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Fine Print Educational/ Training Material Issued as a service to the industry for Free Distribution
Fine Print
Educational/ Training Material
Issued as a service to the industry
for Free Distribution
Hazard & Identification
HAZID
Based on industry practices
Introduction Chemical Process Industries (CPI) are top Safest Performers Fatal Accident Frequency Rate (FAFR) –
Introduction
Chemical Process Industries (CPI) are top Safest Performers
Fatal Accident Frequency Rate (FAFR) – No. of fatalities in a group of
1,000 people per 100 million hours over their working lifetimes for a
variety of occupations
Construction: 67
Road travel: 57
CPI: 4
Stay at home: 3
Bureau of Labor Statistics 2006, US Department of Labor
Still spectacular accidents happen, blowing up the image. We
need to identify hazards that are present
Hazard:
H2S: Toxic. H2/LPG: Flammable/ Explosion
Machinery: Can injure.
An inherent physical or chemical characteristic with a potential to
cause harm to people, the environment, or property (AICHE Center for
Chemical Process Safety)
Any activity, procedure, process, substance, situation or other
circumstance that has the potential to cause injury or illness
Still accidents happen Time to take stock; Reflect WHAT WENT WRONG Bhopal: 20,000++ Dead Boat
Still accidents happen
Time to take stock; Reflect
WHAT WENT WRONG
Bhopal: 20,000++ Dead
Boat hit
Hurricane hit
Erosion Corrosion
Hydrocarbon into Boiler Air
Column overflow
Safety Studies Companies that regularly perform Safety Studies usher in a Safety culture and reduce
Safety Studies
Companies that regularly perform Safety Studies
usher in a Safety culture and reduce frequency and
severity of accidents
Hazid: One of many safety reviews performed in a
plant processing hydrocarbon or hazardous material
Part of Process Safety Management (PSM); Process
Hazard Analysis (PHA) etc
HAZID: Why & When Why: Identify hazards or risks. It is employer’s responsibility to identify
HAZID: Why & When
Why: Identify hazards or risks.
It is employer’s responsibility to identify
All reasonably foreseeable hazards
Potential accidents and their likely consequences as a
result of failures in process, procedures, or equipment
When: As early as possible, FEED stage, based on
min info - layout and process & utility flow diagrams
A follow-on study during Detailed Engg, if required, to
follow-up recommendations of previous studies
Early study enables timely inputs. Delayed studies fail to
influence or apply course-correction to proposed design
Operations team learns about design limits and
Design team learns about operational constraints
HAZID: Who By a team - bigger “experience envelope” Members: Study chairman or facilitator Scribe
HAZID: Who
By a team - bigger “experience envelope”
Members:
Study chairman or facilitator
Scribe
Process engineer
Safety engineer
Layout or Piping engineer and
Client representatives
Supplemented on a call basis by
Civil or Structural engineer, and Mechanical engineer
Recommendations & solutions are team dependent
HAZID: How Team selects areas to study Plot or deck wise or system wise Too
HAZID: How
Team selects areas to study
Plot or deck wise or system wise
Too many areas, wastes time. Repetition and waning focus
Too few, may miss out a few threats
Experienced judgment is the key
Each system or area reviewed against a pre-agreed
checklist
HAZID: How When a hazard is identified, following are evaluated All potential causes or scenarios
HAZID: How
When a hazard is identified, following are evaluated
All potential causes or scenarios that could trigger the
hazard
Their potential consequences - direct as well as escalated
Impact on personnel, assets and environment
Effectiveness of safeguards/ risk reduction/ or operating
procedures present
Recommendation, if any, to add to existing measures
Select a Area / Node HAZID: Steps Select a Hazard Identify Causes Identify Consequences What
Select a Area / Node
HAZID: Steps
Select a Hazard
Identify Causes
Identify Consequences
What are the safeguards?
Risk Reduction Measures?
Operating Procedures?
Recommendations
Changes to design, operation
Other Causes
Caution: What is normal
practice in a company
may be a hazardous
practice in another
company which may not
have adequate
experience with a
particular process or
equipment. Example:
Other Hazards
Other Nodes
regenerator insulation
failure resulting in hot
spots and vessel failure
or H2S
Follow up! Follow up!!
HAZID: Recommendations The team should not attempt to provide a solution unless one is obvious
HAZID: Recommendations
The team should not attempt to provide a solution
unless one is obvious
Its role is to identify hazards and provide a high level
qualitative assessment
The project and discipline engineers should find an
acceptable solution as part of design development
Some studies may assign Risk Ratings for the identified
hazards, based on a risk matrix by the client
These ratings help prioritize follow-on actions
Whether there is a high or low risk, all actions should be
properly closed out
HAZID: Study Session & Next HAZID worksheet is projected overhead for members to see, comment
HAZID: Study Session & Next
HAZID worksheet is projected overhead for members to see,
comment and concur. Hazards that are not present are not
recorded
Worksheet is circulated in DRAFT format for team members
to review and comment. Then it is released for action
Actions or recommendations proposed are assigned to
individuals by a project engineer via a suitable tracking
system
Actions closed out are recorded in the final HAZID report
issued as a project deliverable. A few projects may maintain a
Hazard Register wherein identified hazards are input by area
and type. The HAZID report is used to populate it
Hazid: Checklist Hydrocarbon, Chemicals & Utilities Hydrocarbons release - with or without ignition 1. Dropped
Hazid: Checklist
Hydrocarbon, Chemicals & Utilities
Hydrocarbons release - with or without ignition
1.
Dropped objects, Swing loads, Corrosion, Small bore pipes, Fitting
leaks, Seal failure, low temperature embrittlement, AIV/FIV, Gas
blowby
2.
Hydrocarbon ingress
Hydrocarbon ingress into gas turbine, diesel engine, fired heater air
intakes
3.
Moisture ingress
Water ingress into heated or hot oil storage
4.
Draining / Sampling
Discharge of produced water (with mercury), mud, cuttings to sea or
soil
5.
Thermal radiation/ Flaring and Venting
Hazid: Checklist Hazardous Chemicals & Health Hazards 6. Hazardous gas, liquids and solids release Mercury,
Hazid: Checklist
Hazardous Chemicals & Health Hazards
6.
Hazardous gas, liquids and solids release
Mercury, Arsenic, H2S, CO2, CH4, NOx, SOx, VOC
7.
Non Process Fire/ Flammable chemicals
Fire in LER, GT Enclosure
8.
Explosion
H2 in Hypochlorite Tank or Battery Room
9.
Asphyxiation / Confined space
Inert gas release, Smoke, CO2, Vessel entry
10.
Particulates (sand, dust, ash)
Sand, Catalysts, Desiccant,
11.
Radioactive / Explosive material
Hazid: Checklist Structural 12. Structural failure Weather, Earthquake, Collision, Overload, Fire, Cyclic loads
Hazid: Checklist
Structural
12. Structural failure
Weather, Earthquake, Collision, Overload, Fire, Cyclic loads
Occupational Hazards
13. Electrical energy
Electrocution, Static electricity
14. Stored energy (Pneumatic / Thermal)
High pressure hoses, Hot surfaces
15. Vibration / Noise
High pressure drop valves, Machinery, slugging, Water hammer
16. Manual work
Rigging, Handling drums, Cutting & Welding, Hand tools, Fall overboard
17. Natural and Environmental Hazards
Wind, Cyclones/ hurricanes/ tornadoes, Waves, High tides, tsunami, Sea
currents, Floods, Ice, Blizzards, Earthquake, Volcano, Ground slide, Soil
subsidence, Summer, Winter, Saliferous or sand/ dust laden wind, Humidity,
Heavy rains and Lighting
Hazid: Checklist Marine 18. Marine operations Personnel Transfer, Supply boat operations, Passing ships, Helicopter
Hazid: Checklist
Marine
18. Marine operations
Personnel Transfer, Supply boat operations, Passing ships, Helicopter
operations
19. SIMOP
Emergency, Escape and Rescue
20. Impeded Access / Approach / Escape/ Evacuation
Slippery steps, Blocked access, Laydown area, Maintenance activities
Man-made Hazards
21. Security issues
Unauthorized entry; Sabotage; Piracy, Terrorist activities
Construction and Start-up
22. Construction difficulties
Poor planning, Legislation, Compliance to local codes & standards
23. Start-up & Shutdown difficulties
Poor planning, Missing black start fuel, Low inventory, Untrained crew
Hazid: Checklist System or location specific issues Pigging Operation Cellar or Lowest Deck or Upper
Hazid: Checklist
System or location specific issues
Pigging Operation
Cellar or Lowest Deck or Upper Deck
FPSO
Poor planning - Hull delivery; Storage volume; hull to shipping standards (batch
mode) and topsides to process industry standards (continuous operation)
Effect of FPSO’s axial (Surge, Sway, Heave), rotational (Roll, Pitch, Yaw) and static
(List, Trim) separation, distillation, liquid levels, internals support
Hogging/ sagging of decking plates on equipment support & structures, rotating
equipment support
Green water waves; Maintenance - storage tanks, sea chest, seawater pumps etc
Onshore Location
Proximity to population, Ground water contamination, Historical monuments
damaged by fumes, Public roads, Nearby land use (Farming/ Fishing)
Biological
Endemic diseases, Infection, Contaminated water / food, Biological agents
(viruses, pathogens, parasites, poisonous reptiles and plants)
HAZID: Preparation-Before the study Get a team Nominate an individual (Project Engineer in new projects
HAZID: Preparation-Before the study
Get a team
Nominate an individual (Project Engineer in new projects
or Works Engineer in an operating plant) to initiate the
study with authority to implement the actions; otherwise it
is a waste of time - for a given study and all future studies
Nominate an experienced team leader . Give him/ her clear
scope, objectives and terms of reference
Nominate a balanced team - knowledge and experience.
Design provides insight. Operations provides review &
objectivity
Members notified in advance to make own preparation and
get familiar with the facility
Checking and stamping by individual experts miss impact of
interactions. Together as a team they act as a force-multiplier.
HAZID: Preparation Review Key Documents PFDs, UFDs, Equipment location/ Plot plans Electrical area classification -
HAZID: Preparation
Review Key Documents
PFDs, UFDs, Equipment location/ Plot plans
Electrical area classification - not a must in a new project
Fire & Gas detection - not a must in a new project
Active/ passive fire protection - not a must in a new project
Fire fighting & safety equipment locations - not a must in a new
project
Escape & Evacuation - not a must in a new project
Corporate standards/ engineering practices
For a new project:
Safety studies proposed to avoid too many action items
Caution: Practices based on corporate/ industry/ statutory codes are
not adequate to cover changes in new plant/ operation/ design
HAZID: Study Duration 4-8 hours for a standard facility 3 hours/ morning when hand recording
HAZID: Study Duration
4-8 hours for a standard facility
3 hours/ morning when hand recording by hand. 6 hours/
day with computer recording and on screen projection
2 - 3 sessions/ week
During the study
Adequate time for review
Creative and “brain storming” mode . Should not “drop down”
to a mechanical process
If fatigue sets in, the study should be halted by the leader and
restarted when the team is fresh
No single PERSON should be allowed to dominate the meeting.
We need more inputs
HAZID: Nodes Difficult to focus on a full facility Review done in steps, in small
HAZID: Nodes
Difficult to focus on a full facility
Review done in steps, in small bites, usually one ISBL
unit or one deck at a time
Remember:
Too many nodes - Repetition and waning focus
Too few - may miss out a few threats
Experienced judgment is the key
HAZID: Worksheet Discussions are recorded in a transparent way Hazard Cause Consequence Safeguards Action or
HAZID: Worksheet
Discussions are recorded in a transparent way
Hazard
Cause
Consequence
Safeguards
Action or
On
Recommendation
Hydrocar
Rupture
bons
of risers
release -
and/ or
with or
on-deck
without
piping
ignition
due to:
Dropped
object,
Swinging
load,
Fitting
Failure or
Leak, or
Operator
Error
1) Pipeline / riser / piping leak/
rupture leading to gas cloud.
Potential vapor cloud
explosion (VCE)
2) Riser fire (jet fire for a long
duration)
3) Toxic exposure (CO2, H2S,
Mercury)
4) Pool fire of oil/ condensate
on deck and sea surface
5) Equipment/ Structural
damage
6) Personnel injury
7) Missile generation,
equipment/ structural damage
8) Escalation to adjacent risers
and other equipment on board
1) F & G detection / ESD/ Blowdown
2) Lifting procedures / look out man on the topsides /
crane mechanic on standby
3) Crane operating radius away from pipeline
corridor
4) Certified crane operators. Dead man’s handle to
operate crane.
5) Regular crane maintenance
6) Dropped Object / crane location / laydown area
study to ensure that crane resting position is not
above equipment or escape routes
7) Fusible plugs near riser ESDV to shutdown SDVs
upon confirmed fire detection
8) PPE to prevent skin exposure to mercury
9) Hazardous area classification and selection of
electrical equipment conforming classified zone
10) Automatic isolation of power to non-essential
electrical equipment on confirmed fire detection
11) Decks are naturally ventilated
3) Provide suitable
type of crane and a
combination of
cranes, forklifts,
hydraulic
manipulators, lifting
beams and appliances.
4) Check operational
requirements for lay-
down areas, bumper
bars and mechanical
handling capabilities.
5) Ensure that
wellheads are
automatically
shutdown upon
confirmed fire
detection on topsides
Recorded without ambiguity to avoid any misunderstanding.
Must be clear even after 10 years
Only items with potential hazards are recorded
HAZID: Follow-up Recommendations are reviewed by project team All recommendations need NOT be accepted. Each
HAZID: Follow-up
Recommendations are reviewed by project team
All recommendations need NOT be accepted. Each is
analyzed and a suitable solution found by project team
Flexible. Not all issues can be fixed by design or
hardware changes. Some require changes to SOP
Change in process/ op conditions/ design/ operating procedure
Remove cause or minimize consequence
Each item is assigned to a specific individual for
resolution. Inform all once a resolution is reached.
HSE team is tasked with tracking each to resolution. All
recommendations must be closed - action or no action
HSE team verifies implementation and closes-out.
Management change process in a Tracking Register
Some Owner- Operator go all the way to independent
checking of as-built plants for completion.
Hazid When 1. Concept stage – Hazards of materials and operation 2. FEED stage –
Hazid
When
1. Concept stage – Hazards of materials and operation
2. FEED stage – major hazards [Hazid]
3. Detailed engg stage – standard Hazop
4. Construction/ site check – checklist
5. Pre-startup: function testing, purging – checklist
6. Existing or operating plants – lessons learnt
Difficult to get up to date info/ flow sheet; follow-up and close-out
Note: each stage verifies that the actions of previous stages have been completed
HAZID: one of many tools Other tools What-if analysis, Check Lists HAZOP - Hazard and
HAZID: one of many tools
Other tools
What-if analysis, Check Lists
HAZOP - Hazard and operability study
FEMA - Failures Mode & Effect Analysis; FTA - Fault Tree Analysis
Instrument (Chazop), Safety Integrity Level (SIL), Electrical Safop.
LOPA - Layers of protection analysis
Environmental:
Envid; Process discharges; Exhaust; Waste disposal
EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment
Other tools
Human factors assessment, Alarms management
Corporate standards/ Incident reporting
Emergency Response Planning
Health:
Toxic/ carcinogenic; Noise & Vibration; AIV/FIV; Flare radiation
Safety Studies Safety Studies Qualitative Vs Quantitative Knowledge, Experience and Judgment Vs Numerical Analysis
Safety Studies
Safety Studies
Qualitative Vs Quantitative
Knowledge, Experience and Judgment
Vs Numerical Analysis
Qualitative/ Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA)
Typical Oil & Gas Offshore facility studies
Dropped Object Risk Analysis
Ship Collision Risk Analysis
Smoke & Gas Ingress Analysis
Fire & Explosion Risk Analysis
Dispersion (hydrocarbon/ toxic materials)
Pool and jet fires; BLEVE and explosion overpressure
Toxic Gas Risk Analysis
EERA - Escape, Evacuation & Rescue Analysis
Temporary Refuge Integrity Analysis
ESSA - Emergency Systems Survivability Analysis
Emergency Systems Reliability / Availability Analysis
EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment
Safety Case Hazid/ Design Info Plant Hazop Design Studies Hazard Safety Register Studies Recommendations Risk
Safety Case
Hazid/
Design Info
Plant
Hazop
Design
Studies
Hazard
Safety
Register
Studies
Recommendations
Risk
Performance
Assessment
Standards
Safety Case/
Report
Accidents Still happen No method can identify all accidents that could occur Team may be
Accidents Still happen
No method can identify all accidents that could occur
Team may be unaware of a scenario, may overlook it or
decide it as not credible or significant
You can add redundancy in alarms and shut down valves
(parallel trips, valves in series)
How about the man – to take the right action, in the right
time and right sequence
Failure rates
100%
in an emergency respond to avoid a serious accident, with so
many alarms and phones ringing
10%
1%
0.1%
in a busy control room with phones ringing
in a quite control room as in a pumping station
if the button to press is right below the alarm
Accidents Do they happen or do we let them happen
Accidents
Do they happen or do we let them happen
Your every action in a day, considering its impact on you, your family, your colleagues
Your every action in a day, considering its impact on you, your family,
your colleagues and friends, will make it a way of life!
THANK YOU - BE SAFE