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Permutation & Combination (P&C) - Formulas & Shortcuts

## 1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPAL OF COUNTING

e.g. P to R (P to Q and Q to R) 3  4 = 12
Q to P or R 3 + 4 = 7

## PRINCIPAL OF MULTIPLICATION: PRINCIPAL OF ADDITION:

a) AND suggests the use of Multiplication and shows that b) OR suggests the use of Addition and shows that exactly
more than one operation has to be performed at a time. It one operation has to be performed at a time out of the given
also gives the idea that there should be one starting point set of all the possible operations.
and one end point.
If an event can occur in m different ways, and following If an event can occur in m different ways, or another event can
which another event can occur in n different ways, then the occur in n different ways, then the total number of occurrence
total number of occurrence of the events in the given order of the events in the given order is m  n
is m  n
E.g. In a class of 10 Boys & 8 Girls, in how many ways, Monitor (a Boy or a Girl)  10 + 8 = 18 e
We can form a Couple (a Boy & a Girl)  10  8 = 80

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2. PERMUTATION c) Number of selection of k consecutive things out of n
things in a circle = n, when k < n
A permutation is an arrangement in a definite order of a
number of objects taken some or all at a time. = 1, when k = n
(i) Linear Arrangement
a) Number of permutations of n distinct objects among r (iii) Polygon Arrangement
different places, where repetition is not allowed, is P(n,r)
a) Number of ways to arrange n distinct objects along the
n
Pr = n! (0 < r  n) sides of a r sided regular polygon with every side having
(n-r)! n/r objects = n!/r
b) Number of permutations of n distinct objects among r b) If the polygon is not regular, then the number of
different places, where repetition is allowed, is nr arrangements will be just n!
c) Number of permutations of n objects in which p objects are c) If n people are to be arranged around a rectangular table,
alike of one kind, q are alike of second, r are alike of third such that there are equal number of people on each side of
and so on and remaining are of different kind, and where the table, then total number of arrangements will be n!/2
repetition is not allowed, is
= n! (where, p+q+r… n)
(iv) Dearrangement
p! q! r! ...
Number of arrangements of n distinct things in a row, such
d) Number of permutations of n objects, when all of them are
that none of them occupies its original place is
identical = n!/n! = 1
= n! [1/0! – 1/1! + 1/2! –1/3!+…….… + (-1)n/n!]
Dearr.(2) = 1, Dearr.(3) = 2, Dearr.(4) = 9, Dearr.(5) = 44
(ii) Circular Arrangement
a) Number of ways to arrange n distinct objects on n places
around a circle = (n – 1)! (v) Miscellaneous
b) Number of arrangements of n beads for forming a necklace a) Number of ways 4 different letters can be posted in 7
= (n-1)!/2 different letter boxes = 47
(In case of the necklace or garland, anticlockwise and b) Number of ways n identical things can be arranged
clockwise arrangements are same) among r different places = rn

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e.g. Number of ways 4 identical rings can be worn in 5  Also the whole number solutions of equation,
fingers of a hand = 54 (x + y + z +… (r variables) = n) = n+r-1Cr-1
c) Number of ways n different things can be arranged d) Number of combinations or distributions of n identical objects
among r different places = (n + r – 1)!/(r – 1)! among r different places such that each place gets atleast 1 is
n-1
e.g. Number of ways 4 different rings can be worn in 5 Cr-1
fingers of a hand = 5  6  7  8  Also the natural number solutions of equation,
(x + y + z +… (r variables) = n) = n-1Cr-1
d) Sum of all ‘r’ digit numbers formed by using each of the
given ‘n’ non-zero distinct digits exactly once (no e) Number of selections out of n distinct objects
repetition) = (Select None) + (Select One) + (Select Two)
= (Sum of all the digits)  (1111… r times)  nPr-1 = nC0 + nC1 + nC2 +… + nCn = 2n
e) Sum of all ‘r’ digit numbers formed by using each of the f) Number of ways in which a selection can be made by taking
given ‘n’ non-zero distinct digits (with repetition) some or all out of p + q + r +… things where p are alike of one
= (Sum of all the digits)  (1111… r times)  nr-1 kind, q alike of second, r alike of third and so on is
(p+1)(q+1)(r+1)… - 1
g) Number of zero or more selections out of n same objects
3. COMBINATION
= 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 = n + 1
A combination is a selection, in no definite order, of a number h) Number of one or more selections out of n same objects
of objects taken some or all at a time. = 1 + 1 + 1 +… + 1 = n
a) Number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a i) Number of lines in a plane formed by n points (where no three
time, where repetition is not allowed, is C(n,r) points are collinear) = nC2
n
Cr = n! (0  r  n) j) Number of diagonals in a regular polygon = nC2 – n
(n-r)! r!
k) Number of triangles formed in a plane using n points (where
b) Number of combinations of n distinct objects among r no three points are collinear) = nC3
different places, where repetition is allowed, is n+r-1Cr
c) Number of combinations or distributions of n identical
objects among r different places is n+r-1Cr-1

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Formulae related to Combination 6. GRID
a) Number of Squares in a square grid of n  n side = 12 +
n
a) C0 = 1 = nCn
n
b) C1 = n = nCn-1 22 + 32 + 42 +…+ n2
n
c) Cn-r = nCr
b) Number of Rectangles (including Squares) in a square
d) n
Ca = nCb a+b=n
n n n+1 grid of n  n side = 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 +…+ n3
e) Cr + Cr-1 = Cr
f) n
C0 + nC1 + nC2 +… + nCn-1 + nCn = 2n c) Number of Squares in a grid having m rows and n
g) n
C0 + nC2 + nC4 +… = nC1 + nC3 + nC5 +… = 2n-1 columns = m  n + (m-1)  (n-1) + (m-2)  (n-2) +…
(until one of them gets zero)
4. RELATION BETWEEN P&C d) Number of Rectangles (including Squares) in a grid
having m rows and n columns = (1 + 2 + 3 +…+ m)  (1 +
Pr = nCr  r!
n
2 + 3 +…+ n)
5. GROUPING & DISTRIBUTION B
a) Number of ways in which n distinct objects can be
distributed equally among r people = n!
[(n/r)!]r
b) Number of ways in which n things can be divided into A
groups of p, q, r… things = n! (n = p + q + r…) e) Number of shortest paths from A to B (going only right
p! q! r!... and upward)
c) Number of ways in which n distinct objects can be [Number of Rows = m (=5) & Number of Columns = n
distributed equally among r groups (=4)]
= n! (if groups are distinct) = (m + n)! = (9)!/ 5! 4! = 9C4 = 9C5
[(n/r)!]r m! n!
= n! (if groups are not distinct)
r
r! [(n/r)!]

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