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403 vizualizări78 paginiHOMC 2015-2017

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Ha Noi - 2018

2

Contents

1.1 Junior section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.1.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015 7

1.1.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016 9

1.1.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017 12

1.2 Senior section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.2.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015 14

1.2.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016 16

1.2.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017 19

2.1 Junior section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.1.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015 23

2.1.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016 32

2.1.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017 42

2.2 Senior section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

2.2.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015 50

2.2.2 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2016 59

2.2.3 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2017 72

Preface

Open Mathematics Competition (HOMC) is a mathematics com-

petition held every year for school students, and it has two sections:

contestants with 14 and 16 of age (equivalently, those in 8 and 10

grade by the education classification in Viet Nam). As the original

regular of HOMC, all questions, problems, and contestants pre-

sentation should be presented in English. Through those fourteen

events, HOMC were attracted participation of thousands of school

students as well as attention of a great number of high and sec-

ondary schools in Viet Nam. From 2013 to 2016, hosting by the

Department of Education and Training of Ha Noi City, the HOMCs

were posited in three cities: Ha Noi, Dac Lac, and Cao Lanh with

the participation of thousands of students coming from 50 high and

secondary schools in Viet Nam. Taking some interaction between

students as a part of competition, the 2017-HOMC took place of

Hanoi city and time of two days with 900 contestants. Supporting

by the administrative Committee of Hanoi city, 2018-HOMC will be

organized with two groups: Group A is the international HOMC,

and Group B is the home HOMC.

On the occasion of the 2018-HOMC, we are very pleased to in-

troduce the proceedings of the three last events. In particular, this

material includes the problems and questions of junior and senior

Sections for each one of the HOMC’s’ from 2015 to 2017. We would

like to announce that the publication and releasing the proceedings

are hosted by the Department of Education and Training of Ha

Noi City, and the book is considered as a registered part among

the activities of the 2018-HOMC, by opening and sharing with the

purposes of HOMC. Moreover, we think that old participants of the

CONTENTS 5

HOMC’s will find their contribitions, and hope that new comers in

2018-HOMC will be pleased for new cooperation. The proofreading

of this book is completed by the suggestions and comments from

Prof. Do Ngoc Diep, Prof. Nguyen Viet Hai, Dr. Dinh Sy Dai,

Mr. Do Minh Khoa, and Mr. Pham Dang Long. On this occa-

sion, we would like to express our special thanks for their fruitful

contributions.

The authors

Chapter 1

Competition

1.1.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015

Important:

Answer to all 15 questions.

Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.

For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D

or E) of your choice.

No calculator is allowed.

Question 1. What is the 7th term of the sequence {−1, 4, −2, 3, −3, 2, . . .}?

(A): -1; (B): -2; (C): -3; (D): -4; (E): None of the above.

Question 3. The sum of all even positive intergers less than 100

those are not divisible by 3 is

8 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

(A): 938; (B): 940; (C): 1634; (D): 1638; (E): None of the

above.

Question 4. A regular hexagon and an equilateral √ triangle have

equal perimeter. If the area of the triangle is 4 3 square units, the

area of the hexagon is

√ √ √ √

(A): 5 3; (B): 6 3; (C): 7 3; (D): 8 3; (E): None of the

above.

Question 5. Let a, b, c and m (0 ≤ m ≤ 26) be integers such that

then m is

(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 25; (D): 26; (E): None of the above.

Question 6. Let a, b, c ∈ [−1, 1] such that 1 + 2abc ≥ a2 + b2 + c2 .

Prove that

1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .

Question 7. Solve equation

x4 = 2x2 + [x],

Question 8. Solve the equation

that

h i

a3 + b3 + c2 + 2 (ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ≥ 3(a2 b + b2 c + c2 a).

a square is drawn externally on each side of the triangle, the six

vertices of the squares that are not vertices of the triangle are con-

cyclic. Assume that the area of the triangle is 9 cm2 . Determine

the length of sides of the triangle.

1.1 Junior section 9

intersection point of diagonals AC and BD, and let I, K, H be feet

of perpendiculars from B, O, C to AD, respectively. Prove that

AD × BI × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

cm and hc = d cm, where d is an integer. Determine d.

Question 13. Give rational numbers x, y such that

√

Prove that 1 + xy is a rational number.

Question 14. Determine all pairs of integers (x; y) such that

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy.

c2 ≤ 8. Determine the maximum value of

M = 4(a3 + b3 + c3 ) − (a4 + b4 + c4 ).

Important:

Answer to all 15 questions.

Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.

For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D

or E) of your choice.

No calculator is allowed.

Question 1. If

2016 = 25 + 26 + · · · + 2m ,

10 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

then m is equal to

n + s(n) = 2016,

a5 + b5 , then the greatest value of M = a2 + b2 − ab is

1 1

(A): (B): (C): 2 (D): 1 (E): None of the above.

4 2

different fruits. What is the largest number of monkeys one can

make lucky, by having 20 oranges, 30 bananas, 40 peaches and 50

tangerines? Justify your answer.

4y 2 + y, and (x − y) is equal to

(E): None of the above.

the number of all integers belonging to (a, 2016a] is 2016.

triangles are there with 3 vetices at these points?

1.1 Junior section 11

x3 − (x + y + z)2 = (y + z)3 + 34.

|x + 2y − 3z| ≤ 6

|x − 2y + 3z| ≤ 6

|x − 2y − 3z| ≤ 6

|x + 2y + 3z| ≤ 6

radius of the inscribed circle of ∆ABC, respectively. Prove that

ha + 4hb + 9hc > 36r.

Question 11. Let be given a triangle ABC, and let I be the middle

point of BC. The straight line d passing I intersects AB, AC at M,

N , respectively. The straight line d0 (6≡ d) passing I intersects

AB, AC at Q, P , respectively. Suppose M, P are on the same side

of BC and M P, N Q intersect BC at E and F, respectively. Prove

that IE = IF.

onals intersect at O. The points P, Q are on AD, BC respectively

such that ∠AP B = ∠CP D and ∠AQB = ∠CQD. Show that

OP = OQ.

d1 , d2 be lines perpendicular to each-another at H. The line d1 in-

tersects AB, AC at D, E and the line d2 intersects BC at F. Prove

that H is the midpoint of segment DE if and only if F is the mid-

point of segment BC.

√ numbers a, b such that 2015a2 + a =

2

2016b + b. Prove that a − b is a natural number.

ficients such that f (2014) = 2015, f (2015) = 2016, and f (2013) −

f (2016) is a prime number.

12 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

Important:

Answer to all 15 questions.

Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.

For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D

or E) of your choice.

No calculator is allowed.

(A): 4 (B): 6 (C): 8 (D): 14 (E): None of the above.

Question 2. How many pairs of positive integers (x, y) are there,

those satisfy the identity

2x − y 2 = 1?

Question 3. Suppose n2 + 4n + 25 is a perfect square. How many

such non-negative integers n’s are there?

(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 4 (D): 6 (E): None of the above.

Question 4. Put

(A): 1 (B): 3 (C): 5 (D): 7 (E): None of the above.

Question 5. Let a, b, c be two-digit, three-digit, and four-digit

numbers, respectively. Assume that the sum of all digits of number

a+b, and the sum of all digits of b+c are all equal to 2. The largest

value of a + b + c is

1.1 Junior section 13

(A): 1099 (B): 2099 (C): 1199 (D): 2199 (E): None of the above.

that

2m p2 + 27 = q 3 , and p is a prime.

Q = 22017 + 20172 .

system of equations

3

x − 3x

=4−y

2y 3 − 6y =6−z

3

3z − 9z = 8 − x.

covered by five arbitrary equilateral triangles having the total area

2.

Question 10. Find all non-negative integers a, b, c such that the

roots of equations:

x2 − 2ax + b = 0;

x2 − 2bx + c = 0;

x2 − 2cx + a = 0

Question 11. Let S denote a square of the side-length 7, and

let eight squares of the side-length 3 be given. Show that S can be

covered by those eight small squares.

Question 12. Does there exist a sequence of 2017 consecutive

integers which contains exactly 17 primes?

14 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

a + b + c = 12. Determine the smallest value of

a 4b 9c

M= + + .

b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c

(AB < CD). Let O be the intersection of AC and BD. Two

straight lines from D and C are perpendicular to AC and BD

intersect at E, i.e. CE ⊥ BD and DE ⊥ AC. By analogy, AF ⊥

BD and BF ⊥ AC. Are three points E, O, F located on the same

line?

Question 15. Show that an arbitrary quadrilateral can be divided

into nine isosceles triangles.

1.2.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015

Answer to all 15 questions.

Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.

For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D

or E) of your choice.

No calculator is allowed.

Question 1. The sum of all even positive intergers less than 100

those are not divisible by 3 is

(A): 938; (B): 940; (C): 1634; (D): 1638; (E): None of the

above.

equal perimeter. If the area of the triangle is 4 3 square units, the

area of the hexagon is

1.2 Senior section 15

√ √ √ √

(A): 5 3; (B): 6 3; (C): 7 3; (D): 8 3; (E): None of the

above.

equation

(x − a)(x − b) (x − b)(x − c) (x − c)(x − a)

+ + =x

(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)

is

(A): -1; (B): -2; (C): 0; (D): 1; (E): None of the above.

a + b + c = (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = m (mod 27)

then m is

(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 25; (D): 26; (E): None of the above.

(A): 2; (B): 4; (C): 6; (D): 8; (E): None of the above.

Prove that

1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .

Question 7. Solve equation

x4 = 2x2 + [x],

where [x] is an integral part of x.

Question 8. Solve the equation

(x + 1)3 (x − 2)3 + (x − 1)3 (x + 2)3 = 8(x2 − 2)3 .

that

a3 + b3 + c3 + 2[(ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ] ≥ 3(a2 b + b2 c + c2 a).

16 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

a square is drawn externally on each side of the triangle, the six

vertices of the squares that are not vertices of the triangle are con-

cyclic. Assume that the area of the triangle is 9 cm2 . Determine

the length of sides of the triangle.

Question 11. Give a convex quadrilateral ABCD. Let O be the

intersection point of diagonals AC and BD and let I, K, H be feet

of perpendiculars from B, O, C to AD, respectively. Prove that

AD × BI × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

being perpendicular to CA, BE perpendicular to Cx (E ∈ Cx).

Let M be the midpoint of BE, and D be the intersection point of

AM and Cx. Prove that BD ⊥ BC.

Question 13. Let m be given odd number, and let a, b denote

the roots of equation x2 + mx − 1 = 0 and c = a2014 + b2014 , d =

a2015 + b2015 . Prove that c and d are relatively prime numbers.

Question 14. Determine all pairs of integers (x; y) such that

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy.

b2 + c2 + d2 ≤ 12. Determine the maximum value of

M = 4(a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 ) − (a4 + b4 + c4 + d4 ).

Important:

Answer to all 15 questions.

Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.

For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D

or E) of your choice.

No calculator is allowed.

1.2 Senior section 17

from the digits 1, 2, 3 only and in which, two neighbouring digits

differ by 1.

1

placed by number min(a, b, c). After 672 times, on the table there

3

is only one number m, such that

(E): None of the above.

dition a3 +b3 = a5 +b5 , then the greatest value of M = a2 +b2 −ab is

1 1

(A): (B): (C): 2 (D): 1 (E): None of the above.

4 2

Question 4. In Zoo, a monkey becomes lucky if he eats three

different fruits. What is the largest number of monkeys one can

make lucky having 20 oranges, 30 bananas, 40 peaches and 50 tan-

gerines? Justify your answer.

4y 2 + y and (x − y) is equal to

(E): None of the above.

so that the difference of two arbitrary elements in A are different

18 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

from 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21. Prove that there are two elements of A for

which their difference equals to 3.

triangles are there with 3 vertices at these points?

cube of the sum of all its digits.

a + b + c = a2 + b2 + c2 ∈ Z.

Prove that there exist two relative prime numbers m, n such that

m2

abc = 3 .

n

√ numbers a, b such that 2015a2 + a =

2016b2 + b. Prove that a − b is a natural number.

its circumcircle. Let the line AI intersect ω at point D 6= A. Let

F and E be points on side BC and arc BDC respectively such

1

that ∠BAF = ∠CAE < ∠BAC. Let X be the second point of

2

intersection of line EI with ω and T be the point of intersection of

segment DX with line AF . Prove that T F.AD = ID.AT .

arbitrary circle ω passes through O, A; intersecting Ox and Oy

at the second intersection B and C, respectively. Let M be the

midpoint of BC. Prove that M is always on a fixed line (when ω

changes, but always goes through O and A).

Question 13. Find all triples (a, b, c) of real numbers such that

|2a + b| ≥ 4 and

|ax2 + bx + c| ≤ 1 ∀x ∈ [−1, 1].

1.2 Senior section 19

Prove that there is an integer m such that

Answer to all 15 questions.

Write your answers on the answer sheets provided.

For the multiple choice questions, stick only the letters (A, B, C, D

or E) of your choice.

No calculator is allowed.

3 2

P (x) = x − 4x − 3x + 2. The sum |x1 | + |x2 | + |x3 | is

(A): 4 (B): 6 (C): 8 (D): 10 (E): None of the above.

Question 2. How many pairs of positive integers (x, y) are there,

those satisfy the identity

2x − y 2 = 4?

Question 3. The number of real triples (x, y, z) that satisfy the

equation

x4 + 4y 4 + z 4 + 4 = 8xyz

20 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

is

(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 2; (D): 8; (E): None of the above.

Question 4. Let a, b, c be three distinct positive numbers. Con-

sider the quadratic polynomial

c(x − a)(x − b) a(x − b)(x − c) b(x − c)(x − a)

P (x) = + + + 1.

(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)

(A): 2015 (B): 2016 (C): 2017 (D): 2018

(E): None of the above.

Question 5. Write 2017 following numbers on the blackboard:

1008 1007 1 1 2 1007 1008

− ,− ,...,− , 0, , ,..., , .

1008 1008 1008 1008 1008 1008 1008

One processes some steps as: erase two arbitrary numbers x, y on

the blackboard and then write on it the number x + 7xy + y. After

2016 steps, there is only one number. The last one on the black-

board is

1 1 144

(A): − (B): 0 (C): (D): − (E): None of the

1008 1008 1008

above.

Question 6. Find all pairs of integers a, b such that the following

system of equations has a unique integral solution (x, y, z)

(

x+y =a−1

x(y + 1) − z 2 = b.

.

x2 + y 2 .. 44. Determine the smallest value of T = x3 + y 3 .

a + b + c = 12. Determine the smallest value of

a 4b 9c

M= + + .

b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c

1.2 Senior section 21

pieces, then cut one of two pieces into two small pieces by a straight

line, ect. By cutting 2017 times we obtain 2018 pieces. We write

number 2 in every triangle, number 1 in every quadrilateral, and 0

in the polygons. Is the sum of all inserted numbers always greater

than 2017?

from {C, H, M, O}. We arrange the words in an alphabet sequence.

Precisely, the first word is CCCCCCCC, the second one is CCCCC-

CCH, the third is CCCCCCCM, the fourth one is CCCCCCCO,. . . ,

and the last word is OOOOOOOO.

a) Determine the 2017th word of the sequence?

b) What is the position of the word HOMCHOMC in the se-

quence?

for an arbitrary point inside the triangle. Is it true that

P AB − P AC ≥ P BC − P CB ?

[ [ \ \

Question 12. Let (O) denote a circle with a chord AB, and let W

be the midpoint of the minor arc AB. Let C stand for an arbitrary

point on the major arc AB. The tangent to the circle (O) at C

meets the tangents at A and B at points X and Y, respectively.

The lines W X and W Y meet AB at points N and M , respectively.

Does the length of segment N M depend on position of C?

Question 13. Let ABC be a triangle. For some d > 0 let P stand

for a point inside the triangle such that

|AB| − |P B| ≥ d, and |AC| − |P C| ≥ d.

Is the following inequality true

|AM | − |P M | ≥ d,

22 Chapter 1. Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition

a) Is P divisible by 24?

b) Do there exist m, n ∈ N such that P is not divisible by 7?

squares with side-length 3 be given. Show that it is impossible

to cover S by those eight small squares with the condition: an

arbitrary side of those (eight) squares is either coincided, parallel,

or perpendicular to others of S.

Chapter 2

2.1.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015

Question 1. What is the 7th term of the sequence

{−1, 4, −2, 3, −3, 2, ...}?

(A): -1; (B): -2; (C): -3; (D): -4; (E) None of the above.

Solution. Let a1 = −1, a2 = 4, a3 = −2, a4 = 3, a5 = −3, a6 = 2

... Then

a2 − a1 = a4 − a3 = a6 − a5 = 5,..

a3 − a2 = a5 − a4 = −6.

Hence, a7 − a6 = −6 and a7 = −4.

Answer: D.

(A): 2; (B): 4; (C): 6; (D): 8; (E) None of the above.

(mod 10) = 7 (mod 10). On the other hand, 2015 = 4×503+3 = 3

(mod 4) and 2013 = 3 (mod 10) and then

20132015 = 34×503+3 = 7 (mod 10).

24 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Answer: E.

Question 3. The sum of all even positive intergers less than 100

those are not divisible by 3 is

(A): 938; (B): 940; (C): 1634; (D): 1638; (E) None of the

above.

Solution. We find the sum of all positive intergers less than 50

and subtract the sum of multiples of 3 between 0 and 50:

50 × 49 16 × 17

−3 = 1225 − 408 = 817.

2 2

Hence the sum of all even positive intergers less than 100 those are

not divisible by 3 is

2 × 817 = 1634.

Answer: C.

equal perimeter. If the area of the triangle is 4 3 square units, the

area of the hexagon is

√ √ √ √

(A): 5 3; (B): 6 3; (C): 7 3; (D): 8 3; (E) None of the

above.

Solution. Let a, S be the length and area of the hexagon. Then

the equilateral triangle has side-length 2a. We subdivide the hexagon

into 6 small equilateral of side-length a then each of them must have

S

area . Since the equilateral triangle of side-length 2a has twice

6

the base and twice the altitude of the smaller triangle, it must have

S √ √

4 times the area. Hence 4 = 4 3, it follows S = 6 3.

6

Answer: B.

a + b + c = (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = m (mod 27)

2.1 Junior section 25

then m is

(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 25; (D): 26; (E) None of the above.

3 then a+b+c is divisible by 3 but a−b, b−c, c−a are not divisible

by 3.

- If a, b, c have two different remainder terms modulo 3 then a +

b+c is not divisible by 3 but one of three differences a−b, b−c, c−a

are divisible by 3. It follows the product (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) is

divisble by 3.

- Hence, three numbers a, b, c have the same remainder terms,

i.e. a = 3p + s, b = 3q + s, c = 3r + s with s ∈ {0, 1, 2}, p, q, r are

natural numbers.

Hence, a − b = 3(p − q), b − c = 3(q − r), c − a = 3(r − p) and

then (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = 0 (mod 27).

Answer: A.

Prove that

1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .

⇔ (a2 − b2 c2 )2 ≤ (1 − b4 )((1 − c4 )

⇔ 1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .

26 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

x4 = 2x2 + [x], (2.2)

where [x] is an integral part of x.

Solution. We have

(2.2) ⇔ [x] = x2 x2 − 2

√ √

Consider the case x2 ≤ 2, then − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2 and [x] ≤ 0. It

follows [x] ∈ {−1; 0} .

If [x] = 0, then from (2.2) we find x = 0 as a solution.

If [x] = −1, then from (2.2) we find x = −1 as a solution.

Now we suppose that x2 > 2. It follows from (2.2), [x] > 0 and

√ [x] 1

then x > 2. Hence x2 (x2 − 2) = ≤ 1 and x2 − 2 ≤ < 1,

√ √ √ x x

then x < 3 and 2 < x < 3. p √

It means that [x] = 1 and then x = 1 + 2 is a solution of

the equation.

Question 8. Solve the equation

(2015x − 2014)3 = 8(x − 1)3 + (2013x − 2012)3 . (2.3)

(2015x − 2014)3 = (2x − 2)3 + (2013x − 2012)3 . (2.4)

Factoring the sum of cubes on the right side of the equation (2.4),

we find that one factor is 2015x − 2014, thus, one solution of the

2014

equation is x = .

2015

Now we rewrite the equation (2.4) as

(2015x − 2014)3 − (2x − 2)3 = (2013x − 2012)3 . (2.5)

Factoring the difference of cubes on the left side of the equation

(2.5), we find that one factor is 2013x − 2012, thus, one solution of

2012

the equation is x = .

2013

2.1 Junior section 27

Since (2.3) is cubic in x, it has at most 3 roots, and we have

them.

Question 9. Let a, b, c be positive numbers with abc = 1. Prove

that

h i

a3 + b3 + c3 + 2 (ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ≥ 3(a2 b + b2 c + c2 a).

a ≥ b ≥ c > 0,

or

a ≥ c ≥ b > 0.

Hence,

This implies

a3 + b3 + c3 ≥ a2 b + b2 c + c2 a. (2.6)

Due to the facts that

1 n1 1 1o

= max , , ,

c a b c

and

1 n1 1 1o

= max , , ,

b a b c

we deduce

1 1 1 1 1 1

3

+ 3+ 3 ≥ 2 + 2 + 2 .

c b a cb ba ac

By abc = 1, this can be written as

28 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

a square is drawn externally on each side of the triangle, the six

vertices of the squares that are not vertices of the triangle are con-

cyclic. Assume that the area of the triangle is 9 cm2 . Determine

the length of sides of the triangle.

Solution. We have OJ = OD = OG = radius of the circle. Let

a, b, c denote the sides of ∆ABC. We have

a 2 b 2 1

OJ 2 = OM 2 + M J 2 = b + + = b2 + ab + (a2 + b2 );

2 2 4

b 2 a 2 1

OD2 = ON 2 + N D2 = a + + = a2 + ab + (a2 + b2 );

2 2 4

c 2 5 5

OG2 = OL2 + LG2 = c2 + = c2 = (a2 + b2 )

2 4 4

1

= a2 + b2 + (a2 + b2 ).

4

Comparing these right-hand sides, we get

b2 + ab = a2 + ab = a2 + b2 ⇔ a = b.

It means that the given triangle with the desired property is the

isosceles right triangle. Therefore,

1

ab = 9,

2

and √

a = b = 3 2, c = 6.

intersection point of diagonals AC and BD, and let I, K, H be feet

of perpendiculars from B, O, C to AD, respectively. Prove that

AD × BI × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

BI × AD AE × BD

SABD = = .

2 2

2.1 Junior section 29

BI × AD ≤ AO × BD (AE ≤ AO),

and

AO

BI.AD ≤ AC × BD × .

AC

AO OK

Moreover, by OK k CH it follows = , and

AC CH

OK

BI × AD ≤ AC × BD × .

CH

Hence, BI × AD × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

The equality occurs if quadrilateral ABCD has two perpendic-

ular diagonals.

cm and hc = d cm, where d is an integer. Determine d.

Solution. Since 2SABC = a.ha = b.hb = c.hc it follows

a b c

= = .

1 1 1

ha hb hc

On the other hand,

1 1 1 1 1

|a − b| < c < a + b ⇔ − < < + .

ha hb hc ha hb

30 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Hence

1 1 1 1 1

− < < +

3 7 hc 3 7

4 1 10

⇔ < <

21 hc 21

20 20 20

⇔ < <

105 20hc 42

⇔ 105 > 20hc > 42

Since hc ∈ N∗ , we direive hc ∈ {3, 4, 5}.

(2.8)

√

Prove that 1 + xy is a rational number.

Solution. Let x = −y = t. The equality (2.8) is of the form

√

It follows 1 + xy = 0, and 1 + xy is a rational number.

Consider the case x 6= y. We have

2

2 2 xy + 1

⇔x +y + =2

x+y

2

2 xy + 1

⇔ (x + y) − 2.(xy + 1) + =0

x+y

2

xy + 1

⇔ x+y− =0

x+y

It follows

xy + 1 = (x + y)2 ,

and p

xy + 1 = |x + y| .

The proof is completed.

2.1 Junior section 31

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy.

Solution. We have

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy;

2y 2 (x − 1) − y(x − 1) − x(x − 1) = −1;

(x − 1)(2y 2 − y − x) = −1.

divisors of -1.

Case 1. We have

(

x−1=1

2y 2 − y − x = −1.

Then, either (

x=2

y = 1,

or

x = 2

1

y = − (absurd).

2

Case 2. We have

(

x − 1 = −1

2y 2 − y − x = 1.

Equivalently, either (

x=0

y = 1,

or

x = 0

1

y = − (absurd).

2

32 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

We deduce that all integer pairs (x; y) are (2; 1); (0 ; 1).

c2 ≤ 8. Determine the maximum value of

M = 4(a3 + b3 + c3 ) − (a4 + b4 + c4 ).

can be rewritten as 4x3 − x4 ≤ 4x2 . It follows that

The equality holds for (a, b, c) = (2, 2, 0), (2, 0, 2), (0, 2, 2). Hence,

max M = 32.

Question 1. If

2016 = 25 + 26 + · · · + 2m ,

then m is equal to

Anwser. (C).

n + s(n) = 2016,

a5 + b5 , then the greatest value of M = a2 + b2 − ab is

2.1 Junior section 33

1 1

(A): (B): (C): 2 (D): 1 (E): None of the above.

4 2

Anwser. (D).

Solution. We have

a3 + b3 ≤ a + b ⇔ a2 + b2 − ab ≤ 1.

different fruits. What is the largest number of monkeys one can

make lucky, by having 20 oranges, 30 bananas, 40 peaches and 50

tangerines? Justify your answer.

Anwser. (D).

30 + 40 = 90 fruites. As we feed the happy monkey is not more

than one tangerine, each monkey eats fruits of these 90 at least 2.

Hence, the monkeys are not more than 90/2 = 45. We will show

how you can bring happiness to 45 monkeys:

5 monkeys eat: orange, banana, tangerine;

15 monkeys eat: orange, peach, tangerine;

25 Monkeys eat peach, banana, tangerine.

At all 45 lucky monkeys - and left five unused tangerines!

4y 2 + y, and (x − y) is equal to

34 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

We prove that (x − y; 3x + 3y + 1) = 1.

Indeed, if d = (x − y; 3x + 3y + 1) then y 2 is divisible by d2 and

y is divisible by d; x is divisible by d, i.e. 1 is divisible by d, i.e.

d = 1.

Since x − y and 3x + 3y + 1 are prime relative then x − y is a

perfect square.

the number of all integers belonging to (a, 2016a] is 2016.

largest integer less than or is equal to 2016a is [2016a]. Hence, the

number of all integers belonging to (a, 2016a] is [2016a] − [a].

Now we difine the smallest positive number a such that

[2016a] − [a] = 2016.

If a ≥ 2 then [2016a] − [a] > 2016.

Let a = 1 + b, where 0 < b < 1. We have [a] = 1, and [2016a] =

2016 + [2016b]. This follows

[2016a] − [a] = 2015 + [2016b] = 2016,

which gives [2016b] = 1. Hence, the smallest positive number b

1 1

such that [2016b] = 1 is b = Thus, a = 1 + is a smallest

2016. 2016

positive number such that the number of all integers belonging to

(a, 2016a] is 2016.

triangles are there with 3 vetices at these points?

2.1 Junior section 35

Type 1: Two vertices lie in one horizontal line, the third vertice

lies in another horizontal lines. For this type we have 3 possibilities

to choose the first line, 2 posibilities to choose 2nd line. In first line

we have 3 possibilities to choose 2 vertices, in the second line we

have 3 possibilities to choose 1 vertex. In total we have 3×2×3×3 =

54 triangles of first type.

Type 2: Three vertices lie in distinct horizontal lines. We have

3 × 3 × 3 triangles of these type. But we should remove degenerated

triangles from them. There are 5 of those (3 vertical lines and two

diagonals). So, we have 27 - 5 = 22 triangles of this type.

Total we have 54 + 22 = 76 triangles.

For those students who know about Cnk this problem can be also

solved as C93 − 8 where 8 is the number of degenerated triangles.

Equivalently,

(x − a) x2 + xa + a2 = x2 + 2ax + a2 + 34;

(2.10)

(x − a − 1) x2 + xa + a2 = xa + 34.

That follow x − a − 1 > 0, i.e. x − a ≥ 2.

This and (2.10) together imply

x2 + 2ax + a2 + 34 ≥ 2 x2 + xa + a2 ⇔ x2 + a2 ≤ 34.

On the other hand, x ≥ a + 2 ≥ 4 then x ∈ {4, 5} .

If x = 5, then from x2 + a2 ≤ 34 it follows 2 ≤ a ≤ 3. Thus

a ∈ {2, 3} .

36 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

from (1) we find y = 1, z = 2 or y = 2, z = 1,

If x = 4, then from the inequality x − a ≥ 2 we find a ≤ 2,

which contradicts to (2.9).

|x + 2y − 3z| ≤ 6

|x − 2y + 3z| ≤ 6

|x − 2y − 3z| ≤ 6

|x + 2y + 3z| ≤ 6

and

Hence

Thus max M = 6 when x = ±6, y = z = 0.

radius of the inscribed circle of ∆ABC, respectively. Prove that

2.1 Junior section 37

to ha , hb , hc and S be the area of ∆ABC. Then

aha = bhb = chc = (a + b + c) × r = 2S.

Hence

2S 8S 18S

ha + 4hb + 9hc = = =

a b c

(1 + 2 + 3)2

2 2 2

1 2 3

= 2S + + ≥ 2S

a b c a+b+c

(1 + 2 + 3)2

= (a + b + c) r = 36r.

a+b+c

The equality holds iff a : b : c = 1 : 2 : 3 (it is not posible for

a + b > c).

Question 11. Let be given a triangle ABC and let I be the middle

point of BC. The straight line d passing I intersects AB, AC at M,

N , respectively. The straight line d0 (6≡ d) passing I intersects

AB, AC at Q and P , respectively. Suppose M, P are on the same

side of BC and M P, N Q intersect BC at E and F, respectively.

Prove that IE = IF.

EB FC

Solution. Since IB = IC then it is enough to show = .

EC FB

By Menelaus theorem:

- For ∆ABC and three points E, M, P, we have

EB P C MA

× × = 1.

EC P A MB

It follws

EB P A MB

= × . (2.11)

EC PC MA

- For ∆ABC and three points F, N, Q, we have

FC QB N A

× × = 1.

FB QA N C

This implies

FC NC QA

= × . (2.12)

FB N A QB

38 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

M B N A IC

× × = 1.

M A N C IB

Compare with IB = IC we find

MB NC

= . (2.13)

MA NA

P A IC QB

× × = 1.

P C IB QA

Hence,

PA QA

= . (2.14)

PC QB

Equalities (2.11), (2.12), (2.13), and (2.14), toghether imply IE =

IF.

onals intersect at O. The points P, Q are on AD, BC respectively

such that ∠AP B = ∠CP D and ∠AQB = ∠CQD. Show that

OP = OQ.

2.1 Junior section 39

∠P B 0 B = ∠B 0 AB = ∠P DC and then triangles DP C and B 0 P B

are similar.

DP CD CD DO

It follows that 0

= 0

= = and so P O k BB 0 .

PB BB BA BO

Since triangles DP O and DB 0 B are similar, we have

DO DO

OP = BB 0 × = AB × .

DB DB

CO

Similarly, we have OQ = AB × and it follows OP = OQ.

CA

d1 , d2 be lines perpendicular to each-another at H. The line d1 in-

tersects AB, AC at D, E and the line d2 intersects BC at F. Prove

that H is the midpoint of segment DE if and only if F is the mid-

point of segment BC.

∠HCF and ∠DHA = ∠HF C, therefore the triangles DHA, HF C

are similar.

So

HA FC

= . (2.15)

HD F H

40 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Similarly,

HE F H

4EHA v 4HF B, or = . (2.16)

HA F B

HE FC

Thanks to (2.15) and (2.16) we obtain = . Therefore,

HD FB

H is midpoint of the segment DE iff F is midpoint of the segment

BC.

√ numbers a, b such that 2015a2 + a =

2016b2 + b. Prove that a − b is a natural number.

2015a2 + a = 2016b2 + b,

we find a ≥ b.

√

If a = b, then a = b = 0 and a − b = 0.

If a > b, we have

b2 = 2015(a2 − b2 ) + (a − b);

Let (a, b) = d then a = md, b = nd, where (m, n) = 1. Since a > b

then m > n, and put m − n = t > 0. Let (t, n) = u then n is

2.1 Junior section 41

follows u = 1 and then (t, n) = 1. Putting b = nd, a − b = td in the

above identity, we find

d is divisible by t. Moreover, we have n2 d = 2015dt2 + 4030dnt + t

and then t = n2 d − 2015dt2 − 4030dnt.

Hence t = d(n2 − 2015t2 − 4030nt),

√ i.e. t is divisible by d, i.e.

t = d and then a−b = td = d2 and a − b = d is a natural number.

ficients such that f (2014) = 2015, f (2015) = 2016, and f (2013) −

f (2016) is a prime number.

Hence,

g(x) = (ax + b)(x − 2014)(x − 2015),

and

We derive

f (2013) = 2(2013a + b) + 2014,

and

f (2016) = 2(2016a + b) + 2017.

Therefore,

= −6a − 3 = 3(−2a − 1).

a = −1.

42 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

such that f (2014) = 2015, f (2015) = 2016 and f (2013) − f (2016)

is a prime number are of the form

(A): 4 (B): 6 (C): 8 (D): 14 (E): None of the above.

Solution. The choice is (C).

those satisfy the identity

2x − y 2 = 1?

Solution. The choice is (A).

such non-negative integers n’s are there?

(A): 1 (B): 2 (C): 4 (D): 6 (E): None of the above.

Solution. The choice is (B).

Question 4. Put

2.1 Junior section 43

Solution. The choice is (E).

numbers, respectively. Assume that the sum of all digits of number

a+b, and the sum of all digits of b+c are all equal to 2. The largest

value of a + b + c is

(A): 1099 (B): 2099 (C): 1199 (D): 2199 (E): None of the above.

that

2m p2 + 27 = q 3 , and p is a prime.

2m p2 = (q − 3)(q 2 + 3q + 9).

Remark that q 2 + 3q + 9 is always odd. There are two cases:

Case 1. q = 2m p + 3. We have

q 3 = (2m p + 3)3 > 2m p2 + 27,

which is impossible.

Case 2. q = 2m + 3. We have

q 3 = 23m + 9 × 22m + 27 × 2m + 27 = 2m p2 + 27,

which implies

p2 = 22m + 9 × 2m + 27.

If m ≥ 3, then 22m + 9 × 2m + 27 ≡ 3 (mod 8), but p2 ≡ 1 (mod 8).

We deduce m ≤ 3. By simple computation we find m = 1, p =

7, q = 5.

Q = 22017 + 20172 .

44 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Solution. We have

201

22017 = 27 × 210 = 128 × 1024201

≡ 128 × (−1)201 = −128 ≡ 22 (mod 25);

20172 ≡ 14 (mod 25).

P ≡ 11 (mod

It follows 25), by which two last digits of P are in

the set 11, 36, 61, 86 . In other side, P ≡ 1 (mod 4). This implies

P ≡ 61 (mod 100). Thus, the number 61 subjects to the question.

system of equations

3

x − 3x

=4−y

2y 3 − 6y =6−z

3

3z − 9z = 8 − x.

Then

(x − 2)(x + 1)2 = 2 − y (1)

By 2y 3 − 4 − 6y = 2 − z, we have

2(y − 2)(y + 1)2 = 2 − z. (2)

Similarly, by 3z 3 − 3 − 3 − 9z = 2 − x we have

3(z − 2)(z + 1)2 = (2 − x). (3)

Combining (1)-(2)-(3) we obtain

1

(x − 2)(y − 2)(z − 2) (x + 1)2 (y + 1)2 (z + 1)2 + = 0.

6

Hence, (x − 2)(y − 2)(z − 2) = 0. Comparing this with (1), (2) and

(3), we find the unique solution x = y = z = 2.

covered by five arbitrary equilateral triangles having the total area

2.

2.1 Junior section 45

if a ≥ b then triangle of area a can cover triangle of area b. It

suffices to consider the case when the areas of five small triangles

are all smaller than 1. Let 1 ≥ A ≥ B ≥ C ≥ D ≥ E stand for the

areas. We will prove that the sum of side-lengths of B and C is not

smaller

√ √than the

√ side-length of triangle of area 1. Indeed, suppose

B + C < 1 = 1. It follows

√ √ √

2 = A+B +C +D +E < 1+B +C +2 BC = 1+( B + C)2 < 2,

which is impossible.

have common parts, mutually. Suppose

X = B ∩ C; Y = A ∩ C; Z = A ∩ B.

It follows

X + Y ≤ C; Y + Z ≤ A; Z + X ≤ B.

46 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

1

A+B+C−X −Y −Z ≥ A+B+C− (X +Y )+(Y +Z)+(Z+X)

2

1 D+E

≥ (A + B + C) = 1 − ≥ 1 − D.

2 2

Thus, D can cover the remained part of S.

roots of equations:

x2 − 2ax + b = 0; (2.17)

x2 − 2bx + c = 0; (2.18)

x2 − 2cx + a = 0 (2.19)

Namely,

a2 − b = p2 ; b2 − c = q 2 ; c2 − a = r 2 .

There are two cases:

Case 1. b = 0. We derive that b = c = 0. Thus (a, b, c) = (0, 0, 0) is

unique solution.

Case 2. a, b, c 6= 0. We have a2 − b ≤ (a − 1)2 = a2 − 2a + 1.

This implies b ≥ 2a − 1. Similarly, we can prove that c ≥ 2b − 1,

and a ≥ 2c − 1. Combining three above inequalities we deduce

a + b + c ≤ 3. By simple computation we obtain (a, b, c) = (1, 1, 1).

let eight squares of the side-length 3 be given. Show that S can be

covered by those eight small squares.

integers which contains exactly 17 primes?

2.1 Junior section 47

the sequence of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 2017. Precisely, there are 306

primes in that sequence. Remark that if the sequence

k + 1, k + 2, . . . , k + 2017

k, k + 1, . . . , k + 2016,

then the numbers of primes in the latter and former sequences are

either equal, more or less by 1. In what follows, we say such change

a back-shift with 1-step. First moment, we consider the sequence of

2017 consecutive integers:

step, we obtain the sequence

1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 2017.

48 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

The last sequence has 306 primes, while the first sequence has no

prime. Reminding the above remark we conclude that there is a

moment in which the sequence contains exactly 17 primes.

a + b + c = 12. Determine the smallest value of

a 4b 9c

M= + + .

b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c

Solution. Put

b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c

x := , y := , z := .

2 2 2

Then x, y, z > 0, and

a+b+c

x+y+z = = 6, a = y + z, b = z + x, c = x + y.

2

We have

y + z 4(z + x) 9(x + y)

M= + +

2x 2y 2z

1 y 4x z 9x 4z 9y

= + + + + +

2 x y x z y z

r r r !

1 y 4x z 9x 4z 9y

≥ 2 . +2 . +2 . = 11.

2 x y x z x z

y 4x

=

x y

z 9x

=

x z

4z = 9y ,

y z

or

y = 2x

z = 3x

2z = 3y.

2.1 Junior section 49

if and only if (a, b, c) = 5, 4, 3 .

(AB < CD). Let O be the intersection of AC and BD. Two

straight lines from D and C are perpendicular to AC and BD

intersect at E, i.e. CE ⊥ BD and DE ⊥ AC. By analogy, AF ⊥

BD and BF ⊥ AC. Are three points E, O, F located on the same

line?

the orthocenter of triangle OAB we see that OE is perpendicular

to CD, and OF is perpendicular to AB. As AB is parallel to CD,

we conclude that E, O, F are straightly lined.

into nine isosceles triangles.

triangles. Therefore, it suffices to cut an arbitrary triangle into for

and five isosceles triangles. Figures 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 shows some

solution.

50 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

2.2.1 Hanoi Open Mathematics Competition 2015

Question 1. The sum of all even positive intergers less than 100

those are not divisible by 3 is

(A): 938; (B): 940; (C): 1634; (D): 1638; (E): None of the

above.

Solution. We find the sum of all positive intergers less than 50

and subtract the sum of multiples of 3 between 0 and 50:

50 × 49 16 × 17

−3 = 1225 − 408 = 817.

2 2

Hence the sum of all even positive intergers less than 100 those are

2.2 Senior section 51

not divisible by 3 is

2 × 817 = 1634.

Answer: C.

equal perimeter. If the area of the triangle is 4 3 square units, the

area of the hexagon is

√ √ √ √

(A): 5 3; (B): 6 3; (C): 7 3; (D): 8 3; (E): None of the

above.

Solution. Let a, S be the length and area of the hexagon. Then

the equilateral triangle has side-length 2a. We subdivide the hexagon

into 6 small equilateral of side-length a then each of them must have

S

area . Since the equilateral triangle of side-length 2a has twice

6

the base and twice the altitude of the smaller triangle, it must have

S √ √

4 times the area. Hence 4 = 4 3, it follows S = 6 3.

6

Answer: B.

equation

+ + =x

(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)

is

(A): -1; (B): -2; (C): 0; (D): 1; (E): None of the above.

Solution. From the identity

+ + ≡ 1,

(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)

Answer: D.

52 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

then m is

(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 25; (D): 26; (E): None of the above.

Solution. - If a, b, c have three different remainder terms modulo

3 then a+b+c is divisible by 3 but a−b, b−c, c−a are not divisible

by 3.

- If a, b, c have two different remainder terms modulo 3 then a +

b+c is not divisible by 3 but one of three differences a−b, b−c, c−a

are divisible by 3. It follows the product (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) is

divisble by 3.

- Hence, three numbers a, b, c have the same remainder terms,

i.e. a = 3p + s, b = 3q + s, c = 3r + s with s ∈ {0, 1, 2}, p, q, r are

natural numbers.

Hence, a − b = 3(p − q), b − c = 3(q − r), c − a = 3(r − p) and

then (a − b)(b − c)(c − a) = 0 (mod 27).

Answer: A.

(A): 2; (B): 4; (C): 6; (D): 8; (E): None of the above.

(mod 10) = 7 (mod 10). On the other hand, 2015 = 4×503+3 = 3

(mod 4) and 2013 = 3 (mod 10) and then 20132015 = 34×503+3 = 7

(mod 10).

Hence, the last digit of number 20172017 − 20132015 is 0.

Answer: E.

Prove that

1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .

2.2 Senior section 53

⇔ (a2 − b2 c2 )2 ≤ (1 − b4 )((1 − c4 )

⇔ 1 + 2a2 b2 c2 ≥ a4 + b4 + c4 .

Solution. We have

(2.21) ⇔ [x] = x2 x2 − 2

√ √

Consider the case x2 ≤ 2, then − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2 and [x] ≤ 0. It

follows [x] ∈ {−1; 0} .

If [x] = 0, then from (2.21) we find x = 0 as a solution.

If [x] = −1, then from (2.21) we find x = −1 as a solution.

Now we suppose that x2 > 2. It follows from (2.21), [x] > 0 and

√ [x] 1

then x > 2. Hence x2 (x2 − 2) = ≤ 1 and x2 − 2 ≤ < 1. It

√ √ √ x x

follows x < 3, i.e. 2 < x < 3.

p √

It means that [x] = 1 and then x = 1 + 2 is a solution of

the equation.

Question 8. Solve the equation

54 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

(x2 − x − 2)3 + (x2 + x − 2)3 = (2x2 − 4)3 . (2.23)

Factoring the sum of cubes on the right side of the equation (2.20),

we find that one √factor is (2x2 − 4), thus, two solutions of the

equation is x = ± 2.

Now we rewrite the equation (2.23) as

(x2 − x − 2)3 = (2x2 − 4)3 − (x2 + x − 2)3 . (2.24)

Factoring the difference of cubes on the left side of the equation

(2.2.1), we find that one factor is (x2 − x − 2), thus, two solution

of the equation is x = −1, x = 2.

Finally, we rewrite (2.23) as

(x2 + x − 2)3 = (2x2 − 4)3 − (x2 − x − 2)3 .

Factoring again, we see that one factor is (x2 + x − 2). Thus, two

solutions of the equation are x = 1, x = −2..

Since the left hand side of the equation

8(x2 − 2)3 − (x + 1)3 (x − 2)3 − (x − 1)3 (x + 2)3 = 0

is a polynomial of degree 6, then it has at most 6 roots, and we

have them. Hence,

8(x2 −2)3 −(x+1)3 (x−2)3 −(x−1)3 (x+2)3 = 6(x2 −2)(x2 −1)(x2 −4).

that

a3 + b3 + c3 + 2[(ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ] ≥ 3(a2 b + b2 c + c2 a).

a ≥ c ≥ b > 0 and

a3 +b3 +c3 −(a2 b+b2 c+c2 a) = (a−b)(a2 −c2 )+(b−c)(b2 −c2 ) ≥ 0.

2.2 Senior section 55

Hence

a3 + b3 + c3 ≥ a2 b + b2 c + c2 a. (2.25)

Since

1 n1 1 1o

= max , , ,

c a b c

and

1 n1 1 1o

= max , , ,

b a b c

we have

1 1 1 1 1 1

3

+ 3+ 3 ≥ 2 + 2 + 2 .

c b a cb ba ac

By abc = 1, this can be written as

(ab)3 + (bc)3 + (ca)3 ≥ a2 b + b2 c + c2 a. (2.26)

(2.25) and (2.26) together imply the proposed inequality.

a square is drawn externally on each side of the triangle, the six

vertices of the squares that are not vertices of the triangle are con-

cyclic. Assume that the area of the triangle is 9 cm2 . Determine

the length of sides of the triangle.

Solution. We have OJ = OD = OG = radius of the circle. Let

the sides of ∆ABC be a, b, c. We have

a 2 b 2 1

OJ 2 = OM 2 + M J 2 = b + + = b2 + ab + (a2 + b2 );

2 2 4

b 2 a 2 1

OD2 = ON 2 + N D2 = a + + = a2 + ab + (a2 + b2 );

2 2 4

c 2 5

OG2 = OL2 + LG2 = c2 + = c2

2 4

5 2 1

= (a + b2 ) = a2 + b2 + (a2 + b2 ).

4 4

Comparing these right-hand sides, we get

b2 + ab = a2 + ab = a2 + b2 ⇔ a = b.

It means that the given triangle with the desired property is the

1 √

isosceles right triangle and then ab = 9 ⇔ a = b = 3 2, c = 6

2

units.

56 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

intersection point of diagonals AC and BD and let I, K, H be feet

of perpendiculars from B, O, C to AD, respectively. Prove that

AD × BI × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

BI × AD AE × BD

SABD = = .

2 2

Then BI × AD = AE × BD. It follows

BI × AD ≤ AO × BD (AE ≤ AO),

and

AO

BI.AD ≤ AC × BD × .

AC

Moreover, we have OK k CH, then

AO OK

= ,

AC CH

and

OK

BI × AD ≤ AC × BD × .

CH

Therefore,

BI × AD × CH ≤ AC × BD × OK.

lar diagonals.

being perpendicular to CA, BE perpendicular to Cx (E ∈ Cx).

Let M be the midpoint of BE, and D be the intersection point of

AM and Cx. Prove that BD ⊥ BC

Solution. Let K be intersection point of DB and AC.

Since BE⊥CD; CK⊥CD then BE k CK.

2.2 Senior section 57

In ∆DAC we see M E k AC so

ME DM

= (2.27)

AC AD

In ∆DAK we see M B k AK so

MB DM

= . (2.28)

AK AD

ME MB

From (2.27) and (2.28), we get = . This and equality

AC AK

M B = M E together imply

CK

AK = AC = AB and then BA = .

2

CK

Note that BA is a median line ∆BKC and BA = then

2

∆BKC is a right triangle at B. Hence BD⊥BC.

the roots of equation x2 + mx − 1 = 0 and c = a2014 + b2014 , d =

a2015 + b2015 . Prove that c and d are relatively prime numbers.

Solution. Since a2 + ma − 1 = 0 then a 6= 0 and

an+2 = −man+1 + an ∀n ∈ N.

Hence, the sequence xn , n ∈ N are defined as

(

x0 = 2, x1 = −m

xn+2 = −mxn+1 + xn ∀n ∈ N.

Now we prove (xn ; xn+1 ) = 1 for every n ∈ N.

For n = 0, x0 = 2 and m is odd then (x0 ; x1 ) = (2; −m) = 1.

Suppose that (xk ; xk+1 ) = 1 for k ≥ 0 and (xk+1 ; xk+2 ) > 1. Let

p be a prime factor of xk+1 and xk+2 , then from xk = xk+2 + mxk+1 ,

it follows p is a prime factor of xk . It means that p | (xk ; xk+1 ) = 1,

absurd. Hence (xk+1 ; xk+2 ) = 1 and (c, d) = 1.

58 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy.

Solution. We have

2xy 2 + x + y + 1 = x2 + 2y 2 + xy

⇔ 2y 2 (x − 1) − y(x − 1) − x(x − 1) = −1

⇔ (x − 1)(2y 2 − y − x) = −1

Case 1. We have

(

x−1=1

2y 2 − y − x = −1.

Equivalently, either (

x=2

y = 1,

or

x = 2

1

y = − (absurd)

2

- Case 2. We have

(

x − 1 = −1

2y 2 − y − x = 1.

x=0

y = 1,

or

x = 0

1

y = − (absurd).

2

2.2 Senior section 59

a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ≤ 12.

M = 4(a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 ) − (a4 + b4 + c4 + d4 ).

can be rewritten as 4x3 − x4 ≤ 4x2 . It follows that

(4a3 −a4 )+(4b3 −b4 )+(4c3 −c4 )+(4d3 −d4 ) ≤ 4(a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 ) = 48,

from the digits 1, 2, 3 only and in which, two neighbouring digits

differ by 1.

Anwser. (B).

fying the condition, starting from 1-digit, 2-digit, 3-digit numbers

60 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

Digit 1 2 3 4

1 12 121 1212

2 21 123 1232

3 23 212 2121

32 232 2123

.

321 2321

323 2323

3212

P 3232

3 4 6 8

erates 2 numbers for next column (we can add 1 or 3 at the end),

but a number ending by 1 or 3 generate 1 number for next column

(we can add only 2 at the end). From this, we can make a table.

The first row is number of digits, the second row is the number

of k-digit numbers satisfying the condition and ending with 1, 3, the

third row is the number of k-digit numbers satisfying the condition

and ending with 2.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2 2 4 4 8 8 16 16 32 32 .

1 2 2 4 4 8 8 16 16 32

Answer: 64.

1

placed by number min(a, b, c). After 672 times, on the table there

3

is only one number m, such that

(E): None of the above.

2.2 Senior section 61

Anwser. (A).

1 1 1 3 1

+ + ≤ = .

a b c min{a, b, c} 1

min{a, b, c}

3

So after each operation, the sum of all inverse elements of A is non

decreasing. On the other hand, for every positive integer n, we have

1 1 1

S := + + ··· + > 1.

n n+1 3n

Indeed,

n n

1 X 1 1 1 X 4n

S= + + = +

2n k=1 2n − k 2n + k 2n k=1 4n2 − k 2

n

1 X1 1 n

> + > + > 1.

2n k=1 n 2n n

1

Hence, if on the table there is one number m then > 1, i.e.

m

0 < m < 1.

dition a3 +b3 = a5 +b5 , then the greatest value of M = a2 +b2 −ab is

1 1

(A): (B): (C): 2 (D): 1 (E): None of the above.

4 2

Anwser. (D).

Solution. We have

ab(a2 − b2 )2 ≥ 0

⇔ 2a3 b3 ≤ ab5 + a5 b

⇔ (a3 + b3 )2 ≤ (a + b)(a5 + b5 ).

Combining this and the fact that a3 + b3 = a5 + b5 , we find

a3 + b3 ≤ a + b ⇔ a2 + b2 − ab ≤ 1.

62 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

different fruits. What is the largest number of monkeys one can

make lucky having 20 oranges, 30 bananas, 40 peaches and 50 tan-

gerines? Justify your answer.

Anwser. (D).

+ 40 = 90 fruites. As we feed the happy monkey is not more than

one tangerine, each monkey eats fruits of these 90 at least 2.

Hence, the monkeys are not more than 90/2 = 45. We will show

how you can bring happiness to 45 monkeys:

5 monkeys eat: orange, banana, tangerine;

15 monkeys eat: orange, peach, tangerine;

25 monkeys eat peach, banana, tangerine.

At all 45 lucky monkeys - and left five unused tangerines!

4y 2 + y and (x − y) is equal to

(E): None of the above.

We prove that (x − y; 3x + 3y + 1) = 1.

Indeed, if d = (x − y; 3x + 3y + 1) then y 2 is divisible by d2 and

y is divisible by d; x is divisible by d, i.e. 1 is divisible by d, i.e.

d = 1.

Since x − y and 3x + 3y + 1 are prime relative then x − y is a

perfect square.

2.2 Senior section 63

{1, 2, 3, . . . , 106},

from 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21. Prove that there are two elements of A for

which their difference equals to 3.

{1, 4, 7, . . . , 106}, Y = {2, 5, 8, . . . , 104} and Z = {3, 6, 9, . . . , 105}.

A has 16 elements, so one of the sets X, Y, Z contains at least

6 numbers from A. Without loss of generality, let X contains 6

numbers from A. Let they be 1 ≤ a1 < a2 < · · · < a6 ≤ 106. Since

105 ≥ a6 −a1 = (a6 −a5 )+(a5 −a4 )+(a4 −a3 )+(a3 −a2 )+(a2 −a1 ),

By the choice of X, ai+1 − ai is multiple of 3, so ai+1 − ai ∈

{3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21}.

Finally, apply the given condition, it follows that ai+1 − ai = 3,

which was to be proved.

triangles are there with 3 vertices at these points?

Type 1: Two vertices lie in one horizontal line, the third vertex

lies in another horizontal lines.

For this type we have 3 possibilities of choosing the first line, 2

possibilities of choosing the 2-nd line. In total we have 3×2×3×3 =

54 triangles of first type.

Type 2: Three vertices lie in distinct horizontal lines.

We have 3 × 3 × 3 triangles of these type. But we should remove

degenerated triangles from them. There are 5 of those (3 vertical

lines and two diagonals). So, we have 27 - 5 = 22 triangles of this

type.

64 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

For those students who know about Cnk this problem can be also

solved as C93 − 8 where 8 is the number of degenerated triangles.

cube of the sum of all its digits.

and abc = (a + b + c)3 .

3

√

3

√ Note that 100 ≤ (a + b + c) ≤ 999 and 100 ≤ a + b + c ≤

3

999. Hence 5 ≤ a + b + c ≤ 9.

If a+b+c = 5 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =53 = 125 and a+b+c = 8

(not suitable).

If a+b+c = 6 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =63 = 216 and a+b+c = 9

(not suitable).

If a + b + c = 7 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =73 = 343 and a + b + c =

10 (not suitable).

If a+b+c = 8 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =83 = 512 and a+b+c = 8

(suitable).

If a + b + c = 9 then abc = (a + b + c)3 =93 = 729 and a + b + c =

18 (not suitable).

Conclusion: abc = 512.

a + b + c = a2 + b2 + c2 ∈ Z.

Prove that there exist two relative prime numbers m, n such that

m2

abc = 3 .

n

Solution. Put a + b + c = a2 + b2 + c2 = t.

We have 3 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) ≥ (a + b + c)2 , then t ∈ [0; 3] .

Since t ∈ Z then t ∈ {0; 1; 2; 3} .

0

If t = 0 then a = b = c = 0 and abc = 0 = .

1

If t = 3 then

(a − 1) + (b − 1) + (c − 1) = (a − 1)2 + (b − 1)2 + (c − 1)2 = 0.

2.2 Senior section 65

12

That follows a = b = c = 1 and abc = 1 = .

13

If t = 1. Without loss of generality, assume that c > 0;

m1 m2 m3

a= ;b = ;c = ; d = |n1 n2 n3 | .

n1 n2 n3

Put

x = ad

y = bd

z = cd.

(

x + y + z = d (a + b + c) = d

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = d2 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) = d2

It follows

xy + yz + zx = 0 ⇔ (z + x) (z + y) = z 2 = c2 d2 .

r > 0.

Hence,

y = rq (q − p)

x = rp (p − q)

z = rpq.

Equivalently,

[pq(p − q)]2

abc = − .

(p2 + q 2 − pq)3

We shall prove that (pq(p − q); p2 + q 2 − pq) = 1.

Suppose s = (pq (p − q) ; p2 + q 2 − pq) ; s > 1 then s|pq (p − q) .

Case 1. Let s|p. Since s| (p2 + q 2 − pq) then s|q and s = 1 (not

suitable).

Case 2. Let s|q. Similarly, we find s = 1 (not suitable).

66 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

2 2 2

Case 3. If s| (p − q) then s|(p − q) − (p + q − pq) ⇒ s|pq

s|p

⇒ (not suitable).

s|q

If t = 2 then a + b + c = a2 + b2 + c2 = 2.

We reduce it to the case where t = 1, which was to be proved.

√ numbers a, b such that 2015a2 + a =

2016b2 + b. Prove that a − b is a natural number.

2015a2 + a = 2016b2 + b.

we find a ≥ b.

√

If a = b, then a = b = 0 and a − b = 0.

If a > b, we have

then m > n; and put m − n = t > 0.

Let (t, n) = u then n is divisible by u; t is divisible by u and m

is divisible by u. That follows u = 1 and then (t, n) = 1.

By b = nd; a − b = td, we find

is divisible by t. Moreover, we have n2 d = 2015dt2 +4030dnt+t and

then t = n2 d−2015dt2 −4030dnt. Hence t = d(n2 −2015t2 −4030nt),

i.e. t is divisible by d, i.e. t = d and then a − b = td = d2 and

√

a − b = d is a natural number.

its circumcircle. Let the line AI intersect ω at point D 6= A. Let

F and E be points on side BC and arc BDC respectively such

1

that ∠BAF = ∠CAE < ∠BAC. Let X be the second point of

2

2.2 Senior section 67

segment DX with line AF . Prove that T F.AD = ID.AT .

the foot of the bisector of angle BAC. Since ∠BAK = ∠CAE we

_ _

have BK = CE, hence KE k BC. Notice that ∠IAT = ∠DAK =

∠EAD = ∠IXT , so the points I, A, X, T are concyclic. Hence,

∠IT A = ∠IXA = ∠EXA = ∠EKA, so IT k KE k BC. There-

TF IL

fore, = .

AT AI

IL CL

Since CI is bisector of ∠ACL, we get = . Furthermore,

AI AC

1

∠DCL = ∠DCB = ∠DAB = ∠CAD = ∠BAC. Hence, the

2

CL DC

triangles DCL and DCA are similar. Therefore, = .

AC AD

Finally, we have ∠DIC = ∠IAC + ∠ICA = ∠ICL + ∠LCD =

DC

∠ICD. It follows DIC is a isosceles triangle at D. Hence =

AD

ID

.

AD

Summarizing all these equalities, we get

TF IL CL DC ID

= = = = ,

AT AI AC AD AD

68 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

or

TF ID

= , and T F.AD = ID.AT,

AT AD

as desired.

arbitrary circle ω passes through O, A; intersecting Ox and Oy

at the second intersection B and C, respectively. Let M be the

midpoint of BC. Prove that M is always on a fixed line (when ω

changes, but always goes through O and A).

tangent to Ox, Oy, respectively. Circle (Ox ) intersects the ray Oy

at D, distinct from O and circle (Oy ) intersects the ray Ox at

E, distinct from O. Let N and P be midpoint of OE and OD,

respectively. Then N, P are fixed. We’ll show that M, N, P are

NO P O

collinear. For this, it is sufficient to prove that =

NB P C

is cyclic, ∠ABO = ∠ACD. So triangles AOB, ADC are similar.

AB OB

Therefore = (1)

AC DC

2.2 Senior section 69

BE AB

Similarly, 4ABE v 4ACO, so = (2)

CO AC

From (1) and (2), we deduce that

OB BE OB CD

= ⇒ =

CD OC BE OC

Hence

OE OD

= ,

BE OC

ON OP

= ,

BE OC

ON ON OP OP

= = = .

NB BE − N O OC − OP CP

It follows, if N P intersects BC at M, then

MB P C NO

· · =1

MC P O NB

MB

(by Menelaus’ Theorem in triangle OBC) conclusion = 1, it

MC

follows N P passes through M is midpoint of BC.

Question 13. Find all triples (a, b, c) of real numbers such that

|2a + b| ≥ 4 and

and

f (1) = a + b + c

f (−1) = a − b + c

f (0) = c

Equivalently,

1

a = [f (1) + f (−1)] − f (0)

2

1

b = [f (1) − f (−1)]

2

c = f (0)

70 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

That follows

1

4 ≤ |2a + b| = [f (1) + f (−1)] − 2f (0) + [f (1) − f (−1)]

2

3 1

= f (1) + f (−1) − 2f (0)

2 2

3 1 3 1

≤ |f (1)| + |f (−1)| + 2|f (0)| ≤ + + 2 = 4.

2 2 2 2

Hence |2a + b| = 4. Therefore,

|f (1)| = |a + b + c| = 1

|f (−1)| = |a − b + c| = 1

|f (0)| = |c| = 1.

Equivalently,

(a, b, c) = (2, 0, −1)

(a, b, c) = (−2, 0, 1)

It is easely seen that both two triples (2, 0, −1) and (−2, 0, 1) satisfy

the required conditions.

Prove that there is an integer m such that

f (m) = f (2015).f (2016).

f [f (x) + x] = f (x)f (x + 1). (1)

Indeed, we have

f [f (x) + x] = [f (x) + x]2 + p[f (x) + x] + q

= f 2 (x) + 2f (x).x + x2 + pf (x) + px + q

= f (x)[f (x) + 2x + p] + x2 + px + q

= f (x)[f (x) + 2x + p] + f (x)

= f (x)[f (x) + 2x + p + 1]

= f (x)[x2 + px + q + 2x + p + 1]

= f (x)[(x + 1)2 + p(x + 1) + q]

= f (x)f (x + 1),

2.2 Senior section 71

Putting m := f (2015) + 2015 gives

f (m) = f [f (2015)+2015] = f (2015)f (2015+1) = f (2015)f (2016),

as desired.

18ab + 9ca + 29bc = 1.

Find the minimum value of the expression

T = 42a2 + 34b2 + 43c2 .

Solution. We have

T −2(18ab + 9ca + 29bc) =

= (5a − 3b)2 + (4a − 3c)2 + (4b − 5c)2 + (a − 3b + 3c)2

≥ 0, ∀a, b, c ∈ R.

That follows T ≥ 2. The equality occures if and only if

5a − 3b = 0

4a − 3c = 0

4b − 5c = 0

a − 3b + 3c = 0

18ab + 9ca + 29bc = 1.

Equivalently,

5a − 3b = 0

4a − 3c = 0

4b − 5c = 0

18ab + 9ca + 29bc = 1,

and (

a = 3t, b = 5t, c = 4t

(18 × 15 + 9 × 12 + 29 × 20)t2 = 1.

We thus have

±3 ±5 ±4

a= √ , b= √ , c= √ .

958 958 958

72 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

3 2

P (x) = x − 4x − 3x + 2. The sum |x1 | + |x2 | + |x3 | is

(A): 4 (B): 6 (C): 8 (D): 10 (E): None of the above.

Solution. The solution is (B).

Question 2. How many pairs of positive integers (x, y) are there,

those satisfy the identity

2x − y 2 = 4?

Solution. The solution is (A).

Question 3. The number of real triples (x, y, z) that satisfy the

equation

x4 + 4y 4 + z 4 + 4 = 8xyz

is

(A): 0; (B): 1; (C): 2; (D): 8; (E): None of the above.

Solution. The solution is (E).

Question 4. Let a, b, c be three distinct positive numbers. Con-

sider the quadratic polynomial

P (x) = + + + 1.

(c − a)(c − b) (a − b)(a − c) (b − c)(b − a)

(A): 2015 (B): 2016 (C): 2017 (D): 2018 (E): None of the above.

Question 5. Write 2017 following numbers on the blackboard:

1008 1007 1 1 2 1007 1008

− ,− ,...,− , 0, , ,..., , .

1008 1008 1008 1008 1008 1008 1008

2.2 Senior section 73

the blackboard and then write on it the number x + 7xy + y. After

2016 steps, there is only one number. The last one on the black-

board is

1 1 144

(A): − (B): 0 (C): (D): − (E): None of the

1008 1008 1008

above.

Solution. The solution is (D).

system of equations has a unique integral solution (x, y, z)

(

x+y =a−1

x(y + 1) − z 2 = b.

(

x+y+1=a

(∗)

x(y + 1) − z 2 = b.

necessary condition for (*) to have a unique solution is (x, y+1, z) =

(t, t, 0). Putting this in (*), we find a2 = 4b. Conversely, if a2 = 4b

then

a a

(x, y + 1, z) = , ,0 .

2 2

.

x2 + y 2 .. 44. Determine the smallest value of T = x3 + y 3 .

.

Solution. By the assumption we have x2 + y 2 .. 11. One can prove

. .

that x .. 11 and y .. 11. Due to limitted space we left the proof

74 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

y are even. Hence, x ≡ 0 (mod 22) and y ≡ 0 (mod 22). Thus,

min A = (22)3 + (22)3 = 21296.

a + b + c = 12. Determine the smallest value of

a 4b 9c

M= + + .

b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c

b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c

Solution. Let x = ,y = ,z = then

2 2 2

a+b+c

x, y, z > 0 and x + y + z = = 6, a = y + z, b = z + x, c =

2

x + y. We have

y + z 4(z + x) 9(x + y)

M= + +

2x 2y 2z

1 y 4x z 9x 4z 9y

= + + + + +

2 x y x z y z

r r r !

1 y 4x z 9x 4z 9y

≥ 2 . +2 . +2 . = 11.

2 x y x z y z

y 4x

=

x y

z 9x

=

x z

4z 9y

= .

y z

Equivelently,

y = 2x

z = 3x

2z = 3y.

min S = 11 when (a, b, c) = 5, 4, 3 .

2.2 Senior section 75

pieces, then cut one of two pieces into two small pieces by a straight

line, ect. By cutting 2017 times we obtain 2018 pieces. We write

number 2 in every triangle, number 1 in every quadrilateral, and 0

in the polygons. Is the sum of all inserted numbers always greater

than 2017?

with n ≥ 3. After each cut the total of all sides of those n-convex

polygons increases at most 4. We deduce that the total number of

sides of 2018 pieces is not greater than 4 × 2018. If the side of a

piece is kj , then the number inserted on it is greater or equal to

5 − kj . Therefore, the total of all inserted numbers on the pieces is

greater or equal to

X X

(5−kj ) = 5×2018− kj ≥ 5×2018−4×2018 = 2018 > 2017.

j j

from {C, H, M, O}. We arrange the words in an alphabet sequence.

Precisely, the first word is CCCCCCCC, the second one is CCCCC-

CCH, the third is CCCCCCCM, the fourth one is CCCCCCCO,. . . ,

and the last word is OOOOOOOO.

a) Determine the 2017th word of the sequence?

b) What is the position of the word HOMCHOMC in the se-

quence?

bers 0, 1, 2, 3, respectively. Thus, the arrangement of those words

as a dictionary is equivalent to arrangement of those numbers in-

creasing.

a) Number 2017 in quaternary is {133201}4 = {00133201}4 ∼

CCHOOM CH.

b) The word HOM CHOM C is corresponding to the num-

ber {13201320}4 which means the number 13201320 in quaternary.

Namely,

{13201320}4 = 47 +3×46 +2×45 +0×44 +1×43 +3×42 +2×4+0.

76 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

HOM CHOM C is 30840th in the sequence.

for an arbitrary point inside the triangle. Is it true that

P AB − P AC ≥ P BC − P CB ?

[ [ \ \

then

P AB − P AC = P BC − P CB .

[ [ \ \

of P with respect to Ax. The straightline P P 00 intersects AB and

AC at M and N, respectively. Choose B 0 that is symmetric point

of B with respect to M N. Then

\0

P AB − P AC = P AP ,

[ [

2.2 Senior section 77

and

\ \ \0

P BC − P CB B0P 0.

= P BP = P\

We will prove that

P

\ AP 0 ≥ P\

B0P 0. (∗)

Indeed, consider the circumscribed circle (O) of the equilateral tri-

angle AM N. Since

M

\ B0N = M

\ BN ≤ M

\ BC = M

\ AN = 600 ,

B 0 is outside (O). Consider the circumscribed circle (O0 ) of the

equilateral triangle AP P 0 . It is easy to see that (O0 ) inside (O), by

which B 0 is outside (O0 ). Hence, P \AP 0 ≥ P\ B 0 P 0 . The inequality

(*) is proved.

Question 12. Let (O) denote a circle with a chord AB, and let W

be the midpoint of the minor arc AB. Let C stand for an arbitrary

point on the major arc AB. The tangent to the circle (O) at C

meets the tangents at A and B at points X and Y, respectively.

The lines W X and W Y meet AB at points N and M , respectively.

Does the length of segment N M depend on position of C?

circle (Q) touching XY at C and touching AB at T .

Since

1 _ 1 _

ACW

\ =W \ AT = AW = W B

2 2

and AW\ T = CW

\ A, we obtain that ∆AW T, ∆CW A are similar

triangles. Then

W A2 = W T × W C.

It is easy to see that W X is the radical axis of A and (Q), thus

it passes through the midpoint N of segment AT . Similarly, W Y

passes through the midpoint M of segment BT . We deduce M N =

AB

.

2

Question 13. Let ABC be a triangle. For some d > 0 let P stand

for a point inside the triangle such that

|AB| − |P B| ≥ d, and |AC| − |P C| ≥ d.

78 Chapter 2. Answers and Solutions

|AM | − |P M | ≥ d,

Without loss of generality, assume that AM has common point

with P B. Then ABM P is a convex quadrilateral with diagonals

AM and P B.

It is known that for every convex quadrilateral, we have

|AM | + |P B| ≥ |AB| + |P M |,

that follows

|AM | − |P M | ≥ |AB| − |P B| ≥ d.

a) Is P divisible by 24?

2.2 Senior section 79

Solution. We have

b) It suffices to chose m, n such that the remainders of those

divided by 7 are not 0 and distinct. For instance, m = 2 and n = 1.

squares with side-length 3 be given. Show that it is impossible

to cover S by those eight small squares with the condition: an

arbitrary side of those (eight) squares is either coincided, parallel,

or perpendicular to others of S.

Let M, N, P, Q be the midpoints of sides of S, and O be the center

of ABCD. Consider nine points: A, B, C, D, M, N, P, Q, O. Each

square of the side-length 3 satisfied the condition cover at most one

of those nine points. The proof is complete.

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