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Exercises 613

EXERCISES
E8.1 Increased track densities for computer disk drives is shown in Figure E8.4. Determine K and a by exam-
necessitate careful design of the head positioning con- ining the frequency response curves.
trol [l].The loop transfer function is E8.5 The magnitude plot of a transfer function
K K{\ + 0.55)(1 + as)
L(s) = Gc(s)G(s) =
(s + If G(5) =
5(1 + 5/8)(1 + bs)(l + 5/36)
Plot the frequency response for this system when K = 4. is shown in Figure E8.5. Determine K, a, and b from
Calculate the phase and magnitude at w = 0.5,1,2, 4, the plot.
and oo.
Answer: K = 8, a = If A, b = 1/24
Answer: |L(/0.5)| = 0.94 and /LQ0.5) = -28.1°.
E8.2 A tendon-operated robotic hand can be implemented E8.6 Several studies have proposed an extravehicular
using a pneumatic actuator [8].The actuator can be rep- robot that could move around in a NASA space sta-
resented by tion and perform physical tasks at various worksites
[9]. The arm is controlled by a unity feedback control
5000 with loop transfer function
G(s) =
(s + 70)(5 + 500)'
K
Plot the frequency response of G(ja>). Show that the L(s) = Gc(s)G(s) =
5(5/5 + 1)(5/100 + 1)'
magnitude of G{ju>) is -17 dB at co — 10 and
-27.1 dB at w = 200. Show also that the phase is Draw the Bode diagram for K - 20, and determine
-138.7° at a) = 700. the frequency when 20 log|/„(/fc>)|is 0 dB.
E8.3 A robotic arm has a joint-control loop transfer E8.7 Consider a system with a closed-loop transfer function
function
Y(s)
300(5 + 100) T(s) =
R(s) (5 2 + 5 + 1)(5 2 + 0.45 + 4 ) '
L(s) = Gr(s)G(s) =
,v(.v + 10)(5 + 40)' This system will have no steady-state error for a step
input, (a) Plot the frequency response, noting the two
Show that the frequency equals 28.3 rad/s when the
peaks in the magnitude response, (b) Predict the time
phase angle of L(jco) is -180°. Find the magnitude of
response to a step input, noting that the system has
L(jco) at that frequency.
four poles and cannot be represented as a dominant
Answer: \L(j2$.3)\ = -2.5 dB second-order system, (c) Plot the step response.
E8.4 The frequency response for a process of the form E8.8 A feedback system has a loop transfer function
Ks 100(5 - 1)
G(s) = L(s) = Gc(s)G(s) =
(s + a)(s2 + 20s + 100) s2 + 255 + 100'

m 0
O
3
-10
i -90°

-20
t -180°
FIGURE E8.4
Bode diagram. a> (rad/s)
614 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

' 0 dB/dec '


+20 dB/dec

-20 dB/dec

0 dB/dec

FIGURE E8.5
Bode diagram.

40

I 20 , 1 j
I
1 0
5 -20 -;
CM

-40

-3-
-90°
— \ - -
0.1 10 100 1000
FIGURE E8.9
Bode diagram. co (rad/s)

(a) Determine the corner frequencies (break frequen- the crossover frequency, that is. the frequency when
cies) for the Bode plot, (b) Determine the slope of the 201og]0|G(/a>)| = 0 d B .
asymptotic plot at very low frequencies and at high
E8.12 Consider the system represented in state variable
frequencies, (c) Sketch the Bode magnitude plot.
form
E8.9 The Bode diagram of a system is shown in Figure
E8.9. Determine the transfer function G(s). 0
E8.10 The dynamic analyzer shown in Figure E8.10(a)
-2 •3 x +
can be used to display the frequency response of a y = [1 - l ] x + [0]»
system. Also shown is the signal analyzer used to mea-
sure the mechanical vibration in the cockpit of an au- (a) Determine the transfer function representation of
tomobile. Figure E8.10(b) shows the actual frequency the system, (b) Sketch the Bode plot.
response of a system. Estimate the poles and zeros of E8.13 Determine the bandwidth of the feedback control
the device. Note X = 1.37 kHz at the first cursor, and system in Figure E8.I3.
AX = 1.257 kHz to the second cursor.
E8.14 Consider the nonunity feedback system in Figure
E8.ll Consider the feedback control system in Figure E8.14, where the controller gain is /C = 2. Sketch the
E8.ll. Sketch the Bode plot of G(s) and determine Bode plot of the loop transfer function. Determine the
Exercises 615

(a)

X = 1.37kHz AYa = 4.076 dB


Ya = -4.9411 AX = 1.275kHz
M: FreqResp 20Avg 0%0vlp Unif
10.0

dB iA I I
;
\y \ i

i
i
-30.0
2kHz 4kHz

(b)

FIGURE E8.10 (a) Photo showing the Signal Analyzer 35670A used to
analyze mechanical vibration in the cockpit of an automobile, (b) Frequency
response. (Courtesy of the Agilent Technologies Foundation.)

Controller Process
1000 1
2 t — • K(.v)
i
s+2 s + 10s + 100
FIGURE E8.11
Unity feedback
system.
616 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

Controller Process
100 1
Ms) • Y(s)
. s+ 1 s2 + 10? + 10
FIGURE E8.13
Third-order
feedback system.

Controller, Gc(s) Process, G(s)


1
Ri <>-iO— s 2 + 1.4s + 1 • Yis)

Sensor, H(s)
FIGURE E8.14
Nonunity feedback 10
system with s + To
controller gain K.

phase of the loop transfer function when the magnitude where


20 logiL(/w)| = 0 dB.Recall that the loop transfer
function is L(s) = Gc(s)G(s)H(s). 0 1
A = ,B = , C = [5 3].
-6 - K -1
E8.15 Consider the single-input, single-output system
described by Compute the bandwidth of the system for K - 1,2,
and 10. As K increases, does the bandwidth increase or
x(0 = Ax(0 + B«(f) decrease?
y(t) = Cx(0

PROBLEMS

P8.1 Sketch the polar plot of the frequency response for ./"WW
the following loop transfer functions: L

(a) Gc(S)G{s)
(1 + 0.25.v)(I + 3,v)
V-,
5(s2 + 1.45+1) R,
(b) Gc(s)G(s) =
(s - 1)2
s -8
(c) Gc(s)G(S) =
s2 + 6s + 8 FIGURE P8.3 Bridged-T network.
20(s + 8)
(d) Gc(s)G(s) =
s(s + 2)(s + 4)
S* + (On
P8.2 Sketch the Bode diagram representation of the fre- G(s) =
quency response for the transfer functions given in r + 2{o)JQ)s + a),2
Problem P8.1.
P8.3 A rejection network that can be used instead of the (can you show this?), where <u„2 = 2/LC,Q - eo„L/R\,
twin-T network of Example 8.4 is the bridged-T net- and R2 is adjusted so that R2 = (ft>„L)2/4/?i [3].
work shown in Figure P8.3. The transfer function of (a) Determine the pole-zero pattern and, using the vec-
this network is tor approach, evaluate the approximate frequency
Problems 617
response, (b) Compare the frequency response of the K
Gc(s)G(s)
twin-T and bridged-T networks when Q = 10. (1 + s/4)(l + 5)(1 + 5/20)(1 + 5/80)'
P8.4 A control system for controlling the pressure in a where K = 10. Sketch the Bode diagram of this
closed chamber is shown in Figure P8.4. The transfer system.
function for the measuring element is P8.6 The asymptotic log-magnitude curves for two transfer
150 functions are given in Figure P8.6. Sketch the correspond-
H(s) = ing asymptotic phase shift curves for each system. Deter-
s2 + 15s + 150
mine the transfer function for each system. Assume that
and the transfer function for the valve is the systems have minimum phase transfer functions.
P8.7 Driverless vehicles can be used in warehouses, air-
1
Gi(s) = ports, and many other applications. These vehicles fol-
(0.1.5 + 1)(5/20 4- 1) low a wire embedded in the floor and adjust the
steerable front wheels in order to maintain proper
The controller transfer function is direction, as shown in Figure P8.7(a) [10]. The sensing
Gc(s) = 2s + 1. coils, mounted on the front wheel assembly, detect an
error in the direction of travel and adjust the steering.
Obtain the frequency response characteristics for the The overall control system is shown in Figure P8.7(b).
loop transfer function The loop transfer function is
K K,
GAs)Gl(s)H(S)'[l/sl L(s) = 2
s(s + IT) S{S/TT + if
P8.5 The robot industry in the United States is growing at We want the bandwidth of the closed-loop system to
a rate of 30% a year [8]. A typical industrial robot has exceed 2TT rad/s. (a) Set Kv = Itr and sketch the
degrees of freedom. A unity feedback position control Bode diagram, (b) Using the Bode diagram, obtain
system for a force-sensing joint has a loop transfer the logarithmic-magnitude versus phase angle curve.
function

Desired Controller
pressure

Valve J
Infinite Pressure 1
pressure l>kl chamber
source f 'o

(a)

Controller Valve

Pjs)
O G,(.v) Gt(s) • Prfis)

Measurement

FIGURE P8.4 His)


(a) Pressure
controller, (b) Block
diagram model. (b)
618 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

v -20dB/dec

£ 12

• log <w

(a)

03 20

+ 20dB/dec

- > log (o
500'
FIGURE P8.6 -20dB/dec'
Log-magnitude
curves. (b)

Steering
servo
i i JTT, Steerable
l / wheels

1
1
C0 •*-t
Sensing
coils

/
Energizt wire
:d guidepath

(a)

"> Vehicle Direction


Reference — fc Controller Motor
J > wheels of travel
i _

Sensing
coils
FIGURE P8.7
Steerable wheel
control. (b)

P8.8 A feedback control system is shown in Figure P8.8.The P8.9 Sketch the logarithmic-magnitude versus phase
specification for the closed-loop system requires that the angle curves for the transfer functions (a) and (b) of
overshoot to a step input be less than 15%. (a) Deter- Problem P8.1.
mine the corresponding specification Mpo) in the fre-
P8.10 A linear actuator is used in the system shown in
quency domain for the closed-loop transfer function
Figure P8.10 to position a mass M.The actual position
of the mass is measured by a slide wire resistor, and
= Ujco). thus H{s) = 1.0. The amplifier gain is selected so that
the steady-state error of the system is less than 1 %
(b) Determine the resonant frequency <wr. (c) Deter- of the magnitude of the position reference R(s). The
mine the bandwidth of the closed-loop system. actuator has a field coil with a resistance Rf = 0.1 ft
Problems 619

Process
FIGURE P8.8
Second-order unity
feedback system.
R(s) O— s(s + 10)
• • Y(s)

Amplifier

R{s)
O
FIGURE P8.10
Linear actuator
Measurement
control. His)

and Lf = 0.2 H. The mass of the load is 0.1 kg, and the P8.12 The block diagram of a feedback control system is
friction is 0.2 N s/m. The spring constant is equal to shown in Figure P8.12(a).The transfer functions of the
0.4 N/m. (a) Determine the gain K necessary to maintain blocks are represented by the frequency response
a steady-state error for a step input less than 1 %.That is, curves shown in Figure P8.12(b). (a) When G3 is dis-
Kp must be greater than 99. (b) Sketch the Bode dia- connected from the system, determine the damping
gram of the loop transfer function, L(s) = G(s)H(s). ratio £ of the system, (b) Connect G3 and determine
(c) Sketch the logarithmic magnitude versus phase angle the damping ratio f. Assume that the systems have
curve for L(jco). (d) Sketch the Bode diagram for the minimum phase transfer functions.
closed-loop transfer function, Y(jco)/R(ju>). Determine
Mpa>, a>r, and the bandwidth. P8.13 A position control system may be constructed by
P8.ll Automatic steering of a ship would be a particularly using an AC motor and AC components, as shown in
useful application of feedback control theory [20]. In Figure P8.13.The syncro and control transformer may
the case of heavily traveled seas, it is important to be considered to be a transformer with a rotating
maintain the motion of the ship along an accurate winding. The syncro position detector rotor turns with
track. An automatic system would be more likely to the load through an angle 80. The syncro motor is
maintain a smaller error from the desired heading energized with an AC reference voltage, for example,
than a helmsman who recorrects at infrequent inter- 115 volts, 60 Hz. The input signal or command is
vals. A mathematical model of the steering system has R(s) = &m(s) ana " is applied by turning the rotor of the
been developed for a ship moving at a constant veloc- control transformer. The AC two-phase motor oper-
ity and for small deviations from the desired track. For ates as a result of the amplified error signal. The
a large tanker, the transfer function of the ship is advantages of an AC control system are (1) freedom
from DC drift effects and (2) the simplicity and accu-
E(s) _ 0.164(.9 + 0.2)(-s + 0.32) racy of AC components. To measure the open-loop
G(s) frequency response, we simply disconnect X from Y
S(s) ~ s2(s + 0.25)(^ - 0.009) '
and X' from Y' and then apply a sinusoidal modula-
where E(s) is the Laplace transform of the deviation tion signal generator to the Y — Y' terminals and
of the ship from the desired heading and S(s) is the measure the response at X - X'. (The error (00 - 0,)
Laplace transform of the angle of deflection of the will be adjusted to zero before applying the AC gener-
steering rudder. Verify that the frequency response of ator.) The resulting frequency response of the loop
the ship, E(jto)/8(jw). is that shown in Figure P8.ll. transfer function LQGO) = Gc(j(o)G(jco)H(jo)) is
620 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

i i
s! !i 1 1
100 -280
r

80
J_^r-*
i I
—.^^
-320
" • "
•^Iphase pv 1 I u
; i! Amplitude ! 60
O 60 iv r -360 ^=

40 1 i

1
-400
8
.a

20 — - -440

FIGURE P8.11 , !!
Frequency
response of ship 0.002 0.01 0.1 0.4
control system. &> (rad/s)

/?(.¥) — H O G, t I flY)

(a)

1m
Polar plot Bode plot
G,(» G2(ja>)

Re
10

dB
Logarithmic magnitude
increasing | vs. phase plot
0)= 1 9.54 C3(»

-360° -270° -180° -90°

FIGURE P8.12
Feedback system. (b)
Problems 621
9 V, P

Control Reference winding


winding AC two-phase motor

Load

Rotor

Svncro cenerator
(a)

40
^ \ - 2 0 dB/dec

\ - 4 0 dB/dec
5 o
\
-20

-80dB/de\ 100 1000


-40
FIGURE P8.13 10 100 1000 <o (rad/s)
(a) AC motor control. to (rad/s)
(b) Frequency
response. (b)

shown in Figure P8.13(b). Determine the transfer Phase,


function L(;'w). Assume that the system has a mini-
co, rad/s \G(JOJ)\ degrees
mum phase transfer function.
0.1 50 -90
P8.14 A bandpass amplifier may be represented by the 1 5.02 -92.4
circuit model shown in Figure P8.14 [3J. When R{ = 2 2.57 -96.2
R2 = 1 left, C, - 100 pF, C2 = 1 fiF, and K = 100, 4 1.36 -100
show that 5 1.17 -104
Hfs 6.3 1.03 -110
G(s) 8 0.97 -120
(s + 1000)(.y + 10'
10 0.97 -143
(a) Sketch the Bode diagram of G(ja>). (b) Find the 12.5 0.74 -169
midband gain (in dB). (c) Find the high and low fre- 20 0.13 -245
quency - 3 dB points. 31 0.026 -258
P8.15 To determine the transfer function of a process
Determine the transfer function G(s).
G(s), the frequency response may be measured using
a sinusoidal input. One system yields the data in the P8.16 The space shuttle has been used to repair satellites
following table: and the Hubble telescope. Figure P8.16 illustrates how
622 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

Maximum skewed
O V W
wing position
+

KV7
m m
FIGURE P8.14 Bandpass amplifier.

a crew member, with his feet strapped to the platform


on the end of the shuttle's robotic arm, used his arms ii f«d ' I l'

to stop the satellite's spin. The control system of the


robotic arm has a closed-loop transfer function
FIGURE P8.17 The Oblique Wing Aircraft, top and side
60.2 views.
no s2 + 12.15 + 60.2
R(s) P8.18 Remote operation plays an important role in hos-
(a) Determine the response y(t) to a unit step input, tile environments, such as those in nuclear or high-
R(s) = 1/s. (b) Determine the bandwidth of the system. temperature environments and in deep space. In spite
of the efforts of many researchers, a teleoperation sys-
tem that is comparable to the human's direct opera-
tion has not been developed. Research engineers have
been trying to improve teleoperations by feeding back
rich sensory information acquired by the robot to the
operator with a sensation of presence. This concept is
called tele-existence or telepresence [9].
The tele-existence master-slave system consists
of a master system with a visual and auditory sensa-
tion of presence, a computer control system, and an
anthropomorphic slave robot mechanism with an arm
having seven degrees of freedom and a locomotion
mechanism. The operator's head movement, right arm
movement, right hand movement, and other auxiliary
motion are measured by the master system. A special-
ly designed stereo visual and auditory input system
mounted on the neck mechanism of the slave robot
FIGURE P8.16 Satellite repair. gathers visual and auditory information from the
remote environment. These pieces of information are
sent back to the master system and are applied to the
P8.17 The experimental Oblique Wing Aircraft (OWA) specially designed stereo display system to evoke the
has a wing that pivots, as shown in Figure P8.17. The sensation of presence of the operator. The locomotion
wing is in the normal unskewed position for low control system has the loop transfer function
speeds and can move to a skewed position for
improved supersonic flight [11]. The aircraft control \2(s + 0.5)
system loop transfer function is Gc(s)G(s) 2
s + Us + 30*
4(0.5* + l) Obtain the Bode diagram for Gc(jo))G(Ja>) and deter-
Gc(s)G(s)
mine the frequency when 20 ]og\Gc(jw)G(ja>)\ is very
s(2s + 1) ] 2 + l close to 0 dB.
- 20'
P8.19 A DC motor controller used extensively in auto-
(a) Sketch the Bode diagram, (b) Find the frequency mobiles is shown in Figure P8.19(a). The measured
oil when the magnitude is 0 dB, and find the frequency plot of Q(s)/I(s) is shown in Figure P8.19(b). Deter-
w2 when the phase is -180°. mine the transfer function of Q(s)/I(s).
Problems 623
i(t)
Current DC
o,i—+Q—• Amplifier + (i
motor

Sensor

(a)

m
j

1 i
._
4} 4t>4THJm|!
-30 1 '

0.1 I Hz 10

J. j i <-> i
4r
.-1-
^ ^X I
j

FIGURE P8.19
-180
0.1 I Hz
~h |
" - - < — —H-4.
10
(a) Motor controller.
(b) Measured plot. (b)

P8.20 For the successful development of space projects, The control of one of the joints of the robot can
robotics and automation will be a key technology. be represented by the loop transfer function
Autonomous and dexterous space robots can reduce 823(s + 9.8)
the workload of astronauts and increase operational L(s) = Gc(s)G(s)
w
= -i— —.
efficiency in many missions. Figure P8.20 shows a con- ' s2 + 22s + 471
cept called a free-flying robot [9,13]. A major charac- (a) Sketch the Bode diagram of L(j<o). (b) Determine
teristic of space robots, which clearly distinguishes the maximum value of L(j(o), the frequency at which
them from robots operated on earth, is the lack of a it occurs, and the phase at that frequency.
fixed base. Any motion of the manipulator arm will P8.21 Low-altitude wind shear is a major cause of air carrier
induce reaction forces and moments in the base, which accidents in the United States. Most of these accidents
disturb its position and attitude. have been caused by either microbursts (small-scale,
low-altitude, intense thunderstorm downdrafts that im-
pact the surface and cause strong divergent outflows of
wind) or by the gust front at the leading edge of expand-
ing thunderstorm outflows. A microburst encounter is a
serious problem for either landing or departing aircraft,
because the aircraft is at low altitudes and is traveling at
just over 25% above its stall speed [12].
The design of the control of an aircraft encoun-
tering wind shear after takeoff may be treated as a
problem of stabilizing the climb rate about a desired
value of the climb rate. The resulting controller uses
only climb rate information.
The standard negative unity feedback system of
Figure 8.24 has a loop transfer function

FIGURE P8.20 A space robot with three arms, shown


-200s2
Gc(s)G(s) =
capturing a satellite. s* + 14s2 + 44s + 40'
624 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

Note the negative gain in Gc(s)G(s). This system rep- r{t) = At2j2. The Bode plot of the magnitude and
resents the control system for the climb rate. Sketch phase angle versus co is shown in Figure P8.25 for
the Bode diagram and determine gain (in dB) when G(ja>). Determine the transfer function G(s).
the phase is -180°.
P8.26 Determine the transfer function of the op-amp cir-
P8.22 The frequency response of a process G(/'w) is
cuit shown in Figure P8.26. Assume an ideal op-amp.
shown in Figure P8.22. Determine G(s).
Plot the frequency response when R = 10/:12,
P8.23 The frequency response of a process G(j(o) is R} = 9 kf>. R2 = 1 kH, and C = 1 /xF.
shown in Figure P8.23. Deduce the type number
(number of integrations) for the system. Determine P8.27 A unity feedback system has the loop transfer
the transfer function of the system, G(s). Calculate the function
error to a unit step input.
P8.24 The Bode diagram of a closed-loop film transport
system is shown in Figure P8.24 [17]. Assume that the Sketch the Bode plot of the loop transfer function and
system transfer function T(s) has two dominant indicate how the magnitude 20 log|L(/w)| plot varies as
complex conjugate poles, (a) Determine the best sec- K varies. Develop a table for K = 0.75,2, and 10, and
ond-order model for the system, (b) Determine the for each K determine the crossover frequency
system bandwidth, (c) Predict the percent overshoot (o>c. for 201og|L(y'a))| = 0 dB), the magnitude at low
and settling time (with a 2% criterion) for a step input. frequency (20 log|L(/w)| for o> « 1), and for the
P8.25 A unity feedback closed-loop system has a steady- closed-loop system determine the bandwidth for each K.
state error equal to .4/10, where the input is

I0 - 1 10° 101 102 103 104 103


Frequency co (rad/s) Frequency a) (rad/s)

FIGURE P8.22 Bode plot of G(s).

Frequency to (rad/s) Frequency co (rad/s)

FIGURE P8.23 Frequency response of G{j(o).


Problems 625
20
i
! :
10

« 0 —M^\|Sf• \ J -1.
j

3 -10
•~> •
i

"5o - 2 0

5 -30
t
1i ...
V

S|J|
•T 1 j
!

-40 0

-50 1
10" 10° It)1
Frequency &» (rad/s) Frequency co (rad/s)

FIGURE P8.24 Bode plot of a closed-film transport system.

100
liiii lii Ill H
CO
50
*itfc •I-jtf il: j : 1
-a
^

O
0

50
MMJ4 47|!"- 1fl- i LLilb
I; - { LilW TUTS
' Jllll
•; 1

if- :i jlj ;

1 1 | 111
ti
-100 i J ijS<.ii 1 ji.

-150

-200
!. m
[111I. ! L-Jiii
ntii HIT I I Ml!
|! 1 ! 101 10 2 10 3
10" 10° 10' 10 2 10 3 104 10 5 104
Frequency co (rad/s) Frequency co (rad/s)

FIGURE P8.25 Bode plot of a unity feedback system.

R2
A/W A/W

-o +

FIGURE P8.26
Vf.v)
X V()(.v)

An op-amp circuit. —o +
626 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

ADVANCED PROBLEMS
AP8.1 A spring-mass-damper system is shown in Figure in Figure AP8.1(b). Determine the numerical values
AP8.1(a).The Bode diagram obtained by experimen- of m, b, and k.
tal means using a sinusoidal forcing function is shown

-10

| -20 1 -.—J
- ,
Spring, k San -30 \\
•\

-1-
V
-50


Tx -90° <t>
Damper, b
0.01 0.1 l
v.10 100
180°

FIGURE AP8.1 (a (rad/s)


A spring-mass-
damper system. M (b)

AP8.2 A system is shown in Figure AP8.2. The nominal tivity Si and plot 20 l o g | S j | , t h e Bode magnitude dia-
value of the parameter b is 4.0. Determine the sensi- gram for K = 5.

R(x) • Yis)

FIGURE AP8.2
System with
parameter b.

AP8.3 As an automobile moves along the road, the verti- AP8.3 is a schematic diagram of a simplified automo-
cal displacements at the tires act as the motion excita- bile suspension system, for which we assume the input
tion to the automobile suspension system [16]. Figure is sinusoidal. Determine the transfer function X(s)/R(s),
and sketch the Bode diagram when M - 1 kg,
b = 4 N s/m, and k = 18 N / m .
AP8.4 A helicopter with a load on the end of a cable is
shown in Figure AP8.4(a).The position control system
is shown in Figure AP8.4(b), where the visual feed-
back is represented by H{s). Sketch the Bode diagram
of the loop transfer function L(jco) = G(j(o)H(j(o).
AP8.5 A closed-loop system with unity feedback has a
transfer function
10(5 + 1)
T(s) 2
s + 9s + 10*
(a) Determine the loop transfer function Gc(s)G(s).
(b) Plot the log-magnitude-phase (similar to Figure
FIGURE AP8.3 Auto suspension system model. 8.27), and identify the frequency points for co equal to
Advanced Problems 627

G(s)
)'(.v)
R(x) Xn - 2
I
i- + 3.¾ + 15
_ A
position

H(s)

FIGURE AP8.4
A helicopter
feedback control
system.
•(a)
5
(b)
1
+1

1,10,50,110, and 500. (c) Is the open-loop system sta- you selected for k and b, what is the frequency at
ble? Is the closed-loop system stable? which the peak response occurs?
AP8.6 Consider the spring-mass system depicted in Fig- AP8.7 An op-amp circuit is shown in Figure AP8.7. The
ure AP8.6. Develop a transfer function model to circuit represents a lead compensator discussed in
describe the motion of the mass M = 2 kg, when the more detail in Chapter 10.
input is u(t) and the output is x(t). Assume that the ini-
(a) Determine the transfer function of this circuit.
tial conditions are .v(0) = 0 and i(0) = 0. Determine
(b) Sketch the frequency response of the circuit
values of k and b such that the maximum steady-state
when/?! = 10kfl./? 2 = 1 0 H . C ! = 0.1 ^F,and
response of the system to a sinusoidal input
C2 - 1 mF.
u{t) = sin(w/)is less than 1 for all co. For the values

R,
AA/V r

o- VW
V,(s) VJs)

FIGURE AP8.7 Op-amp lead circuit.

FIGURE AP8.6
Suspended spring-
mass system with
parameters k and b.
628 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

DESIGN PROBLEMS
CDP8.1 In this chapter, we wish to use a PD controller (a) Sketch the Bode diagram for Gc(s)G(s)
such that when K = 20. Determine (1) the frequency when the
Gc(s) = K(s + 2). phase is -180° and (2) the frequency when
201og|GcG| = OdB. (b) Plot the Bode diagram for
The tachometer is not used (see Figure CDP4.1). the closed-loop transfer function T(s) when K = 20.
Plot the Bode diagram for the system when K = 40. (c) Determine Mpu), a>r, and coB for the closed-loop sys-
Determine the step response of this system and esti- tem when K = 22 and K = 25. (d) Select the best gain
mate the overshoot and settling time (with a 2% of the two specified in part (c) when it is desired that
criterion). the overshoot of the system to a step input r(t) be less
DP8.1 Understanding the behavior of a human steering than 5% and the settling time be as short as possible.
an automobile remains an interesting subject [14,15, DP8.3 A table is used to position vials under a dispenser
16, 21]. The design and development of systems for head, as shown in Figure DP8.3(a). The objective is
four-wheel steering, active suspensions, active, inde- speed, accuracy, and smooth motion in order to elimi-
pendent braking, and "drive-by-wire" steering provide nate spilling. The position control system is shown in
the engineer with considerably more freedom in alter- Figure DP8.3(b). Since we want small overshoot for a
ing vehicle-handling qualities than existed in the past. step input and yet desire a short settling time, we will
The vehicle and the driver are represented by limit 20 log Mpui to 3 dB for T (/to). Plot the Bode dia-
the model in Figure DP8.1, where the driver devel- gram for a gain K that will result in a stable system.
ops anticipation of the vehicle deviation from the Then adjust K until 20 log Mpo) - 3 dB, and deter-
center line. For K = 1, plot the Bode diagram of (a) mine the closed-loop system bandwidth. Determine
the loop transfer function Gc(s)G(s) and (b) the the steady-state error for the system for the gain K
closed-loop transfer function T(s). (c) Repeat parts selected to meet the requirement for M pm.
(a) and (b) when K = 50. (d) A driver can select the DP8.4 Anesthesia can be administered automatically by a
gain K. Determine the appropriate gain so that control system. For certain operations, such as brain
Mpa) ^ 2, and the bandwidth is the maximum at- and eye surgery, involuntary muscle movements can be
tainable for the closed-loop system, (e) Determine disastrous. To ensure adequate operating conditions
the steady-state error of the system for a ramp input for the surgeon, muscle relaxant drugs, which block in-
r(f) = t. voluntary muscle movements, are administered.
DP8.2 The unmanned exploration of planets such as A conventional method used by anesthesiolo-
Mars requires a high level of autonomy because of the gists for muscle relaxant administration is to inject a
communication delays between robots in space and bolus dose whose size is determined by experience
their Earth-based stations. This affects all the compo- and to inject supplements as required. However, an
nents of the system: planning, sensing, and mechanism. anesthesiologist may sometimes fail to maintain a
In particular, such a level of autonomy can be steady level of relaxation, resulting in a large drug
achieved only if each robot has a perception system consumption by the patient. Significant improve-
that can reliably build and maintain models of the ments may be achieved by introducing the concept of
environment. The perception system is a major part of automatic control, which results in a considerable
the development of a complete system that includes reduction in the total relaxant drug consumed [19].
planning and mechanism design. The target vehicle is A model of the anesthesia process is shown
the Spider-bot, a four-legged walking robot shown in in Figure DP8.4. Select a gain K so that the band-
Figure DP8.2(a), being developed at NASA Jet width of the closed-loop system is maximized while
Propulsion Laboratory [18]. The control system of one Mpa) ;£ 1.5. Determine the bandwidth attained for
leg is shown in Figure DP8.2(b). your design.

Gc(s) G(s)
Driver Vehicle
IHs) Yi v\
Desired -^ Error l Distance

FIGURE DP8.1
distance From
center line
^Q K(s + 2)
s2(s + 12) from center
line
Human steering
control system.
Design Problems 629

rV v-f;
(a)

FIGURE DP8.2
(a) The Mars-bound
Spider-bot. (Photo /?(.?) • Y(s)
courtesy of NASA.)
(b) Block diagram of
the control system
for one leg.

Dispenser

j-axis motor
and sensor

(a)

R(s) + , K Vis)
i ummand _ J t
s2 + 2.9 + 2 Position

Sensor
5
FIGURE DP8.3 (.v + 5)
Automatic table
and dispenser. (b)
630 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

Ris)
Controller
Desired + K Drug
FIGURE DP8.4 relaxation 03s + 1 input
Model of an level
anesthesia control
system.

DP8.5 Consider the control system depicted in Figure (a) Determine p and K such that the unit step
DP8.5(a) where the plant is a "black box" for which response exhibits a zero steady-state error and
little is known in the way of mathematical models. The the percent overshoot meets the requirement
only information available on the plant is the frequency P.O. < 5%.
response shown in Figure DP8.5(b). Design a con- (b) For the values of p and K determined in part (a),
troller Gc(s) to meet the following specifications: (i) determine the system damping ratio £ and the
The crossover frequency is between 10 rad/s and 50 natural frequency <w„.
rad/s; (ii) The magnitude of Gc(s)G(s) is greater than (c) For the values of p and K determined in part (a),
20 dB for to < 0.1 rad/s. obtain the Bode plot of the system and determine
DP8.6 A single-input, single-output system is described by the bandwidth a>#.
(d) Using the approximate formula shown in Figure
0 8.26, compute the bandwidth using £ and (on and
x(/) = x(/) + u(r) compare the value to the actual bandwidth from
part (c).
y(t) = [0 l]x(/)

Controller Black box

R{s) • C,(.v) G(s) • Y(s)


l

(a)

f)

PQ
1
20
u
1 ~40
S
I ~60
-80
0
-45 • i
\
-90
FIGURE DP8.5
(a) Feedback -135 '
system with "black
box" plant, (b) -180
Frequency 10" 10° 10' 102
response plot of the Frequency (rad/s)
"black box"
represented by G{s). (h)
Computer Problems 631
DP8.7 Consider the system of Figure DPS.7. Consider Design the PID controller gains to achieve (a) an
the controller to be a proportional plus integral plus acceleration constant Ka = 2, (b) a phase margin of
derivative (PID) given by P.M. > 45°, and (c) a bandwidth <ah > 3.0. Plot the
response of the closed-loop system to a unit step
K,
Gc(s) = KP + KDs + — . input.
s

Controller Plant
-AM Gc(s)
3
#(.s) • n.v)
FIGURE DP8.7
Closed-loop
? ' s(s2 + 4s + 5)

feedback system.

COMPUTER PROBLEMS

CP8.1 Consider the closed-loop transfer function Determine the closed-loop system bandwidth. Using
the bode function obtain the Bode plot and label the
25 plot with the bandwidth.
T(s) = 2
s + s + 25 CP8.5 A block diagram of a second-order system is shown
Develop an m-file to, obtain the Bode plot and verify in Figure CP8.5.
that the resonant frequency is 5 rad/s and that the (a) Determine the resonant peak Mpw the reso-
peak magnitude Mpw is 14 dB. nant frequency cor, and the bandwidth o)B, of the system
CP8.2 For the following transfer functions, sketch the from the closed-loop Bode plot. Generate the Bode
Bode plots, then verify with the bode function: plot with an m-file for en = 0.1 tow = 1000 rad/susing
the logspace function, (b) Estimate the system damp-
, x ^,^ 1000 ing ratio, £, and natural frequency a)n, using Equations
(a) G(s) = (s + 10)(5 + 100) (8.36) and (8.37) in Section 8.2. (c) From the closed-
s + 100 loop transfer function, compute the actual £ and con and
(b) G(s) = compare with your results in part (b).
(s + 2)(s + 25)
100
(c) G(s) = 2
s + 2s + 50
(d) G(s) =
s - 6
(s + 3)(52 + 12s + 50)
Rls) O 100
s(s + 6)
• Vis)

CP83 For each of the following transfer functions, sketch


the Bode plot and determine the crossover frequency
(that is, the frequency at which 20 log10|G(/w) | = OdB):
FIGURE CP8.5 A second-order feedback control
/ , ,-,/ * 200° system.
(a) G(s) (s + I0)(s + 100)
10()
(b) G(s) -
(s + l)(s2 + 10s + 2) CP8.6 Consider the feedback system in Figure CP8.6.
Obtain the Bode plots of the loop and closed-loop
50(^ + 100)
(c) G(s) = transfer functions using an m-file.
(s + l)(s + 50)
100(52 + 145 + 50)
(d) G(s) =
(5 + 1)(5 + 2)(5 + 500) Rls) • Ft s)
CP8.4 A unity negative feedback system has the loop
transfer function
54
Gc(s)G(s) =
5(5 + 6)* FIGURE CP8.6 Closed-loop feedback system.
632 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

CP8.7 A unity feedback system has the loop transfer Develop a set of interactive m-file scripts to aid in the
function control system design.The first script should accomplish
at least the following:
1 1. Compute the closed-loop transfer function from the
L(s) = Gc(s)G(s) =
s(s + 2p)' disturbance to the output with K as an adjustable
parameter.
Generate a plot of the bandwidth versus the parame- 2. Draw the Bode plot of the closed-loop system.
ter p as 0 < p < 1. 3. Automatically compute and output Mpc0 and cor.
CP8.8 Consider the problem of controlling an inverted As an intermediate step, use M poj and u>r and Equa-
pendulum on a moving base, as shown in Figure tions (8.36) and (8.37) in Section 8.2 to estimate £ and
CP8.8(a).The transfer function of the system is aj„.The second script should at least estimate the set-
tling time and percent overshoot using £ and ion as
-l/(MbL) input variables.
G(s) = 2 If the performance specifications are not satis-
s - (Mb + Ms)g/(MhL)
fied, change K and iterate on the design using the first
The design objective is to balance the pendulum two scripts. After completion of the first two steps, the
(i.e., 0(f) « 0) in the presence of disturbance inputs. A final step is to test the design by simulation. The func-
block diagram representation of the system is depicted tions of the third script are as follows:
in Figure CP8.8(b). Let Ms = 10 kg, Mb =100 kg, 1. plot the response, 9{t), to a unit step disturbance
L = 1 m, g = 9.81 m/s 2 , a = 5, and b = 10. The with K as an adjustable parameter, and
design specifications, based on a unit step disturbance, 2. label the plot appropriately.
are as follows: Utilizing the interactive scripts, design the controller to
1. settling time (with a 2% criterion) less than 10 meet the specifications using frequency response Bode
seconds, methods. To start the design process, use analytic
2. percent overshoot less than 40%, and methods to compute the minimum value of K to meet
3. steady-state tracking error less than 0.1° in the the steady-state tracking error specification. Use the
presence of the disturbance. minimum K as the first guess in the design iteration.

Input

UO

Td(s)
Disturbance Pendulum model
Controller

ft/(.v) = 0 O^
-K(s + a) t/ MuL
- • t)(s)
s+b *\ (M„ + Ms)g
FIGURE CP8.8
(a) An inverted
pendulum on a
moving base.
(b) A block diagram
representation. (b)
Terms and Concepts 633
CP8.9 Design a filter, G(s), with the following frequency 3. For co > 1000 rad/s, the magnitude 20 logI0
response: I GOV) | < OdB
1. For u) < 1 rad/s, the magnitude 20 log]()|G(/a>)|< Try to maximize the peak magnitude as close to
OdB oo - 40 rad/s as possible.
2. For 1 < co < 1000 rad/s, the magnitude 201og10
I GOV) | > OdB

m ANSWERS TO SKILLS CHECK


True or False: (1) True; (2) False; (3) False; (4) True;
(5) True
Multiple Choice: (6) a; (7) a; (8) b; (9) b; (10) c;
Word Match (in order, top to bottom): d, i, q, n, 1, m,
o, j , s, p, c, e, b, r, h, f, g, k, a

(ll)b;(12)c;(13)d;(14)a;(15)d

TERMS AND CONCEPTS


All-pass network A nonminimum phase system that frequency domain, denoted by F(s), related by the
passes all frequencies with equal gain. Laplace transform as F(s) = %{f{t)}, where .¾
Bandwidth The frequency at which the frequency re- denotes the Laplace transform.
sponse has declined 3 dB from its low-frequency Logarithmic magnitude The logarithm of the magnitude
value. of the transfer function, usually expressed in units of
Bode plot The logarithm of the magnitude of the trans- 20dB,thus201og,„|G|.
fer function is plotted versus the logarithm of co, the Logarithmic plot See Bode plot.
frequency. The phase 0 of the transfer function is sep-
arately plotted versus the logarithm of the frequency. Maximum value of the frequency response A pair of com-
plex poles will result in a maximum value for the fre-
Break frequency The frequency at which the asymptotic quency response occurring at the resonant frequency.
approximation of the frequency response for a pole
(or zero) changes slope. Minimum phase transfer function All the zeros of a
transfer function lie in the left-hand side of the s-
Corner frequency See Break frequency.
plane.
Decade A factor of 10 in frequency (e.g., the range of fre-
quencies from 1 rad/s to 10 rad/s is one decade). Natural frequency The frequency of natural oscillation
that would occur for two complex poles if the damp-
Decibel (dB) The units of the logarithmic gain. ing were equal to zero.
Dominant roots The roots of the characteristic equation Nonminimum phase transfer function Transfer functions
that represent or dominate the closed-loop transient with zeros in the right-hand s-plane.
response.
Fourier transform The transformation of a function of Octave The frequency interval co2 — 2cox is an octave of
frequencies (e.g., the range of frequencies from
time /(f) into the frequency domain.
coi = 100 rad/s to co2 = 200 rad/s is one octave).
Fourier transform pair A pair of functions, one in the
time domain, denoted by /(/), and the other in the fre- Polar plot A plot of the real part of G(jco) versus the
quency domain, denoted by F(<a), related by the imaginary part of G(jco).
Fourier transform as F(OJ) — &{f{t)}, where SP Resonant frequency The frequency cor at which the max-
denotes the Fourier transform. imum value of the frequency response of a complex
Frequency response The steady-state response of a sys- pair of poles is attained.
tem to a sinusoidal input signal. Transfer function in the frequency domain The ratio of
Laplace transform pair A pair of functions, one in the the output to the input signal where the input is a
time domain, denoted by /(/), and the other in the sinusoid. It is expressed as G(jco).