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# TOPIC – BELT FRICTION

1. OBJECTIVES

## The objective of this experiment is to;

1.1 Study the relation between tight belt and angle of lap for flat belt.
1.2 Compare the driving force at certain angle of lap of the following belt type;

## 1.2.1 Flat belt

1.2.2 V belt with incorrect slot installation/fixation
1.2.3 V belt with correct slot installation/fixation

2. THEORY

Consider a belt which moves on the pulley with the small angle of lap, δθ. Consider that T is
the tension at point a, and T + dT is the tension at point b. R is the small surface for the pulley rim
and the touching belt (see Figure 1). Figure 2 shows the triangle force, where R can be measured.
Assume that the change on angle is so small, dθ and the change of the belt tension is dT,
therefore ;

R = T dθ---------------(1)

## Known that the coefficient of friction, μ = friction / action

of touching surface, therefore

dT = μR --------------(2)

## Replace (1) into (2) ;

dT = μ(Tdθ) dT/T = μdθ

## From the equation (3), e antilog of log 10℮ x μθ = a

Antilog of 0.4342μθ

θ = angle of lap

T1 = m1g

T2 = (m1-m2) g

=m2g

θ = 90º

Log e T1/T2 = μθ

## =0.66/ 90º = 0.0073

Belts are a common tool for transmission of forces, motions and velocities. If we have a flat
belt, it primarily depends on friction to hold it in place. The basic rules of static friction still apply
for local friction between the belt and the drum, but over the length of the belt the effective
normal force changes. If we consider one element of the belt we can see an element of friction
and a differential of tension. V-belts use the same principle as flat belts, except the friction is
increased by the angle of the sides.

3. EQUIPMENT

Quantity Apparatus
1 Set pulley installed on the wall with
-flat groove , large groove and fit groove
1 Flat belt
1 V - belt
1 Nylon cord – to hang weight hook m2
2 Surface plate
5 Weight set of 100g, 200g, 500g and 1kg

4. PROCEDURES

## 4.1 The apparatus of experiment was prepared as shown in Figure 3.

4.2 The flat belt was fixed at an angle 60 degress and through the correct groove.
4.3 The 500g was hung at bottom end of belt.
4.4 The cord was winded as many as can on pulley in the opposite direction of flat belt
and and hang 500g weight hook at the end of cord and 500g was stated as the first
value of m2.
4.5 The weight hook was supported bt hand at early stage to avoid from moving
downwards due to the rotation of pulley. Then load was added little by little at weight
hook m1 until m2 become stable. The total of load was stated as the value of m1.
4.6 Step 5.4 to 5.5 was repeated by using the value of m2 as 700g, 900g, 1100g and
1300g. The total load of m1 and m2 was stated.
4.7 Then step 5.2 – 5.6 was repeat by fixing the belt at different angle of lap, 90 degress, 120
degress , 150 degress and 180 degress. The total value of load m1 and m2 was stated.

Figure 4

## 5.1 The apparatus of experiment was prepared as shown in Figure 4.

5.2 The V-belt was fixed at an angle of 90 degress and through the incorrect V-groove at
(b).
5.3 The 500g was hung at bottom end of belt.
5.4 The cord was winded as many as can on pulley in the opposite direction of V-belt and
500g weight hook was hung at the end of cord and 500g was stated as the first value
of m2.
5.5 The weight hook was supported bt hand at early stage to avoid from moving
downwards due to the rotation of pulley. Then load was added little by little at weight
hook m1 until m2 become stable. The total of load was stated as the value of m1.
5.6 Step 5.4 to 5.5 was repeated by using the value of m2 as 700g, 900g, 1100g and
1300g. The total load of m1 and m2 was stated.
5.7 Step 5.2 – 5.6 was repeated by fixing the belt for the V-belt with correct fitting at
groove ( c ). The total value of load m1 and m2 was stated.

5. RESULT

TABLE 2 – TEST 1

## Angel of lap of flat belt, Ѳ

No 90˚ 120˚ 150˚ 180˚
m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g)
1 1400 500 1200 500 1000 500 900 500
2 2200 700 1700 700 1400 700 1300 700
3 2700 900 2200 900 1900 900 1700 900
4 3300 1100 2700 1100 2400 1100 2000 1100
5 3500 1300 3200 1300 3000 1300 2400 1300

## T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N)

1 13.73 8.83 11.77 6.87 9.81 4.91 8.83 3.92
2 21.58 14.72 16.68 9.81 13.78 6.87 12.75 5.89
3 26.49 17.66 21.53 12.75 18.64 9.81 16.68 7.85
4 32.37 21.58 26.49 15.7 23.54 12.75 19.62 8.83
5 34.34 21.58 31.39 18.64 29.43 16.68 23.54 10.79
Σ T1/T2 1.52 1.69 1.87 2.18
loge
[T1/T2] 0.66 0.73 0.81 0.95

TABLE 3 – TEST 2

## Angel of lap of belt, at angle of , Ѳ = 90˚

No Flat belt (a) V-belt large groove (b) V-belt with correct / fit groove (c)
m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g) m1(g) m2(g)
1 1400 500 600 500 600 500
2 2200 700 800 700 900 700
3 2700 900 1100 900 1100 900
4 3300 1100 1300 1100 1400 1100
5 3500 1300 1400 1300 1500 1300
T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 - T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 - T2 (N) T1 (N) T2 (N) T1 - T2 (N)
1 13.73 8.83 4.9 5.89 0.98 4.91 5.89 0.98 4.91
2 21.58 14.72 6.86 7.85 0.98 6.87 8.83 1.96 6.87
3 26.49 17.66 8.83 10.79 1.96 8.83 10.79 1.96 8.83
4 32.37 21.58 10.79 12.75 1.96 10.79 13.73 2.94 10.79
5 34.34 21.58 12.76 13.73 0.98 12.75 14.72 1.96 12.76

6. OBSERVATION

The observation of TEST 1 is an angle of lap of flat belt influence the value of m1. When the
angle of lap of flat belt increased, the value of m1 for stabilize or making the m2 stop from
moving will decrease.

The observation of TEST 2 is a type of belt also influence the value of m1. The flat belt
needs higher value of m1 compare with v-belt. The v-belt need the small values of m1 to stabilize
the m2.

Otherwise, from procedures in the experiment have tell us to wind the pulley as many as can.
That to show the different belt tight when we apply the different degress, different type of belt
with large groove or correct groove.

When doing the experiment, to many error happened for example the v-belt is not in they slot.
It may give the wrong data of experiment. For angle 180 degress experiment in test 1, the cord
was stacked at the pulley screw. It will influenced the accuracy to the data.

7. CALCULATION

This is an example of calculation to find the T1, T2 , Σ T1/T2, log e [T1/T2] and (T1 - T2)
from data;

## From TABLE 1 - Test 2 ;

To find T1

T1 = m1 g
= (1.4) (9.81)
= 13.73 N
To find T2
T2 = (m1-m2) g
= (1.4 – 0.5) (9.81)
= 4.91 N

To find Σ T1/T2

## Total T1 = 13.73 + 21.58 + 26.49 + 32.37 + 34.34

= 128.51 N
Total T2 = 8.83 + 14.72 + 17.66 + 21.58 + 21.58
= 84.37 N

= 1.52

= 0.66

## From TABLE 3 – Test 2;

To find T1 - T2

T1 - T2 = 13.73 - 8.83
= 4.9 N

8. DISCUSSION

8.1 Based on data from TEST 1, plot the graph of T1 versus T2 according the angle of lap
on the same graph paper. Discuss the relation between changes of driving forces with the
angle of lap.

From data of Test 1, we can assume when the angle of lap become higher, the driving forces
will be decrease. The value of m1 to stabilized the m2 become smaller when the angle of lap
increase.

8.2 Based on data from TEST1, plot graph of loge [T1/T2] versus angle of lap. Then calculate
the value of coefficient of friction of flat belt review on the result.
For θ = 90º
Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley,μ = [Log e T1/T2] / θ
= 0.66/ 90º = 0.0073
For θ = 120º
Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley,μ = [Log e T1/T2] / θ
= 0.73/ 120º = 0.0061
For θ = 150º
Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley,μ = [Log e T1/T2] / θ
=0.81/ 150º = 0.0054
For θ = 180º
Coefficient of friction between belt and pulley,μ = [Log e T1/T2] / θ
=0.95/ 180º = 0.0053

8.3 Based on data from TEST 2, plot graph of (T1-T2) versus T1 according to the different
type of belt on the same graph. Review the result.

From the graph, we can see the different types of belt have a different value of T1 and the
value of (T1-T2) for each belt almost same with each other. The V- belt needing less width
and tension than flat belt.

The value of (T1-T2) of v-belt with large groove is smaller than v-belt with correct
groove because when the v-belt in large groove, the belt tight or grip of v-belt is not good as
v-belt with correct groove.

9. CONCLUSION

From the experiment, we can know relation between tight belt and angle of lap for flat belt.
When the angles of lap for flat belt increase, the belt tight become smaller.

Every types of belt have a different driving force. The flat belt needs the high driving force.
Vbelt with incorrect slot installation needs more driving force compare to the vbelt with correct
slot installation because the vbelt with correct installation will give the best grip at the slot.
When running the experiment, we can recognize that to many error when using the pulley and
belt especially when using the v-belt. The v-belt not correctly installed in slot while we doing the
experiment because of the shape and flexibility of the belt. I recommend to change the new belt
with the higher spec to student get the more accuracy.

10. REFERENCES

1. Lab sheet Engineering Laboratory IV (BDA 2721) – BELT FRICTION, FKMP UTHM
2. http://www.eod.gvsu.edu/eod/mechanic/mechanic-64.html
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belt_(mechanical)