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CHAPTER -3

THEORITICAL
FRAME WORK
INTRODUCTION

Employee training and development is an indispensable part of human resource function and
management. Both the activities aim at improving the performance and productivity of the
employees. Training is a program organized by the organization to develop knowledge and
skills in the employees as per the requirement of the job.

Conversely, Development is an organized activity in which the manpower of the


organization learn and grow; it is a self-assessment act.

Training and development refer to programs designed to help new employees adjust to the
workplace successfully. In addition, they include the formal ongoing efforts of corporations
and other organizations to improve the performance and self-fulfillment of their employees
through a variety of methods and programs. In the modem workplace, these efforts have
taken on a broad range of applications, from training in highly specific job skills to long-
term professional development, and are applicable to all sorts of employees ranging from
line workers to the chief executive officer. Training and development have emerged as
formal corporate functions, integral elements of coiporate strategy, and are recognized as
professions with distinct theories and methodologies as companies increasingly acknowledge
the fundamental importance of employee growth and development, as well as the necessity
of a highly skilled workforce, in order to improve the success and efficiency of their
organizations.

For the most part, training and development are used together to bring about the overall
acclimation, improvement, and education of an organization's employees. While closely
related, there are important differences between the terms and the scope of each. In general,
training programs have very specific and quantifiable goals, such as operating a particular
piece of machinery, understanding a specific process, or performing certain procedures with
great precision. On the other hand, developmental programs concentrate on broader skills
that are applicable to a wider variety of situations, such as decision making, leadership skills,
and goal setting. In short, training programs are typically tied to a particular subject matter
and are applicable to that subject only, while developmental programs center on cultivating
and enriching broader skills useful in numerous contexts.
THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT WORKPLACE
Trainings at workplace are an excellent way to expand both the knowledge and skills
of all employees, however for many organizations the cost of training and
development can be quite expensive. Many employers cut down on training
opportunities for their employees because attending training sessions can delay the
completion of projects as it consumes time. However, despite the potential
drawbacks, training and development can provide both individual employees and the
company with benefits that can make the time and money spent a valuable
investment. Some benefits of Training and Development are:

It addresses weakness:
Even the best of employees has some weaknesses. An ongoing workplace training
program helps employees to address any weaknesses, helping employees to be more
allrounded and better skilled at every factor of their job. In turn, this benefits the
organization as projects will be completed faster and employees will need less
assistance on tasks.

It improves performance:
Employees who have access to the necessary training required to help them do their
jobs are going to deliver a better performance than those who do not. Having training
for even the most basic of tasks and other factors such as safety procedures can
ensure that tasks at work are completed more thoroughly with less risk of anything
going wrong. Training also gives employees more confidence in themselves as they
are more equipped to do their job, which can often provide the extra push that many
employees need to perform to the best of their abilities.
It increases the consistency:
When it comes to consistency, having a structured training and development
program is a definite way to help ensure this. Access to regular training ensures that
all employees have a consistent experience and knowledge of tasks and procedures.
Ensuring that all employees have consistent knowledge also helps to ensure that
tasks are completed on time and without issues and there are no questions to be
asked about how things should be done. Safety, discrimination and administrative
tasks should be crucial tasks which require training
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Maintains employee satisfaction:
Employees with access to training and development programs have the advantage over
employees in other companies who are left to seek out training opportunities on their
own. The investment in training that a company makes shows the employees they are
valued. The training creates a supportive workplace. Employees who feel appreciated
and challenged through training opportunities may feel more satisfaction toward their
jobs.

Increased innovation in new strategies and products:


Ongoing training and upskilling of the workforce can encourage creativity. Innovative
ideas can be formed as a direct result of training and development.
Training and development programs can have a huge influence on a company. Like every
other function in an organization, training and development should be focused on creating
targeted and concrete results for the business. The key is to treat it seriously and consider
it as an asset and result oriented.
TRAINING
Training and development play an important role in the effectiveness of organisations and
to the experiences of people in work. Training has implications for productivity, health
and safety at work and personal development. All organisations employing people need to
train and develop their staff. Most organisations are cognisant of this requirement and
invest effort and other resources in training and development. Such investment can take
the form of employing specialist training and development staff and paying salaries to
staff undergoing training and development. Investment in training and development
entails obtaining and maintaining space and equipment. It also means that operational
personnel, employed in the organisation’s main business functions, such as production,
maintenance, sales, marketing and management support, must also direct their attention 2
and effort from time to time towards supporting training development and delivery. This
means they are required to give less attention to activities that are obviously more
productive in terms of the organisation’s main business. However, investment in training
and development is generally regarded as good management practice to maintain
appropriate expertise now and in the future.
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Nowadays, many organisations organise a training program for the new recruits just after
their selection and induction, to let them know about the rules, policies and procedures for
directing their behaviour and attitude as per the organisational needs. Training also helps
the employees to change the conduct towards their superior, subordinates and colleagues.
It helps to groom them for their prospective jobs.

Identifying perform.anee opportunity or problem

Developing training
resources
. Assembling training materials
A
Conducting the program
Reviewing and Feedback
Training Process
Induction training, vestibule training, apprenticeship training, job training, promotional
training, internship training are some of the major types of training. The merits of the
training are given as under:
• It results in higher productivity both quantitatively and qualitatively.
• It develops a number of skills in the employees.
• Improved performances.
• The cooperative environment of the organisation.
• It builds confidence in the employees for doing a job.
• Decreased employee turnover.
• Lesser chances of accidents.
Definition of Development
The training for the top level employees is considered as development, also known
as management or executive development. It is an on-going systematic procedure in
which managerial staff learns to enhance their conceptual, theoretical knowledge. It
helps the individual to bring efficiency and effectiveness in their work
performances.

Development is not only limited to a particular task, but it aims to improve their
personality and attitude for their all round growth which will help them to face
future challenges. It changes the mindset of the employees and makes them more
challenging or competing.

As the technology needs updating, the manpower of the organisation also needs to
be updated, so the development is a must. Development is an educational process
which is unending, as education has no visible end. It involves training a person for
higher assignments. It digs out the talents of the managerial staff and helps in
applying the new knowledge, which is a requirement of the organisation.

Coaching, mentoring, counselling, job-rotation, role playing, case study, conference


training, special projects are some of the methods of development.

The performance of an organisation is based on the quality of its employees, and so


the greater the quality of employees, the greater will be their performance. The
primary purpose of development is that the second list of managers or executives is
prepared for future replacement.
Employee and development is an indispensable part of human resource function and
management. Both the activities aim at improving the performance and productivity of
the employees. Training is a program organized by the organization to develop
knowledge and skills in the employees as per the requirement of the job.
Conversely, Development is an organized activity in which the manpower of the
organization learn and grow; it is a self-assessment act.

1. Training is a learning process for new employees in which they get to know about
the key skills required for the job. Development is the training process for the
existing employees for their all round development.
2. Training is a short-term process i.e. 3 to 6 months, but development is a
continuous process, and so it is for the long term.
3. Training focuses on developing skill and knowledge for the current job. Unlike,
the development which focuses on the building knowledge, understanding and
competencies for overcoming with future challenges.
4. Training has a limited scope; it is specific job oriented. On the other hand,
development is career oriented and hence its scope is comparatively wider than
training.
5. In training, the trainees get a trainer who instructs them at the time of training. In
contrast to development, in which the manager self-directs himself for the'future
assignments.
6. Many individuals collectively attend the training program. Development is a self-
assessment procedure, and hence, one person himself is responsible for one’s
development.

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TYPES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES:
Companies can apply these different methods of training and development to any number
of subjects to ensure the skills needed for various positions are instilled. Companies gear
training and development programs towards both specific and general skills, including
technical training, sales training, clerical training, computer training, communications
training, organizational development, career development, supervisory development, and
management development. The goal of these programs is for trainees to acquire new
knowledge or skills in fields such as sales or computers or to enhance their knowledge and
skills in these areas.

TECHNICAL TRAINING.
Technical training seeks to impart technical knowledge and skills using common training
methods for instruction of technical concepts, factual information, and procedures, as well
as technical processes and principles. Likewise, sales training concentrates on the
education and training of individuals to communicate with customers in a persuasive
manner and inculcate other skills useful for sales positions.

COMMUNICATIONS TRAINING.
Communications training concentrates on the improvement of interpersonal
communication skills, including writing, oral presentation, listening, and reading. In order
to be successful, any form of communications training should be focused on the basic
improvement of skills and not just on stylistic considerations. Furthermore, the training
should serve to build on present skills rather than rebuilding from the ground up.
Communications training can be taught separately or can be effectively integrated into
other types of training, since it is fundamentally related to others disciplines.

ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
Organizational development (OD) refers to the use of knowledge and techniques from the
behavioral sciences to analyze existing organizational structure and implement changes in
order to improve organizational effectiveness. OD is useful in such varied areas as the
alignment of employee goals with those of the organization, communications, team
functioning, and decision making. In short, it is a development process with an
organizational focus to achieve the same goals as other training and development
activities aimed at individuals. OD practitioners commonly practice what has been termed
"action research" to effect an orderly change that has been carefully planned to minimize
the occurrence of unpredicted or unforeseen events. Action research refers to a systematic
analysis of an organization to acquire a better understanding of the nature of problems and
forces within an organization.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT.
Career development of employees covers the formal development of an employee's
position within an organization by providing a long-term development strategy and
training programs to implement this strategy and achieve individual goals. Career
development represents a growing concern for employee welfare and the long-term needs
of employees. For the individual, it involves stating and describing career goals, the
assessment of necessary action, and the choice and implementation of necessary actions.
For the organization, career development represents the systematic development and
improvement of employees. To remain effective, career development programs must allow
individuals to articulate their desires. At the same time, the organization strives to meet
those stated needs as much as possible by consistently following through on commitments
and meeting the expectations of the employees raised by the program.

MANAGEMENT AND SUPERVISORY DEVELOPMENT.

Management and supervisory development involves the training of managers and


supervisors in basic leadership skills enabling them to function effectively in their
positions. For managers this typically involves the development of the ability to focus on
the effective management of their employee resources, while striving to understand and
achieve the strategies and goals of the organization. Management training typically
involves individuals above the first two levels of supervision and below senior executive
management. Managers learn to effectively develop their employees by helping employees
learn and change, as well as by identifying and preparing them for future responsibilities.
Management development may also include programs that teach decision-making skills,
creating and managing successful work teams, allocating resources effectively, budgeting,
communication skills, business planning, and goal setting.

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Supervisory development addresses the unique situation of the supervisor as a link
between the organization's management and workforce. It must focus on enabling
supervisors to deal with their responsibilities to both labor and management, as well as co
workers, and staff departments. Important considerations include the development of
personal and interpersonal skills, understanding the management process, and productivity
and quality improvement.
Training Methods:
On Job Training and off the Job Training Methods!
A large variety of methods of training are used in business. Even within one organization
different methods are used for training different people. All the methods are divided into
two classifications for:
A. On-the-job Training Methods:
1. Coaching
2. Mentoring
3. Job Rotation
4. Job Instruction Technology
5. Apprenticeship
6. Understudy
B. Off-the-Job Training Methods:
1. Lectures and Conferences
2. Vestibule Training
3. Simulation Exercises .
4. Sensitivity Training
A. On-the-job training Methods:
Under these methods new or inexperienced employees learn through observing peers or
managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour. These methods do not
cost much and are less disruptive as employees are always on the job, training is given on
the same machines and experience would be on already approved standards, and above
all the trainee is learning while earning. Some of the commonly used methods are:
1. Coaching:
Coaching is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and tries
to focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice. The
biggest problem is that it perpetrates the existing practices and styles. In India most of
the scooter mechanics are trained only through this method.
2. Mentoring:
The focus in this training is on the development of attitude. It is used for managerial
employees. Mentoring is always done by a senior inside person.
3. Job Rotation:
It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs.
Rotation not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also
alleviates boredom and allows to develop rapport with a number of people. Rotation
must be logical.
4. Job Instructional Technique (JIT):
It is a Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer (a)
prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired, (b)
demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (c) allows the trainee to show the
demonstration on his or her own, and (d) follows up to provide feedback and help. The
trainees are presented the learning material in written or by learning machines through a
series called ‘frames’. This method is a valuable tool for all educators (teachers and
trainers). It helps us:
a. To deliver step-by-step instruction
b. To know when the learner has learned
c. To be due diligent (in many work-place environments)
5. Apprenticeship:
Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. This
method of training is in vogue in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long
period is required for gaining proficiency. The trainees serve as apprentices to experts for
long periods. They have to work in direct association with and also under the direct
supervision of their masters.The object of such training is to make the trainees all-round
craftsmen. It is an expensive method of training. Also, there is no guarantee that the
trained worker will continue to work in the same organisation after securing training. The
apprentices are paid remuneration according the apprenticeship agreements.
6. Understudy:
In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an
assistant to a manager or director (in a film). The subordinate learns through experience
and observation by participating in handling day to day problems. Basic purpose is to
prepare subordinate for assuming the full responsibilities and duties.

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B. Off-the-job Training Methods:
Off-the-job training methods are conducted in separate from the job environment,
study material is supplied, there is full concentration on learning rather than
performing, and there is freedom of expression. Important methods include:
1. Lectures and Conferences:
Lectures and conferences are the traditional and direct method of instruction. Every
training programme starts with lecture and conference. It’s a verbal presentation for a
large audience. However, the lectures have to be motivating and creating interest among
trainees. The speaker must have considerable depth in the subject. In the colleges and
universities, lectures and seminars are the most common methods used for training.
2. Vestibule Training:
Vestibule Training is a term for near-the-job training, as it offers access to something new
(learning). In vestibule training, the workers are trained in a prototype environment on
specific jobs in a special part of the plant.
An attempt is made to create working condition similar to the actual workshop conditions.
After training workers in such condition, the trained workers may be put on
similar jobs in the actual workshop.
This enables the workers to secure training in the best methods to work and to
get rid of initial nervousness. During the Second World War II, this method
was used to train a large number of workers in a short period of time. It may
also be used as a preliminary to on-the job training. Duration ranges from few
days to few weeks. It prevents trainees to commit costly mistakes on the actual
machines.
3. Simulation Exercises:
Simulation is any artificial environment exactly similar to the actual situation.
There are four basic simulation techniques used for imparting training: management games,
case study, role playing, and in-basket training.
(a) Management Games:
Properly designed games help to ingrain thinking habits, analytical, logical and
reasoning capabilities, importance of team work, time management, to make
decisions lacking complete information, communication and leadership
capabilities. Use of management games can encourage novel, innovative
mechanisms for coping with stress.
Management games orient a candidate with practical applicability of the
subject. These games help to appreciate management concepts in a practical
way. Different games are used for training general managers and the middle
management and functional heads - executive Games and functional heads.
(b) Case Study:
Case studies are complex examples which give an insight into the context of a
problem as well as illustrating the main point. Case Studies are trainee
centered activities based on topics that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an
applied setting.
A case study allows the application of theoretical concepts to be demonstrated,
thus bridging the gap between theory and practice, encourage active learning,
provides an opportunity for the development of key skills such as
communication, group working and problem solving, and increases the
trainees” enjoyment of the topic and hence their desire
(c) Role Playing:
Each trainee takes the role of a person affected by an issue and studies the impacts of the
issues on human life and/or the effects of human activities on the world around us from
the perspective of that person.It emphasizes the “real- world” side of science and
challenges students to deal with complex problems with no single “right” answer and to
use a variety of skills beyond those employed in a typical research project.In particular,
role-playing presents the student a valuable opportunity to learn not just the course
content, but other perspectives on it. The steps involved in role playing include defining
objectives, choose context & roles, introducing the exercise, trainee preparation/research,
the role-play, concluding discussion, and assessment. Types of role play may be multiple
role play, single role play, role rotation, and spontaneous role play.
(d) In-basket training:
In-basket exercise, also known as in-tray training, consists of a set of business
papers which may include e-mail SMSs, reports, memos, and other items. Now the
trainer is asked to prioritise the decisions to be made immediately and the ones that
can be delayed.

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4. Sensitivity Training:
Sensitivity training is also known as laboratory or T-group training. This training is
about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done
by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. It is ability of an
individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view.
It reveals information about his or her own personal qualities, concerns, emotional
issues, and things that he or she has in common with other members of the group. It is
the ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.
A group’s trainer refrains from acting as a group leader or lecturer, attempting instead to
clarify the group processes using incidents as examples to clarify general points or provide
feedback. The group action, overall, is the goal as well as the process.
Sensitivity training Program comprises three steps (see Figure 18.7)
Unfreezing the old values Development of new values Refreezing the new ones

Figure 18,7 Procedure for Sensitivity Training

5. Transactional Analysis:
It provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the
behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person
and a reaction to that motivation given by another person.
This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is known as a transaction.
Transactional analysis can be done by the ego (system of feelings accompanied by a
related set of behaviors states of an individual).
Child:
It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and
impulses which come to him/her naturally from his/her own understanding as a child. The
characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing,
anxious, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its child state are the use of words
like “I guess”, “I suppose”, etc. and non verbal clues like, giggling, coyness, silent, attention
seeking etc.
Parent:
It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and
impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as, social, parents,
friends, etc.
The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc. Verbal
clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always,
should, never, etc and non-verbal clues such as, raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing
finger at somebody, etc.

r
_____ i--------- / V. .
Child Parent Adult
I ............. ........ fcsV. ’ V
Figure 18.8: The Ego States

Adult:
It is a collection of reality testing, rational behaviour, decision making, etc. A
person in this ego state verifies, updates the reaction which she has received from
the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested
concepts.All of us show behaviour from one ego state which is responded to by the
other person from any of these three states.
General Benefits from Employee Training and Development
There are numerous sources of online information about training and development.
Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for
supervisors to conduct training among employees.
3 BENEFITS TO THE EMPLOYEE:
Training makes an employee more useful to a firm. Hence he will find
employment more easily.
Training makes employee more efficient and effective. By combining
materials, tools and equipment in a right way, they can produce more with
minimum effort. Training enables employees to secure promotions easily.
They can realize their career goals comfortably.

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Training helps an employee to move from one organization to another
easily. He can be more mobile and pursue career goals actively.
• Employees can avoid mistake accidents on the job . They can handle jobs
with confidence and will be more satisfied with the jobs.
• Training can contribute to higher production , fewer mistakes, greater job
'satisfaction and lower labour turnover. Effective training is invaluable
investment
in the human resources of an organization.
BENEFITS TO THE BUSINESS:
• Trained workers can work more effectively.
• They use machines, tools, materials in a proper way. Wastage is thus
eliminated to a large extent.
• There will be fewer accidents. Training improves the knowledge of
employees regarding the use of machines and equipment.Hence trained
person need nt be put under close supervision, as they know how to handle
operations p Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees.
• Trained workers can show superior performance. They can turnout better
4 performance and better quality goods by putting materials, tools and
equipment in good use.
• Training makes employees more loyal to an organization.They will be less
inclined to leave the unit where there are growth in opportunities
They also include the following.,
• Increased employee motivation
• Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain
• Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods
• Increased innovation in strategies and products
• Reduced employee turnover
• Risk management, e.g., training about diversity training
After the recruitment and selection, the induction of the new employees is done in which
they get introduced to the new working conditions, after that they go for training in which
they get to learn many things which are the necessary requirements of the job. Whatever
they learn from the training are verified by taking a follow-up, in which it is examined
that whether the training program is helpful for the recruits or not.
After they become the actual employees of the organization, they get many opportunities
for their development, like if the manager teaches the new employees something related
their work, so the new employees get a chance to share their experiences or if he gets a
specific task in which he has to compete himself then also he gets a chance to know his
potential and so there are the instances when the employee gets an opportunity to develop
himself mentally or physically for his unseen future.
Development is all about building the personality and attitude of the employee for facing

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