that in [8], the fluid pressure distribution, contact pressure pad
instantaneous 3-D distribution of fluid pressure, contact deformation and film thickness are determined numerically to
pressure, and the slurry film thickness are presented. Results show the influence of various operating parameters.
show that in a wide area of wafer there is negative fluid pressure,
which is believed to be due to the distribution of the slurry film MODEL EQUATIONS
thickness including pad deformation. The effects of applied load,
pad velocity and rotation speed on the hydrodynamic pressure, FILM THICKNESS EQUATION
asperity contact pressure, minimum film thickness, as well as As shown in Fig.1, during a CTP process, the polishing pad
pad deformation have been analyzed. This parametric study is moves translationally in velocity V along a circular track, with
helpful to further optimize process variables for good CTP the direction-changing frequency /2È. Here, Z represents the
performance. velocity-direction changing speed.
Keywords: Circular translational polishing (CTP), mixed When the wafer tilted during polishing, the attitude angles
lubrication, negative fluid pressure, pad deformation x, y of wafer relative to x and y axis, respectively, can be
obtained by considering the symmetrical and periodical
INTRODUCTION characteristics of CTP. If  is the biggest tilt angle and  is the
Since the slurry hydrodynamics play a critical role in orientation angle at the starting moment (t=0, pad moving
chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) performance, many along y axis), then the attitude angles xǃy are expected to
researches focus on numerical analyses of its physically based change periodically as follows:
models to indicate the dependence of its performance on the
operating and design parameters. And it is realized that most ­T x [ ˜ cos(\  Zt ) (1)
®
¯T y [ ˜ sin(\  Zt )
CMP operations fall into mixed lubrication regime in which
the down force is supported partly by the slurry film and partly
by surface contact between the polishing pad and the wafer.
Yu, et al [1] presented a one-dimensional (1-D) CMP
model based on the theories of contact mechanics and Wafer
hydrodynamic lubrication, and the relationships among the
polishing pad roughness, slurry hydrodynamic pressure, down
force and platen velocity were analyzed. Lin, et al [2] regarded
CMP as a mixed lubrication problem combining the average
Reynolds equation in a cylindrical coordinate system with Pad
G-W contact model, and studied the influences of various
process parameters on the hydrodynamic characteristics and
materials removal rates. They further extended their model to
examine the mechanisms arising in the CMP with a pad having Fig.1 Sketches showing the CTP model
concentric grooves [3].
Recently, Higgs et al [4-5] developed the mixed lubrication The film thickness at any point on the wafer can be
model based on 3-D Reynolds equation and the Winkler described as:
contact stress model, and solved the integrated polar Reynolds
equation and film thickness equation taking into account the h h0  r ˜ sin T x ˜ cosT  r ˜ sin T y ˜ sin T  d x, y
disk orientation.
Circular translational polishing (CTP) provides the best 2 p ( x1 , y1 )  p c ( x1 , y1 )
SE c ³³
d ( x, y ) dx1 dy1 (2)
: [( x  x1 )  ( y  y1 ) ]
kinematics conditions of polishing as it permits 2 2 12

multidirectional and isotropic polishing, by its characteristic of


the ever-changing direction of the constant pad velocity, and it Here, d(x,y) is the elastic pad deformation of the polishing
is expected to obtain better work efficiency and quality than pad, which varies in the wafer area as a function of the sum of
the traditional CMP kinematic arrangements [6]. We have the hydrodynamic pressure p(x,y) and the asperity contact
demonstrated that the CTP lubrication model is characterized pressure pa(x,y). Note that these parameters representing in
as time-related but quasi-steady nature because of the Cartesian coordinates (x,y) can be transformed into the
symmetrical and periodical nature of direction-changing of the corresponding ones in polar coordinates(r,) through their
relative velocity [7]. In ref. [8], we numerically solved a 3-D transformation relationship whenever needed during numerical
mixed CTP lubrication model problem combining the average calculation, and vice versa.

104
Numerical Analysis on Hydrodynamics of Circular Translational Polishing under Mixed Lubrication

AVERAGE REYNOLDS EQUATION T=2È/É.


In the mixed lubrication model shown in Fig.2, the wafer After the above model equations are non-dimensionalized,
can be treated as smooth while the pad is rough with a finite difference formula are used to discretize Reynolds
combined roughness  1+2, which has a standard equation (3) into linear algebraic equations. The discretization
root-square deviation of roughness =( 1+ 2)0.5. is executed on a wafer of diameter 80 mm, which is meshed into
40×40 nodes along radial and circumferential directions, as
shown in Fig.3. The pressures at each node point can be
2 obtained by solving the resultant linear algebraic equations with
Gauss-Seidel iteration method.
h hT

1
Fig. 2 Microcosmic interface between wafer and pad

By using the transformation between Cartesian coordinates


and corresponding polar ones, the average Reynold’s equation
derived by Patir and Cheng [8] can be described in polar
cylindrical coordinates as:
­w 3 wp 1 w 3 wp
°° wr (I r rh ˜ wr )  r ˜ wT (IT h ˜ wT ) A
®
° A 6 P ªVr ˜ w (rhT )  VrV ˜ w (rI s )  VT ˜ whT  VT V ˜ wI s  2r ˜ whT º Fig.3 Mesh discretization on the wafer for
« wt »¼
¯° ¬ wr wr wT wT finite difference method
(3)
In this Mix-lubricated CTP model the external downward
Here, h is the local nominal film thickness; Ir , IT are the force acting on the wafer are balanced by the total load resulted
from both the slurry pressure and the asperity contact pressure.
pressure flow factors in r and T directions respectively; Is is
the shear flow factor. They can be represented as [4]: 2S 1

0.56 h
W ³ ³ [ p(r,T )  p (r,T )] ˜ r ˜ drdT
0 0
c
(9)

Ir I T 1  0.9e V
The moments resulting from these pressures can then be
0.98 §h· §h·
2
calculated:
§h· 0.92 ¨ ¸ 0.05¨ ¸
©V ¹ ©V ¹ (4)
I s 1.899¨ ¸ ˜e 2S 1
³ ³ [ p(r ,T )  p (r ,T )] ˜ r ˜ sin T ˜ drdT
2
©V ¹ Mx c
0 0
(10)
The average local film thickness as shown in Fig.2 for a 2S 1
³ ³ [ p(r, T )  p (r , T )] ˜ r ˜ cos T ˜ drdT
2
Gaussian distributed rough surface can be obtained by: My c
0 0

hT
h
2
>
1  erf ( h / 2V ) 
2S
e @
V h2 / 2V 2
(5) The initial pressure at the center point of the wafer was set as
the average pressure on the wafer, while during iteration the
Here, erf (x) is the error function pressure was determine as the average of the pressures at the
nodes of the inner loop. As a boundary condition, the pressures
ASPERITY CONTACT PRESSURE EQUATION on the edge of the wafer were set as ambient pressure. The
The asperity contact pressure between pad and wafer can be calculation for the fluid pressure continues until the load
obtained by using Greenwood and Tripp elastic contact model resulted from the pressure as described by equation (9) are
[9]: balanced with the externally applied one (with a relative error of
0.05%).
§4· (6)
pa ¨ ¸ ˜ (KEV ) ˜ F3 / 2 (h / V ) ˜ E c ˜ V / E
©3¹ RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
f
The representative input parameter values for analysis are
F3 / 2 (h / V ) ³
h /V
(]  2h / V ) 3 / 2 ˜ f (] )d] (7)
shown in Table 1. The instantaneous 3-D fluid pressure
For the physical meaning of each parameter, refer to [9]. distribution is shown in Fig.4, where, X=x/r0,Y=y/r0. The pad at
this moment is moving from minus to plus along y axis, and the
SOLUTION PROCEDURES wafer tilts with the rotating angle of 45o from x axis, thus the
fluid is brought in along y axis by polishing pad.
The following dimensionless parameters are applied to
From Fig.4, we see that there is negative fluid pressure
above Reynolds equation to decrease the errors of numerical
calculation and improve computing succinctness. spreading over the inlet area of wafer. This can be seen clearer
from the corresponding contour plot in Fig.5(a). The maximum
r0 ˈ r ˈ h ˈ p ˈ t
F r h p t (8) negative pressure occurs near the center of the inlet region,
h piv r0 h piv p0 T while the maximum positive one is formed at the second
Here, r0 is radius of wafer, p0 the ambient pressure, and T is quadrant but in the vicinity of  o. Further case studies show
the periodic time of the direction change of polishing velocity, that the exact positions of both the positive and the negative

105
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

pressure spikes depend on the direction-changing frequency of


the pad velocity vector.
Fig.5(b) shows the contour of slurry film thickness. From
hydrodynamic theory (Reynolds equation), we know pressure
distribution is directly related to the nature and distribution of

Y axis
film thickness, on which pad deformation affects a lot as
shown by Eq.(2) and Fig.6.
Film thickness distribution can affect the distribution of
abrasive particles in the slurry, and the contact probability with
wafer. The more uniform of the film thickness, the larger
contact area of particles with wafer, thus the larger the wafer’s
material removal rate.
X axis
Table 1 Typical input parameters for analysis Fig.6 Contour plot of pad deformation
Parameter Values Fig.7 shows the distribution of dimensionless asperity
Translational velocity
1.2 m/s - contact pressure, which increases along the radial direction of
Rotation speed  150 rmp - the wafer, though its value is much smaller than the
Initial standard nominal 10m hydrodynamic one in the case studied. 
clearance h0

Dimensionless contact pressure


Attack angle 0.00028o
Rotating angle 45o
Viscosity 0.00214 pa.s
Radius of wafer R0 40 mm
Down force W 200 N -
Combined surface roughness 10m
Y axis
X axis
Asperity characteristics  0.04
Ratio between roughness and 0.01 Fig.7 3-D distribution of the asperity
asperity peak radius / contact pressure
Young’s modulus of work E1 130GPa
Young’s modulus of pad E2 100MPa The effects of surface roughness on fluid pressure and
contact pressure are shown in Fig.8. With the increase of
Poisson’s ratio of work v1 0.28 surface roughness, contact pressure increases slightly; both
Poisson’s ratio of pad v2 0.4 positive and negative hydrodynamic spike pressure increase
with surface roughness when it is below 9 m, but they drop
Dimensionless fluid pressure

when surface roughness is larger than that. This finding needs


further confirmation.



Dimensionless contact
Dimensionless fluid
pressure, p1 and p2


pressure, pc



Y axis 
X axis

Fig.4 The instantaneous 3-D fluid pressure distribution


Surface roughness, Ê, m
Fig.8 Effects of surface roughness on fluid pressure
and contact pressure

Fig.9 shows the influence of working parameters on the


y axis

y axis

maximum slurry film thickness and pad deformation. We can


see that film thickness increases with polishing speed, but
decreases with rotating speed and externally applied download,
while pad deformation decreases with the increase of polishing
speed, but increases with the increase of rotating speed and
applied load.
X axis X axis
The effects of the working parameters on fluid pressure
(a) Dimensionless fluid pressure (b) Film thickness
and contact pressure are shown in Fig.10. Though being small
values in all cases studied, contact pressure decreases with the
Fig.5 Contour of fluid pressure and film thickness

106
Numerical Analysis on Hydrodynamics of Circular Translational Polishing under Mixed Lubrication

polishing speed, since higher polishing speed results in a larger


thickeness, h (m)

deformation, d (m)
film thickness. Higher applied load leads to larger contact
Minimum film

pressure, while rotating frequency has little effect on it. From

Maximum pad
Fig.10 we can see that the maximum positive fluid pressure
and negative pressure change in a proportional accord in all
circumstances, i.e., the higher the positive pressure, the higher
W=100, =200rpm the negative one, and vice versa. As regards the negative
pressure, we find it decreases with the polishing speed but
increases with rotating speed and applied load.
Polishing speed, Ë (m/s) Fig.11 shows the influence of working parameters on the
resultant moments in x and y axis due to hydrodynamic
pressure and asperity contact pressure. In all the cases studied,

deformation, d (m)
moment in x axis is always much larger than that in y axis.
thickness, h (m)
Minimum film

Polishing speed and applied download exert a great influence

Maximum pad
on moment in x axis, while rotating speed affects it little.
Higher polishing speed results in lower moment, while higher
W=100Nˈv=1.2m/s load leads to larger one. Moment in y axis is slightly, if not
negligibly, influenced by these variables.

Torques Mx and ,My(Nm)


Rotating speed, ¹ (rpm)
deformation, d (m)
thickness, h (m)

W=100, =200rpm
Maximum pad
Minimum film

=150rpm, v=1.2m/s

Polishing speed, Ë (m/s)


Torques Mx and ,My(Nm)

Applied download, W (N)


Fig.9 Influence of working parameters on W=100Nˈv=1.2m/s
film thickness and pad deformation
Dimensionless contact

W=100, =200rpm
Dimensionless fluid
pressure, p1 and p2

pressure, cp

Rotating speed, ¹ (rpm)


Torques Mx and ,My(Nm)

=150rpm, v=1.2m/s

Polishing speed, Ë (m/s)


Dimensionless contact
Dimensionless fluid
pressure, p1 and p2

pressure, cp

Applied download, W (N)


W=100Nˈv=1.2m/s Fig.11 Effects of working parameters on
resultant moments
Rotating speed, É(rpm)
CONCLUSION
=150rpm, v=1.2m/s The mixed lubrication model equations of CTP process
Dimensionless contact
Dimensionless fluid

has been solved by the finite difference method. Negative fluid


pressure, p1 and p2

pressure, cp

pressure occurred in the inlet area of wafer is thought to be


determined by the distribution/shape of the slurry film
thickness, to which pad deformation contributes a lot. Surface
roughness seems to have little effect on hydrodynamic pressure
and contact pressure.
The parametric study shows the effects of applied load,
Applied download, W (N) pad velocity and rotation speed on the hydrodynamic pressure,
asperity contact pressure, minimum film thickness, as well as
Fig.10 Effects of working parameters on
pad deformation, which is helpful to further optimize CTP
fluid pressure and contact pressure process variables.

107
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

REFERENCES [5]Higgs III, C.Fred, Ng, Sum Huan, 2005, “A


[1] Yu, T. K., Yu, C. C., Orlowski, M., 1993, “Statistical Mixed-Lubrication Approach to Predicting CMP Fluid
polishing pad model for Chemical Mechnical polishing,” Pressure Modeling and Experiments” Journal of
Technical Digest International Electron Devices Meeting, Electrochemical Society, 152(3), pp.G193-198.
pp.865-868. [6] Zhai W.J., Wang Y.L. and Liu C.X., 2006, “Characteristic
analysis of circular-translational-grinding of plane work”
[2] Lin, J. F., 2003, “Analysis of the Effect of Abrasive Particle Harbin Institute of Technology (in Chinese), 38 Sup., pp.
Size on the Tribological Mechanisms Arising in the 95-97.
Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Copper Film Wafers”, [7] Zhai, W.J, Liu C.X, 2006, “Hydrodynamic Analysis of
Journal of Chinese Society of Mechanical Engineers, 24(4), Chemmical Mechanical Polishing with Circular
pp.353-376. Translational Moving”, Lubrication Engineering (in
[3] Lin, J.F. Chen, S.C., etal., 2006, “ Analysis of the Chinese), 179(7), pp.45-48.
Tribological Mechanisms Arising in the Chemical [8] Zhai, W.J, Liu C.X, and Feng P.L, 2007, “Hydrodynamic
Mechanical Polishing of Copper-Film Wafers When Using Analysis of Circular Translational Polishing under Mixed
a Pad with Concentric Grooves”, ASME J of Tribology, Lubrication”, Key Engineering Materials, 359-360,
128, pp. 445-459. pp.264-268.
[4] Ng, Sum Huan, Higgs III, C. Fred, 2005, “An Analysis of
Lubrication in Chemical Mechanical Polishing” Journal of
Tribology, 127, pp.287-292.

108
Micro-Tribological Analysis of POM-MoS2-Compounds

Micro-Tribological Analysis of POM-MoS2-Compounds

R. Stengler*, S. Schraube Darmstadt Institute of Plastics Engineering, University of Applied Sciences,


D-64295 Darmstadt, Germany stengler@h-da.de

X. G. Hu Institute of Tribology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China

s (Extended Abstract)

ABSTRACT RESULTS
Blending MoS2-particles (Molybdenum-disulfide) in a As a result, distinctive recurring characteristics for each
POM-Matrix (Polyoxymethylen) results in a plastic alloy group of samples appeared. Many of the results are
with high qualifications for frictional stressed applications. comparable to others, which leads to a new strategic focus on
The tribological behavior depends on the MoS2 content. how the material’s surface-qualities can be furthermore
Keywords: Microtribology, Lubricants enhanced.
As an example the following figure shows the relation
INTRODUCTION between the coefficient of friction, the abrasion and the
Polyoxymethylen was compounded with three different permanent deformation of the surfaces.
versions of MoS2-particles (micro-, nano-sized and
restacked), each batch with three different shares of MoS2-
quantity.
This research project investigates the micro-mechanical
attributes of two dimensional samples. The equipment used
for this work was the UST (Universal Surface Tester)
produced by the German company Innowep.
This highly sensitive device is an instrument to analyze
permanent, plastic, elastic, and viscoelastic properties of a
surface - punctual as well as along a line or an area. The
distinctive feature of the UST is that it works with high
sensitive sensor technology in very low load-dimensions of 1
to 1000mN.
When using the UST a free selectable tip-head scans the
surface of a sample along a selectable linear distance;
whereas the load on the tip-head, its speed and path-distance
is free selectable.

Fig. 2 Friction-abrasion-deformation

This work definitely gives an interesting insight in the


POM-MoS2 material properties using micro-, nano-sized and
restacked MoS2-particles.
Fig. 1 Tip-head selection Additionally this gives a chance to get to know a new
surface-testing method for the research of micro-scaled
The UST detects the vertical deflection of the tip-head. surface analysis in numerous applications .
The joined data from these measurements define the
deformation-, abrasion-, retraction- and wear-properties as ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
well as micro-tribological properties of the surface.
The representative focus of this research is on the linear- This work was supported by the NanoNetzwerk Hessen.
reset behavior, the scratch-resistance-test, the abrasion-test
and the friction-test. (The whole paper will be supplied by the authorsif reader
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. needs it.)

109
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

On Lubrication Characteristics of Dual Tori Double-Enveloping Toroidal Worm Drive


*
Yaping Zhao /College of Machinery and Automation Wenjun Wei/College of Engineering
(WUST, Wuhan P R China) (CAU, Beijing P R China)
Xuezhu Dong/ College of Engineering Jiancheng Zhou/EDT Diecasting Technology Co.,Ltd
(CAU, Beijing P R China) (Suzhou P R China)

(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
2.3 Worm helicoid equation and its parameters
Based on the theory of elastohydrodynamic
lubrication (EHL), a mathematic model is developed and
corresponding computer programs are proposed for calculating 3 THE SECOND ENVELOPING
the EHL characteristic parameters of a novel type of toroidal
3.1 Relative motion and meshing function in the second
worm drive, including the geometrical coefficient of minimum
oil film thickness, the average entrainment velocity, the enveloping
lubricating angle, the velocity ratio of sliding and rolling and
so on, by using the theory of gearing. The numerical examples 3.2 Worm gear tooth flank equation
show the verification and validation of the principium and the
model. The simulation investigation demonstrates that the dual 3.3 Geometrical parameters in the second enveloping
tori double-enveloping toroidal worm drive has better
lubricating property. In this foundation, the preliminary rules
of selecting the design and technical parameters are proposed 4 LUBRICATION PROPERTIES OF WORM PAIR
for this type of toroidal worm drive.
Keywords: Worm Drive, Double-Enveloping, Elastohydrody-
namic Lubrication, Meshing Analysis
5 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES AND DISCUSSION
1 INTRODUCTION
This is a novel type of hourglass worm set. The two
flanks of one tooth space of the toroidal worm are 6 CONCLUSIONS
envelope-finished at the same time by using a grinding
wheel with two tori, which are symmetrical about its
mid-plane. A worm gear is enveloped by using a toroidal ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
hob, whose generating flank is accordant with the
The research work in this paper was fully supported
corresponding toroidal worm helicoid. After mating the
by the National Natural Science Foundation of China
worm and the worm gear, a dual tori double-enveloping
under Grant No. 50705068, China Hubei Provincial
toroidal worm drive is presented [1].
Natural Science Foundation under Grant No.
Besides the favorable manufacturability, the toroidal
2007ABA282, and the Key Program of Science
worm drive is of great advantages for transmission as
Research Foundation of Wuhan University of Science
shown in the preliminary researches, such as longer
and Technology under Grant No. 2006XZ6.
double-line working length of the worm and shorter
twice contact time of the worm pair [2], better
distribution of instantaneous contact lines of the worm REFERENCES
drive, broader contact zone [3] and lower contact stress
[1] Zhao, Y., “A Type of Dual Rotation Surfaces
of tooth surfaces and so on. Furthermore, unlike the
Double-enveloping Toroidal Worm Pair and Its Generating
previous one, the worm set can be used on the condition Method”, China patent, 200610124466.8, CN1970208,
of “many-head” and “small drive ratio” because as far as 2006 (in processing, in Chinese).
the worm is concerned, the edge tooth top is usually [2] Zhao, Y., 2007, “Meshing Limit Line of the Dual-Torus
sufficiently thick [4] and there is no undercutting. Double-Enveloping Toroidal Worm Drive and
In the present paper, on the basis of the theory of Configuration of the Worm Helicoids”, Journal of Wuhan
elastohydrodynamic lubrication, theoretical research is University of Science and Technology, 31 (1), pp.74-77. (in
made on the lubricating property of the worm set by Chinese)
using the theory of gearing. [3] Zhao, Y., Dong, X., Wei Wen., Wei, G., 2006, “Study on the
Tooth Surface Configuration of Dual Tori
Double-enveloping Worm Pair without Tooth Flank
2 THE FIRST ENVELOPING
Modification” ē Proc. of ICMT’2006, Chongqing, P R
2.1 Generating flank equation and its parameters China㧦Sept, pp.180-184.
[4] Zhao, Y., Wei, Wen., Dong, X., 2007, “Tooth Thickness of
2.2 Relative motion and meshing function in the first Dual Tori Enveloping Toroidal Worm”, Proc. of The 12th
enveloping World Congress in Mechanism and Machine Science,
Besançon, FRANCE: June, pp.133-138.
*Corresponding Author.
[5] Dong, X., 1989, Theoretical Foundation of Gear Meshing,
E-mail address: zhaoyaping1975@126.com.

110
On Lubrication Characteristics of Dual Tori Double-Enveloping Toroidal Worm Drive

Mechanical Industry Press, Beijing. (in Chinese) [10] J. Oprea, 2003, Differential Geometry and Its Applications
[6] Litvin, F. L., 1994, Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, (2nd Edition), Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. [11] Wen, S., Yang, P., 1992, Elastohydrodynamic Lubricating,
[7] Dong, X., 2004, Toroidal Worm Drives Design and Tsinghua University Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
Modification, Mechanical Industry Press, Beijing. (in
Chinese)
[8] Wu, D., Luo, J., 1992, A Geometric Theory of Conjugate
Tooth Surfaces, World Scientific, Singapore.
[9] F. Di Puccio, M. Gabiccini, M. Guiggiani, 2006,
“Generation and Curvature Analysis of Conjugate Surfaces (The whole paper will be supplied by the authors if reader
Via a New Approach”, Mechanism and Machine Theory,
needs it.)
41 (9) , pp.382-404.

111
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Thermoelastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of Crankshaft Bearing Considering


Crankshaft Deformation under Load
*
Jun Sun , Jianglin Liu, and Changlin Gui

School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China

ABSTRACT and the performance of main bearing considering journal


Journal misalignment in bearing caused by crankshaft misalignment was presented by Lahmar[4,5]. Journal
deformation under load exists generally in IC engine. When misalignments were usually thought to be caused by
serious journal misalignment takes place, the minimum oil film manufacturing, assembly errors and cylinder block deformation
thickness of bearing reduces greatly and the maximum oil film in above analyses. And, in order to simplify the problem,
pressure of bearing increases remarkably. So, it is necessary to journal misalignment was generally assumed to be constant in
consider thermal effects and deformation of bearing surface magnitude and direction. The thermal effects were not
when analyzing hydrodynamic lubrication characteristics of considered. Some researches on lubrication performance of
misaligned bearing. In this paper, the thermoelastohydrodymic crankshaft bearing considering journal misalignment caused by
lubrication properties of crankshaft bearings considering crankshaft deformation under load were accomplished and
crankshaft deformation under load for a four-cylinder IC engine useful results were gained by authors [6]. But, there were many
were analyzed. The lubrication of crankshaft bearing was hypotheses, such as constant oil temperature and rigid surface of
analyzed by kinetics method. The deformation of bush surface bearing, in these analyses. When severe journal misalignment
under pressure of oil film was calculated by deformation matrix takes place, the maximum oil film pressure increases obviously.
method. The crankshaft deformation and the load of crankshaft The difference between hypotheses of constant oil temperature
bearing were calculated by whole crankshaft beam-element and not considering elastic deformation of bearing surface and
method. The temperature distributions of journal, bearing and actual conditions exists. Till now, the
lubricant were calculated by solving 3-D energy equation and thermoelastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of crankshaft
heat conduction equation. The results show that, when bearing considering journal misalignment caused by crankshaft
crankshaft deformation is considered, the thermal effects have deformation under load has not been done.
great influence on the orbit, the maximum oil film pressure and In order to make analyzing results close to actual
the minimum oil film thickness of crankshaft bearing, but the condition, in this paper, the crankshaft-bearing system of a
thermal effects affect the end flow-rate and friction coefficient
four-cylinder internal combustion engine was taken as studied
of journal much little.
subject. The lubrications of crankshaft bearings considering
Keywords: Thermal effects, Elastohydrodynamic lubrication,
crankshaft deformation under load, thermal effects and
Bearing, Crankshaft deformation, IC engine
deformation of bearing surface under oil pressure were analyzed.
Table 1 shows the configuration parameters etc of crankshaft
INTRODUCTION bearings.
Crankshaft bearing is one of the important parts for internal
combustion engine. Along with continuous increase of current Table 1 Configuration parameters etc of crankshaft bearing
demand for power performance and reliability of internal Rotational speed n (r/min) 2600
combustion engine, the working conditions of crankshaft Relative clearance  0.00158
Radius of main bearing Rm (mm) 32.5
bearing become more and more rigorous. In order to adapt the
Length of main bearing Lm (mm) 22
development of internal combustion engine and assure the Groove width of main bearing bo(mm) 4
working reliability and endurance of crankshaft bearing, the Radius of connecting-rod bearing Rc (mm) 27
design method of crankshaft bearing needs to be improved Length of connecting-rod bearing Lc (mm) 26
continuously and the lubrication theory of crankshaft bearing Initial viscosity of lubricant 0 (Pa.s) 0.1193
Oil pressure at inlet p0 (Pa) 2×104
for predicting performance of bearing more accurately needs to
Equivalent mass of main journal mm (kg) 0.775
be studied still further. Equivalent mass of connecting-rod journal mc (kg) 0.568
A great deal of important advancements in study on
lubrication of crankshaft bearing for internal combustion engine
ANALYTICAL FORMULATION AND METHOD
has been acquired. However, current studies on lubrication of
crankshaft bearing were performed usually based on The crankshaft deformation and the load of crankshaft
tribological theory. Only the factors of bearing itself were taken bearing were calculated by whole crankshaft beam-element
into account. In reality, there is direct interaction between method [7], and the axis orbits of crankshaft bearings were
crankshaft and crankshaft bearing in engine. Crankshaft calculated by kinetics method in lubrication analyses of
deformation is caused under load, which will result in journal crankshaft bearings [6].
misalignment in bearings, change the clearance shape of FILM THICKNESS
bearing and affect the performance of bearings. Although Because the material rigidity of crankshaft journal is
journal misalignment was considered in a few of lubrication generally much higher than that of bush surface, here only
analyses of crankshaft bearing for internal combustion engine, the elastic deformation of bush surface under oil film
for example the effect of journal misalignment on performance pressure is considered in oil film thickness equation. Thus
of connecting-rod bearing was analyzed by Maspeyrot[1,2], oil film thickness of bearing is given by
the lubrication of main bearing considering elastic h h0  G (1)
deformation of cylinder block was studied by Garnier[3] where h0 is the oil film thickness when not considering elastic
deformation of bush surface, which can be given by [8]
*Corresponding author. Email: sunjun_hfut@163.com.

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Thermoelastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of Crankshaft Bearing Considering Crankshaft Deformation under Load

L
h0 c  e0 cos(T  \ 0 )  tgJ ( y  )cos(T  D ang  \ 0 )
2
where c is radius clearance, e0 and 0 represent eccentricity
vector of journal at mid-plane of bearing, ang is angle between
projection of journal rear centerline and eccentricity vector e0, 
is angle of journal misalignment.
 is the change of oil film thickness caused by elastic
deformation of bush surface of bearing under oil film pressure.
CALCULATION OF ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF BUSH
SURFACE OF BEARING
Fig. 1 Finite element model of connecting-rod bearing
The elastic deformations of all nodes on bush surface
under oil film pressure are calculated by deformation matrix
method.
FORMULA OF DEFORMATION MATRIX METHOD
G=K˜p (2)
where G is radial deformation matrix of all nodes on bearing
surface under oil film pressure, K is compliance matrix
which is gained by finite element analysis of bearing, and p
is oil film pressure matrix of all nodes on bearing surface.
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF BEARING
(1) Connecting-rod bearing
Generally combined together by bolts, bush, cap
and body of connecting-rod can be considered as a whole
body in analysis. When dividing model into element, bush is
divided by hexahedron element and other parts of
connecting-rod are divided by tetrahedron element. The element
division on bush surface is controlled specially to make nodes
Fig. 2 Finite element model of main bearing
on bush surface correspond with nodes of difference grid used
to calculate oil film pressure of bearing and assure oil film
where,
pressure of bearing can be applied correspondingly on bush h
³ K dz
surface. Finite element model of connecting-rod bearing is 1
F0
shown in Fig. 1, which consists of 6625 elements and 12988 0
nodes. h š
³ K dz
z
(2) Main bearing F1 z F0
0
Finite element model of main bearing is shown in Fig. 2, š F1
which is composed of bush, main bearing cap and top-half part z
of main bearing housing in cylinder block. Bush is divided by F0
h Uz š
³
hexahedron element and other parts of main bearing housing are
F2 ( z  z )dz
divided by tetrahedron element. Model of main bearing consists 0 K
of 13877 elements and 4568 nodes. p is oil film pressure, U j is velocity of journal surface and U j
ESTABLISHMENT OF COMPLIANCE MATRIX =R j  j, R j is journal radius,  j is angular velocity of journal,
The deformations of all nodes on bush surface are U b is velocity of bearing surface and U b =R b  b , R b is
calculated when unit oil film pressure is acted on each node bearing radius and  b is angular velocity of bearing,  is
according to given sequence of nodes on bush surface. The density of lubricant, K is viscosity of lubricant.
elements of a certain row of compliance matrix consist of radial Eq. (3) is solved by finite difference method.
deformation of a certain node when unit oil film pressure is ENERGY EQUATION
acted individually on all nodes of bush surface. The elements of
wT wT wT w 2T wu wv
a certain column of compliance matrix are composed of radial Ucp (u v  ) K 2  K[( ) 2  ( ) 2 ] (4)
deformations of all nodes on bush surface when unit oil film Rb wT wy wt wz wz wz
pressure is acted on a certain node. The number of rows and where T is temperature of oil film, u and v are axial and
columns of formed compliance matrix is equal to the number of radial velocity of oil respectively, c p is specific thermal
nodes on bush surface. In this paper, the number of nodes on capacity of oil, and K is heat conduction ratio.
bush surface of connecting-rod bearing and main bearing is 468 EQUATION OF SOLID HEAT CONDUCTION
and 396 respectively, thus the number of row and column of w 2Tb 1 wTb w 2Tb 1 w 2Tb Uc wT
compliance matrix for connecting-rod bearing and main bearing    (5)
is 468 and 396 respectively. wr 2 r wr wy 2 r 2 wT 2 K wt
REYNOLDS EQUATION
where T b is temperature of bearing.
w wp w wp
( F2 ) ( F2 ) RELATION OF OIL VISCOSITY-TEMPERATURE
Rb wT Rb wT wy wy The CD30 diesel oil was used and Vogel expression about
F (3) oil viscosity-temperature relation was adopted in analysis.
w ( Uh  U 1 )
F0 w F wh K 0.5076 u 10 3 exp[3434.6 /(T  22.29)] (6)
Uj  Ub ( 1) U
Rb wT Rb wT F0 wt LOAD EQUILIBRIUM EQUATION
If the effect of oil film inertia is not considered, the

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Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

motion of journal axis of bearing conforms to Newton


second law, that is
dv
P  F mj (7)
dt
where P is bearing load, F is resultant oil film force of
bearing, m j is equivalent mass of journal and v is velocity
of journal axis.
RESULTANT OIL FILM FORCE OF BEARING
Components of oil film force at x and z coordinate are
found from
L T2
Fx 
³ ³T
0 1
pRb sin TdTdy
(a) Front-end plane
L T2
Fz 
³ ³T 0 1
pRb cos TdTdy (8)

Resultant oil film force F is then as follows:


F Fx 2  Fz 2 (9)
END LEAKAGE FLOW-RATE
The oil flow-rate Q1 from front-end plane of bearing and
the oil flow-rate Q2 from rear-end plane of bearing are given by
2S h 3 wp
Q1 
³
0
˜
12K wy y 0
˜ Rb dT

2S h 3 wp
Q2 
³0
˜
12K wy y L
˜ Rb dT (10) (b) Mid-plane

The total end leakage flow-rate of lubricant is then given


by
Q | Q1 |  | Q2 | (11)
FRICTION COEFFICIENT
The friction force on journal surface can be calculated
from
L 2S § h wp U jK ·
Fj
³³ ¨
¨
0 0 © 2 Rb w T

h ¸¹
¸ Rb dTdy (12)

The friction coefficient on journal surface is then given by


Fj
Pj (13) (c) Rear-end plane
F
consideing thermaleffects
 not consideing thermal effects
Fig. 3 Axis orbit of No. 4 main bearing
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Thermoelastohydrodynamic lubrications of crankshaft The minimum oil film thickness of No. 4 main
bearings considering crankshaft deformation under load in rated bearing in an engine working cycle considering and not
condition of engine were analyzed based on above equations considering thermal effects is shown in Fig. 5. Thermal
and calculating methods. effects have obvious influence on the minimum oil film
As an example of results, the axis orbits on front-end thickness of bearing. The minimum oil film thickness of
plane, mid-plane and rear-end plane of No. 4 main bearing bearing reduces evidently when thermal effects are
considering and not considering thermal effects is shown in considered.
Fig. 3. The axis orbit of bearing considering thermal effects The end leakage flow-rate of No. 4 main bearing in an
alters in the same tendency with the one that not considered engine working cycle considering and not considering
thermal effects. Compared with the one not considered, the thermal effects is shown in Fig. 6. Thermal effects have
eccentricity ratio of bearing has some difference when little influence on the end leakage flow-rate of bearing in
thermal effects is considered duo to different temperature most time of an engine working cycle. Only in part time of
existing at different point in bearing. an engine working cycle, thermal effects have some
The maximum oil film pressure of No. 4 main bearing influence on the end leakage flow-rate of bearing.
in an engine working cycle considering and not considering The friction coefficient of journal of No. 4 main
thermal effects is shown in Fig. 4. The maximum oil film bearing in an engine working cycle considering and not
pressure of bearing increases remarkably when thermal considering thermal effects is shown in Fig. 7. As shown in
effects are considered. the figure, thermal effects have little influence on the
friction coefficient of bearing.

114
Thermoelastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of Crankshaft Bearing Considering Crankshaft Deformation under Load

consideing thermaleffects
 not consideing thermal effects consideing thermaleffects
Fig. 4 Maximum oil film pressure pmax of No. 4 main bearing  not consideing thermal effects
against crankshaft angle CA in an engine working cycle Fig. 6 End leakage flow-rate Q of No. 4 main bearing against
crankshaft angle CA in an engine working cycle

consideing thermaleffects consideing thermaleffects


 not consideing thermal effects  not consideing thermal effects
Fig. 5 Minimum oil film thickness hmin of No. 4 main bearing Fig. 7 Friction coefficient of journal j of No. 4 main bearing
against crankshaft angle CA in an engine working cycle against crankshaft angle CA in an engine working cycle

[2] Maspeyrot, P., 1990, “Comparison between aligned and


CONCLUSIONS
misaligned bearings under dynamic loading in both
(1) When deformation of crankshaft under load is quasi-static and dynamic misalignment,” 17th
considered, thermal effects have obvious influence on Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Leeds.
axis orbit of crankshaft bearing. The eccentricity ratio of [3] Garnier, T., 1999, “Three-dimensional EHD behavior of
bearing changes some when thermal effects are the engine block/crankshaft assembly for a four
considered. cylinder inline automotive engine,” Journal of
(2) When thermal effects are considered, the Tribology(Transaction of the ASME) , 121(4),
maximum oil film pressures of misaligned crankshaft pp.721-730.
bearing increases remarkably, and the minimum oil film [4] Lahmar, M., 2000, “Comparison of the dynamic
thicknesses of misaligned crankshaft bearing reduces behaviour of two misaligned crankshaft bearings,”
evidently. Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers,
(3) The thermal effects have some influence on the Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 214(8),
end leakage flow-rate of misaligned crankshaft bearing in pp.991-997.
part time of an engine working cycle, and have little [5] Lahmar, M., 2002, “The effect of misalignment on
influence on the friction coefficients of journal of performance characteristics of engine main crankshaft
misaligned crankshaft bearing. bearings,” European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids,
21(4), pp.703-714.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS [6] Sun, J., 2005, Coupling Research on Tribology, Stiffness
Authors would like to express their gratitude to the and Strength of Crankshaft-bearing System, Dissertation for
Committee of National Natural Science Foundation of China Doctor Degree, Hefei University (Chinese).
for the financial support of research (50175023, 50575065) [7] Sun, J., Gui, C. L., 2007, “Effect of lubrication status of
and the permission to publish this paper. bearing on crankshaft strength,” Journal of
Tribology(Transaction of the ASME), 129(4),
REFERENCES pp.887-894.
[8] Sun, J., Gui, C. L., 2004, “Hydrodynamic lubrication
[1] Maspeyrot, P., 1988, “Shape defects and misalignment analysis of journal bearing considering misalignment
effects in connecting-rod bearings,” 15th Leeds-Lyon caused by shaft deformation,” Tribology International,
Symposium on Tribology, Leeds. 37(10), pp.841-848.

115
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Transient Behavior of Elasto-Metal-Plastic Journal Bearing during the Stage of Stop

Jian Jin, Guoxian Zhang, Xiaojing Wang

Department of Mechanical Automation, Shanghai University, 200072, China

ABSTRACT H 1  H cos( )  T )  E def  Tdef (1)


The different characteristics under a steady load between
The 3D velocity equations are:
babbitted journal bearing and elasto-metal-plastic (EMP)
w p y y  ym 1 y dy
w) ³0 P ³
journal bearing during the stage of stop are discussed. u H2 dy 1 (2)
F0 0
P
Transient thermoelastohydrodynamic (TEHD) model is
established. Bearing performances are analyzed in terms of cH y § wu D w w ·
transient temperature, thermo-elastic deformations. Results
v 
R ³
0
¨¨  ¸¸d y
© w) L w z ¹
(3)
show that elastic deformations on EMP bush surface are more w p D y y  ym
w z L ³0 P
visible than babbitted bush. A cavity with some lubricant sealed w H2 dy (4)
in it is formed on EMP bush surface during stopping, while the While the boundary conditions are:
shaft is still supported by lubricant. Full contact of the rotor and
­° y 0, u 1 , v w 0
the bush surface is avoided. ® (5)
Keywords: Journal bearing, EMP bush, Oil slip, Transient °̄ y 1, u v s , v w 0
TEHD The pressure is determined by the modified Reynolds
equation:
w § wp · § D· w § wp· w § F ·
2
wH wH
¸¸ 1  v
INTRODUCTION ¨¨ H F
3
¸¸  ¨ ¸ ¨¨ H F ¨¨ H ¸¸  v
3
 (6) s
1
s
w) © w) ¹ © L ¹ w z © w) © w)
2 2
wz ¹ F0 ¹ wt
Babbitt is a conventional lining material in the pads of
The classical Reynolds boundary conditions are associated
hydrodynamic bearings. However, a temperature limit is
with Reynolds equation. The inlet groove is located on the load
imposed to keep bearing operation safe. At elevated
line in the maximum film thickness zone.
temperatures, babbitt loses its strength and starts to creep. To
The temperature in the film is obtained by solving the
sustain increased specific loads, new materials for bearing
transient energy equation:
lining are required. One attracting material is
wT wT R wT D wT
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Sheet PTFE is applied under u  v  w
wt w) cH w r L w z
high pressure to a cushion of bronze wire mesh so that the
PTFE flows into gaps in the wire mesh [1]. Then the pure kF § w 2 T § R ·2 w 2 T 2
R wT § D · w 2 T ·
¨ ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸ ¸¸
PTFE is attached to the steel backing with bronze wire U F cF Z0 R 2 ¨© w) 2 © cH ¹ wr
2
cH wr © ¹ w z
L 2
¹
interface. P0Z0 R 2 P ª§ wu · § w w · º
2 2

This kind of EMP pads has already been successfully used  «


2 ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸ » (7)
U F cF T0 c H «¨© w r ¸¹ ¨© w r ¸¹ »
2

in hydropower station of the former Soviet Union since 1970s’. ¬ ¼


Later, it was adopted in China. This is due to its outstanding The temperature in bush is defined as:
Ub cbZ0 R 2 wTb
2
properties: low coefficient of friction, broad temperature range, 1 w 2 Tb 1 wTb w 2 Tb § D · w 2 Tb
  ¨ ¸ (8)
wt rb w) rb w rb w rb 2 © L ¹ w z 2
2 2
excellent anti-seizure properties, superior resistance to kb
chemical attack and moisture. And this material can reduce In the inlet zone across the film, the inlet film temperature
oil-film temperature and power loss. The surface energy is low is calculated from conservation equation by the following
and it is difficult for the fluid to conglutinate. According to the relation:
theoretical and experimental results [2,3], oil slip exists on the Qr T r Ql T0
film-pad interface. The TEHD study of static characteristics in Ti (9)
Qr  Ql
EMP thrust bearings and journal bearings were performed where:
[4-8]. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the
c2
transient behavior of hydrodynamic journal bearings [9, 10]. H h/c , y y/h , z z /( L / 2) , P P / P0 , t Z0 t , p p ,
P 0 Z0 R 2
The transient TEHD phenomena that take place in the bearing
u v w vs
, F0 ³0 d y , F1 ³0 yd y ,
1 1
could lead to seizure, which practically means the destruction u ,v ,w , vs ,T T / T0
Z0 R Z0 R Z0 R Z0 R P P
of the bearing surfaces. There are still some other aspects of
EMP journal bearing operation, such as transient behavior F1
, F2 ³0 y( y  ym )d y
1
ym
during stopping, which are not fully understood. A further F0 P
study is presented in this paper. The viscosity is given with a satisfactory accuracy by the
exponential law:
ANALYSIS P (T ) P 0 exp[ E (T  T0 )] (10)
To predict the transient behavior of EMP journal bearing, a The equations of motion of the journal with no rotating
3D TEHD theoretical model considering oil slip on the unbalance in dimensional form are:
film-bush interface should be created. Fh mx
(11)
The theoretical analysis was already presented in detail [11, Fv  W my
12]. Consequently, only the major governing equations and Due to the complexity of the problem, the only way to solve
boundary conditions are given here. It is appropriate to use the it is to use numerical methods. The finite difference method is
dimensionless form. used to solve the constitutive equations. The Gauss-Seidel
The film thickness is given by: iterative scheme with over-relaxation is employed. The thermal

116
Transient Behavior of Elasto-Metal-Plastic Journal Bearing during the Stage of Stop

and elastic deformations of the bush are computed using the


finite element method. The numerical integration of Eq. (11) is
carried out by the fourth order Runge Kutta method with a bush
double precision arithmetic.

film
RESULTS AND DISCUSION
Simulations for both EMP journal bearings and babbitted
journal bearing are carried out. The geometrical characteristics
of the bearing and the operating conditions used for the
numerical simulation are presented in Table 1. The rotational
speed varies linearly from 1200 rpm to 0 in 10 s. The load is
fixed to 4000 N. The steady-state operating position is used as
the shaft initial position. The rotor doesn’t stop until it reaches
its static resting position in contact with the bearing.

Table 1 Data used in numerical simulations


Journal radius R (mm) 45
Bearing length L (mm) 65
Bush thickness B (mm) 12.5
Radial clearance c (mm) 0.11
Inlet lubricant temperature T0 (ć) 40
Ambient temperature Ta (ć) 25
EMP bush thermal kb (W.m-1.K-1) 2.05
Fig.1 Isotherms in film and bush (babbitted bearing)
conductivity
-1 -1
Lubricant thermal kF (W.m .K ) 0.13
conductivity
Bush specific heat cb (J/kggK) 1046
Lubricant specific heat cF (J/kggK) 1940
Bush density Ub (kg/m3) 2100
Lubricant density UF (kg/m3) 865
Coefficient of thermal Db (10-5K-1) 6.35
expansion
Dynamic viscosity at 40ć P0 (Pags) 0.0565
thermoviscosity coefficient E (1/K) 0.044
Poisson’s ratio Q ˉ 0.33

Fig.1 gives the isotherms in film and bush at two different


moments for babbitted journal bearing. The temperature
decreases along with time in the film and in the bush when the
heat provided by the shear stress decreases. After 5 seconds,
the maximum temperature decreases about 2.1ć. For the inner
bush surface, most of heat is evacuated by the oil flow. While
convective heat transfer is dominant for the outer bush surface.
So the temperature of the outer bush surface is higher than that
of the film-bush interface.
Fig.2 gives the isotherms in film and bush at two different
moments for EMP journal bearing. Firstly, the inlet film
Fig.2 Isotherms in film and bush (EMP journal bearing)
temperature decreases sharply. Later, it increases a little bit.
This is due to the decrease of the inlet flow. The thermal
conductivity of EMP is much smaller that of the babbitted one.
So, for the EMP journal bearing, the maximum temperature is The nondimensional maximum thermal and elastic
situated at the film-bush interface. It is quite different from the deformations of the babbitted bush at different moment is
babbitted journal bearing. Furthermore, it is obviously showed shown in Fig.3. The maximum elastic deformation resulted
that the temperature of EMP bearing is always lower than that of from the hydrodynamic pressure is much smaller than the
the babbitted one. This is certainly due to the oil slip on the EMP maximum thermal deformation. And the thermal deformation
bush surface. Much more heat is evacuated by the oil flow. decreases when temperature decreases.

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Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Nondimensional deformation

Nondimensional deformation
t (s) Bearing Circumferential angle
Fig.3 Nondimensional maximum thermal and elastic length
deformations of the babbitted bush (solid line---thermal
deformation, dashed line---elastic deformation) Fig.6 Coupled deformation of the EMP bush

Fig.4 gives the nondimensional maximum thermal and During stopping, boundary lubrication dominating in the
elastic deformations of the EMP bush at different moment. bearing and significant heating can occur in the contact. So the
Thermal deformation is bigger than elastic deformation at the rotor is normally jacked up. But the EMP bush has an extremely
beginning and the opposite result occurs at the end. This is low coefficient of friction. It can avoid the friction problem
because the peak value of pressure increases greatly during successfully. The EMP bearings have no requirement for a
stopping period. Young’s modulus of EMP is much smaller than jacking system during stopping. Furthermore, the coupled
that of Babbitt. The elastic deformation of EMP bush is much thermo-elastic deformation of the EMP bush leads to an
bigger than that of the babbitted one. increase in the radial bearing clearance. A cavity is formed on
the EMP bush surface. Some lubricant is sealed in it. Fully
contact of the rotor and bush surface is avoided.
The simulation results also show that the rotor stops at
Nondimensional deformation

9.421 s for the babbitted journal bearing while at 9.837 s for the
EMP journal bearing. This means the rotor speed of EMP
journal bearing is lower than that of the babbitted one when it
contacts the bearing. This also has a positive effect on bearing
operating characteristics.

CONCLUSIONS
For the oil slip on the film-bush interface, the temperature in
the film and in the EMP bush is about 3ć lower than the
t (s) babbitted bush journal bearing during stopping periods.
Fig.4 Nondimensional maximum thermal and elastic Deformations of the active surface due to pressure are quite
deformations of the EMP bush (solid line---thermal deformation, large and have to be taken into account. When the rotor stops,
dashed line---elastic deformation) large elastic deformation of the EMP bush results in a cavity on
the bush surface. The hydrodynamic film still separates the rotor
from bush surface. The feasibility of bearing damage decreases.
Fig.5 illustrates the coupled thermo-elastic deformation of Utilization of EMP bush prolongs bearing service life.
the babbitted bush. And Fig.6 gives the coupled thermo-elastic
deformation of the EMP bush. When the rotor ceases, the
coupled thermo-elastic deformation of the babbitted bush is so NOMENCLATURE
small that it has the same effect as roughness. Thus, the friction c = radial clearance (m)
area between bush and rotor is larger than the EMP one. cb = bush specific heat (J/kggK)
cF = lubricant specific heat (J/kggK)
Nondimensional deformation

e = eccentricity (m)
h = film thickness (m)
kb = EMP bush thermal conductivity (W.m-1.K-1)
kF = lubricant thermal conductivity (W.m-1.K-1)
m = journal mass (kg)
p = pressure (Pa)
t = time (s)
u , v, w = velocity components (m/s)
vs = slip velocity (m/s)
Bearing Circumferential angle x, y = Cartesian coordinate system
length B = bush thickness (m)
D = journal diameter (m)
Fig.5 Coupled deformation of the babbitted bush Edef = nondimensional elastic deformation

118
Transient Behavior of Elasto-Metal-Plastic Journal Bearing during the Stage of Stop

Fh , Fv = instantaneous film force components (N) [4] Wu, B.L., Wang, J.Z., 1992, “The operation of the Soviet
L = bearing length (m) thrust bearing pads from spring metal-plastic,” Large
Ql = leaking flow (m3/s) Electric Machine and Hydraulic Turbine, 1, pp. 6-10.
[5] Jin, J., Zhang, G.X., 2000, “Thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic
Qr = recirculating flow (m3/s)
analysis of EMP radial sliding bearing considering the
R = journal radius (m) effects of boundary slip,” Journal of Machine Design, 9,
T0 pp.16-19.
= inlet lubricant temperature (ć)
Ta [6] Ma, Z.Y., Dong, Y.X.,2000, “Thermoelastohydrodynamic
= ambient temperature (ć)
lubrication of PTFE thrust bearing,” Journal of Dalian
Tb = bush temperature (ć) University of Technology, 12, pp. 90-94.
Tdef = nondimensional thermal deformation [7] Liu, J., Wu, H.J., Liu, Z.M., Wang, Z.M., 2004,
Tr = temperature of the recirculating fluid (ć) “Characteristics of lubricating mechanism of elastic
Db metal-plastics bearing and its improvement,” Water
= coefficient of thermal expansion (10-5K-1) Power, 11, pp. 68-72.
E = thermoviscosity coefficient (1/K) [8] Gao, R., Wang, X.J., Pan, J.J., Xie, M.C., 2006, “The
H = eccentricity ratio, H e / c experimental research of the Elasto-Metal-Plastic thrust
P = dynamic viscosity (Pags) bearing during its start-up,” Lubrication Engineering, 7,
P0 = initial dynamic viscosity (Pags) pp. 100-101, 104.
Q [9] Malik, M.M., Bhargava, S.K., Sinhasan, R., 1989, “The
= Poisson’s ratio transient response of a journal in plane hydrodynamic
T , r, z = cylindrical coordinate system bearing during acceleration and deceleration periods,”
Ub = bush density (kg/m3) SILE Trib Trans, 32(1), pp.61-69.
UF = lubricant density (kg/m3) [10] Jain, S.C., Sinhasan, R., Pilli, S.C., 1990, “Transient
Z0 = angular speed (rad/s) response of a journal supported on elastic bearing,”
Tribology International, 23(3), pp.201-209.
[11] Khonsari, M.M., Wang, S.H., 1992, “Notes on transient
REFERENCES
THD effects in a lubricating film,” Tribology
[1] Glavatskih, S. B., 2003, “Evaluating thermal Transactions, 35(1), pp. 177-183.
performance of a PTFE-Faced tilting pad thrust bearing,” [12] Monmousseau, P., Fillon, M., Frêne, J., 1997, “Transient
J. Tribol., 125, pp. 319-324. thermoelastohydrodynamic study of tilting-pad journal
[2] Wang, X.J., Zhang, G.X., Zhang, Z.M., 1997, “Slip study bearings—comparison between experimental data and
of the plastic thrust bearing,” Lubrication Engineering, 4, theoretical results,” J. Tribol., 119, pp. 401-407.
pp. 19-22, 35.
[3] Jin, J., Zhang, G.X., Wang, X.J., 2004, “Experiment and
simulations on lubrication performance of EMP journal
bearing,” Journal of Shanghai University, 2, pp.85-89.

119
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Analyses on the Splashing Parameters of High-Speed Oil


Impacted a Wall in Jet Lubrications

Le Gu/Harbin Institute of Technology,gule@hit.edu.cn Zhenhuan Ye/ Harbin Institute of Technology


Liqin Wang/ Harbin Institute of Technology Dezhi Zheng/ Harbin Institute of Technology
Box 424, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, Xidazhi Street, Harbin, 150001, China

(Extended Abstract)
ABSTRACT
A new model for the free jet breakup is derived from the Ekp + Esp + Eε p = Esc (2)
TAB theory to determine the size of breakup in the energy
conservation law. In addition, the splash behavior of droplets It is believed that speed of droplets will not changed great
after impingement is determined by the newly proposed model, before and after breakup of droplets, so the kinetic energy of
which incorporates both the size and the number models based both sides are equation and could elimination. The surface
on Wu Ziniu’s phenomenological theory. The numerical energy, vibration and deformation energy of "Father" droplet
calculations for several experimental conditions are carried out can be expressed as: Esp = 4π r 2σ ; E = 1 kx 2 = 2 π C 2 ρ r 5ω 2 y 2 ;
kp b
for impinging sprays on a static flat wall. The results indicate 2 3
that the splash ratio increases along with the jet velocity and 1 2 dy Where x = Cb ry m = 4 ρπ r 3
Eε p = mv 2 = π Cb 2 ρ r 5 ( 0 ) 2 ω=
k
the nozzle’s diameter probably as the exponential curve growth 2 3 dt m 3
tendency. The new model generally predicts the splash Combine with mass conservation principle before and after
behavior better than the previous models, and it performs for breakup:
prediction of spattering ratio effectively. The model is useful in 4 3 4 (3)
π r ρ = n1 π r323 ρ
further calculation on the two-phase flow air volume fraction 3 3
in the high-speed jet lubrications. It can be solved as a nonlinear equation:
Keywords: Spray; Free jet breakup; Collision; Spattering ratio db (4)
d32 =
4Cb 2 Kyb 2 Cb 2 K ρl db 3 dy0 2
INTRODUCTION 1+ + ( )
3 48σ dt
Generally, the whole process of jet collision is divided into Where, d32 is the sauter mean diameter after breakup.
two phases: free jet breakup and colliding with walls. Reitz
had raised fluctuations breakup (WAVE) model [1] in 1987, Consider the initialization of equation (1) and derivative
believes that jet droplets broken is caused by the rapid growth equation from equation (1):
of Kelvin-Helmholtz’s instability SAW. This model identifies y0 = y (0) = 0 ; yb =y(t= tb )=1; dyb = dy = 0
the relationship between size of droplet and wavelength of the dt dt t =tb
SAW. Then, numerical Solution is got by iteration.
O'Rourke and Amsden [2] raised the TAB model based on 2. Spattering Models
the Taylor’s match. This way comes from Taylor’s analogy
between the quality system in the spring and the droplet According to Wu Ziniu’s phenomenological theory, diameter
deformation. of droplets which splashed out for impingement can be
About the second phase, spray impingement phenomena is expressed as:
analyzed by most experiments to describe the interaction We
A2 + 8 BWel +A
between droplets and the wall. Mundo et al. [3] pointed out d a = Bs Re d (5)
b
that phenomena of the interaction between droplets and the 2B
wall consists of three representative regimes such as rebound, However, this model is only fit for single droplet.
deposition and spatter. The regime transition criterion between Considering the free jet breakup, we developed a new model
deposition and spatter is determined by the empirical for multi-droplets based on Wu Ziniu’s phenomenological
correlation and represented as a function of Reynolds number theory.
and Ohnesorge number of the droplet. We db 2
But very few people directly analysis diameter and number A2 + 8 BWel ( )+A
Re d32 2 (6)
of the spattering droplets from theory. Wu Ziniu [4] was first d a = Bs d32
2B
time developed the relationship of diameters before and after
Where, A = Wel (Wel + 4) ˗ B = Wel (We + 12) ˗ We= ub ρl db ˗
2
impingement from the theory without any experiment
parameters. σ
This paper deals with the development of a new spray/wall ub ρl d b ˗ We Wel is 2, Bs is 4.23.
Re= l
impingement model, which is based on the energy μ
conservation law. Based on the new size model, consider energy conservation
before and after the collision while stability. For a static wall,
THEORY MODELS energy conservation can be expressed as:
1. Jet breakup Model
According to TAB theory [2]:
Ek + Es = Ek' + Es' + Ed' (7)
1 dy0 y0 − Wec (1) Where Ek , Es and Ed represent kinetic energy, surface
y (t ) = Wec + e − (t / td ) [( y0 − Wec ) cos(ωt ) + ( + ) sin(ωt )]
ω dt td energy and dissipated energy, respectively. Parameters of after
Use energy conservation principle, the energy of "Father" the collision are expressed as relevant letters with the
droplet should equal to that of "son" droplets. superscript. All parameters can be expressed as:

120
Analyses on the Splashing Parameters of High-Speed Oil Impacted a Wall in Jet Lubrications

1 ; Es = π db 2σ ; 1 ;
Ek = ρl ub 2π db 3 Ek ' = ρl ua 2π d a 3n Figure 3 shows that spattering ratio is monotonous increase
12 12
with the increase of jet speed, but the spattering state will
Es ' = Sσ + nπ d a 2σ present saturation and the spattering ratio will no longer
Where n is the number of spattering droplets after the collision; increase sharply when jet speed arrive a certain ratio.
S is the droplet’s surface area for the deposition, details later.
Dissipation can be used a simple model developed by 0.9

Chandra and Avedisian in 1991: 0.8

Ed' = t0e V ΦdVdt ≈ ΦVte ∫ ∫ (8) 0.7

spattering ratio
0.6
O˖1.2mm
For isotropic wall, spreading droplets are evenly spread on 0.5
Ƹ˖0.6mm
the wall and final form a hemispherical, see Figure 1. 0.4

Therefore, according to formula of the ball volume and 0.3

acreage: V = π h 2 ( R − 1 h) ; S = 2π Rh 0.2

3 0.1

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
spray jet speed(m/s)
Fig. 3 Effect of jet speed on spattering ratio

Comparing Figure 2 and 3, it can be concluded that the


spray jet speed plays more important roles in influencing
Fig. 1 Droplet Spreading on the wall spatter than spray nozzle’s diameter in that.
Combined with the quality of conservation:
1 1 δ 1 CONCLUSIONS
ρlπ db 3 = n ρlπ d a 3 + ρlπδ 2 ( − δ) (9)
6 6 1 − cos θ 3 Through the numerical calculations using the new spattering
With the droplets spattering speed ua = 1.068ub [5], we can model, it is concluded nozzle’s diameter and jet speed both are
main parameters to influent the spattering ratio, but nozzle’s
construct a number model. Simplification and use the Cardan diameter has a greater impact on spattering ratio than jet speed
formula, we can get: on that. This conclusion matches well with the Mundo’s model
3 c + 3 c −
b which represented as a function of Reynolds number and
db 3 1 2
3a )3 (10) Ohnesorge number of the droplet.
n = ( ) −(
da da Compare with the results of this new model and Mundo’s
2 model, it can be found that there is a critical beginning number
Where q q p ˗ q q p ˗ c b ˗
c1 = − − ( ) 2 + ( )3 c2 = − + ( ) 2 + ( )3 p = − 2 on calculation of spattering ratio by Mundo’s model. But it can
2 2 3 2 2 3 a 3a
be concluded that splashing will not happen by results of new
2b3 bc d ˗ a = Wea + 12 ˗ 24d a ˗
c = −2 A
We ˗
q= − + b=− d32 d a model when the results equal to zero. In addition, the
27a3 3a 2 a σΔ Re
spattering ratio begins to more than 100% if calculated by
d ; ρu 2 d ; ρu 2d ;
d = db 2 (d aWeb − dbWea ) + 12db 3 ( a − 1) Web = b b Wea = a a Mundo’s model when the nozzle’s diameter or jet speed
d32 σ σ
increased to a certain value. But the results of new model are
Δ = 3 4(1 − cos θ )(2 + cos θ ) 2 ˗ A = Δ ˗ never arrived to 100%.
1 − cos θ
Finally, spattering ratio can be represented by diameter and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
number of spattering after impingement:
d Project Supported by 973 Program (No. 2007CB607602),
η spl = n( a )3 (11)
and NSFC (No. 50605014).
db
REFERENCES
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
[1] Reitz, R. D., 1987, “Modeling atomization processes in
Figure 2 shows that the spattering ratio increased by high-pressure vaporizing Sprays,” Atomization and Spray
monotonous trend along with the increase in diameter of Technology, 3, pp. 309-337
nozzle, more and more lubricant are spattered out from the [2] O'Rourke, P. J., Amsden A. A., 1987, “The TAB method
wall. But the ratio will present saturation when the diameter for numerical calculation of spray droplet breakup,” SAE
reaches a certain scale and the state no longer keens to Technical Paper 872089, SAE.
increase. [3] Mundo, C., Sommerfeld M., Tropea C., 1995,
0.9 “Droplet-wall collisions: experimental studies of the
0.8 deformation and breakup process,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow,
0.7 21(2), pp.151-173
spattering ratio

0.6 [4] Zi-Niu Wu, 2003, “Prediction of the size distribution of


0.5 O˖40m/s secondary ejected droplets by crown splashing of droplets
0.4
Ƹ˖20m/s impinging on a solid wall,” Probabilistic Engineering
0.3 Mechanics, 18, pp. 241-249
0.2 [5] Ji’an Wan, Ronghua Huang, Xiaobei Cheng, 2004,
0.1 “Numerical simulation of gasoline engine spray-wall
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 interaction,” Design and Manufacture of Diesel Engine,
spray nozzle’s diameter(×10-3mm)
4, pp. 1- 4 (in Chinese)
Fig. 2 Effect of nozzle’s diameter on Spattering ratio

121
Technical Sessions—Proceedings of CIST2008 & ITS-IFToMM2008 Beijing, China

Interferometry Measurement of Spinning Effect on Sliding EHL


F. Guo*, X.M Li, B. Fan

School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, 11 Fushun Road,


Qingdao 266033, P.R. China
ABSTRACT
This paper describes some interferometry measurements of the boundary conditions from the spinning motion have
the film profiles of sliding elastohydrodynamic lubrication significant influence on the lubrication characteristics.
(EHL) contacts with spinning in an updated ball-on-disc