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# MECHANICAL ENGINEEING DEPARTMENT

## TUTORIAL-1: Calculation of Stress and Strain

1 A tube has an outer diameter of 60mm and wall thickness of 3.0 mm. It is subjected to a bending moment of
1.8 kN·m and a torque of 2.5 kN·m. Determine the maximum normal stress and the maximum shear stress.
2 A pipe with closed ends has an outer diameter of 80mm and wall thickness of 2.0 mm. It is subjected to an
internal pressure of 10MPa and a bending moment of 2.0 kN·m. Determine the maximum normal stress and
the maximum shear stress. Neglect the localized effects of the end closure.
3 A steel flat of thickness 10 mm tapers uniformly from 60 mm at one end to 40 mm at other end in a length of
600 mm. If the bar is subjected to a load of 80 kN, find its extension. Take E = 2 × 105 MPa. What is the
percentage error if average area is used for calculating extension?
4 The bar shown in Fig. is tested in universal testing machine. It is observed that at a load of 40 kN the total
extension of the bar is 0.280 mm. Determine the Young’s modulus of the material.

5 A bar of 25 mm diameter is tested in tension. It is observed that when a load of 60 kN is applied, the extension
measured over a gauge length of 200 mm is 0.12 mm and contraction in diameter is 0.0045 mm. Find Poisson’s
ratio and elastic constants E, G, K.
6 A compound bar consists of a circular rod of steel of 25 mm diameter rigidly fixed into a copper tube of internal
diameter 25 mm and external diameter 40. If the compound bar is subjected to a load of 120 kN, find the stresses
developed in the two materials. Take Es = 2 ×105 N/mm2 and Ec = 1.2 × 105 N/mm2.
7 An element of material is subjected to the following state of stress: σx = −40, σy = 100, σz = 30, τxy = −50,
τyz = 12, and τzx = 0MPa. Determine the following:
(a) Principal normal stresses and principal shear stresses.
(b) Maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress.
(c) Direction cosines for each principal normal stress axis.
8 Determine the octahedral normal and shear stresses for the state of stress: σx = 345MPa,
σy = 138MPa, σz = −69MPa and τxy = 69MPa
9 A strain guage rosette of the type shown in Fig. is employed to measure strains on the free surface of an
aluminum alloy part, with the result being εx = 1900 × 10−6, εy = 1250 × 10−6, and ε45 = 2375 × 10−6.
Determine the principal normal strains and the principal shear strains. Assume that no yielding has occurred.

10 Find the extension of the bar shown in Fig. 8.52 under an axial load of 25 kN.
TUTORIAL-2: Estimation of stresses and strain based on failure theories
11 A structure is composed of circular members of diameter d. At a certain position along one member the loading is
found to consist of a shear force of 10kN together with an axial tensile load of 20kN. If the elastic limit in tension of
the material of the members is 270MPa and there is to be a factor of safety of 4, estimate the magnitude of d
required according to the maximum principal stress theory, maximum shear stress theory and the maximum shear
strain energy theory. (Poisson’s ratio =0.283).
12 A thin cylinder pressure vessel with closed ends is required to withstand an internal pressure of 4MPa. The inside
diameter of the vessel is to be 500mm and a factor of safety of 4 is required. A sample of the proposed material
tested in simple tension gave a yield stress of 360MPa. Find the thickness of the vessel assuming elastic failure to be
the maximum shear stress and the maximum shear strain energy.
13 Determine the diameter of a cold-rolled steel shaft, 0.6 m long, used to transmit 50 hp at 600 rpm. The shaft is simply
supported at its ends in bearings. The shaft experiences bending owing to its own weight also. Use a factor of safety
2. The tensile yield limit is 280 x 103 kPa and the shear yield limit is 140x103 kPa Use the maximum shear stress
theory.
14 In an engineering component made of ductile cast iron A 536 (65-45-12) material, the most severely stressed point is
subjected to the following state of stress: σx = −50, σy = 120, σz = 40, τxy = −60, τyz = 14, and τzx = 0MPa.
Determine the safety factor against yielding by (a) the maximum shear stress criterion, and (b) the octahedral shear
stress criterion.
15 A steel shaft of 10 cm diameter is shrunk inside a bronze cylinder of 25 cm outer diameter. The shrink allowance is 1
part per 1000 (i.e. 0.005 cm difference between the radii). Find the circumferential stresses in the bronze cylinder at
the inside and outer radii and the stress in the shaft.
Es = 210 x 106 kpa, Ebr = 107 x x 106 kpa, v = 0.3 for both metals.
16 A steel disk of 50 cm outside diameter and 10 cm inside diameter is shrunk on a steel shaft so that the pressure
between the shaft and disk at standstill is 364 3562 kPa. Take r = 0.0081/g kgm/cm3.
(a) Assuming that the shaft does not change its dimensions because of its own centrifugal force, find the speed at
which the disk is just free on the shaft.
(b) Solve the problem without making assumption (a).
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18 A steel tube has a mean diameter of 100mm and a thickness of 3mm. Calculate the torque that can be transmitted by
the tube with a factor of safety of 2.25 if the Tresca and Von Mises failure criteria are used. The elastic limit in
tension for steel is 225MPa.
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## TUTORIAL-3: Estimation of Stress Intensity factor and Fracture Toughness

21 A sheet of glass measuring 2 m by 200 mm by 2 mm contains a central slit parallel to the 200 mm side. The sheet is
restrained at one end and loaded in tension with a mass of 500 kg. What is the maximum allowable length of slit
before fracture occurs? Assume the following material property values: E = 60 GPa, surface energy is 0.5 J/m2,
Poisson’s ratio = 0.25 and the fracture stress of sound glass is 170 MPa.
22 If the fracture stress of a large sheet of maraging steel, which contains a central crack of length 40 mm, is 480 MPa,
calculate the fracture stress of a similar sheet containing a crack of length 100 mm.
23 A Class 20 grey cast iron has an average graphite flake size about nine times as long as Class 60 type. The fracture
strength of the latter is about 140 MPa. Using arguments that follow the Griffith analysis, what would you predict to
be the fracture strength of the Class 20 iron?
24 A cylindrical pressure vessel, with a diameter of 6.1 m and a wall thickness of 25.4 mm, underwent catastrophic
fracture when the internal pressure reached 17.5 MPa. The steel of the pressure vessel had E = 210 GPa, a yield
strength of 2450 MPa a value of GC = 131 kJ/m2.
a) Show that failure would not have been expected if the von Mises yield criterion had served for design purposes:
b) Based on Griffith's analysis determine the size of crack that might have caused this failure, stating assumptions
25 A thin plate of steel contains a central through-thickness flaw of length 16 mm, which is subjected to a stress of 350
MPa applied perpendicularly to the flaw plane. The 0.2% flow stress of the material is 1400 MPa. Calculate the plastic
zone size and the effective stress intensity level at the crack tip, making reasonable assumptions about the state of
stress.
26 A long rectangular plate has a width of 100 mm, thickness of 5 mm and an axial load of 50 kN. If the plate is made of
aluminum 2014-T651, ( K MPa m ) what is the critical crack length for failure (N = 1)?
27 A steel ship deck is 30 mm thick, 12 m wide and 20 m long and has a fracture toughness of KC = 28.3 MPa.m1/2. If a
65 mm long central transverse crack is discovered, calculate the nominal tensile stress that will cause catastrophic
failure. Compare the stress found to the yield strength of Sy = 240 MPa.
28 Load on a 30 mm thick plate with an edge crack of 50 mm length was increased very slowly and the displacement of
the load point was monitored. It was observed that at the load of 2100 N and displacement u = 4.1 mm, the crack
started growing. The rate of crack growth was much faster than the rate of load increase and therefore the crack
essentially was grown at the load of 2100 N. Through a rapid camera recording it was found that the crack grows up to
65 mm length with rapid increase in displacement to u = 7.5 mm. Determine the critical energy release rate
29 Some aircraft component is fabricated from an aluminum alloy that has a plane strain fracture toughness of 35 MPa m
(31.9 ksi in.). It has been determined that fracture results at a stress of 250 MPa (36,250 psi) when the maximum (or
critical) internal crack length is 2.0 mm (0.08 in.). For this same component and alloy, will fracture occur at a stress
level of 325 MPa (47,125 psi) when the maximum internal crack length is 1.0 mm (0.04 in.)? Whyor why not?
 30 A sheet of glass measuring 2 m by 200 mm by 2 mm contains a central slit parallel to the 200 mm side. The sheet is
restrained at one end and loaded in tension with a mass of 500 kg. What is the maximum allowable length of slit before
fracture occurs? Assume the following material property values: E = 60 GPa, surface energy ~ 0.5 J/m2, Poisson's ratio
= 0.25 and the fracture stress of sound glass = 170 MPa.
TUTORIAL-4: Case studies on complex loading, strain life approach and cumulative fatigue damage.
31 A bar of a circular cross-section is subjected to alternating tensile forces varying from a minimum of 200kN to a
maximum of 500kN. It is to be manufactured of a material with an ultimate tensile strength of 900MPa and an
endurance limit of 700MPa. Determine the diameter of bar using safety factors of 3.5 related to ultimate tensile
strength and 4 related to endurance limit and a stress concentration factor of 1.65 for fatigue load. Use Goodman
straight line as basis for design.
32 A 1015 hot-rolled steel bar has been machined to a diameter of 1 in. It is to be placed in reversed axial loading for 70
000 cycles to failure in an operating environment of 550°F. Using ASTM minimum properties, and a reliability of 99
percent, estimate the endurance limit and fatigue strength at 70 000 cycles.
33 A transmission shaft carries a pulley midway between the two bearings. The bending moment at the pulley varies from
200 Nm to 600 Nm, as the torsional moment in the shaft varies from 70 Nm to 200 Nm. The frequencies of variation
of bending moment and torsional moment are equal to the shaft speed. The shaft is made of steel having UTS 540 MPa
and yield stress of 400 MPa. The corrected endurance limit of the shaft is 200 MPa. Determine the diameter of the
shaft using a factor of safety of 2.
34 A double-edge-cracked plate made of RQC-100 steel has dimensions, as defined in double edge crack geometry, of b =
100 and t = 8 mm. The two edge cracks have equal lengths of a = 1.0 mm, and the member is subjected to cyclic
loading between Pmin = −150 and Pmax = 600 kN. Estimate the number of cycles necessary to grow the cracks to failure.
35 A flat leaf spring has fluctuating stress of σmax = 360 MPa and σmin = 160 MPa applied for 8 x104 cycles. If the load
changes to σmax = 320 MPa and σmin = −200 MPa, how many cycles should the spring survive? The material is AISI
1020 CD and has a fully corrected endurance strength of Se = 175 MPa. Assume that f = 0.9.
(a) Use Miner’s method. (b) Use Manson’s method.
36 A spherical pressure vessel, with a 500 mm inner diameter, is welded from steel plates. The welded joints are
sufficiently strong and do not weaken the vessel. The plates are made from cold drawn steel 20C8 (Sut = 440 N/mm2
and Syt = 242N/mm2). The vessel is subjected to internal pressure, which varies from zero to 6 N/mm2. The expected
reliability is 50% and the factor of safety is 3.5. The size factor is 0.85. The vessel is expected to withstand infinite
number of stress cycles. Calculate the thickness of the plates.
37 The work cycle of a mechanical component subjected to complete ly reversed bending stresses consists of the
following three elements:
(i) ± 350 N/mm2 for 85% of time (ii) ± 400 N/mm2 for 12% of time (iii) ± 500 N/mm2 for 3% of time
The material for the component is 50C4 (Sut = 660 N/mm2) and the corrected endurance limit of the component is 280
N/mm2. Determine the life of the component.
38 A machine part will be cycled at ±350 MPa for 5 x103 cycles. Then the loading will be changed to ±260 MPa for 5
x104 cycles. Finally, the load will be changed to ±225 MPa. How many cycles of operation can be expected at this
stress level? For the part, Sut = 530 MPa, f = 0.9, and has a fully corrected endurance strength of Se = 210 MPa.
(a) Use Miner’s method. (b) Use Manson’s method.
39 A hot rolled steel shaft is subjected to a torsional load that varies from 330 Nm clockwise to 110 Nm counterclockwise
as an applied bending moment at a critical section varies from 440 Nm to -220 Nm. The shaft is of uniform cross-
section and no keyway present at the critical section. Determine the required shaft diameter. The material is steel
having UTS 550 MPa. Use a factor of safety of 1.5. Take fatigue strength as half of UTS.
40 A pulley is keyed to a shaft midway between two anti-friction bearings. The bending moment at the pulley varies from
– 170 N-m to 510 N-m and the torsional moment in the shaft varies from 55 N-m to 165 N-m. The frequency of the
variation of the loads is the same as the shaft speed. The shaft is made of cold drawn steel having an ultimate strength
of 540MPa and yield strength of 400MPa. Determine the required diameter for an indefinite life. The stress
concentration factor for the keyway in bending and torsion may be taken as 1.6 and 1.3 respectively. The factor of
safety is 1.5. Take size factor= 0.85 and surface factor = 0.88.
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