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International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, Vol. 27, No. 5 (2017) 1750077 (15 pages)

c World Scientiﬁc Publishing Company

DOI: 10.1142/S0218127417500778

Realization of Integrable

Incommensurate-Fractional-Order-Rössler-System

Design Using Operational Transconductance

Amplifiers (OTAs) and Its Experimental Verification

Mohammad Raﬁq Dar∗ , Nasir Ali Kant† and Farooq Ahmad Khanday‡

Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology,

University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006,

Jammu and Kashmir, India

∗darmraﬁq.ku@gmail.com

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

†nsrknt@gmail.com

‡farooqkhanday@kashmiruniversity.ac.in

by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

transconductance ampliﬁers (OTAs) is presented which until now was only being investigated

through numerical simulations. The realization oﬀers the beneﬁts of low-voltage implementation,

integrability and electronic tunability. In addition, the proposed circuit is a MOS only design

(as no BJTs have been used) which contains only grounded components and is therefore suit-

able for monolithic VLSI design. The chaotic behavior of the fractional-order Rössler system in

consideration with the incommensurate orders has been demonstrated which ﬁnds many appli-

cations in several ﬁelds. The theoretical predictions of the proposed implementation have been

veriﬁed through experimentation and HSPICE simulator using Austrian Micro System (AMS)

0.35 µm CMOS process and the obtained results have been found in good agreement with the

Matlab simulink theoretical results obtained using FOMCON simulink toolbox. Besides, a secure

message communication system has been considered to demonstrate fully the usefulness of the

chaotic system.

oxide; transconductance; secure message communication; circuit implementation; experimental

veriﬁcation.

In the twenty-ﬁrst century, among various proposed ization of integer-order chaotic systems [Elwakil &

theories, the surviving ones are theory of relativ- Kennedy, 1999; Radwan et al., 2003, 2004]. In addi-

ity, quantum mechanics and chaos theory. Among tion, from the last decade, apart from integer-order

them, the study of chaos theory has gained pace in systems, the dynamics of fractional-order chaotic

the last few decades. Besides, the theoretical and systems have fascinated researchers to investigate

or mathematical development of chaotic systems, their behavior from deriving mathematics to elec-

a good amount of work is being carried out on tronic implementation. It has been proved in the

the electronic realization of chaotic systems. Several open literature that the fractional-order models of

‡

Author for correspondence

1750077-1

June 1, 2017 15:8 WSPC/S0218-1274 1750077

M. R. Dar et al.

numerous integer-order systems can show better chaotic system amenable for Integrated Circuit (IC)

chaotic behavior [Hartley et al., 1995; Petras, 2008], form is presented. Also, the experimental veriﬁca-

owing to the extensive range of applications from tion of the fractional-order Rössler chaotic system

mechanics [Xu et al., 2015a, 2015b], astrophysics, is presented in the paper. In addition, a simple

quantum mechanics, secure message communica- secure message communication system was designed

tion (i.e. image encryption, steganography, cryptog- to illustrate the usefulness of the system.

raphy etc.), [Huang & Xu, 1999] biology (rhythmic

processes) to chemical and biomedical engineering

[Dar et al., 2016], etc. There are various proposed

2. Fractional Calculus: Basic

fractional-order chaotic systems and some popu- Definitions and Preliminaries

lar fractional-order systems which have been exten- Among the numerous deﬁnitions of fractional dif-

sively studied are fractional-order Lorenz system ferentiation and integration, Grünwald–Letnikov

[Grigorenko & Grigorenko, 2003], fractional-order and Riemann–Liouville deﬁnition are the most

Chua circuit [Hartley et al., 1995], the fractional- followed ones [Podlubny, 1998; Morales-Delgado

order Lü system [Lu, 2006], fractional-order Rössler et al., 2016; Gómez-Aguilar et al., 2016; Coronel-

system [Li & Chen, 2004], etc. It is pertinent to Escamilla et al., 2016]. The Grünwald–Letnikov def-

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

mention that the lowest order for which integer- inition of fractional-order operators is:

order systems have been proven to show chaos is t−a

[ h ]

equal to 3, however, fractional-order chaotic sys- α 1 j α

by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

tems show chaos for orders less than 3 even as low a Dt f (t) = lt α (−1) f (t − jh)

h→0 h j

as 0.3 [Grigorenko & Grigorenko, 2003; Lu, 2006; j=0

t−a

The existence of chaos in the above men- → int

h

tioned fractional-order systems have been validated

numerically. However, some electronic realization of (1)

fractional-order systems have been presented in the where the binomial coeﬃcients are:

open literature where implementations have been

α α α(α − 1), . . . , (α − j + 1)

achieved by replacing the integer-order capacitors = 1, =

by fractional-order capacitors [Gao & Yu, 2005; 0 j j!

Lu & Liu, 2007; Ontañón-Garcı́a et al., 2016; Tang for (j ≥ 1). (2)

et al., 2012]. But, due to the nonavailability of

oﬀ-the-shelf fractional-order element, the nonlin- The Riemann–Liouville deﬁnition is given by an

ear fractional-order equations in these systems have integro-diﬀerential manifestation.

been implemented using approximation methods. n t

dα f (t) 1 d f (τ )

Among the mentioned fractional-order chaotic α

= dτ

dt Γ(n − α) dt α (t − τ )

(α−n+1)

systems, Rössler system is the only single-scroll

system. As compared to other mentioned systems, (n − 1) ≤ α < n. (3)

it gives better chaotic performance for incommen-

surate order. However, the system has not been From the above deﬁnitions, it seems that the frac-

electronically realized till date. In this paper, the tional diﬀerentiation/integration is complex in time

fractional-order Rössler system with one integer- domain. However, their Laplace transform represen-

order integrator and two fractional-order integra- tation is straightforward and for Riemann–Liouville

tors has been implemented and it is demonstrated is given by:

∞

that chaos exist with the order 1 + α1 + α2 ,

where (0 < α1,2 < 1). The proposed scheme is e−st 0 Dαt f (t)dt

0

low-voltage reconﬁgurable circuit implementation,

n−1

which employs CMOS operational transconduc-

tance ampliﬁers (OTAs) and grounded capacitors. = sα L{f (t)} − sk 0 Dtα−k−1 f (t)|t=0 . (4)

As far as the author best knowledge, it is for the ﬁrst k=0

time that the reconﬁgurable low-voltage electronic With all initial values set to zero, Riemann–

implementation of the fractional-order Rössler Liouville derivative in its Laplace domain is given

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June 1, 2017 15:8 WSPC/S0218-1274 1750077

necessary condition for fractional-order system to

L{0 Dαt f (t)} α

= s F (s). (5)

have chaos is that its chaotic attractor must be anal-

From Eq. (5) the fractional integral operator of ogous to the integer counterpart and all the equilib-

order “α” in frequency domain can be represented rium points in the system surrounded by the scrolls

as must be in the unstable region. This can be mathe-

1 matically represented by:

H(s) = α . (6)

s π

− min{|arg(λi )|} ≥ 0 (8)

2M i

2.1. Condition for fractional-order

where, λi s are the roots.

system to be chaotic

The regions of stability and unstability in s-plane det(diag(λM αi ) − A) = 0. (9)

of the fractional-order system with (0 < α1,2 < 1) In case, the above condition is not fulﬁlled,

is shown in Fig. 1. In three-dimensional nonlinear one of the equilibrium points turn out to be

dynamical systems, a saddle point is an equilib- asymptotically stable and attracts the neighboring

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

has at least one eigenvalue in the stable region and

another one in the unstable region. For the case of

by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

only one stable eigenvalue and all other eigenval- 2.2. Stability analysis of chaotic

ues in unstable region, saddle point is called saddle fractional-order system

point of index 1. Moreover, the saddle point is of

Theorem 1. In [Matignon, 1996], it has been proven

index 2 if one eigenvalue is stable and other two are

that an autonomous system given by Eq. (10):

unstable. Furthermore, in chaotic systems, it is a

proven fact that scrolls are generated only around Dαt x(t) = Ax(t), x(0) = x0 (10)

the saddle point of index 2 [Silva, 1993; Cafagna &

Grassi, 2003]. A necessary condition for fractional- where, 0 < α < 1, x ∈ n and A ∈ n×n , α = [α1 ,

order system to be chaotic is that the eigenvalue λ α2 , α3 , . . . , αn ] is;

must be in the unstable region, which means (a) Asymptotically stable iﬀ |arg(λ)| > απ/2 is

απ |Im(λ)| satisﬁed for all eigenvalues of A.

tan >

(b) Stable iﬀ |arg(λ)| ≥ απ/2 is satisﬁed for all

2 Re(λ)

. (7) eigenvalues of A with critical eigenvalues satis-

2 |Im(λ)|

fying |arg(λ)| = απ/2 having geometric multi-

α > tan−1

π Re(λ) plicity of one.

Theorem 2. In [Deng et al., 2007], it has been

Im proven that if we have linear fractional-order sys-

tem given by Eq. (11):

Dαt i x(t) = Ax(t), x(0) = x0 (11)

n

io

eg

R

e

bl

Stable Region

a

St

Re tors di s .

Unstable Region

Stable Region

St

a

bl

e

R

eg

io

n

It is worth to mention here that for commen-

surate orders, Theorem 1 is employed. While for

Fig. 1. Regions of stability of the fractional-order system. incommensurate orders Theorem 2 is employed to

1750077-3

June 1, 2017 15:8 WSPC/S0218-1274 1750077

M. R. Dar et al.

ﬁnd the stability of the chaotic system [Zhen et al., where x1 , x2 , and x3 are the state variables, and

2011]. a, b, c, are system parameters, and are very crucial

for determining the existence of chaos in dynami-

cal system; determining the equilibrium, and hence

3. Fractional-Order Rössler System saddle points of the system. In addition, the sys-

The Rössler system [Rössler, 1976] and its tem parameters are important in determining the

fractional-order version [Zhang et al., 2009] is a Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) and bifurcation

three-dimensional nonlinear system that can exhibit point as discussed in [Zhang et al., 2009].

chaotic behavior. The attractor of the Rössler sys-

tem belongs to the screw type single-scroll chaotic 3.1. Fractional-order Rössler

attractor family. The fractional-order Rössler sys- system and chaos

tem is given by:

As discussed earlier, for the autonomous fractional-

dα1 x1 order system to be in chaotic regime proper care

= −x2 − x3

dtα1 has be taken in choosing the order of the system.

Therefore, in order to calculate the order we need to

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

= x1 + ax2 (12)

dtα2 c2 > 4ab [Tavazoei & Haeri, 2007] the two equi-

dα3 x3 librium/ﬁxed points E1 , E2 for Rössler system are

by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

= b + x3 (x1 − c) calculated using Eq. (8) and are given in Eq. (13)

dtα3

as under:

√ √ √

2

c − c − 4ab 2

−c + c − 4ab 2

c − c − 4ab

E1 = , ,

2 2a 2a

√ √ √ . (13)

2

c + c − 4ab 2

−c − c − 4ab 2

c + c − 4ab

E2 = , ,

2 2a 2a

in Eq. (12) evaluated at equilibrium points E1 = using Theorem 2 (for incommensurate system) and

(x∗1 , x∗2 , x∗3 ) is given by Eq. (14): is given in Table 2. From Table 2, it is clear that

not all the system parameters and orders of Rössler

0 −1 −1 system lead to its chaotic behavior. In the demon-

strated examples, this has been taken into consid-

=1 a 0 . (14)

eration while selecting the system parameters and

x∗3 0 x∗1 − c incommensurate orders.

The equilibrium points and the correspond-

ing eigenvalues calculated using Eqs. (13) and (14)

respectively for diﬀerent arbitrary system parame-

4. Hardware Realization of

ters are tabulated in Table 1. Therefore, Table 1 Fractional-Order Rössler System

indicates the existence of chaos in the fractional- The expression of fractional-order Rössler system

order Rössler system for particular set of system given in Eq. (12) can be rewritten as:

parameters.

For all the cases, E1 is a saddle point of index dα1 Vx1

τ̂ = −Vx2 − Vx3

2 and therefore in the presence of chaos, the scroll dtα1

will encircle this saddle point. However, in order to dα2 Vx2

conﬁrm the existence of chaos with speciﬁc system τ̂ = Vx1 + a.Vx2 (15)

dtα2

parameters, the condition for order and chaos needs

to be calculated. This condition for some arbitrary dα3 Vx3

τ̂ = b + Vx3 (Vx1 − c).

system parameters of Table 1 has been calculated dtα3

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June 1, 2017 15:8 WSPC/S0218-1274 1750077

Table 1. Equilibrium points, Jacobian matrices and corresponding eigenvalues for various system parameters.

Parameters Equilibrium Points Jacobian Matrix Λ1 = (λ1 , λ2 , λ3 )|E1

(a, b, c) (Ei ) for i = 1, 2 (i ) i = 1, 2 Λ2 = (λ1 , λ2 , λ3 )|E2

0 1

0 −1 −1

B C

1 = @ 1 0.35 0 A Λ1 = (−9.954, 0.17 + 0.984j,

E1 = (0.035, −0.1004, 0.1004) 0.1004 0 −9.965 0.17 − 0.984j)

(0.35, 1, 10) 0 1

E2 = (9.964, −28.471, 28.471) 0 −1 −1 Λ2 = (0.337, −0.011 + 5.428j,

B C −0.011 − 5.428j)

2 = @ 1 0.35 0 A

28.471 0 −0.0356

0 1

0 −1 −1

B C

1 = @ 1 0.35 0 A Λ1 = (−9.991, 0.174 + 0.984j,

E1 = (0.007, −0.02, 0.02) 0.02 0 −9.993 0.174 − 0.984j)

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

E2 = (9.993, −28.55, 28.55) 0 −1 −1 Λ2 = (0.338, 0.0025 + 5.432j,

B C 0.0025 − 5.432j)

2 = @ 1 0.35 0 A

28.55 0 −0.007

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0 1

0 −1 −1

B C

1 = @ 1 0.35 0 A Λ1 = (−4.97, 0.1 + 0.98j,

E1 = (0.01, −0.04, 0.04) 0.040 0 −4.98 0.17 − 0.98j)

(0.35, 0.2, 5)

E2 = (4.98, −14.24, 14.24) 0 1

0 −1 −1 Λ2 = (0.32, 0.004 + 3.9j,

B C 0.004 − 3.9j)

2 = @ 1 0.35 0 A

14.24 0 −0.01

0 1

0 −1 −1

B C

1 = @ 1 0.5 0 A Λ1 = (−4.97, 0.246 + 0.968j,

E1 = (0.02, −0.04, 0.04) 0.04 0 −4.97 0.246 − 0.968j)

(0.5, 0.2, 5) 0 1

E2 = (4.97, −9.95, 9.95) 0 −1 −1 Λ2 = (0.453, 0.013 + 3.307j,

B C 0.013 − 3.307j)

2 = @ 1 0.5 0 A

9.95 0 −0.02

0 1

0 −1 −1

B C

1 = @ 1 0.6 0 A Λ1 = (−5.974, 0.297 + 0.95j,

E1 = (0.02, −0.033, 0.033) 0.03 0 −5.97 0.29 − 0.953j)

(0.6, 0.2, 6) 0 1

E2 = (5.97, −9.96, 9.96) 0 −1 −1 Λ2 = (0.545, 0.017 + 3.306j,

B C 0.017 − 3.306j)

2 = @ 1 0.6 0 A

9.96 0 −0.02

0 1

0 −1 −1

B C

1 = @ 1 0.7 0 A Λ1 = (−9.98, 0.349 + 0.936j,

E1 = (0.014, −0.02, 0.02) 0.02 0 −9.98 0.349 − 0.936j)

(0.7, 0.2, 10) 0 1

E2 = (9.986, −14.26, 14.26) 0 −1 −1 Λ2 = (0.654, 0.015 + 3.903j,

B C 0.015 − 3.903j)

2 = @ 1 0.7 0 A

14.26 0 −0.01

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M. R. Dar et al.

Table 2. Conditions for chaos with arbitrary system parameters and various incommensurate fractional-orders.

π

(a, b, c) Condition for Order (α1 , α2 , α3 ) 2M − mini {|arg(λi )|} Status of Chaos

(0.35, 1, 10) α > 0.88 (0.9, 0.9, 0.95) 0.08 > 0 Yes

(0.35, 1, 10) α < 0.88 (0.4, 0.6, 0.8) −0.106 < 0 No

(0.35, 0.2, 5) α > 0.88 (1.0, 0.95, 0.9) 0.0075 > 0 Yes

(0.35, 0.2, 5) α < 0.88 (0.8, 0.7, 0.9) −0.03 < 0 No

(0.5, 0.2, 5) α < 0.84 (0.8, 0.9, 0.95) −0.0127 < 0 No

(0.6, 0.2, 6) α > 0.50 (0.9, 0.8, 0.7) 0.009 > 0 Yes

(0.7, 0.2, 10) α > 0.77 (0.8, 0.85, 0.9) 0.005 > 0 Yes

shown in Fig. 2. It comprises fractional-order inte- 2

α − 3α + 2 2 1 8 − 2α2 1

grator, multiplier and summer blocks which are dis- 2

s + 2

s+ 2

α + 3α + 2 τ α + 3α + 2 τ

cussed hereunder: H(s) = 2 2 .

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

2 1 8 − 2α 1 α − 3α + 2

s + s+ 2

τ α2 + 3α + 2 τ α2 + 3α + 2

4.1. Realization of circuit building (17)

blocks

by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

Or

Various schemes have been used to approximate

G1 G0

the fractional-order lossless integrator [Chen et al., G2 s2 + s+

2016, 2013] to realize the chaotic systems. Accord- τ1 τ1 τ2

H(s) = . (18)

1 1

ing to [Freeborn et al., 2010], the linear trans- s2 + s +

fer function approximation of fractional integrator τ1 τ1 τ2

given by Eq. (6) can be eﬃciently approximated by From Eq. (18), it is clear that the transfer func-

Eq. (16): tion of the fractional-order lossless integrator can

be implemented by Follow-the-Ladder-Feedback

1 (α2 − 3α + 2)s2 + (8 − 2α2 )s + (α2 + 3α + 2)

= . (FLF) functional block diagram shown in Fig. 3(a),

sα (α2 + 3α + 2)s2 + (8 − 2α2 )s + (α2 − 3α + 2) where unity gain frequency ωu ≡ 1/τ (τ is time con-

(16) stant of integrator) and phase response is equivalent

to −aπ/2. Also from Eq. (18) it can be concluded

From Eqs. (6) and (16) we can write the trans-

that values of the coeﬃcients and time constants

fer function of fractional-order lossless integrator

can be obtained by comparing Eqs. (17) and (18)

which are given in Table 3.

The electronic realization of Fig. 3(a) employ-

ing only OTAs and grounded capacitors is shown

in Fig. 3(b); the employed MOS based OTA [Tsi-

rimokou et al., 2015; Dar et al., 2016] is shown in

Fig. 3(c). The aspect ratio of MOS transistors Mn1 -

Mn2 is K:1 and Mn3 -Mn4 is 1:K, where K is scaling

factor used to increase the linearity of OTA. It is

worth to mention here that the transistors operate

in subthreshold region and hence transconductance

of OTA is:

Io 4K

gm = (19)

nVT (1 + K)2

where, (VT ) is the thermal voltage (26 mv@27◦ C),

(Io ) the bias current, (n) is subthreshold slope fac-

Fig. 2. Block diagram of realized fractional-order Rössler tor of MOS transistors and hence gm = Io /nVT for

system. K = 1.

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June 1, 2017 15:8 WSPC/S0218-1274 1750077

(a)

(b)

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

(c)

Fig. 3. (a) FLF block diagram to implement fractional-order integrator, (b) block diagram of FLF using OTAs and (c) MOS

structure of employed OTA.

G2 G1 G0 τ1 τ2

„ « „ «

α2 − 3α + 2 α2 + 3α + 2 α2 + 3α + 2 8 − 2α2

1 τ τ

α2 + 3α + 2 α2 − 3α + 2 8 − 2α2 α2 + 3α + 2

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M. R. Dar et al.

Results

The performance of all the proposed circuits has

been veriﬁed through experimentation and HSPICE

simulator using the AMS 0.35 µm CMOS pro-

cess parameters. Furthermore, the Matlab simulink

numerical results are also obtained to verify the

HSPICE and experimental results. For numerical

simulations, the fractional-order integrators accord-

ing to Eq. (12) with the respective state vari-

(a) ables and system parameters have been taken from

FOMCON simulink toolbox [Tepljakov et al., 2011].

Moreover, the order was chosen as (α1 = 1, α2 =

0.95, α3 = 0.9) with approximation order 2 and

system parameters (a, b, c) = (0.35, 0.2, 5). For

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

to obtain the results, the supply voltage used

for experiment was ±15 V. For simulation sup-

ply voltage of ±1.2 V was used and the scal-

by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

ratio of the transistors for OTA structure of

Fig. 3(c) were kept as (10 µm/15 µm) for Mp1 -Mp2 ,

(25 µm/5 µm), for Mn1 -Mn4 , (5 µm/1 µm) for Mn2 -

Mn3 , and (10 µm/10 µm) for Mn5 -Mn6 .

(b) Since the subthreshold MOSFETs are very

Fig. 4. (a) OTA based multiplier [Han & Sinencio, 1998]

susceptible to temperature variations, therefore in

and (b) OTA based adder. order to demonstrate the proper functioning of the

OTA with the temperature variations, the tempera-

ture sweep analysis was performed for temperature

The time constant of the integer-order lossless variations from 0–70◦ C with 10◦ C increment. The

integrators employed in FLF is: obtained results are shown in Fig. 5, which shows

reasonably small variation with temperature. Thus,

Ci nVT 4K

τi = (i = 1, 2). (20)

Ioi (1 + K)2

cluded that we can change the order of fractional-

order integrator electronically which gives the extra

degree of freedom to implement such circuits on

chip.

The OTA realizations of multiplier and adder

are shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b) respectively. The

input–output equations for multiplier and adder are

given in Eqs. (21) and (22) respectively.

gm2

vout = P (vin1 ∗ vin2 ) where P =

gm0 nVT

(21)

gm6 gm7 gm8

vo = v1 + v2 + v3 . (22)

gm9 gm9 gm9 Fig. 5. PVT sensitivity analysis of employed OTA.

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June 1, 2017 15:8 WSPC/S0218-1274 1750077

the designed system is expected to work well even of 4-channel oscilloscope, as the three waveforms

if the temperature ﬂuctuates by certain amount. need to be time-synchronous for the portrait. How-

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

Performance of the fractional-order integrator ever, from the transient responses, it is clear that

of Fig. 3(b) has been veriﬁed with the value for the experimental 3D-phase portrait is also in agree-

capacitors C1 = C2 = 100 pF for various orders α = ment with those of Matlab simulink and HSPICE

by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

0.7, α = 0.8, α = 0.9 and α = 0.95. The simulated results. The small diﬀerence between the dynam-

result is shown in Fig. 6 and the employed values ics of Matlab simulink and HSPICE results is due

for bias currents and scaling factors are tabulated in to the sensitivity of system to the initial condition;

Table 4. From Fig. 6 it is clear that the order of the nonidealities of OTA, overall circuit, process param-

fractional-order integrator and the order of whole eters variation. In addition, nevertheless due to an

chaotic system can be electronically controlled by approximated fractional-order integrator, which has

the bias currents. ripples in the phase behavior and is well suited

The overall performance of the proposed only for few decades of frequency response as only

fractional-order Rössler system was evaluated for an second-order approximation is used to reduce cir-

overall order of 2.85 with incommensurate orders of cuit complexity, this can be avoided by using higher-

fractional-order lossless integrators as (α1 = 1, α2 = order approximation but the cost to be paid will be

0.95, α3 = 0.9) having system parameters (a, b, c) = higher complexity. The total power dissipation of

(0.35, 0.2, 5) for which bias currents for multiplier the standalone fractional-order Rössler system was

and adder blocks were accordingly adjusted. The 93.08 µW for simulated circuit.

Matlab simulink, experimental and HSPICE tran- In order to demonstrate the usefulness of

sient results of Vx1 , Vx2 , Vx3 are shown in Figs. 7(a)– designed chaotic system, a simple secure message

7(c) respectively and the corresponding projection communication system shown in Fig. 10, has been

results of Vx1 –Vx2 are shown in Figs. 8(a)–8(c) considered. The chaotic signal is added to the mes-

respectively. In addition, the 3D-phase portraits sage signal and, at the receiver, the mask, i.e.

from Matlab simulink and HSPICE are shown in chaotic signal is removed. However, the problem

Figs. 9(a) and 9(b) respectively. It is pertinent to with this scheme is that the receiver must be highly

mention here that the experimental 3D-phase por- synchronized to admit the small perturbation in

traits were not obtained due to the nonavailability the chaotic signal due to the addition of the mes-

sage. Further, the power level of message signal

must be much less than that of the chaotic sig-

Table 4. Bias currents and scaling factors for various orders nal to eﬀectively bury it [Alvarez et al., 1999].

of fractional-order lossless integrator. With all those aspects in consideration, we masked

Order (α) Io1 (nA) Io2 (nA) Io (nA) G0 G1 G2 one of the states of the Rössler system with mes-

sage signal to make a crypto system, i.e. secure

0.7 9.30 0.33 19.1 11.77 1 0.08 message communication system. The modulated,

0.8 8.11 0.21 19.1 21 1 0.04 transmitted and the received signal results obtained

0.9 7.04 0.10 19.1 50 1 0.02

0.95 6.55 0.05 19.1 109.57 1 0.009

from Matlab simulink, experiment and HSPICE are

shown in Figs. 11(a)–11(c) respectively. Therefore,

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M. R. Dar et al.

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(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 7. Vx1 , Vx2 , Vx3 , transient response: (a) Matlab, (b) experiment and (c) HSPICE.

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by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 8. Vx1 –Vx2 projection: (a) Matlab, (b) experiment and (c) HSPICE.

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M. R. Dar et al.

(a) (b)

Fig. 9. 3D-phase portraits: (a) Matlab and (b) HSPICE.

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

Transsmitter Receiver

Syynchronized

Fraactional-orrder fractional-orrder

by CINVESTAV on 08/31/17. For personal use only.

generator generatorr

+ Chann

nel + Meessage Signal

Message Sign

nal

(a) (b)

Fig. 11. Responses of transmitted, modulated and received signals: (a) Matlab, (b) experiment and (c) HSPICE.

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(c)

Fig. 11. (Continued)

the received signals in the three cases are in good shown in Figs. 12(a)–12(c) respectively. Thus, the

agreement with the transmitted signals. In order to system has security embedded in the selection of the

verify the security of the system, the parameter “c” parameters and order of states. Hence, not taking

and order of system were slightly changed in the one or all parameters and or fractional-order of the

receiver system and the obtained received signals receiver exactly the same as those of the transmitter

from Matlab simulink, experiment and HSPICE are will lead to an unauthorized receiver with the wrong

(a) (b)

Fig. 12. Transmitted and received signals when parameter c and order are varied: (a) Matlab, (b) experiment and (c) HSPICE.

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M. R. Dar et al.

(c)

Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 2017.27. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com

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secure message communication system validates the

This work was supported by University Grants

proper functioning of the designed Rössler system

Commission (UGC), Government of India, under

and further motivates to explore other useful appli-

its Special Assistance Programme (SAP) Grant No.

cation areas of the system.

F. 3-29/2012(SAP-II).

6. Conclusion

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