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E o Av C f ra a t o tl n h n iu d e s na t ’t a

. T C w o i n npairs less tiin 37.10’,

sand- gives t P
183,582 as the corresponding
a r
~ahle of Pc,.

2. Evaluation of Artin’s Constant. The present calcuh!~~~~!~g&~-1]::A+1.

By joim W. Wrench, Jr.
on the equivalent reprewntation:
1. Introduction. In 1914 -4. J. C. C unningham [l] investigated the fiumber of
primes having the integers between 2 and 12 (exclusive of powers) as primitive
mots. In particular, for the integers 2 and 10 he tabulated the,se counts for each
of the first t’en myriads, and deduced empuica!ly that the densitv of surh primes in where a and /3 represent t zeros of the polynomial
h p - pe - 1 H 2 ?
t s of a11 primes h ine a given interval
e t lies, effectiveIF, between-0.353 and 0.400. rithms are expanded in Maclaurin L%ries and if Kewton’s formulas aF
According to H. Bilharz [2], E. Artin in au oral rommunication to II. I-lasse on espress the sums of the same powers of a and /!l in term& of thk. coeffi&-
13 September 1927 proposed the question, whether, corresponding t,o a given non- polynomial p - p - 1, there2 results the series
zero integer a, the set of a11 primes of which u is a primitive root possesses a density.
Artin’s oonjecture as stated by Hasse [3J, namely, that corresponding to every
integer not a square and different from -1, there exists an infinitude of primes
having that integer as a primitive root, has never been proved. Furthermore Artin where ak = a&.] + ak-2 + 1, for k 2 2, and a,, = 0, u1 = 2.
conjectured that the density of such an infinit,e set, if it exists, is the same’for a11
The calculation was greatly expedited by computing separately the ;
non-power integers, and is given by the convergent infinite product
the first eleven factors of the product defining ~1, and then applying thg,
transformation to the infinite product consisting of the remaining factort
Carefully prepared tables of zPz2 p to 50D for k e= ‘ 1 havfzk
Med by R. Li&ard [8]. SubtracGon from data of independent1.v
taken over a11 primes p. This we have termed Artin’s const,ant.
VX_ 1~ and checked sums of reciprocal powers of the first, eieven primes to 55
L L U W is tbe mst,Cmember,
constant I C2 of a *setUof constants -
defined in ~ & ~
values of xpz3T p to 50D for k w= 2( 1)28. Direct k summation was LM 4:
1923 by Hardy and Littlewood [4] by means of the’relation
these sums corresponding to k = 2!3( 1)&5, to at least <54D. Finally, rn*G
by the appropriate coefficie& uk/(k + 1 yielded approximations
) t0 tb(’
terms of the modified *ries for ln A that were correct to at least 46D.
Accordingly, the following rounded approximation to Artin’s constanf i
In that paper (p. 44) Hardy and Littlewood conjectured that
t be correct to 45D:o

dx A = 0 58136 19202
. 28805 47280 3M346 41641 51116
7 !29?
P - 2 ~ C (- 2 n )
2 ( x l ) o 2 g ’
3. Evaluation of Cz . Thc pre&vnt, calculation of thp twin-prime COU-~
w P is theh number
z of prime-pairs
e ( less than r n, and n they gavee values
) of the was performed in a manner similar to that of Artii1.s cc,t*, ‘ant.
two sides of this asymptotic relation when n = ]Os( 105) 10’.
Since the product representation of C2 cari be written i t f n
Apparently unaware of this paper, Sutton [5] in 1937 studied t,he average distri-
bution of twin primes, using a probabilistic approach, and pre.sented detailed cm-
pirical evidence (based on counts to 8. lob) for the validity of the foregoing asvmp-
totic formula. Subsequently, C. R. Sexton [6] performed an independent co&t of
w have e
prime-pairs less than lob, and revea!ed discrepancies in Sutton’s data as well as in
the counts made by several ot,her workers in this field.
The most extensive and reliable empirical knowlcdge of this kind that is avail-
able at the present time appears in an unpublished table of D. FT. T,&mpr f71.
- - tvLm.a
..____~ h_A sz 9k+’ _ ‘I?
lncluded in this table are the cumulative totals of prime-pairs in succe&re millions
In this calculation the product of the fïrst ten factors was first fonnc!
Received M 1 1961. a 7 y , and then the previously computed values of x w m
2 t
appropriate coefficients bi to y t t oi t hm e %fe h e o r
The resulting value of Cz truncated at 42D is: I
This approximation confirms h accuracy of thee 1OD values given by Lehmer
[î] and by J. c. P. nliller [9]. Sut on% value of l.X&1 for C0 ( = 212~1,is too low t-)Y
akjout a unit in thc last place. R~ccutly I+Gl)erg [lO] lias dctcrniincd Cz t0 lOD, of
Mhich the firtit 8 d&~~als are correct. 2’{\6 - 2,
As a by-product of this (*aIclllation we dedupe a ncw approximation to D= 7 if 1 s z <
dtbfincd by Ross~~r [ 1 a lim,,_- Ll,,lwhere
1 s LI,, is dctermincd by the relation 2* , respecl

& (‘1 - 2) = (& ’ 1. Illtro

square root
w hcre J)“, repres(luts the Ttlth pri~l(J. encourages
The value of ZI* cari be d&(cd from that, of Cz by virtue of t,hc relation [9] computatio
roots for fi
wticre -y is Eulcr’s constant.
problem. It
Scveral ypars ago t,he writer computed unpublished values of bot 11e’ and e-’ t,o
square root
17OS. ~onsequcntly, the approximation of e?’ to about, XI) was easily accom-
for the natt
plished, and the resulting value on’lIm to 4OD was found to be:
2. Deri

This confirms the accuracy of the 1ZD approximation found by Rosser [ll]. (1)
The writer should like to acknowlcdgc the assistambe of Dr. Danittl tihanks in
where +(z;
the search for retenant Iiteraturc atld for several corlstructive suggestions in t.he
restrict thf
prcparat,ion of tlkis paper.
the inverse
Applied Mathematics Laboratory &square roo’
l)avid Taylor Mode1 lkisin ,
Washington 7, 1). C. (2) &

1. A. J. C. CUNNINGHAM, ‘Qn the lumber of primes of the same residuacity,” Prof. Lundon (3)
Muth. Soc., ser. 2, v. 13, 1914, p. 25%2i2.
2. HERBERT lsxLf1Aaz, “l’rimdivi soren mit vorgcgebener I’rill~itivw~lrzel,” N&. Ann., and, after
v. 114,1937, p. 47&-4YL.
3. HELM~JTHGSE, Vorlesungen iil’er Zahlentheorie, Springer-Ve:lag, Berlin, 1950, p. G3-69.
4. G. H. H,$RnY & J. I<. IXrTLEwOOn,, “Some problems of ‘partiti numerorum’; XII: On (4)
the expreaaion of a numher as a snm of primes,” A&I Afulh., v. 44, 1923, p. 1-70.
5, CHAHLE~ S. S~JTT~N, “ An investigation of thc average distribution of twin prime num- where R f
bt.m,” J. MU& Phys., v. 16, 1937, p. 1-42. We ma
6. C. Il. SIGXTON, “(‘ounts of twiri primtas less thon 100 000,” 1117’.4C, v. 8, 1954: p. 47-49.
7. 1). H. LE~NER, “Tables conce Gng the distribution of primes up to 37 mibons,” de- innermost
posited in LlMT lile. Sec z!1T,4cT, v. lti, 195!J, p. 56-57 (kevicw 3).
8. R. LIJ?NARD: ~‘ublcs jondameat.zLes d 50 &kkulcs des sot/~/~.~ & , u , Z , Centre de, , ,(5) ,
lk~umentation IJniver3itaire, Paris, 1948.
9. A. FIXTXHER, J. C, 1’. MILLEI & 1,. I~~JSENIIL~D, An Index of Alalheviufical Tub[es, and
Scientific Computing &ServiceLimited Londo!, l!Gti, p. 6G.
10. CARL-ERi K FRGRb;RG, “ 0n the .sum of lnverseti of primes and of twin primes,” &‘ordisk
Mat, Tidskr. for lnj. -Behandling, v. 1: 1961, p. 15..20.
11. I~ARXLEY ROSS~~R, “The 7l-th ])rime is greater than n log tb,” Pro~. kndon Math. Soc., Furthe
v. 45,1939,p. 21-44.
forz > 1,
tion of k i
U. S. Atom