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Dr. Achmad Arifin, S.T., M.Eng Nada Fitrieyatul Hikmah, S.T., M.T.
Dr. Achmad Arifin, S.T., M.Eng Nada Fitrieyatul Hikmah, S.T., M.T.
Dr. Achmad Arifin, S.T., M.Eng Nada Fitrieyatul Hikmah, S.T., M.T.
Dr. Achmad Arifin, S.T., M.Eng Nada Fitrieyatul Hikmah, S.T., M.T.
Dr. Achmad Arifin, S.T., M.Eng Nada Fitrieyatul Hikmah, S.T., M.T.
Dr. Achmad Arifin, S.T., M.Eng Nada Fitrieyatul Hikmah, S.T., M.T.

Dr. Achmad Arifin, S.T., M.Eng

Nada Fitrieyatul Hikmah, S.T., M.T.

Organization of Human Body  Chemical Level  Cellular Level  Tissue Level  Organ

Organization of Human Body

Chemical Level

Cellular Level

Tissue Level

Organ Level Organ System Level

Organism Level

Anatomy of a Cell
Anatomy of a Cell

Cells are very small

(0.1 mm in diameter).

Plasma membrane

separates cell contents (cytoplasm) and extracelluler fluid.

All cells contain carrier proteins called ion pumps

Sodium (Na + ),

potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ )

across plasma

membrane.

Plasma Membrane

Diffusion across Plasma Membranes: Sodium-Potassium Exchange

Pump

Mechanism Na-K Exchange Pump
Mechanism Na-K Exchange Pump

Na + ion concentration in extracellaluler fluid >>

cytoplasm. K => the

opposite

The rate of transport depends on the [Na + ] in cytoplasm when higher, the pump more active.

After homeostatis :

 when higher, the pump more active. After homeostatis : Leak channel => Na ions diffuse

Leak channel => Na ions

diffuse into the cell, K

ions diffuse out.

Na ions diffuse into the cell, K ions diffuse out. Involved carrier protein (Na-K ATPase) Homeostatis
Na ions diffuse into the cell, K ions diffuse out. Involved carrier protein (Na-K ATPase) Homeostatis

Involved carrier protein

(Na-K ATPase)

ions diffuse out. Involved carrier protein (Na-K ATPase) Homeostatis Sodium-potasium exchange pump  3 ion sodium

Homeostatis

Sodium-potasium exchange pump  3 ion sodium ejected, 2 ion potasium reclaimed  Na-K ATPase
Sodium-potasium exchange pump  3 ion sodium ejected, 2
ion potasium reclaimed  Na-K ATPase need energy to pump
ion by splitting phosphate group of ATP  ADP

Transmembrane Potential

The concepts:

The transmembrane potential results from the unequal

distribution of ions across the plasma membrane.

1. The extracellular fluid contains concentrations of Na + and Cl - , whereas the cytosol contains high concentrations of K + and negatively charged proteins.

2. Ions cannot freely cross the lipid portions of plasma membrane Cells have selectively permeable membrane

channels.

3. At the resting potential, ions move through leak channel.

4. Membrane permeability varies by ion.

Transmembrane Potential

1.

When positive and negative charges are held apart, a

potential difference exists between them => transmembrane potential (potential difference across a

plasma membrane).

2.

Transmembrane potentials of cells are much smaller =

70 mV.

3.

Each type of cell has a characteristic resting potential

between 10 mV (0.01 V) and 100 mV (0.1 V).

Membranes of Neurons

Individual cells of the nervous system called

neurons.

Membranes of Neurons  Individual cells of the nervous system called neurons . 8
The Nernst Potential  The diffusion potential level across a membrane that exactly opposes the

The Nernst Potential

The diffusion potential level across a membrane that exactly opposes the net diffusion of a particular ion through the membrane. The greater Nernst ratio, the greater the tendency for the ion to diffuse in one direction, and therefore the greater the Nernst potential required to prevent additional net diffusion.

V

s

(

mV

)

RT

zF

[


S ]

[

S ]

ln

out

in

The Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equation When a membrane is permeable to several different ions, the diffusion potential

The Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equation

When a membrane is permeable to several different ions,

the diffusion potential that develops depends on 3 factors:

1. The polarity of the electrical charge of each ion,

2. The permeability of the membrane ( P),

3. The concentrations of respective ions inside and outside of membrane.

V

r



RT

F

P

 

i

P

K

K

e

 

P

K

K

i

e

e

i

Na

P

Cl

Cl

ln

Na

Cl

P

Na

P

Cl

Na

RESTING POTENTIAL
RESTING POTENTIAL

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Passive Forces Acting across the Plasma Membrane
Passive Forces Acting across the Plasma Membrane

Chemical Gradients: The ions movement is driven by a

concentration gradient.

Electrical Gradients: Potassium ions leave the cytoplasm more

rapidly than sodium ions enter because the plasma membrane is

much more permeable to potassium than to sodium cytosol leaving an excess of negatively charged proteins potential

difference arises. A movement of charges to eliminate potential

difference is called a current.

Electrochemical Gradient: sum of the chemical and electrical forces acting on the ion across the plasma membrane. Electrochemical gradient is a form of potential energy (stored energy).

Electrochemical Gradients for Potassium Ions

Electrochemical Gradients for Potassium Ions 14

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Electrochemical Gradients for Sodium Ions

Electrochemical Gradients for Sodium Ions 15

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Active Forces across the Membrane
Active Forces across the Membrane

The sodium-potassium exchange pump Recapture potassium ions

that leak out and eject sodium ions that leak in.

Involved carrier protein sodium-potassium ATPase.

This pump exchanges 3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potasium ions.

At the normal resting potential, this pump ejects the sodium ions as quickly as they enter the cell the exchange pump activity balances the passive forces of diffusion. And the resting potential

remains stable.

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CHANGES IN TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL ► Resting potential exists because: (1) the cytosol differs from extracellular

CHANGES IN TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL

Resting potential exists because: (1) the cytosol differs from extracellular fluid in chemical and ionic composition, (2) the plasma membrane is selectively permeable. Transmembrane potential is dynamic: rising or falling:

temporary change in membrane permeability. The

changes result in opening or closing membrane channels.

MEMBRANE CHANNELS
MEMBRANE CHANNELS

Passive channel/leak channel always open.

Sodium & potassium leak are important in establishing resting potential (chemical gradient, concentration & electrical

gradient, permeability).

Active channels/gated channel.

Open/close in response to specific stimuli. States: (1) close but can be opened, (2) open (activated), (3) close and incapable of

opening (inactivated).

Gated Channels Classification

1.

Chemically gated channels: open/close when channels

bind specific chemicals. Ex: the receptors bind acetylcholine (Ach) at neuromuscular junction.

2.

Volted gated channels: open/close in response to

changes in the transmembrane potential. A membrane

capable of generating and conducting an action

potential => excitable membrane.

3.

Mechanically gated channels: open/close in response to physical distortion of the membrane surface. Physical

distortion: touch, pressure, vibration.

GATED CHANNEL 21
GATED CHANNEL 21
GATED CHANNEL 21
GATED CHANNEL 21
GATED CHANNEL 21

GATED

CHANNEL

GRADED POTENTIAL (Local Potential) (changes in the transmembrane potential That cannot spread far from the
GRADED POTENTIAL (Local Potential)
GRADED POTENTIAL
(Local Potential)

(changes in the transmembrane potential That cannot spread far from the site of

simulation).

1. Sodium ions enter the cell,

attracted to the negative charges

along the inner surfaces of the membrane => Resting potential to more positive potential is

called depolarization.

2. As plasma membrane depolarize, sodium ions are released from outer => move toward the open channels => replacing ions that

have already entered the cell

this movement of positive charges parallel to the inner and outer surface, called local current

Depolarization, Repolarization Hyperpolarization

When a chemical stimulus is removed & normal membrane permeability is restored=> transmembrane potential returns to

resting level => repolarization (involves combination of ion

movement and the activities of ion pumps).

When gated potassium channel opens => the rate of potassium

outflow increases => inside cell becomes more negative =>

produces hyperpolarization.

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the rate of potassium outflow increases => inside cell becomes more negative => produces hyperpolarization .

Action Potential

Transmembrane potential at which an action potential begins is called the threshold. Threshold for axon is between -60 mV and -55 mV. Initial depolarization : Upper than threshold => action potential, lower threshold => graded depolarization. In action potential, depolarization results from the influx of Na + , repolarization involves the loss of K + .

Generation of Action Potentials (1) At the normal resting potential, the activation gates of voltaged-gated
Generation of Action Potentials (1) At the normal resting potential, the activation gates of voltaged-gated

Generation of Action Potentials (1)

At the normal resting potential, the activation gates of voltaged-gated sodium are closed.

Generation of Action Potentials (2)

Generation of Action Potentials (2)
The Refractory Period ► The membrane does not respond normally to additional depolarizing stimuli from

The Refractory Period

The membrane does not respond normally to additional

depolarizing stimuli from the time an action potential

begins until the normal resting potential has stabilized Refractory period.

The absolute refractory period the first part of the

refractory period (0.4 1.0 ms). The smaller axon diameter, the longer of duration.

Relative refractory period begins when sodium channel

regain normal resting condition, and continues until the transmembrane potential stabilizes at resting levels.

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Propagation of Action Potential  Action potentials may travel along an axon by continuous propagation
Propagation of Action Potential  Action potentials may travel along an axon by continuous propagation
Propagation of Action Potential  Action potentials may travel along an axon by continuous propagation
Propagation of Action Potential  Action potentials may travel along an axon by continuous propagation

Propagation of Action Potential

Action potentials may travel along an axon by continuous propagation (unmyelinated axons) or saltatory

propagation (myelinated axons).

Continuous Propagation
Continuous Propagation
Continuous Propagation
Continuous Propagation

Saltatory Propagation (1)

Saltatory Propagation (1)
Saltatory Propagation (2)
Saltatory Propagation (2)
Saltatory Propagation (2)
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