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SCIENCE F2 ( JAN 2010)

Topic : The World Through Sense

1) Common defects in vision : short sighted, long sighted, astigmatism, colour blindness,

2) Astigmatism = irregular surface of cornea. Image formed at retina not clear. Defect
corrected using cylindrical lens.

3) Colour blindness = less colour receptors on retina. Cannot be corrected cause due to genes

4) Presbyopia = Eye lens become harder and less elastic. Bifocal lens used for near and far

Sound & Hearing ;

1) Sound produced by vibration. Sound is transferred by vibration of nearby air molecules.

Therefore sound needs medium to travel.

2) Hard and smooth surface good as sound reflectors. Soft and rough surface good for sound

3) Hearing defects= Caused by blockage of auditory canal, infections, accidents and aging
process. Sensory cells in cochlea damaged due to loud sound exposure.

4) Humans able to detect 20Hz to 20000Hz. Sound detected by humans due to their
stereophonic hearing.

Stimuli & Responses in plants ;

1) Positive tropism = plant grows towards it

2) Negative tropism = plant grows away from it

3) Positive Phototropism = Shoot grows towards light

4) Positive Geotropism =Root grows downwards

5) Positive Hydrotropism = Root grows towards water.

6) Nastic movement = response of plant towards touch, light and heat.

7) Thigmotropism = Stem grows towards object

Topic : Nutrition

Classes of foods ;

1) Carbohydrate = organic compound made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Starch in bread.
Fibre in vegetable, Glycogen is stored in liver & muscles.

2) Protein = made of amino acids. Made of carbon,hydrogen,oxygen and nitrogen. Needed for
growth of new cells and repair the cells. Lack of this causes kwashiorkor.

3) Fats = made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It is a source of energy and acts as insulator
to keep body warm. Important to transport vitamin A,D,E, and K.
4) Vitamins = required in small quantity. Vitamin A, D, E, K fats soluble. Vitamin B,C water

5) Minerals = substance needed by body in small quantity.

6) Fibre = stimulated peristalsis to help digestion.

7) Water = water important as our body made of 70% of water. Water helps in dissolving
substances and acts as solvent. Water helps in regulate body temperature.

Food test;

1) Iodine test for starch

2) Benedict test for glucose

3) Millon’s test for protein

4) Emulsion test for fats

Factors determine balanced diet;

1) Age = active child needs more energy and cell building foods. Growing child needs calcium.

2) Sex = man needs more energy than woman.

3) Body size = big body needs more food.

4) Physical activity and occupation = more work needs more food.

5) State of health = pregnant woman needs more energy, diabetics patient must take less
sugar, high blood pressure patient must take less salt food.

6) Climate= people who live in cold climate needs more energy to keep body warm.

7) Food pyramid

Human digestive system;

1) Digestive enzymes are a type of protein which speeds up chemical reactions in body.

2) Amylase = enzyme which helps in digestion of carbohydrates

3) Protease = enzyme which helps in digestion of proteins.

4) Lipase= enzyme which helps in digestion of fats.

5) 2 types of digestion.

6) Physical digestion = mechanical process of breaking down large pieces of food into smaller
onces using teeth.

7) Chemical digestion = usage of enzyme is applied here. End product are simpler molecules
and soluble in blood circulatory system.

MOUTH : -amylase digests starch and converts into maltose

OESOPHAGUS : - digested food shaped into bolus and pushed to stomach by contraction and
relaxation of walls of oesophagus. This contraction and relaxation of oesophagus is called

STOMACH : in stomach food mixed with gastric juice. Gastric juice have hydrochloric acid which
stops action of amylase enzyme and also kills bacteria. This provides acidic medium. Protease
break down proteins into polypeptides. Also have casein( solidified liquid milk protein). Partially
digested food called chyme.

DUODENUM : First part of small intestine. Bile and pancreatic juice flow into duodenum. Bile is
greenish liquid produced by liver and stored into gall blader. Bile is alkaline and neutralize acid
produced in stomach and provides alkaline environment. Also emulsify fats and oil. Pancreatic juice
have amylase, protease and lipase.

LOWER PART OF SMALL INTESTINE : food then enters ileum. Food mixed with intestinal juice.
Intestinal juice is alkaline.

Absorption of digested food :

1) Digested food enters circulatory system via diffusion.

2) Walls of small intestine adapted to process of absorption :

- walls have many folds covered by villi. Villi increases surface area for absoption.

- have many blood capillaries for absorption

- peristalsis enhances absorption

- small intestine are very long so greater absorption happens.

- intestine walls very thin so small molecules can enter blood capillary easily

- moist on intestinal walls enables food absorption