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PATHOFISIOLOGI KELAINAN SISTEM KERDIOVASKULER Ns. YUNIE ARMIYATI., M.Kep., Sp.KMB
PATHOFISIOLOGI KELAINAN
SISTEM KERDIOVASKULER
Ns. YUNIE ARMIYATI., M.Kep., Sp.KMB
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM

THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM

THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM

  A closed system of the heart and blood vessels

  The heart pumps blood

  Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body

  The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products

BLOODBLOOD CIRCULATIONCIRCULATION
BLOODBLOOD CIRCULATIONCIRCULATION

PERUBAHAN KARDIOVASKULER DENGAN BERTAMBAHNYA USIA

PERUBAHAN KARDIOVASKULER DENGAN BERTAMBAHNYA USIA
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVDS) ARE A GROUP OF DISORDERS OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS CORONARY

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVDS) ARE A GROUP OF DISORDERS OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS

ARE A GROUP OF DISORDERS OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS CORONARY HEART DISEASE CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

CORONARY HEART DISEASE CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS & PULMONARY EMBOLISM

PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS & PULMONARY EMBOLISM
1. Coronary heart disease disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle 2. Cerebrovascular

1.

Coronary heart disease disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle

2. Cerebrovascular disease disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain

3. Peripheral arterial disease disease of blood vessels supplying the arms and legs

4. Rheumatic heart disease damage to the heart muscle and heart valves from rheumatic fever, caused by streptococcal bacteria

5. Congenital heart disease malformations of heart structure existing at birth.

6. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism blood clots in the leg veins, which can dislodge and move to the heart and lungs.

thrombosis and pulmonary embolism blood clots in the leg veins, which can dislodge and move to
FACT • CVDs are the number one cause of death globally: more people die annually

FACT

CVDs are the number one cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause;

Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries and occur almost equally in men and women;

By 2015, almost 20 million people will die from CVDs, mainly from heart disease and stroke. These are projected to remain the single leading causes of death.

die from CVDs , mainly from heart disease and stroke. These are projected to remain the
CAUSE • The causes of CVDs unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use. These are

CAUSE

The causes of CVDs unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use. These are called modifiable risk factors .

The effects of unhealthy diet and physical inactivity raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, raised blood lipids, and overweight and obesity; these are called intermediate risk factors .

blood glucose, raised blood lipids, and overweight and obesity ; these are called intermediate risk factors
CAUSE • The major modifiable risk factors are responsible for about 80% of coronary heart

CAUSE

The major modifiable risk factors are responsible for about 80% of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease.

There are also a number of underlying determinants of chronic diseases, or, if you like, "the causes of the causes". These are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change globalization, urbanization, and population ageing. Other determinants of CVDs are poverty and stress.

change globalization, urbanization, and population ageing. Other determinants of CVDs are poverty and stress.
PATOFISIOLOGI HIPERTENSI

PATOFISIOLOGI

HIPERTENSI

PATOFISIOLOGI HIPERTENSI
PATOPHYSIOLOGY = CARDIAC OUTPUT X PERIPHERAL RESISTENCE BLOOD PRESSURE HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME HUMORAL

PATOPHYSIOLOGY

=

CARDIAC

OUTPUT

X

PERIPHERAL

RESISTENCE

BLOOD

PRESSURE

HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME
HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME

HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME

HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME
HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME
HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME
HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME
HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME
HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME
HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME
HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME

HUMORAL

CONTROL

SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYS CONTROL

LOCAL

CONTROL

RESISTENCE BLOOD PRESSURE HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME HUMORAL CONTROL SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYS CONTROL LOCAL CONTROL
CONTROL SYSTEM IN MAINTAINING BLOOD PRESSURE • THE ARTERIAL BARORECEPTOR SYSTEM • THE REGULATION OF

CONTROL SYSTEM IN MAINTAINING BLOOD PRESSURE

THE ARTERIAL BARORECEPTOR SYSTEM

THE REGULATION OF BODY FLUID VOLUME

THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERON SYSTEM

VASCULAR AUTOREGULATION

SYSTEM • THE REGULATION OF BODY FLUID VOLUME • THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERON SYSTEM • VASCULAR AUTOREGULATION

DECREASED VASCULAR TONE Sympathetic stimulation

DECREASED VASCULAR TONE Sympathetic stimulation ANGIOTENSINOGEN JG CELLS RENIN CONVERTING ENZYME ANGIOTENSIN 1

ANGIOTENSINOGEN

VASCULAR TONE Sympathetic stimulation ANGIOTENSINOGEN JG CELLS RENIN CONVERTING ENZYME ANGIOTENSIN 1 ANGIOTENSIN 2

JG CELLS

RENIN
RENIN

CONVERTING

ENZYME

ANGIOTENSIN 1

ANGIOTENSIN 2

JG CELLS RENIN CONVERTING ENZYME ANGIOTENSIN 1 ANGIOTENSIN 2 ANGIOTENSIN 3 VASOCONSTRICTION  ALDOSTERON Na RETENTION

ANGIOTENSIN 3

CONVERTING ENZYME ANGIOTENSIN 1 ANGIOTENSIN 2 ANGIOTENSIN 3 VASOCONSTRICTION  ALDOSTERON Na RETENTION FEEDBACK
VASOCONSTRICTION  ALDOSTERON Na RETENTION
VASOCONSTRICTION
 ALDOSTERON
Na RETENTION

FEEDBACK

INCREASED BLOOD PRESURE

PATOFISIOLOGI MIOCARD INFARC

PATOFISIOLOGI MIOCARD INFARC

PATOFISIOLOGI MIOCARD INFARC
GAMBARAN EKG ISKEMI, INJURY, INFARK

GAMBARAN EKG ISKEMI, INJURY, INFARK

GAMBARAN EKG ISKEMI, INJURY, INFARK
GAMBARAN EKG ISKEMI, INJURY, INFARK
ISCHEMIC CYCLE Diastolic Dysfunction LV diastolic pressure pulmonary congestion pO2 wall tension Ischemia /

ISCHEMIC CYCLE

Diastolic Dysfunction LV diastolic pressure pulmonary congestion pO2 wall tension
Diastolic Dysfunction
LV diastolic pressure
pulmonary
congestion
pO2
wall tension

Ischemia / infarction

chest pain

pO2 wall tension Ischemia / infarction chest pain Systolic Dysfunction cardiac output catecholamines MVO2
pO2 wall tension Ischemia / infarction chest pain Systolic Dysfunction cardiac output catecholamines MVO2

Systolic Dysfunction

cardiac outputcongestion pO2 wall tension Ischemia / infarction chest pain Systolic Dysfunction catecholamines MVO2 (heart rate, BP)

wall tension Ischemia / infarction chest pain Systolic Dysfunction cardiac output catecholamines MVO2 (heart rate, BP)

catecholaminescongestion pO2 wall tension Ischemia / infarction chest pain Systolic Dysfunction cardiac output MVO2 (heart rate,

wall tension Ischemia / infarction chest pain Systolic Dysfunction cardiac output catecholamines MVO2 (heart rate, BP)
wall tension Ischemia / infarction chest pain Systolic Dysfunction cardiac output catecholamines MVO2 (heart rate, BP)

MVO2

(heart rate, BP)

wall tension Ischemia / infarction chest pain Systolic Dysfunction cardiac output catecholamines MVO2 (heart rate, BP)
PATOFISIOLOGI PERICARDITIS

PATOFISIOLOGI

PERICARDITIS

PATOFISIOLOGI PERICARDITIS
•

Idiopathic or nonspecific causes

Infection: usually viral (eg, Coxsackie, influenza); rarely bacterial and mycotic (fungal)

Disorders of connective tissue: SLE, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, polyarteritis

Hypersensitivity states: immune reactions, medication reactions

Disorders of adjacent structures: myocardial infarction, dissecting

aneurysm pleural and pulmonary disease (pneumonia)

,

Neoplastic disease: caused by metastasis from lung cance or breast cancer, leukemia

Radiation therapy

Trauma: chest injury, cardiac surgery, cardiac catheterization, pacemaker implantation

Renal failure and uremia

Tuberculosis

injury, cardiac surgery, cardiac catheterization, pacemaker implantation • Renal failure and uremia • Tuberculosis
PATOFISIOLOGI LEFT HEART FAILURE

PATOFISIOLOGI LEFT HEART FAILURE

PATOFISIOLOGI LEFT HEART FAILURE
PATOFISIOLOGI CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

PATOFISIOLOGI CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

PATOFISIOLOGI CARDIOGENIC SHOCK
KELAINAN DARAH DAN PEMBULUH DARAH

KELAINAN DARAH DAN PEMBULUH DARAH

KELAINAN DARAH DAN PEMBULUH DARAH
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM

THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM

THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM
THETHE VASCULARVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM Figure 11.8b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 11.8b
Figure 11.8b

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

PATOFISIOLOGI CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

PATOFISIOLOGI CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

PATOFISIOLOGI CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
CORANARY ARTERIAL DISEASE • Pada keadaan normal terdapat keseimbangan antara aliran darah arteri koronaria dengan

CORANARY ARTERIAL DISEASE

Pada keadaan normal terdapat keseimbangan antara aliran darah arteri koronaria dengan kebutuhan miokard.

Pada CAD menunjukkan ketidakseimbangan antar alirandarah arterial dan kebutuhan

miokardium. Keseimbangan ini dipengaruhi oleh

CAD menunjukkan ketidakseimbangan antar alirandarah arterial dan kebutuhan miokardium. Keseimbangan ini dipengaruhi oleh
CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
HEMOSTASIS

HEMOSTASIS

HEMOSTASIS
THANK YOU

THANK YOU

THANK YOU