Sunteți pe pagina 1din 16

https://atlaurian.wordpress.

com/tag/lucrari-de-gr-i/

LUCRARE METODICO-ȘTIINȚIFICA PENTRU OBȚINEREA GRADULUI DIDACTIC I

1. The Objective
To improve the teaching methods, to apply some creative ideas
- perfecționarea activității instructiv-educative, aplicarea creatoare a unor idei pedagogice la
condițiile concrete în care își desfășoară activitatea, experimentarea unor noi tehnici de lucru
cu elevii, extinderea unor experiențe care au condus la rezultate calitativ superioare în
procesul formării elevilor etc.
2. Pedagogical Research
2.1 Basic/ theoretical research

Relevant topic, major references – studies published

2.2 Operational research


- investigarea metodelor de predare - înlocuirea unei metode tradiţionale cu o metodă
modernă;
- investigarea strategiilor de învăţare - adoptarea unei strategii integrate de învăţare, bazate
pe valorificarea şi combinarea mai multor stiluri de învăţare; proiectarea, experimentarea și
realizarea de mijloace de învățământ;

Partea teoretică

Partea de cercetare (metodică)

 Prezentarea problemei cercetat

 Stadiul cercetării problemei

 Obiectivele cercetării

 Ipoteza/le cercetării

 Descrierea cercetării (locul/perioada, etape, eșantion, variabile independente/dependente etc.)

 Colectarea datelor – instrumentarul investigativ

 Prelucrarea și interpretarea datelor cercetării

 Prezentarea concluziilor. Valorificarea cercetării

The Effectiveness of Using Movies in the EFL Classroom/ Teaching English through movies
Raising Awareness of Literature through Movies in the EFL classes. Teaching English
Literature through Movies.

Cresterea gradului de constientizare a literaturii prin filme in cadrul orelor de limba


engleza ca limba secundara. Predarea literaturii engleze cu ajutorul filmelor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. Theoretical Approach
2.1. Purpose
2.2. Literature review
2.3. Advantages and disadvantages of using the movies as a supplementary
resource
3. The Research
3.1 Methods
3.1.1 Introduction
3.1.2 Case study
3.1.3 Interviews
3.1.4 Questionnaires
3.1.5 Observation
3.2 Findings
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.1 Interviews
3.2.2 Students’questionnaires
3.2.3 Lesson Observations

3.3 Limitations

4. Conclusion

5. References

6. Appendices
ABSTRACT

The aim of this thesis is to explore the use of films in teaching English literature in Mesota
National College. The main hypothesis is that teaching literature with videos would be more
engaging and, therefore, appropriate for the communicative approach to ELT.

The study focuses on four research questions regarding the use of videos in English literature
lessons: what the students’ attitudes towards the use of movies in English literature classes are,
how effective movie watching is compared to reading novels, what can be taught and acquired
through the use of videos, and, finally, what is the reason and to what extent teachers actually
use videos in teaching English literature.

The research is based on a study in the high school where I teach. In order to obtain the data for
this research I made use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative methods
consisted in interviews with six English, German and French teachers and observations of the
interviewed teachers’ classes while using videos in teaching literature. The quantitative method
was in the form of a questionnaire which was answered by all the students from the 7th and 8th
grades, ... students from the ninth grade, ... from the tenth grade, ... from the eleventh grade
and ... from the twelfth grade. All in all a number of ... students answered the questionnaire.

The research showed that the English classes in which films in segments were used had a positive
impact on the development of all the four language skills, using a communicative approach.
Moreover, short films bring variety into the class, motivate the students to acquire a foreign
language and ...
Generally, teachers use short videos to teach literature about twice a month.

1. Introduction

Students are no longer attracted to learning in the conventional way. In an era in which they are
actually born in front of computers it would be a mistake to avoid using technology in teaching.
Therefore, instead of teaching literature in the conventional way, teachers can motivate and engage
the students by using movies while teaching literature.

Movies provide exposure to authentic language and context. Moreover, visual images stimulate
students’ perceptions directly, while written words can do this indirectly. Movies are more sensory
experience than reading -- besides verbal language, there is also color, movement, and sound.

As an English teacher I have difficulties in engaging students in reading literature. It is a well-known


fact that nowadays students do not read much and many literary characters are completely unknown
to them. They find reading very boring, they do not feel motivated and therefore they show no
interest in reading. Unlike the paper books, movies represent an enjoyable source of entertainment
and language acquisition. Instead of reading an entire book which can be extremely time consuming
and even tiresome, students would choose the audio-visual experience which can be more
entertaining and engaging to them.

However, throughout the years I have noticed that playing a film as a whole unit
without discussing it or without using pre-, while- and post- viewing activities
would be a mistake. The most effective classes are those ones with films shown
in segments.
Pre-watching activities – provide the students with some of the problematic vocabulary.

Whlie-watching activities – provide them with subtitles – the aim to extend the vocabulary. They
actually have the chance to put down any unknown vocabulary or any expressions they might not be
familiar with.

2. Theoretical Approach
1. Purpose
- Improve the teaching method, introduce some new creative ideas
- To analyze the effectiveness of using movies on the development of the students language
competence and performance
- To examine if using movies can be more engaging and helpful for students than the reading
activities.
2. Literature review
- To present some studies on the use of movies for enhancing reading comprehension
and developing listening comprehension.
2.3. Advantages and disadvantages of using the movies as a supplementary
resource
3. The Research
1. Participants in the study
The research will be performed as a case study in Mesota National college, a lower and
higher secondary school.
2. Method
2.1 Questionnaires
2.2 Interviews

The data for the research will be obtained through the use of mixed methods: qualitative, in
the form of interviews with English teachers and observations of the interviewed teachers’
lessons with videos, and quantitative, in the form of a student questionnaire answered by
students from Mesota College.

One group, the so-called controlled group, of students will be asked to read a famous
literary novel. Another group, the experimental group, will watch the novel-based
movie in English. Then both groups will be given a quiz.
Research Questions
The study attempts to answer the following research questions:
1) What are the students’ perceptions towards using movies in EFL classroom?
2) Is movie watching more effective in studying literature than reading novels?
3) Does watching the movies serve as a bridge between reading skills and listening skills?
4) How often and why do teachers use videos in teaching English literature?

Hypothesis
The main hypothesis is that teaching literature with videos would be more engaging for
students and would develop better their communicative skills.

3. Procedures/ Activities designed


4. Interpretation of Findings/ Results

3.3 Limitations
- More time consuming for teachers
- Lack of devices/ bad technology
- Reduced events in movies
- Study – limited to a low number of students

5. REFERENCES

1. Vulpe, Magdalena (2002): Ghidul cercetatorului umanist. Introducere in


cercetarea si redactarea stiintifica. Clusium;
2. Chen, M. L. (2012): Effects of integrating children’s literature and DVD films
into a college EFL class. English Teaching: Practice and Critique;
3. Golden, John. Reading in the Dark (2001): Using film as a tool in the English
classroom. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English;
4. Luo, J. J. (2004): Using DVD films to enhance college freshmen’s English
listening comprehension and motivation. Master thesis, National Tsing Hua
University, Hsinchu. Taiwan, R.O.C.
5. Weyers, J. R. (1999). The effect of authentic video on communicative
competence. Modern Language Journal, 83(3), 339- 349;
6. Morley, H. Joan; Lawrence, Mary, S (1971): The Use of Films in Teaching
English as a Second Language;
7. Denton, Carolyn,A; Ciancio, Dennis, J; Fletcher, Jack, M: Validity, reliability,
and utility of the Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement;
8. Fan-ping Tseng (2010): Introducing Literature to an EFL Classroom: Teacher’s
Presentations and Students’ Perceptions; Department of English, National
Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan, Journal of Language Teaching and
Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 53-65, January 2010;
9. Collie, J. & S. Slater (1987): Literature in the language classroom: A resource
book of ideas and activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
10. Akyel, A. & E. Yalçin (1990): Literature in the EFL class: A study of goal-
achievement incongruence. ELT Journal 44.3, 174–180;
11. Parkinson, B. & H. R. Thomas (2004): Teaching literature in a second
language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Questionnaire for students about the use of video in ELT

Q1. Do you prefer to read the novel or watch the film based on it? Why?
Q2. Do you think watching English movies has a beneficial effect on learning

English?

Q3. What kinds of English movies do you like?

Q4. Do you think your movie preferences will affect your learning?

Q5. Do you think English subtitles are good in learning English?

Q6. Are there any expressions or words you learnt from English movies? Can you

write down any words and sentences you have learned from the movie?

Q7. Do you think the dialogs in the movie can be used in daily life?

Q8. May videos in English lessons inspire you to read books that you may have

previously had little interest in or that you did not know about before?

Q9. Do English lessons with videos help you to increase your vocabulary?

As a learning medium, film is much more immediate and certainly more tempting than textbooks, and
offers all of the speaking cues and scaffolds we're used to in real life like facial expression, gesture, and
authentic accents. Using film in language teaching can also offer a wide range of activities suitable for all
abilities, challenging the most able students or supporting the ones with barriers to learning.

How can film make language learning more effective and engaging? I
to incorporate film into your language teaching, as well as showing you
dimensions of film that you might not have been aware of, with simple
ways of how to explore and exploit these in your lessons.

Our overall learning objectives for the following three weeks are:

1. Develop your understanding of the ways in which short film can


support language learning.

2. Be able to design effective and engaging learning materials and


resources for teaching languages with film.

3. Learn about some of the basic elements of film narrative and film
language to use with learners.

What is special about film as a medium for language learning? What


distinguishes it from other resources, particularly the whole range of
materials available on the Internet? Film places language in context in a
unique way; it presents aspects of culture in authentic settings, and it
provides an accurate presentation of language in use.
he main elements of film language - sound, image, and how films manage
time - and then weaved in the best ways of using it to support language
learning. So, for example, listening to a film soundtrack can support
learners to make inferences about what’s being said, or about the setting or
location of the film. Then, as the teacher, you can build on these inferences
with target language activity. The possibilities are endless.
http://www.screeninglanguages.org/

the power of short film to engage and inspire people learning - and
teaching - languages, and we want to share what we’ve learned with you
here.
https://www.intofilm.org/films/17652

he video at the start of this step gathers together some insights from
students, teachers and other professionals on the value of short film
for supporting language learning. The key idea is that film is both
engaging and authentic; it offers experiences close to real life, and real
use of living language.

We value short film because it is more manageable in a classroom, and in


lesson time, than a feature film, and because very often short films have
something a little special - a quirky story, an unusual setting, a distinctive
visual style. That said, our contributors remind us that film in itself won’t
transform learning - it needs to be thoughtfully brought into learning
situations, using the kinds of approaches we will introduce you to on this
course.

Please tell everyone something about your experience of working with


film in the classroom - is it a feature of your teaching? Have you used
it as part of your language learning? What benefits has it offered you,
as either a teacher or learner of languages? If you haven’t used film
before, why have you decided to give it a go? Post your thoughts in the
comments section.

he core materials for this course consist of a collection of short films which
we use to inspire and encourage both teachers and learners in language
classrooms. These films have been shown and used many times, in
different countries, by a wide range of teachers. We have collected the
films in a private Vimeo playlist, accessible only by participants on this
course. Please use the following password to access the films on the Vimeo
playlist: SFLT. Please note that this password is case sensitive. They can
each be downloaded for you to watch offline, and to use in classrooms as
well.

The only thing we ask is that you don’t rush to watch the films
straightaway. Lots of the activities in the steps of the course use parts of
the films - sound without images, or just short clips - and so if you had
already seen the complete film, then the surprise and the learning points
would be lost!
ilms get students´ attention right away, so they are a great way to start a class discussion.
Teaching languages with film - some key
approaches
Working with film in teaching, like with any medium or supporting
object, requires some thought about how to get the best out of the
materials. In education, this kind of thinking is about pedagogy - the
theory, or sometimes the science, of teaching and learning. We say
teaching AND learning, because the two are not always the same.
Often what we teach is not the same as what learners take away.

In film education, a number of techniques and approaches have been


devised, tested, and shared over the years. In this step we will look at three
examples of pedagogical approaches to film, and ask you to write a few
lines in response. Do you think they would work in your own education
setting? Do they offer advantages or limitations in your view?

The three approaches are:

1. Basic Teaching Techniques

2. Cs and Ss

3. Tell Me

The first set of approaches come from a resource published many years ago
called ‘Moving Images in the Classroom’. In this booklet, a group of
teachers and advisers came up with eight ‘Basic Teaching Techniques’
(BTTs), designed to help teachers who hadn’t used film, video or TV
before in their teaching to make the most out of these media. The BTTs are
on pages 7-11, and then on pages 26-28 we show how the BTTs might be
used by language teachers.

The second and third set of approaches are from a resource called Ciné-
minis. This is a DVD with a booklet and website published by the BFI in
2012, which collected 12 short French films for teachers to use. We have
extracted two sections from the booklet. One is called Thinking About
Film, which covers the ‘Cs and Ss’ approach, and the other is from the
section Teaching with Short Film, that looks at an approach called ‘Tell
Me’. Throughout the course we will be drawing on the techniques in these
resources and others like them, showing you how they can be applied for
classroom use.

Download and read the three documents from the downloads section.
Comment on the suggested list of teaching approaches in the
comments section - have you used any ideas like this before?

In the next step we will be moving onto thinking about film sound, and
how to work it into language teaching.

Introducing film sound


Please read the text first before playing the video.

Often wrongly called a ‘visual medium’, film in fact has three distinct
modes of operation: the image, sound, and time, or ‘duration’. Together
they constitute a rich audio-visual ‘language’ that all films draw upon. It’s
true that the image tends to dominate our impression of the medium,
especially when we talk about it, but without the dimensions of sound and
time, film would just be a photograph - or many hundreds of photographs
strung together.

The rest of Week 1 focuses exclusively on film sound, and on the many
ways it can scaffold learners’ engagement with new language, or familiar
language in a new context.

We’ll start the step with an overview of the ways of thinking about film
sound, and a resource for remembering them. Separating sound from image
is one of the Basic Teaching Techniques we looked at in Step 1.4, and it
uses a ‘Tell Me’ grid as well. Paying close attention to sound offers
learners the opportunity to use their imaginations, and then to put what
they imagine into language - either spoken or written.

The ‘Tell Me’ grid attached to this step outlines the four most common
aspects of film sound: music, dialogue, sound effects, and silence. It might
sound odd to include ‘silence’ as a kind of sound - but without it, all the
other sounds would become undifferentiated noise. Silence in effect
punctuates and sharpens the sounds around it. ‘Tell Me’ grids are used to
support learners with analysing select aspects of a film and they will be
used throughout this course.
Play the short sequence of sound above from one of the short films on
the course and make a note of which kinds of sound you can hear, and
how they are ‘punctuated’ by silence.

Once you’ve listened to the sound only, post your comments and thoughts
to the comments section. You could even annotate the grid in the
downloads section with some comments, and post it to the padlet wall.
Please click here and here to learn about how to post to padlet - it’s as easy
as dragging and dropping files from your desktop onto the padlet wall.
Please use padlet for sharing files, films and resources.

How can we apply this teaching technique to language learning?

You might want to run this type of activity with grids translated into a
target language. It’s quite straightforward to translate music, sound effects,
dialogue, and silence into another language - students can annotate the
grid, or write or respond to it, using language choices that reflect their level
of expertise. In addition to the question above, what language would you
expect to elicit from your learners? How would you scaffold or support the
listening activity for them? Would you need an element of pre-teaching or
preparation in order for them to engage with it?

There are many ways of separating sound from images. A long time ago,
when teachers played back video on TVs, they would have had to hide the
screen with a jacket to do this activity! Now there are many ways of
separating sound from pictures - you can turn off ‘mirroring’ on the
displays panel of your computer; ‘mute screen’ on your projector, or
minimise the video file so the picture isn’t visible. You can even physically
separate the sound track using editing software (see Step 1.15).

In the next step we’ll let you see the images that go with the sounds. The
technique is widely used by a range of teachers and it features in the Basic
Teaching Techniques in Step 1.4.

Adding images back to sound


Note: please read the text before playing the video.

Teachers often report the ‘revelation’ when they pay close attention to film
sound for the first time. Playing film sound without images stimulates the
imagination in more open-ended ways; images tend to ‘anchor’ meaning,
tying it down and making it less ‘free floating’.

The activity in this step is to watch the opening minute of the film whose
audio you listened to in the previous step. Using the ‘Tell Me’ grid again,
see if you have heard any sounds that you missed in the listening exercise.
Sometimes watching a film clip helps us hear the soundtrack more clearly!

Consider how you might use the stimulus of learners’ close listening,
and then the ‘reveal’ of showing the accompanying images, in order to
encourage them to speak or write in your target language. Add your
responses to padlet and any comments you may have to the comments
section.

Teaching with film music


Film music has been around since the very early days of cinema.
Maybe there was something uncanny about the silence of the very first
films that encouraged cinema owners to play live music alongside
screenings. When the first proper sound films were made after 1928,
music became increasingly important, washing over or underscoring
around 75 per cent of a film’s running time by the 1940s.

Listening activities are simple to set up, and can engage learners in
thinking about how film music works and what it contributes to our
experience of a film. Music very often ‘underscores’ dramatic or exciting
moments in a film such as action, tension, or high emotion. Teachers of
film and languages have long used activities to match different music types
with different genres of film.

The activity in this step is in two parts: first of all, listen to the sample
of the film soundtrack we’ve selected, without the images, and think
about the mood or moods it conjures up. Use the downloadable
resource on Film Music and Mood (here translated into French) and
see if any of the moods listed correspond to your feeling about the clip
of music.

The second part is to follow the mood or feelings associated with the
music and speculate what the genre of the film might be. Use the
Genre Cards resource in the download section to help identify
different genres.

The two activities you have just completed can be adapted in various ways
for use in your classroom. The genre cards, written in another language,
could function as a reading activity before learners listen to music and use
them. As an example, we have already translated the genre cards resource
into Arabic for you. Or, learners could be asked to match short descriptions
of each genre in target language to a clip of music.

Using film dialogue


One of the benefits of working with film when learning a language is
the opportunity to listen closely to spoken language while being able to
watch people speaking. The addition of subtitles - as one of the
speakers in the video in this step points out - is a further help, or
‘scaffold’, for our listening.

Language teachers talk about the ‘comprehensible input’ that helps with
learning a language. This is the range of extra visual or verbal cues that
give a context for talk, and the phrase comes from research into learners of
English as an additional language, watching Sesame Street in America,
with the English subtitles on.

Watch the video in this step and make a note of the different reasons
learners offer for film being a rich resource for learning languages. Do
your own learners think of film and film dialogue like this? Are there
any other aspects of language learning that your use of film dialogue
might support? Post any thoughts you have in the comments section.

Listening to voices
Intonation - the ‘music’ of spoken language - is one of the non-verbal
resources that we use to interpret what people are saying. We have
heard an almost literal version of talk-as-music when we listened to
the film Taps in Step 1.6. In fact, there is a strong argument that the
taps in that film are ‘speaking’ to each other, in their own ‘drip
language’.
One of the valuable lessons from this film for language teachers is that no-
one can claim to speak ‘tap language’ - it doesn’t exist! And yet, we are
able to understand something of the relationship between these characters
and even what they might be ‘saying’ to each other.

The pitch and tone of the taps’ noises is in effect the ‘intonation’ of their
language. How would you interpret the variations in tone and pitch in the
exchanges between the taps? What feelings might the taps be expressing?
How might you use this activity to teach or revise feelings with your
learners? Tap 3, on the right, certainly sounds different from the other two.
His (does anyone else ascribe a gender to the taps?) utterances are guttural,
lower, more perfunctory, while taps 1 and 2 communicate with more
melodic exchanges.

Think about how you could encourage your learners to ‘interpret’ the
tap language and invent a conversation in the target language.

Post your thoughts in the comments section.

Inflection - teaching idea


In this step we consider how to use film to explore inflection in an
active way. We’ve posted an audio clip from the opening to another
one of our shorts for you to listen to.

From the sound of the voices, what can you tell about who the character/s
might be, what kind of situation they are in, and what kind of exchange this
is? What kinds of mood are being created? What range of emotions can
you pick up on, just from the sounds of voices? If you don’t speak French,
is it possible to pick up from intonation and inflection whether the
character is asking or answering a question, or making an exclamation?
NB, if you speak French already, it might not necessarily help!

The activity in this step is to write a ‘story opener’ - a one sentence


beginning to a story - that sets out what you think is going on. This is a
task that can be carried out in a target language and you could specify a
given tense or grammatical form. Beyond this, think about how you might
scaffold or support your learners’ engagement with intonation and
inflection, using a sequence of film dialogue such as this one.
Add your story opener and any thoughts to the comments section.
How could you develop or adapt this idea/activity for use with your
learners?

Assessing language learning using film


sound
Throughout this week we’ve been exploring how paying close attention
to sound in short films can stimulate, surprise, and engage learners,
and how that engagement can be mobilised behind learning aspects of
language.

We’ve thought about the different dimensions of sound in a film


soundtrack, and how sometimes that random collection of noises can
prompt the imagination into strange and exciting places. We’ve considered
how sound establishes different kinds of setting, and shapes our response
to characters.

Now we’d like to ask you to think a little beyond using film sound to teach
or introduce language ideas, and to consider how film sound might be used
to help you assess the progress your learners have made towards your
language learning objectives.

The short video at the beginning of this step explains some of the ways in
which creative work with film can support assessment of learning in
general, and language learning in particular. We also have two documents
to download: the first one is a general outline of some of the principles
behind film-based language assessment tasks, written by course contributor
Jenny Carpenter, and the other is a resource created by Into Film that
suggests ways in which film might support assessment in literacy.

Your task in this step is to design two or three activities that use film sound
to help you assess your students’ progress towards one or more language
learning objectives. Use the Thinking About Assessment Using Film Table
resource in the downloads section to help you. What signs of progress
would you be looking for? What kinds of written/spoken/creative
outcomes would you expect to see?