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EXERCISES

E8.1 Increased track densities for computer disk drives is shown in Figure E8.4. Determine K and a by exam-

necessitate careful design of the head positioning con- ining the frequency response curves.

trol [l].The loop transfer function is E8.5 The magnitude plot of a transfer function

K K{\ + 0.55)(1 + as)

L(s) = Gc(s)G(s) =

(s + If G(5) =

5(1 + 5/8)(1 + bs)(l + 5/36)

Plot the frequency response for this system when K = 4. is shown in Figure E8.5. Determine K, a, and b from

Calculate the phase and magnitude at w = 0.5,1,2, 4, the plot.

and oo.

Answer: K = 8, a = If A, b = 1/24

Answer: |L(/0.5)| = 0.94 and /LQ0.5) = -28.1°.

E8.2 A tendon-operated robotic hand can be implemented E8.6 Several studies have proposed an extravehicular

using a pneumatic actuator [8].The actuator can be rep- robot that could move around in a NASA space sta-

resented by tion and perform physical tasks at various worksites

[9]. The arm is controlled by a unity feedback control

5000 with loop transfer function

G(s) =

(s + 70)(5 + 500)'

K

Plot the frequency response of G(ja>). Show that the L(s) = Gc(s)G(s) =

5(5/5 + 1)(5/100 + 1)'

magnitude of G{ju>) is -17 dB at co — 10 and

-27.1 dB at w = 200. Show also that the phase is Draw the Bode diagram for K - 20, and determine

-138.7° at a) = 700. the frequency when 20 log|/„(/fc>)|is 0 dB.

E8.3 A robotic arm has a joint-control loop transfer E8.7 Consider a system with a closed-loop transfer function

function

Y(s)

300(5 + 100) T(s) =

R(s) (5 2 + 5 + 1)(5 2 + 0.45 + 4 ) '

L(s) = Gr(s)G(s) =

,v(.v + 10)(5 + 40)' This system will have no steady-state error for a step

input, (a) Plot the frequency response, noting the two

Show that the frequency equals 28.3 rad/s when the

peaks in the magnitude response, (b) Predict the time

phase angle of L(jco) is -180°. Find the magnitude of

response to a step input, noting that the system has

L(jco) at that frequency.

four poles and cannot be represented as a dominant

Answer: \L(j2$.3)\ = -2.5 dB second-order system, (c) Plot the step response.

E8.4 The frequency response for a process of the form E8.8 A feedback system has a loop transfer function

Ks 100(5 - 1)

G(s) = L(s) = Gc(s)G(s) =

(s + a)(s2 + 20s + 100) s2 + 255 + 100'

m 0

O

3

-10

i -90°

-20

t -180°

FIGURE E8.4

Bode diagram. a> (rad/s)

614 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

+20 dB/dec

-20 dB/dec

0 dB/dec

FIGURE E8.5

Bode diagram.

40

I 20 , 1 j

I

1 0

5 -20 -;

CM

-40

-3-

-90°

— \ - -

0.1 10 100 1000

FIGURE E8.9

Bode diagram. co (rad/s)

(a) Determine the corner frequencies (break frequen- the crossover frequency, that is. the frequency when

cies) for the Bode plot, (b) Determine the slope of the 201og]0|G(/a>)| = 0 d B .

asymptotic plot at very low frequencies and at high

E8.12 Consider the system represented in state variable

frequencies, (c) Sketch the Bode magnitude plot.

form

E8.9 The Bode diagram of a system is shown in Figure

E8.9. Determine the transfer function G(s). 0

E8.10 The dynamic analyzer shown in Figure E8.10(a)

-2 •3 x +

can be used to display the frequency response of a y = [1 - l ] x + [0]»

system. Also shown is the signal analyzer used to mea-

sure the mechanical vibration in the cockpit of an au- (a) Determine the transfer function representation of

tomobile. Figure E8.10(b) shows the actual frequency the system, (b) Sketch the Bode plot.

response of a system. Estimate the poles and zeros of E8.13 Determine the bandwidth of the feedback control

the device. Note X = 1.37 kHz at the first cursor, and system in Figure E8.I3.

AX = 1.257 kHz to the second cursor.

E8.14 Consider the nonunity feedback system in Figure

E8.ll Consider the feedback control system in Figure E8.14, where the controller gain is /C = 2. Sketch the

E8.ll. Sketch the Bode plot of G(s) and determine Bode plot of the loop transfer function. Determine the

Exercises 615

(a)

Ya = -4.9411 AX = 1.275kHz

M: FreqResp 20Avg 0%0vlp Unif

10.0

dB iA I I

;

\y \ i

i

i

-30.0

2kHz 4kHz

(b)

FIGURE E8.10 (a) Photo showing the Signal Analyzer 35670A used to

analyze mechanical vibration in the cockpit of an automobile, (b) Frequency

response. (Courtesy of the Agilent Technologies Foundation.)

Controller Process

1000 1

2 t — • K(.v)

i

s+2 s + 10s + 100

FIGURE E8.11

Unity feedback

system.

616 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

Controller Process

100 1

Ms) • Y(s)

. s+ 1 s2 + 10? + 10

FIGURE E8.13

Third-order

feedback system.

1

Ri <>-iO— s 2 + 1.4s + 1 • Yis)

Sensor, H(s)

FIGURE E8.14

Nonunity feedback 10

system with s + To

controller gain K.

20 logiL(/w)| = 0 dB.Recall that the loop transfer

function is L(s) = Gc(s)G(s)H(s). 0 1

A = ,B = , C = [5 3].

-6 - K -1

E8.15 Consider the single-input, single-output system

described by Compute the bandwidth of the system for K - 1,2,

and 10. As K increases, does the bandwidth increase or

x(0 = Ax(0 + B«(f) decrease?

y(t) = Cx(0

PROBLEMS

P8.1 Sketch the polar plot of the frequency response for ./"WW

the following loop transfer functions: L

(a) Gc(S)G{s)

(1 + 0.25.v)(I + 3,v)

V-,

5(s2 + 1.45+1) R,

(b) Gc(s)G(s) =

(s - 1)2

s -8

(c) Gc(s)G(S) =

s2 + 6s + 8 FIGURE P8.3 Bridged-T network.

20(s + 8)

(d) Gc(s)G(s) =

s(s + 2)(s + 4)

S* + (On

P8.2 Sketch the Bode diagram representation of the fre- G(s) =

quency response for the transfer functions given in r + 2{o)JQ)s + a),2

Problem P8.1.

P8.3 A rejection network that can be used instead of the (can you show this?), where <u„2 = 2/LC,Q - eo„L/R\,

twin-T network of Example 8.4 is the bridged-T net- and R2 is adjusted so that R2 = (ft>„L)2/4/?i [3].

work shown in Figure P8.3. The transfer function of (a) Determine the pole-zero pattern and, using the vec-

this network is tor approach, evaluate the approximate frequency

Problems 617

response, (b) Compare the frequency response of the K

Gc(s)G(s)

twin-T and bridged-T networks when Q = 10. (1 + s/4)(l + 5)(1 + 5/20)(1 + 5/80)'

P8.4 A control system for controlling the pressure in a where K = 10. Sketch the Bode diagram of this

closed chamber is shown in Figure P8.4. The transfer system.

function for the measuring element is P8.6 The asymptotic log-magnitude curves for two transfer

150 functions are given in Figure P8.6. Sketch the correspond-

H(s) = ing asymptotic phase shift curves for each system. Deter-

s2 + 15s + 150

mine the transfer function for each system. Assume that

and the transfer function for the valve is the systems have minimum phase transfer functions.

P8.7 Driverless vehicles can be used in warehouses, air-

1

Gi(s) = ports, and many other applications. These vehicles fol-

(0.1.5 + 1)(5/20 4- 1) low a wire embedded in the floor and adjust the

steerable front wheels in order to maintain proper

The controller transfer function is direction, as shown in Figure P8.7(a) [10]. The sensing

Gc(s) = 2s + 1. coils, mounted on the front wheel assembly, detect an

error in the direction of travel and adjust the steering.

Obtain the frequency response characteristics for the The overall control system is shown in Figure P8.7(b).

loop transfer function The loop transfer function is

K K,

GAs)Gl(s)H(S)'[l/sl L(s) = 2

s(s + IT) S{S/TT + if

P8.5 The robot industry in the United States is growing at We want the bandwidth of the closed-loop system to

a rate of 30% a year [8]. A typical industrial robot has exceed 2TT rad/s. (a) Set Kv = Itr and sketch the

degrees of freedom. A unity feedback position control Bode diagram, (b) Using the Bode diagram, obtain

system for a force-sensing joint has a loop transfer the logarithmic-magnitude versus phase angle curve.

function

Desired Controller

pressure

Valve J

Infinite Pressure 1

pressure l>kl chamber

source f 'o

(a)

Controller Valve

Pjs)

O G,(.v) Gt(s) • Prfis)

Measurement

(a) Pressure

controller, (b) Block

diagram model. (b)

618 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

v -20dB/dec

£ 12

• log <w

(a)

03 20

+ 20dB/dec

- > log (o

500'

FIGURE P8.6 -20dB/dec'

Log-magnitude

curves. (b)

Steering

servo

i i JTT, Steerable

l / wheels

1

1

C0 •*-t

Sensing

coils

/

Energizt wire

:d guidepath

(a)

Reference — fc Controller Motor

J > wheels of travel

i _

Sensing

coils

FIGURE P8.7

Steerable wheel

control. (b)

P8.8 A feedback control system is shown in Figure P8.8.The P8.9 Sketch the logarithmic-magnitude versus phase

specification for the closed-loop system requires that the angle curves for the transfer functions (a) and (b) of

overshoot to a step input be less than 15%. (a) Deter- Problem P8.1.

mine the corresponding specification Mpo) in the fre-

P8.10 A linear actuator is used in the system shown in

quency domain for the closed-loop transfer function

Figure P8.10 to position a mass M.The actual position

of the mass is measured by a slide wire resistor, and

= Ujco). thus H{s) = 1.0. The amplifier gain is selected so that

the steady-state error of the system is less than 1 %

(b) Determine the resonant frequency <wr. (c) Deter- of the magnitude of the position reference R(s). The

mine the bandwidth of the closed-loop system. actuator has a field coil with a resistance Rf = 0.1 ft

Problems 619

Process

FIGURE P8.8

Second-order unity

feedback system.

R(s) O— s(s + 10)

• • Y(s)

Amplifier

R{s)

O

FIGURE P8.10

Linear actuator

Measurement

control. His)

and Lf = 0.2 H. The mass of the load is 0.1 kg, and the P8.12 The block diagram of a feedback control system is

friction is 0.2 N s/m. The spring constant is equal to shown in Figure P8.12(a).The transfer functions of the

0.4 N/m. (a) Determine the gain K necessary to maintain blocks are represented by the frequency response

a steady-state error for a step input less than 1 %.That is, curves shown in Figure P8.12(b). (a) When G3 is dis-

Kp must be greater than 99. (b) Sketch the Bode dia- connected from the system, determine the damping

gram of the loop transfer function, L(s) = G(s)H(s). ratio £ of the system, (b) Connect G3 and determine

(c) Sketch the logarithmic magnitude versus phase angle the damping ratio f. Assume that the systems have

curve for L(jco). (d) Sketch the Bode diagram for the minimum phase transfer functions.

closed-loop transfer function, Y(jco)/R(ju>). Determine

Mpa>, a>r, and the bandwidth. P8.13 A position control system may be constructed by

P8.ll Automatic steering of a ship would be a particularly using an AC motor and AC components, as shown in

useful application of feedback control theory [20]. In Figure P8.13.The syncro and control transformer may

the case of heavily traveled seas, it is important to be considered to be a transformer with a rotating

maintain the motion of the ship along an accurate winding. The syncro position detector rotor turns with

track. An automatic system would be more likely to the load through an angle 80. The syncro motor is

maintain a smaller error from the desired heading energized with an AC reference voltage, for example,

than a helmsman who recorrects at infrequent inter- 115 volts, 60 Hz. The input signal or command is

vals. A mathematical model of the steering system has R(s) = &m(s) ana " is applied by turning the rotor of the

been developed for a ship moving at a constant veloc- control transformer. The AC two-phase motor oper-

ity and for small deviations from the desired track. For ates as a result of the amplified error signal. The

a large tanker, the transfer function of the ship is advantages of an AC control system are (1) freedom

from DC drift effects and (2) the simplicity and accu-

E(s) _ 0.164(.9 + 0.2)(-s + 0.32) racy of AC components. To measure the open-loop

G(s) frequency response, we simply disconnect X from Y

S(s) ~ s2(s + 0.25)(^ - 0.009) '

and X' from Y' and then apply a sinusoidal modula-

where E(s) is the Laplace transform of the deviation tion signal generator to the Y — Y' terminals and

of the ship from the desired heading and S(s) is the measure the response at X - X'. (The error (00 - 0,)

Laplace transform of the angle of deflection of the will be adjusted to zero before applying the AC gener-

steering rudder. Verify that the frequency response of ator.) The resulting frequency response of the loop

the ship, E(jto)/8(jw). is that shown in Figure P8.ll. transfer function LQGO) = Gc(j(o)G(jco)H(jo)) is

620 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

i i

s! !i 1 1

100 -280

r

80

J_^r-*

i I

—.^^

-320

" • "

•^Iphase pv 1 I u

; i! Amplitude ! 60

O 60 iv r -360 ^=

40 1 i

1

-400

8

.a

20 — - -440

FIGURE P8.11 , !!

Frequency

response of ship 0.002 0.01 0.1 0.4

control system. &> (rad/s)

/?(.¥) — H O G, t I flY)

(a)

1m

Polar plot Bode plot

G,(» G2(ja>)

Re

10

dB

Logarithmic magnitude

increasing | vs. phase plot

0)= 1 9.54 C3(»

FIGURE P8.12

Feedback system. (b)

Problems 621

9 V, P

winding AC two-phase motor

Load

Rotor

Svncro cenerator

(a)

40

^ \ - 2 0 dB/dec

\ - 4 0 dB/dec

5 o

\

-20

-40

FIGURE P8.13 10 100 1000 <o (rad/s)

(a) AC motor control. to (rad/s)

(b) Frequency

response. (b)

function L(;'w). Assume that the system has a mini-

co, rad/s \G(JOJ)\ degrees

mum phase transfer function.

0.1 50 -90

P8.14 A bandpass amplifier may be represented by the 1 5.02 -92.4

circuit model shown in Figure P8.14 [3J. When R{ = 2 2.57 -96.2

R2 = 1 left, C, - 100 pF, C2 = 1 fiF, and K = 100, 4 1.36 -100

show that 5 1.17 -104

Hfs 6.3 1.03 -110

G(s) 8 0.97 -120

(s + 1000)(.y + 10'

10 0.97 -143

(a) Sketch the Bode diagram of G(ja>). (b) Find the 12.5 0.74 -169

midband gain (in dB). (c) Find the high and low fre- 20 0.13 -245

quency - 3 dB points. 31 0.026 -258

P8.15 To determine the transfer function of a process

Determine the transfer function G(s).

G(s), the frequency response may be measured using

a sinusoidal input. One system yields the data in the P8.16 The space shuttle has been used to repair satellites

following table: and the Hubble telescope. Figure P8.16 illustrates how

622 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

Maximum skewed

O V W

wing position

+

KV7

m m

FIGURE P8.14 Bandpass amplifier.

on the end of the shuttle's robotic arm, used his arms ii f«d ' I l'

robotic arm has a closed-loop transfer function

FIGURE P8.17 The Oblique Wing Aircraft, top and side

60.2 views.

no s2 + 12.15 + 60.2

R(s) P8.18 Remote operation plays an important role in hos-

(a) Determine the response y(t) to a unit step input, tile environments, such as those in nuclear or high-

R(s) = 1/s. (b) Determine the bandwidth of the system. temperature environments and in deep space. In spite

of the efforts of many researchers, a teleoperation sys-

tem that is comparable to the human's direct opera-

tion has not been developed. Research engineers have

been trying to improve teleoperations by feeding back

rich sensory information acquired by the robot to the

operator with a sensation of presence. This concept is

called tele-existence or telepresence [9].

The tele-existence master-slave system consists

of a master system with a visual and auditory sensa-

tion of presence, a computer control system, and an

anthropomorphic slave robot mechanism with an arm

having seven degrees of freedom and a locomotion

mechanism. The operator's head movement, right arm

movement, right hand movement, and other auxiliary

motion are measured by the master system. A special-

ly designed stereo visual and auditory input system

mounted on the neck mechanism of the slave robot

FIGURE P8.16 Satellite repair. gathers visual and auditory information from the

remote environment. These pieces of information are

sent back to the master system and are applied to the

P8.17 The experimental Oblique Wing Aircraft (OWA) specially designed stereo display system to evoke the

has a wing that pivots, as shown in Figure P8.17. The sensation of presence of the operator. The locomotion

wing is in the normal unskewed position for low control system has the loop transfer function

speeds and can move to a skewed position for

improved supersonic flight [11]. The aircraft control \2(s + 0.5)

system loop transfer function is Gc(s)G(s) 2

s + Us + 30*

4(0.5* + l) Obtain the Bode diagram for Gc(jo))G(Ja>) and deter-

Gc(s)G(s)

mine the frequency when 20 ]og\Gc(jw)G(ja>)\ is very

s(2s + 1) ] 2 + l close to 0 dB.

- 20'

P8.19 A DC motor controller used extensively in auto-

(a) Sketch the Bode diagram, (b) Find the frequency mobiles is shown in Figure P8.19(a). The measured

oil when the magnitude is 0 dB, and find the frequency plot of Q(s)/I(s) is shown in Figure P8.19(b). Deter-

w2 when the phase is -180°. mine the transfer function of Q(s)/I(s).

Problems 623

i(t)

Current DC

o,i—+Q—• Amplifier + (i

motor

Sensor

(a)

m

j

1 i

._

4} 4t>4THJm|!

-30 1 '

0.1 I Hz 10

J. j i <-> i

4r

.-1-

^ ^X I

j

FIGURE P8.19

-180

0.1 I Hz

~h |

" - - < — —H-4.

10

(a) Motor controller.

(b) Measured plot. (b)

P8.20 For the successful development of space projects, The control of one of the joints of the robot can

robotics and automation will be a key technology. be represented by the loop transfer function

Autonomous and dexterous space robots can reduce 823(s + 9.8)

the workload of astronauts and increase operational L(s) = Gc(s)G(s)

w

= -i— —.

efficiency in many missions. Figure P8.20 shows a con- ' s2 + 22s + 471

cept called a free-flying robot [9,13]. A major charac- (a) Sketch the Bode diagram of L(j<o). (b) Determine

teristic of space robots, which clearly distinguishes the maximum value of L(j(o), the frequency at which

them from robots operated on earth, is the lack of a it occurs, and the phase at that frequency.

fixed base. Any motion of the manipulator arm will P8.21 Low-altitude wind shear is a major cause of air carrier

induce reaction forces and moments in the base, which accidents in the United States. Most of these accidents

disturb its position and attitude. have been caused by either microbursts (small-scale,

low-altitude, intense thunderstorm downdrafts that im-

pact the surface and cause strong divergent outflows of

wind) or by the gust front at the leading edge of expand-

ing thunderstorm outflows. A microburst encounter is a

serious problem for either landing or departing aircraft,

because the aircraft is at low altitudes and is traveling at

just over 25% above its stall speed [12].

The design of the control of an aircraft encoun-

tering wind shear after takeoff may be treated as a

problem of stabilizing the climb rate about a desired

value of the climb rate. The resulting controller uses

only climb rate information.

The standard negative unity feedback system of

Figure 8.24 has a loop transfer function

-200s2

Gc(s)G(s) =

capturing a satellite. s* + 14s2 + 44s + 40'

624 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

Note the negative gain in Gc(s)G(s). This system rep- r{t) = At2j2. The Bode plot of the magnitude and

resents the control system for the climb rate. Sketch phase angle versus co is shown in Figure P8.25 for

the Bode diagram and determine gain (in dB) when G(ja>). Determine the transfer function G(s).

the phase is -180°.

P8.26 Determine the transfer function of the op-amp cir-

P8.22 The frequency response of a process G(/'w) is

cuit shown in Figure P8.26. Assume an ideal op-amp.

shown in Figure P8.22. Determine G(s).

Plot the frequency response when R = 10/:12,

P8.23 The frequency response of a process G(j(o) is R} = 9 kf>. R2 = 1 kH, and C = 1 /xF.

shown in Figure P8.23. Deduce the type number

(number of integrations) for the system. Determine P8.27 A unity feedback system has the loop transfer

the transfer function of the system, G(s). Calculate the function

error to a unit step input.

P8.24 The Bode diagram of a closed-loop film transport

system is shown in Figure P8.24 [17]. Assume that the Sketch the Bode plot of the loop transfer function and

system transfer function T(s) has two dominant indicate how the magnitude 20 log|L(/w)| plot varies as

complex conjugate poles, (a) Determine the best sec- K varies. Develop a table for K = 0.75,2, and 10, and

ond-order model for the system, (b) Determine the for each K determine the crossover frequency

system bandwidth, (c) Predict the percent overshoot (o>c. for 201og|L(y'a))| = 0 dB), the magnitude at low

and settling time (with a 2% criterion) for a step input. frequency (20 log|L(/w)| for o> « 1), and for the

P8.25 A unity feedback closed-loop system has a steady- closed-loop system determine the bandwidth for each K.

state error equal to .4/10, where the input is

Frequency co (rad/s) Frequency a) (rad/s)

Problems 625

20

i

! :

10

« 0 —M^\|Sf• \ J -1.

j

3 -10

•~> •

i

"5o - 2 0

5 -30

t

1i ...

V

S|J|

•T 1 j

!

-40 0

-50 1

10" 10° It)1

Frequency &» (rad/s) Frequency co (rad/s)

100

liiii lii Ill H

CO

50

*itfc •I-jtf il: j : 1

-a

^

O

0

50

MMJ4 47|!"- 1fl- i LLilb

I; - { LilW TUTS

' Jllll

•; 1

if- :i jlj ;

1 1 | 111

ti

-100 i J ijS<.ii 1 ji.

-150

-200

!. m

[111I. ! L-Jiii

ntii HIT I I Ml!

|! 1 ! 101 10 2 10 3

10" 10° 10' 10 2 10 3 104 10 5 104

Frequency co (rad/s) Frequency co (rad/s)

R2

A/W A/W

-o +

FIGURE P8.26

Vf.v)

X V()(.v)

An op-amp circuit. —o +

626 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

ADVANCED PROBLEMS

AP8.1 A spring-mass-damper system is shown in Figure in Figure AP8.1(b). Determine the numerical values

AP8.1(a).The Bode diagram obtained by experimen- of m, b, and k.

tal means using a sinusoidal forcing function is shown

-10

| -20 1 -.—J

- ,

Spring, k San -30 \\

•\

-1-

V

-50

0°

Tx -90° <t>

Damper, b

0.01 0.1 l

v.10 100

180°

A spring-mass-

damper system. M (b)

AP8.2 A system is shown in Figure AP8.2. The nominal tivity Si and plot 20 l o g | S j | , t h e Bode magnitude dia-

value of the parameter b is 4.0. Determine the sensi- gram for K = 5.

R(x) • Yis)

FIGURE AP8.2

System with

parameter b.

AP8.3 As an automobile moves along the road, the verti- AP8.3 is a schematic diagram of a simplified automo-

cal displacements at the tires act as the motion excita- bile suspension system, for which we assume the input

tion to the automobile suspension system [16]. Figure is sinusoidal. Determine the transfer function X(s)/R(s),

and sketch the Bode diagram when M - 1 kg,

b = 4 N s/m, and k = 18 N / m .

AP8.4 A helicopter with a load on the end of a cable is

shown in Figure AP8.4(a).The position control system

is shown in Figure AP8.4(b), where the visual feed-

back is represented by H{s). Sketch the Bode diagram

of the loop transfer function L(jco) = G(j(o)H(j(o).

AP8.5 A closed-loop system with unity feedback has a

transfer function

10(5 + 1)

T(s) 2

s + 9s + 10*

(a) Determine the loop transfer function Gc(s)G(s).

(b) Plot the log-magnitude-phase (similar to Figure

FIGURE AP8.3 Auto suspension system model. 8.27), and identify the frequency points for co equal to

Advanced Problems 627

G(s)

)'(.v)

R(x) Xn - 2

I

i- + 3.¾ + 15

_ A

position

H(s)

FIGURE AP8.4

A helicopter

feedback control

system.

•(a)

5

(b)

1

+1

1,10,50,110, and 500. (c) Is the open-loop system sta- you selected for k and b, what is the frequency at

ble? Is the closed-loop system stable? which the peak response occurs?

AP8.6 Consider the spring-mass system depicted in Fig- AP8.7 An op-amp circuit is shown in Figure AP8.7. The

ure AP8.6. Develop a transfer function model to circuit represents a lead compensator discussed in

describe the motion of the mass M = 2 kg, when the more detail in Chapter 10.

input is u(t) and the output is x(t). Assume that the ini-

(a) Determine the transfer function of this circuit.

tial conditions are .v(0) = 0 and i(0) = 0. Determine

(b) Sketch the frequency response of the circuit

values of k and b such that the maximum steady-state

when/?! = 10kfl./? 2 = 1 0 H . C ! = 0.1 ^F,and

response of the system to a sinusoidal input

C2 - 1 mF.

u{t) = sin(w/)is less than 1 for all co. For the values

R,

AA/V r

o- VW

V,(s) VJs)

FIGURE AP8.6

Suspended spring-

mass system with

parameters k and b.

628 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

DESIGN PROBLEMS

CDP8.1 In this chapter, we wish to use a PD controller (a) Sketch the Bode diagram for Gc(s)G(s)

such that when K = 20. Determine (1) the frequency when the

Gc(s) = K(s + 2). phase is -180° and (2) the frequency when

201og|GcG| = OdB. (b) Plot the Bode diagram for

The tachometer is not used (see Figure CDP4.1). the closed-loop transfer function T(s) when K = 20.

Plot the Bode diagram for the system when K = 40. (c) Determine Mpu), a>r, and coB for the closed-loop sys-

Determine the step response of this system and esti- tem when K = 22 and K = 25. (d) Select the best gain

mate the overshoot and settling time (with a 2% of the two specified in part (c) when it is desired that

criterion). the overshoot of the system to a step input r(t) be less

DP8.1 Understanding the behavior of a human steering than 5% and the settling time be as short as possible.

an automobile remains an interesting subject [14,15, DP8.3 A table is used to position vials under a dispenser

16, 21]. The design and development of systems for head, as shown in Figure DP8.3(a). The objective is

four-wheel steering, active suspensions, active, inde- speed, accuracy, and smooth motion in order to elimi-

pendent braking, and "drive-by-wire" steering provide nate spilling. The position control system is shown in

the engineer with considerably more freedom in alter- Figure DP8.3(b). Since we want small overshoot for a

ing vehicle-handling qualities than existed in the past. step input and yet desire a short settling time, we will

The vehicle and the driver are represented by limit 20 log Mpui to 3 dB for T (/to). Plot the Bode dia-

the model in Figure DP8.1, where the driver devel- gram for a gain K that will result in a stable system.

ops anticipation of the vehicle deviation from the Then adjust K until 20 log Mpo) - 3 dB, and deter-

center line. For K = 1, plot the Bode diagram of (a) mine the closed-loop system bandwidth. Determine

the loop transfer function Gc(s)G(s) and (b) the the steady-state error for the system for the gain K

closed-loop transfer function T(s). (c) Repeat parts selected to meet the requirement for M pm.

(a) and (b) when K = 50. (d) A driver can select the DP8.4 Anesthesia can be administered automatically by a

gain K. Determine the appropriate gain so that control system. For certain operations, such as brain

Mpa) ^ 2, and the bandwidth is the maximum at- and eye surgery, involuntary muscle movements can be

tainable for the closed-loop system, (e) Determine disastrous. To ensure adequate operating conditions

the steady-state error of the system for a ramp input for the surgeon, muscle relaxant drugs, which block in-

r(f) = t. voluntary muscle movements, are administered.

DP8.2 The unmanned exploration of planets such as A conventional method used by anesthesiolo-

Mars requires a high level of autonomy because of the gists for muscle relaxant administration is to inject a

communication delays between robots in space and bolus dose whose size is determined by experience

their Earth-based stations. This affects all the compo- and to inject supplements as required. However, an

nents of the system: planning, sensing, and mechanism. anesthesiologist may sometimes fail to maintain a

In particular, such a level of autonomy can be steady level of relaxation, resulting in a large drug

achieved only if each robot has a perception system consumption by the patient. Significant improve-

that can reliably build and maintain models of the ments may be achieved by introducing the concept of

environment. The perception system is a major part of automatic control, which results in a considerable

the development of a complete system that includes reduction in the total relaxant drug consumed [19].

planning and mechanism design. The target vehicle is A model of the anesthesia process is shown

the Spider-bot, a four-legged walking robot shown in in Figure DP8.4. Select a gain K so that the band-

Figure DP8.2(a), being developed at NASA Jet width of the closed-loop system is maximized while

Propulsion Laboratory [18]. The control system of one Mpa) ;£ 1.5. Determine the bandwidth attained for

leg is shown in Figure DP8.2(b). your design.

Gc(s) G(s)

Driver Vehicle

IHs) Yi v\

Desired -^ Error l Distance

FIGURE DP8.1

distance From

center line

^Q K(s + 2)

s2(s + 12) from center

line

Human steering

control system.

Design Problems 629

rV v-f;

(a)

FIGURE DP8.2

(a) The Mars-bound

Spider-bot. (Photo /?(.?) • Y(s)

courtesy of NASA.)

(b) Block diagram of

the control system

for one leg.

Dispenser

j-axis motor

and sensor

(a)

R(s) + , K Vis)

i ummand _ J t

s2 + 2.9 + 2 Position

Sensor

5

FIGURE DP8.3 (.v + 5)

Automatic table

and dispenser. (b)

630 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

Ris)

Controller

Desired + K Drug

FIGURE DP8.4 relaxation 03s + 1 input

Model of an level

anesthesia control

system.

DP8.5 Consider the control system depicted in Figure (a) Determine p and K such that the unit step

DP8.5(a) where the plant is a "black box" for which response exhibits a zero steady-state error and

little is known in the way of mathematical models. The the percent overshoot meets the requirement

only information available on the plant is the frequency P.O. < 5%.

response shown in Figure DP8.5(b). Design a con- (b) For the values of p and K determined in part (a),

troller Gc(s) to meet the following specifications: (i) determine the system damping ratio £ and the

The crossover frequency is between 10 rad/s and 50 natural frequency <w„.

rad/s; (ii) The magnitude of Gc(s)G(s) is greater than (c) For the values of p and K determined in part (a),

20 dB for to < 0.1 rad/s. obtain the Bode plot of the system and determine

DP8.6 A single-input, single-output system is described by the bandwidth a>#.

(d) Using the approximate formula shown in Figure

0 8.26, compute the bandwidth using £ and (on and

x(/) = x(/) + u(r) compare the value to the actual bandwidth from

part (c).

y(t) = [0 l]x(/)

l

(a)

f)

PQ

1

20

u

1 ~40

S

I ~60

-80

0

-45 • i

\

-90

FIGURE DP8.5

(a) Feedback -135 '

system with "black

box" plant, (b) -180

Frequency 10" 10° 10' 102

response plot of the Frequency (rad/s)

"black box"

represented by G{s). (h)

Computer Problems 631

DP8.7 Consider the system of Figure DPS.7. Consider Design the PID controller gains to achieve (a) an

the controller to be a proportional plus integral plus acceleration constant Ka = 2, (b) a phase margin of

derivative (PID) given by P.M. > 45°, and (c) a bandwidth <ah > 3.0. Plot the

response of the closed-loop system to a unit step

K,

Gc(s) = KP + KDs + — . input.

s

Controller Plant

-AM Gc(s)

3

#(.s) • n.v)

FIGURE DP8.7

Closed-loop

? ' s(s2 + 4s + 5)

feedback system.

COMPUTER PROBLEMS

CP8.1 Consider the closed-loop transfer function Determine the closed-loop system bandwidth. Using

the bode function obtain the Bode plot and label the

25 plot with the bandwidth.

T(s) = 2

s + s + 25 CP8.5 A block diagram of a second-order system is shown

Develop an m-file to, obtain the Bode plot and verify in Figure CP8.5.

that the resonant frequency is 5 rad/s and that the (a) Determine the resonant peak Mpw the reso-

peak magnitude Mpw is 14 dB. nant frequency cor, and the bandwidth o)B, of the system

CP8.2 For the following transfer functions, sketch the from the closed-loop Bode plot. Generate the Bode

Bode plots, then verify with the bode function: plot with an m-file for en = 0.1 tow = 1000 rad/susing

the logspace function, (b) Estimate the system damp-

, x ^,^ 1000 ing ratio, £, and natural frequency a)n, using Equations

(a) G(s) = (s + 10)(5 + 100) (8.36) and (8.37) in Section 8.2. (c) From the closed-

s + 100 loop transfer function, compute the actual £ and con and

(b) G(s) = compare with your results in part (b).

(s + 2)(s + 25)

100

(c) G(s) = 2

s + 2s + 50

(d) G(s) =

s - 6

(s + 3)(52 + 12s + 50)

Rls) O 100

s(s + 6)

• Vis)

the Bode plot and determine the crossover frequency

(that is, the frequency at which 20 log10|G(/w) | = OdB):

FIGURE CP8.5 A second-order feedback control

/ , ,-,/ * 200° system.

(a) G(s) (s + I0)(s + 100)

10()

(b) G(s) -

(s + l)(s2 + 10s + 2) CP8.6 Consider the feedback system in Figure CP8.6.

Obtain the Bode plots of the loop and closed-loop

50(^ + 100)

(c) G(s) = transfer functions using an m-file.

(s + l)(s + 50)

100(52 + 145 + 50)

(d) G(s) =

(5 + 1)(5 + 2)(5 + 500) Rls) • Ft s)

CP8.4 A unity negative feedback system has the loop

transfer function

54

Gc(s)G(s) =

5(5 + 6)* FIGURE CP8.6 Closed-loop feedback system.

632 Chapter 8 Frequency Response Methods

CP8.7 A unity feedback system has the loop transfer Develop a set of interactive m-file scripts to aid in the

function control system design.The first script should accomplish

at least the following:

1 1. Compute the closed-loop transfer function from the

L(s) = Gc(s)G(s) =

s(s + 2p)' disturbance to the output with K as an adjustable

parameter.

Generate a plot of the bandwidth versus the parame- 2. Draw the Bode plot of the closed-loop system.

ter p as 0 < p < 1. 3. Automatically compute and output Mpc0 and cor.

CP8.8 Consider the problem of controlling an inverted As an intermediate step, use M poj and u>r and Equa-

pendulum on a moving base, as shown in Figure tions (8.36) and (8.37) in Section 8.2 to estimate £ and

CP8.8(a).The transfer function of the system is aj„.The second script should at least estimate the set-

tling time and percent overshoot using £ and ion as

-l/(MbL) input variables.

G(s) = 2 If the performance specifications are not satis-

s - (Mb + Ms)g/(MhL)

fied, change K and iterate on the design using the first

The design objective is to balance the pendulum two scripts. After completion of the first two steps, the

(i.e., 0(f) « 0) in the presence of disturbance inputs. A final step is to test the design by simulation. The func-

block diagram representation of the system is depicted tions of the third script are as follows:

in Figure CP8.8(b). Let Ms = 10 kg, Mb =100 kg, 1. plot the response, 9{t), to a unit step disturbance

L = 1 m, g = 9.81 m/s 2 , a = 5, and b = 10. The with K as an adjustable parameter, and

design specifications, based on a unit step disturbance, 2. label the plot appropriately.

are as follows: Utilizing the interactive scripts, design the controller to

1. settling time (with a 2% criterion) less than 10 meet the specifications using frequency response Bode

seconds, methods. To start the design process, use analytic

2. percent overshoot less than 40%, and methods to compute the minimum value of K to meet

3. steady-state tracking error less than 0.1° in the the steady-state tracking error specification. Use the

presence of the disturbance. minimum K as the first guess in the design iteration.

Input

UO

Td(s)

Disturbance Pendulum model

Controller

ft/(.v) = 0 O^

-K(s + a) t/ MuL

- • t)(s)

s+b *\ (M„ + Ms)g

FIGURE CP8.8

(a) An inverted

pendulum on a

moving base.

(b) A block diagram

representation. (b)

Terms and Concepts 633

CP8.9 Design a filter, G(s), with the following frequency 3. For co > 1000 rad/s, the magnitude 20 logI0

response: I GOV) | < OdB

1. For u) < 1 rad/s, the magnitude 20 log]()|G(/a>)|< Try to maximize the peak magnitude as close to

OdB oo - 40 rad/s as possible.

2. For 1 < co < 1000 rad/s, the magnitude 201og10

I GOV) | > OdB

True or False: (1) True; (2) False; (3) False; (4) True;

(5) True

Multiple Choice: (6) a; (7) a; (8) b; (9) b; (10) c;

Word Match (in order, top to bottom): d, i, q, n, 1, m,

o, j , s, p, c, e, b, r, h, f, g, k, a

(ll)b;(12)c;(13)d;(14)a;(15)d

All-pass network A nonminimum phase system that frequency domain, denoted by F(s), related by the

passes all frequencies with equal gain. Laplace transform as F(s) = %{f{t)}, where .¾

Bandwidth The frequency at which the frequency re- denotes the Laplace transform.

sponse has declined 3 dB from its low-frequency Logarithmic magnitude The logarithm of the magnitude

value. of the transfer function, usually expressed in units of

Bode plot The logarithm of the magnitude of the trans- 20dB,thus201og,„|G|.

fer function is plotted versus the logarithm of co, the Logarithmic plot See Bode plot.

frequency. The phase 0 of the transfer function is sep-

arately plotted versus the logarithm of the frequency. Maximum value of the frequency response A pair of com-

plex poles will result in a maximum value for the fre-

Break frequency The frequency at which the asymptotic quency response occurring at the resonant frequency.

approximation of the frequency response for a pole

(or zero) changes slope. Minimum phase transfer function All the zeros of a

transfer function lie in the left-hand side of the s-

Corner frequency See Break frequency.

plane.

Decade A factor of 10 in frequency (e.g., the range of fre-

quencies from 1 rad/s to 10 rad/s is one decade). Natural frequency The frequency of natural oscillation

that would occur for two complex poles if the damp-

Decibel (dB) The units of the logarithmic gain. ing were equal to zero.

Dominant roots The roots of the characteristic equation Nonminimum phase transfer function Transfer functions

that represent or dominate the closed-loop transient with zeros in the right-hand s-plane.

response.

Fourier transform The transformation of a function of Octave The frequency interval co2 — 2cox is an octave of

frequencies (e.g., the range of frequencies from

time /(f) into the frequency domain.

coi = 100 rad/s to co2 = 200 rad/s is one octave).

Fourier transform pair A pair of functions, one in the

time domain, denoted by /(/), and the other in the fre- Polar plot A plot of the real part of G(jco) versus the

quency domain, denoted by F(<a), related by the imaginary part of G(jco).

Fourier transform as F(OJ) — &{f{t)}, where SP Resonant frequency The frequency cor at which the max-

denotes the Fourier transform. imum value of the frequency response of a complex

Frequency response The steady-state response of a sys- pair of poles is attained.

tem to a sinusoidal input signal. Transfer function in the frequency domain The ratio of

Laplace transform pair A pair of functions, one in the the output to the input signal where the input is a

time domain, denoted by /(/), and the other in the sinusoid. It is expressed as G(jco).

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