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Research Proposal

Understanding the impact of industrial wastewater and solid waste of tourism on

marine environment and sea creatures-devising methods to minimize these

1. Introduction

Seas and oceans have a significant impact on our daily lives, providing an
essential part of our property and welfare. They are not only a simple source of food,
but also play a role as energy resource and balance the ecosystem of the world. Sea-
related industries and services generate a huge amount of profit which brings a
comfortable and advantageous life for human beings. It is undeniable that the value of
seas and oceans is high to many of us. Nature is favoring us with so many natural
marine resources, yet overexploitation, pollutants from industry and transport,
discharge of nutrients, together with the impact of climate change are dramatically
affecting the marine environment, putting it at risk of severe impairments. Science and
technology have a vital role to play in the conservation of the marine environment as
well as in realizing the great economic potential of our seas and oceans. In recent
decades, the scientific community has provided excellent contributions for the
development of the conservation of the marine environment and the idea of evaluate
the impact of industrial wastewater on the marine environment and explore methods to
mitigate these impacts are not the new concepts, however, this is a widespread topic
so researches on it is still well received and valuable.

2. Problem Statement

This analysis seeks to shed light on the important of understanding the effect of
industrial wastewater and solid waste of tourism on the marine environment and how
to protect the marine environment through the study of practical examples, standards
and previous studies. The important of marine environment has long been recognized
by humans, however, despite tireless effort to protect seas and oceans marine
environment is still being seriously damaged by wastes, especially industrial

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wastewater and solid waste of tourism. According to UN Marine Pollution is “The
introduction by man, directly, or indirectly, of substances or energy to the marine
environment resulting in deleterious effects such as; hazards to human health;
hindrance of marine activities; impairment of the quality for the use of seawater; and
reduction of amenities.” There are several culprits cause marine pollution are
sedimentation, energy, sewage¸ solid waste toxic and oil/hydrocarbons, but in the
framework of this article I am going to study about the pollution of marine
environment causing by toxic wastewater from industry and solid waste from tourism.
First, though environmental laws and regulation have been imposed and implemented
such as UNCLOS 1982, MARPOL 73/78 and London Convention 1996 and so on,
organizations and individuals are still ignoring these laws and continuing to harm the
marine environment for sake of profit. Today’ wastewater treatment cost is extremely
high and account for a high proportion of the total cost of production, therefore,
companies often ignore wastewater treatment and discharge directly into the
environment. Second, along with the development of tourism the amount of solid
waste has increased significantly and uncontrollably. Due to the lack of awareness of
tourists and local resident in the development of the tourism industry, seas and oceans
are polluted by solid waste such as plastic bottles, plastic bags and other solid waste
form domestic activities. This situation puts marine environment and the creatures
living in it at rick. In summary, there is a need for a better understanding of the impact
of industrial wastewater and solid waste of tourism on marine environment and sea
creatures. More specifically, the following research questions need to be addressed:

i. What are the pollutants and their characteristics?

ii. How to classify these pollutants for easier identification and determining

proper treatment method?

iii. How the pollutants affect the sea creatures’ life?

iv. What are the best method to balance the marine environment and the

development of industry and tourism?

3. Objectives

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The long term goal of the research is to develop a better life for humans and
marine animals supporting the sustainable development of the environment.
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To ensure our
benefit and the future generations’ benefit as well, this study need to be carry on and
satisfy the following aims:

i. To review the framework of treatment and discharge pollutants into seas and


ii. To provide a comprehensive review of sources and characteristics of pollutants

found in seas and oceans and its effect on marine environment.

iii. To develop treatment methods for easier implement and reducing costs.

iv. To encourage awareness of the community in protecting the marine


The result of this study will be valuable to the marine environment as well as
industry and tourism in the sustainable development of the environment.

4. Methodology

The primary research method for this study is literature review, collection of
experimental data, conducting research on specific subjects and comparing with
previous studies. Classification and evaluating the extent of marine environmental
pollution is the very first step toward a sustainable development environment. This
study will first review various types of pollutants and their characteristics. Based on
this understanding, a classification method will be developed to categorize pollutants.
In the second stage of this study, collection of experimental data and experiments will
be conducted based on a comprehensive review of current science practices and
academic researches. Finally, once the pollutants and its effect to the marine are
identified, appropriate treatment methods for these pollutants will be outlined.

5. References

i. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982

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ii. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 73/78

iii. 1996 Protocol To The Convention On The Prevention Of Marine Pollution By

Dumping Of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972

iv. Garbage and the gully Investigating attitudes to solid waste management along

South Gully, Montego Bay, Jamaica-Conducted by the Jamaica Environment Trust

With funding from the Tourism Enhancement Fund for the Clean Coasts Project

v. Marine pollution effects of pulp and paper industry wastes-T. H. Pearson


Marine Biological Association, Dunstaffnage Marine Research Laboratory; P. O. Box

No. 3, Oban, Argyll, Scotland

vi. Impacts Of Pollution On The Marine Environment For Land-based Sources of

Pollution to the Coastal & Marine Environment Workshop, January 15 - 16, 2008-
Ainsley Henry - Ecosystems Management Branch National Environment and Planning

vii. Hazardous and Radioactive Substances in Danish Marine Waters- Ingela

Dahllöf &

Jesper H. Andersen Editors National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus


viii. Fishing boat wastewater shown to be potentially harmful-Albert, R.J.,

McLaughlin, C., & Falatko, D. (2014). Characterization of fish hold effluent

discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters. Marine Pollution
Bulletin 87(1-2): 29–38. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014. 08.015

ix. Are combined AOPs effective for toxicity reduction in receiving marine

Suitability of battery of bioassays for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as

an ecotoxicological assessment-B. Díaz-Garduno~ a, * , J.J. Rueda-Marquez b , M.A.

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Manzano b , C. Garrido-Perez b , M.L. Martín-Díaz a a Physical Chemical
Department, Centro Andaluz de Ciencia y Tecnología Marina (CACYTMAR), Campus
de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI·MAR), Universidad de Cadiz, Campus
Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510, Puerto Real, C adiz, Spain b Environmental
Technologies Department, Centro Andaluz de Ciencia y Tecnología Marina
(CACYTMAR), Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI·MAR),
Universidad de Cadiz. Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510, Puerto Real, C
adiz, Spain art.

x. Pollution Effects on Oceans and Marine Life- IAEA Bulletin 54-3-September


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