Sunteți pe pagina 1din 10

Instruction

TEACHING Exceptional Children, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 233­–242. Copyright 2015 The Author(s). DOI: 10.1177/0040059918757944

FIX
A Strategic Approach to Writing
and Revision for Students With
Learning Disabilities
Cindy K. Sherman and Susan De La Paz

This article is a reprint. A full reference to the original work is as follows: Sherman, C. K., & De La Paz, S. (2015). A strategic
approach to writing and revision for students with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48, 93-101. doi:
10.1177/0040059915605823
Teaching students in upper elementary  I think my neighborhood is more on generating relevant content, it
school to revise their papers effectively great, it also help the ecnomy, is difficult for them to monitor their
requires a three-pronged approach. because my neighborhood has revising (Midgette, Haria, & MacArthur,
First, teachers provide instruction on a many small buinessies around it. 2008). In short, novice and struggling
relevant genre or writing form (using In January, everyone on the writers do not know enough about the
the Common Core State Standards for block wacths the super bowl. revising process to make “big-picture”
English language arts or other relevant
standards as a guide). Second, teachers
help students to use four basic Novice and struggling writers do not know enough
revising tactics (add, move, delete,
and rewrite) in order to make changes
about the revising process to make “big-picture”
to words, phrases and sentences, and changes.
longer portions of text. Third, using the
FIX strategy, a metacognitive routine,
helps students to manage the revising One day later, Isaiah used a red pen changes. Therefore, we developed a
process. FIX uses the self-regulated to revise his paper. His revisions metacognitive strategy to teach students
strategy development (SRSD; Harris, included three capitalizations: like Isaiah a more effective approach to
Graham, Mason, & Friedlander, 2008) Halloween rather than holloween; revising that emphasizes both reflection
model of instruction. FIX works by When to start the second sentence, and and problem solving.
teaching students to identify and Super. He then inserted in the winter
solve “big-picture” problems in their after storm to explain when people
writing rather than focusing on minor shoveled, added s to help, and finally, FIX: A Metacognitive Strategy for
issues. In prior research, we found that after two attempts, correctly spelled Revising
students with and without learning economy. Our writing strategy is called FIX (De
disabilities who learned FIX made La Paz & Sherman, 2013). It is based
meaningful changes that improved Isaiah’s changes are typical of on prior work on effective approaches
their papers (De La Paz & Sherman, novice writers in many ways. First, his to revising (e.g., Graham, 1997) and
2013). With this strategy, students can changes improve the quality of his has three steps (see Figure 1) intended
learn to effectively revise their essays essay but only slightly. Second, his to guide students through the revising
and stories. changes are the kind most teachers process: (1) Focus on essay elements,
report seeing: all but one of Isaiah’s (2) Identify problems, and (3) eXecute
Isaiah, an African American sixth changes focus on surface features (e.g., changes. Each step in the process is
grader who attends a public charter spelling, punctuation, word choice) indicated using different color cards
school in the Mid-Atlantic, has a instead of the overall meaning of his and coding: Red indicates that students
learning disability. His reading is text (Rijlaarsdam, Couzijn, & van den should “stop” and focus on essay
judged as proficient according to an Bergh, 2004). Although there may be elements, yellow cautions students to
annual high-stakes test; however, he many reasons for this, students often consider and identify problems by
struggles when it comes to writing. His lack adequate genre knowledge to searching for differences between what
performance on the Test of Written make effective global revisions (De La they intended to write versus what was
Language (Hammill & Larsen, 1996) Paz, Swanson, & Graham, 1998). In actually written, and green prompts
indicates problems with conventions, addition, students may have difficulty students to execute changes in
language, spelling, and impoverished recognizing inferred versus explicit response to specific problems.
ideas. Isaiah’s teacher observes that he information (De La Paz & McCutchen,
enjoys talking about ideas but struggles 2011), being able to identify problems
to organize elements in his writing. When that actually exist (MacArthur, 2007),
Prerequisite Skills
asked to write an essay about “highlights or realizing what has actually been
that he would explain to someone who written (i.e., the existing text) versus Before learning how to revise using the
was new to his town,” he writes what was intended (Graham, 1997). FIX strategy, students need information
Research has shown that novice on important elements of the target
writers make more changes rather than genre in order to understand what it
If someone was new to my
neighborhood, I would tell them making better changes, and many means to write a specific type of essay
about a park a block away, I students’ underlying difficulties in (e.g., expository). To do this, teachers
would also talk about holloween, executing basic revising tactics (i.e., add, can locate exemplars of the genre for
many kids come to the house’s on move, delete, rewrite) interfere with students to read from grade-appropriate
our block around hollween time. their ability to manage the overall textbooks. Student work samples from
when we got hit with a snow storm revising process (De La Paz et al., 1998). prior classes or web sites, such as
everyone help clear the streets. Further, because young writers focus http://www.thewritesource.com, are

234  Council for Exceptional Children


Figure 1.  The FIX Strategy for Revising

Strategy steps Explanation


Focus on essay elements Read your paper. Use the red cards to make important essay parts better.
Identify problems Read your paper again. Follow directions on the yellow cards.
Execute changes Make changes (see green cards) AND check that your essay makes sense.

Step 1: Focus on Essay Elements (copy on red paper)

Does my claim (or statement of belief) answer the prompt?


Do I have enough reasons?
Did I elaborate (explain, use examples, or describe experiences)?
Does my conclusion sum up my ideas?

Step 2: Identify Problems (copy on yellow paper, and use with highlighters)

Does the premise get the reader’s attention?


Does this sound right or does it make sense?
Does this sentence really support my idea? Am I getting away from my main point?
Will people understand what I mean? Does my reader need more information?
Is this a complete idea? Do I need to elaborate more?
Am I repeating myself?
The problem is _____________________________________________

Step 3: Execute Changes (copy on green paper)

Add
Move
Delete
Rewrite

also helpful resources. For example, the Isaiah and his fellow students began models for teaching writing in that
Common Core State Standards for writing expository essays the year before students learn specific steps to
English Language Arts (National learning FIX; however, when given a accomplish writing tasks as teachers
Governors Association Center for Best prompt, most students wrote a single scaffold students’ learning. However,
Practices & Council of Chief State paragraph that was no more than four with SRSD, teachers focus more on
School Officers, 2010) suggest that to five sentences in length. Isaiah wrote helping students self-regulate their use
expository essays include a claim, two paragraphs, each containing only of the writing strategy. Self-regulated
reasons, and a conclusion. two sentences. After reviewing students’ procedures include goal setting, self-
After learning about the elements of preassessment prompts, Isaiah’s teacher instruction, and self-monitoring. There
the target genre, students can introduced FIX as a powerful way to are six instructional stages in the SRSD
incorporate their knowledge of revise expository essays. instructional framework (Harris et al.
important elements when applying FIX 2008), and teachers can reorder,
to make decisions about what is combine, modify, or reteach them as
SRSD
working and what needs to be changed needed. The six stages of instruction as
in their papers. Finally, prior to Students should learn about revising as they relate to FIX are as follows:
teaching FIX, teachers should ask part of an overall writing program—
students to write and revise an essay as one that provides students with •• Stage 1: Discuss it. Teachers
a preassessment. This assessment can extended time to write for authentic provide an overview of FIX, explain
serve as a baseline as well as highlight purposes. When teaching Isaiah and what it means to make meaningful
specific areas that need to be targeted his peers FIX, we used SRSD (Harris changes, and give a rationale for
during instruction. et al., 2008). SRSD is similar to other each step of the strategy.

TEACHING Exceptional Children  |  March/April 2018  235


•• Stage 2: Develop background decide that the following example is not a how to identify and delete material that
knowledge.  Teach students four basic meaningful change because revising “It does not belong or is redundant. As
tactics (add, move, delete, and would solve some problems like boys before, after sharing how to delete ideas
rewrite) to revise parts of their essays. showing off for girls or vice versa” to on a sample essay, students work as a
•• Stage 3: Model it. Teachers “Like it would solve the problem of girls class to delete irrelevant material and
demonstrate how to manage the showing off for boys” does not change then work independently practicing the
revising process by thinking aloud and the intent of the original sentence. They skill of deleting material. Finally, the
using self-regulatory statements while then decide that adding the phrase of teacher demonstrates how to rewrite a
using FIX. “what makes a good friend” to the few phrases and sentences in a new
•• Stage 4: Memorize it. Students phrase “these are my opinions” is a paper. He ends this part of instruction
learn the meaning of the mnemonic meaningful change because it clarifies the by asking students to rewrite a final
and its parts. underlying message. paper in small groups before they were
•• Stage 5: Support it.  Teachers help asked to practice rewriting
the class and then small groups Stage 2: Develop background independently.
collaboratively revise several essays. knowledge.  When teaching FIX, it is
•• Stage 6: Independent important to develop students’ Stage 3: Model how to use the
performance.  Teachers knowledge and skills related to the revising strategy.  During Stage 3,
systematically fade instructional four basic tactics for revision (add, teachers model the FIX strategy. To
supports—as students work to move, delete, rewrite). Fitzgerald and model the strategy, teachers begin by
criterion—and teach for Markham (1987) developed an “I do, sharing or displaying a sample essay,
generalization. we do, you do” teaching sequence for reading it aloud, and following self-
teaching basic revision: (a) Teachers statements on each set of colored cards
Teaching FIX Using SRSD model a single revising tactic (e.g., (see Figure 1). For example, “ask yourself
add) in a sample essay, (b) teachers big-idea questions from the red cards and
Stage 1: Discuss the revising and students collaboratively revise a make changes” (e.g., add reasons if there
strategy.  During this stage, provide a new essay using the same tactic, and are not enough reasons to support the
general overview of the steps in FIX and (c) students then apply what they point). Then, “ask yourself questions
introduce the concept of making learned to revising their own essay from the yellow cards,” highlighting
meaningful changes. Although this with assistance. We suggest that where specific sentences are not clear,
concept is developed throughout teachers introduce each revising and delete or rewrite specific text to
instruction, it is during this stage that tactic before modeling the steps in FIX make meaningful changes. Finally,
teachers explain that meaningful changes and monitor how students use each “move on to the green card” and remind
improve text, whereas making edits only during collaborative and independent students of the four tactics for revision.
corrects for spelling, punctuation, and practice (see Figure 2 for a sample Teachers can demonstrate the recursive
other surface elements. To illustrate, a calendar). nature of revising more generally by
meaningful change for because they deciding to rewrite a claim that no longer
didn’t take it the right way and won’t be During Stage 2, Isaiah’s teacher encompasses parts that have been added
your friend anymore could come from demonstrates how to add information during earlier revisions. New problems
deleting won’t be your friend anymore. to a sample essay and then asks may arise after modeling how to execute
Teachers explain that students will use students to brainstorm ideas that could changes. For example, after deleting an
self-statements to manage the revising be added to a new essay in a mini- irrelevant idea, the teacher may realize
process. Self-statements focus on the big lesson. The students then have the and tell students that new reasons are
picture, such as “What do I do first?” opportunity to apply the skill of adding needed to have a well-developed essay.
and “I need to make five meaningful information independently to their own When modeling making revisions,
changes and make sure my essay writing. Two days later, their teacher teachers should use self-statements, such
includes all of the elements.” Setting shares a different essay on a new topic. as “This paragraph introduces my first
content and audience awareness goals The class recognizes that its ideas are reason and supports my main idea, but I
such as these have been shown to not well organized, so the teacher am going to rewrite it to make it more
improve students’ revising (Midgette revises the essay by demonstrating how interesting to my reader.”
et al., 2008). to move two parts. Then, the class
collaboratively decides on phrases and When modeling the strategy, Isaiah’s
For Stage 1, Isaiah and his classmates sentences that should be moved in a teacher begins by stating, “The first step
examine pairs of sample phrases and fourth essay. Again, the students in FIX is to focus on essay elements,”
sentences from their teacher and decide independently practice moving parts then he reviews each red card in turn
whether the second sentence in each pair within their essays. The next week, the (see Figure 3; comments related to the
is significantly different in meaning from teacher shares a paper that contains red card are written in red on the essay).
the first sentence. For example, they extraneous ideas. The teacher models The teachers asks and answers the first

236  Council for Exceptional Children


Figure 2.  Sample Calendar for Planning Instruction

Week Lesson Activity


Week 1 Assessment and pre-instruction M: Students write an essay
W: Students revise their essay
F: Read exemplars; introduce essay elements
Weeks 2–4 Discuss the strategy and M: Describe FIX, “meaningful changes” and self-statements
develop background knowledge W: Model how to add, then students do this as a class
F: Students try to “add” with own essay
M: Model how to delete, then students do this as a class
W: Students try to “delete” with own essaya
F: Model how to move, then students do this as a class
M: Students try to “move” with own essay
W: Model how to rewrite, then students do this as a class
F: Students try to “rewrite” with own essay

Weeks 5–6 Model the strategy M: Model how to use FIX, make meaningful changes, use
Support and practice the strategy self-statements
W: Students use FIX as a class with teacher guidance
F: S
 tudents use FIX in small groups of 2–3 with teacher
guidance
M: Students use FIX in small groups with teacher guidance
W: Students use FIX in small groups with teacher feedback
F: Students use FIX in small groups with teacher feedback
Weeks 7–8 Independent practice Students use FIX, make self-statements, and chart
meaningful changes until they reach criterion (e.g., across
five sessions)
Discuss how to use FIX to revise stories and other genres

aStudents should integrate revising skills (e.g., adding and deleting text) as they learn new tactics.

two questions on the red card: “Does my and highlighting problematic across phrases and sentences that
statement [claim] answer the prompt? sentences. He reminds students that need to be changed.” During this step,
Yes! Do I have enough support? Yes! I there are four ways to make changes, he looks at each question from the
have three [supporting ideas]!” He then
asks, “Do I have enough examples? I
need more details!” then adds, “I can When teaching FIX, it is important to develop
read without listening to my sister and students’ knowledge and skills related to the four
her friends run around making noise.”
basic tactics for revision (add, move, delete,
He ends Stage 1 with a reflection about
his conclusion: “Does my conclusion rewrite).
sum up my ideas? My conclusion does
not sum up my ideas—it seems like I
repeated my statements, [so I will rewrite referring to the green cards for yellow card (see Figure 3) and begins
and] write more! Then he adds several guidance. He begins by saying, “Now I Stage 3 of FIX by executing changes
ideas to “the library is great . . . .” need to identify less obvious (add, move, delete, rewrite) in
When beginning Stage 2 of FIX, he problems—I am going to go through response to each problem. He uses
models how to identify problems, each statement on my yellow cards “+” to indicate where he plans to add
using the questions on the yellow card and use my highlighter when I come text and writes “Out of all my favorite

TEACHING Exceptional Children  |  March/April 2018  237


Figure 3.  Sample Self-Statements for Teachers to Use When Modeling How to FIX Their Writing

places” to show the actual text that is Although other changes could have been using short, rapid-fire drills in game-
going to be added. made to make the essay even stronger, like exercises. Allow students to
Throughout Stages 2 and 3, he asks, he ended the lesson at this point paraphrase strategy steps as long as the
“Did I execute changes to make my believing that further changes would meaning of the red, yellow, and green
paper better?” and models coping and have been hard for students to follow cards remains intact. Asking students
self-reinforcement by saying, “This isn’t and above their skill level. It is important to memorize at least one self-
hard, I can do this” and “I like this for teachers to know that before instruction (choosing goal setting,
change; my essay is better than before.” modeling, they should plan what to say self-monitoring, or managing the
He then rereads his essay, modeling how and do so that they can comfortably strategy) when using the strategy helps
to check that changes to his essay made demonstrate the steps and self-regulation students adapt self-statements to meet
sense. Last, Isaiah’s teacher corrects a procedures in FIX in front of students. their individual needs.
spelling and a punctuation error before
finishing for the day, explaining that During Stage 4, Isaiah’s teacher
editing was done after revising. Stage 4: Memorize it.  In this stage, quizzes students about the strategy steps
teachers ask students to commit to and self-regulatory statements for 5 to 10
Revising is a highly individualized learning the meaning of FIX, its steps, minutes once or twice a week until most
process (no two revisions look the same) and the metacognitive statements that students can remember the mnemonic.
and is messy to describe. Figure 4 shows are most helpful for each individual. He reviews each of the strategy steps on
the essay Isaiah’s teacher revised. Memorization can be encouraged by flash cards a few times during

238  Council for Exceptional Children


Figure 4.  Sample Essay After Revising With FIX

Out of all my favorite places, I choose to go to the library. I can sit in the library and read books in peace and quiet.
There are also book fairs where I can win prizes and have a good excuse to spend my time reading. A day at the library is
one of the most exciting and relaxing ways to spend an afternoon.
First, the library is packed with an endless amount of great books. Fantasies and science fiction can be found on one
shelf. You can also find books on tape, CDs, and documentaries throughout the library. I enjoy reading books about dino-
saurs, devils, and mythical characters, which are all easy to find in the library.
Another reason I like going to the library is that it’s quiet and when I read I’m not interrupted. I can read without listen-
ing to my sister and her friends run around making noise. I also can’t be asked to do chores around the house.
Last of all, there are book fairs at the library that are a lot of fun. I can win prizes for answering questions correctly.
There are also treasure hunts where kids win prizes for finding information from certain books. When I need a break from
the fun and games, I find a cozy place to sit and read.
The library is great. It is the most productive way to spend an afternoon. It has more books and information than you
can imagine. It provides the peace and quiet that everyone needs from time to time. Most importantly, it creates an atmo-
sphere where learning is fun. No wonder this is the place I always want to be.

the quality of their revisions. Students students express an interest in


instructional breaks, such as when
often need help identifying problems independently revising their essays.
students are lining up to leave the
classroom. He also awards students and executing changes that improve
stickers on the classroom chart when they the overall quality of their text. Further, During this stage of instruction, Isaiah
identify the difference between students may need help learning which works with a friend to revise one of his
meaningful and nonmeaningful changes self-question is relevant for a given essays, and then a week later they both
in sentences or for memorizing questions problematic sentence (e.g., “Am I help revise a friend’s paper. To help them
on the yellow cards. Finally, he asks some getting away from the main point?”) or learn to identify sentence-level errors,
students to write down personal self- deciding which editing task on the their teacher asks all students to read
statements on the top of their papers green card should be used. their papers carefully and to visualize
when revising and gives others a list of Finally, during Stage 5, as students information to decide whether
self-statements to choose from when using are developing skill in implementing FIX, information in their papers matched
the strategy during independent practice.

Stage 5: Support it.  During this


stage, students work as a class and then It is important for teachers to know that before
in small groups, receiving assistance modeling, they should plan what to say and do so
from the teacher in making decisions on
how to apply the revising strategy.
that they can comfortably demonstrate the steps
Teachers may ask students to use FIX, and self-regulation procedures in FIX in front of
self-statements, and self-regulation students.
processes to revise pretest essays so that
they can focus on revising rather than
the entire writing process. requiring students to set a goal to make a what had been intended. Their teacher
Although one goal of this stage is to reasonable number of meaningful reinforces basic understanding of essay
allow students more responsibility in changes (e.g., five) when revising helps elements during warm-ups by asking
using FIX, it is important to realize that ensure students’ active engagement early them to look at sample essays and decide
when beginning this stage, there are on. Self-regulation procedures, such as whether elements are missing or need
several key times to interact with goal setting and self-monitoring, should improvement. On other days, he shares
students. For example, before students be adapted to meet the needs of sentence pairs on the overhead and asks
revise a paper together, teachers should individual students. For example, a students to pair-share and decide whether
encourage them to choose appropriate student who consistently writes run-on the first and second sentence mean the
self-statements to regulate strategy use sentences might set a goal to listen to the same thing or if one sentence in the pair
and the writing task. Second, it is pauses in voice when rereading aloud. differs in meaning from the other.
helpful to circulate among students’ Other students might chart the number
desks as they work in order to give of meaningful changes in their essays. Stage 6: Independent
advice and feedback to students about We suggest teachers end this stage when performance.  The goal for this stage is

TEACHING Exceptional Children  |  March/April 2018  239


Figure 5.  Isaiah’s Posttest

for students to revise their work work, we established the following During Stage 6, Isaiah puts his colored
independently. Ask students to use the criterion for ending independent cards face down under his essay as he
strategy and self-regulation procedures practice: Students needed to (a) recall revises his essay. His teacher has
on their own, but allow them to ask the strategy; (b) use the strategy twice suggested that each child write down and
questions (and monitor their progress) without relying on red, yellow, or green cross out the letters F, I, and X while
as they work. After students make cards; (c) generate essays that included working through each step of the strategy.
meaningful changes independently, they all the elements of an expository essay; That way, he can monitor their progress
may be encouraged to use the strategy and (d) make at least five meaningful without asking them to stop working.
without using the colored cards. In our changes. Later, after students finish revising, they

240  Council for Exceptional Children


exchange essays with a partner and chart disabilities and were also English Graham, S. (1997). Executive control in
the number of meaningful changes in learners). We found that English learners the revising of students with learning
their papers. A few days later, students benefited from explicit instruction on the and writing difficulties. Journal of
are told they have three “lifelines” to use use of vocabulary, grammar, syntax, or Educational Psychology, 89, 223–234.
Graves, A., Valles, E. C., & Rueda, R.
when revising. Their teacher tallies each writing conventions in addition to using
(2000). Variation in interactive writing
time a student asks for assistance to FIX as outlined here. For example,
instruction: A study in four bilingual
encourage them to work as independently students who used the same word over special education settings. Learning
as possible, asking questions only when and over again in their writing (whether Disabilities Research & Practice, 15, 1–9.
they really need his help. due to lack of vocabulary or problems Hammill, D. D., & Larsen, S. C. (1996). Test
with word retrieval) added self-questions of written language (3rd ed.). Austin,
After instruction, Isaiah included more on their yellow cards to identify whether TX: Pro Ed.
information in his essay, rewrote one or not they were using a word repeatedly. Harris, K., Graham, S., Mason, L., &
sentence, and added meaningful text after Modifications like these were added to Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing
instruction ended (see Figure 5). He made FIX and were suggested in conjunction strategies for all students. Baltimore,
more meaningful changes and also made with instruction that helped students MD: Paul H. Brookes.
MacArthur, C. (2007). Best practices in
minor edits. These revisions revealed develop their academic vocabulary
teaching evaluation and revision. In S.
close attention to the flow of his ideas and (Graves, Valles, & Rueda, 2000).
Graham, C. A. MacArthur, & J. Fitzgerald
improved his overall writing. It is possible (Eds.), Best practices in writing instruction
that Isaiah may have run out of time in Conclusion (pp. 141–162). New York, NY: Guilford.
making meaningful changes because he Teaching students to master FIX requires Midgette, E., Haria, P., & MacArthur, C.
had only one class period to revise during a series of lessons over time with active (2008). The effects of content and audience
our research study. Therefore, although monitoring of student learning. We goals for revision on the persuasive essays
Isaiah still had room to improve his believe that successful revision requires of fifth- and eighth-grade students. Reading
writing, his revised essay demonstrated and Writing, 21, 131–151.
writers to focus on both big-picture and
an improved understanding of the revising National Governors Association Center for
surface-level problems. At the end of our
process and a better expository essay. He Best Practices & Council of Chief State
project, one teacher said, “This School Officers. (2010). Common Core
continued to independently revise his procedure made revising easier for my State Standards for English language
writing 1 month later, demonstrating that students. . . . I think they became better arts. Washington, DC: Author.
the revising lessons had a lasting impact [writers] overall because they learned a Rijlaarsdam, G., Couzijn, M., & van den
on his writing. process to check and reread their work.” Berg, H. (2004). The study of revision as
After students have learned to apply Teaching revising strategies with SRSD a writing process and as a learning-to-
FIX using one genre, other genres can be has been shown to be an effective write process: Two prospective research
introduced. For example, the next unit approach to instruction (Saddler & agendas. In L. Allal, L. Chanqouy, &
may focus on story structure elements Graham, 2005). FIX is a powerful way for P. Largy (Eds.), Revision: Cognitive and
(e.g., setting, characters, beginning and instructional processes (Vol. 13,
students to revise because it directs them
ending actions, and emotion). Encourage pp. 189–208). Boston, MA: Kluwer.
to coordinate a series of concrete actions
students to use questions such as “Have Saddler, B., & Graham, S. (2005). The effects
during revising and can be flexibly used of peer-assisted sentence combining
I developed my character over the course as part of an overall writing program. instruction on the writing of more and
of the story? Is my setting (place and
less skilled young writers. Journal of
time) well developed? Is my plot References Educational Psychology, 97, 43–54.
interesting? What does my main
De La Paz, S., & McCutchen, D. (2011).
character do? Does my plot include a
Learning to write. In R. E. Mayer & P. A.
logical sequence of events? Does my Cindy K. Sherman, Director, The Write Turn;
Alexander (Eds.) Handbook of research
story reveal my characters’ emotions? Is on learning and instruction (pp. 32–54). Speech-Language Pathologist, E.L. Haynes
there a climax to my story? Do leading New York, NY: Routledge. Public Charter School, Washington, D.C., and
events build tension? Does my story have De La Paz, S., & Sherman, C. (2013). Susan De La Paz, Associate Professor of
a good ending (resolution)?” Questions Revising instruction in inclusive settings: Special Education, College of Education,
can be modified in order to be grade- Effects for English learners and novice University of Maryland, College Park.
level appropriate. writers. Learning Disabilities Research &
Practice, 28, 129–141. Address correspondence concerning this
FIX and English Language De La Paz, S., Swanson, P. N., & Graham, article to Susan De La Paz, University of
Learners S. (1998). The contribution of executive Maryland, 3216 Benjamin Building, College
control to the revising by students with of Education, College Park, MD 20742
In our research study, about half of our writing and learning difficulties. Journal (e-mail: sdelapaz@umd.edu).
participants were learning English as a of Educational Psychology, 90, 448–460.
second language and half were students Fitzgerald, J., & Markham, L. R. (1987). TEACHING Exceptional Children,
with learning disabilities (some students Teaching children about revision in Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 233–242.
were identified as having learning writing. Cognition and Instruction, 4, 3–24. Copyright 2015 The Author(s).

TEACHING Exceptional Children  |  March/April 2018  241


Copyright of Teaching Exceptional Children is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its
content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the
copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email
articles for individual use.