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Rev. 5

-

10.2007WeselClyde

Bergemann©

CBW

Rev. 5 - 10.2007WeselClyde Bergemann© CBW Lean or Dense Phase? Selecting the most suitable pneumatic conveying
Rev. 5 - 10.2007WeselClyde Bergemann© CBW Lean or Dense Phase? Selecting the most suitable pneumatic conveying
Rev. 5 - 10.2007WeselClyde Bergemann© CBW Lean or Dense Phase? Selecting the most suitable pneumatic conveying

Lean or Dense Phase? Selecting the most suitable pneumatic conveying system for handling Fly Ash”

Pneumatic Conveying Basic Principles

Pneumatic Conveying Basic Principles Conveying System Components Material Air Feeder Air & Product Separator Air

Conveying System Components

Material

Air Feeder Air & Product Separator Air Types of Conveying System
Air
Feeder
Air & Product
Separator
Air
Types of Conveying System

Continuous

Batch

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Material

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Pneumatic Conveying Basic Principles

Pneumatic Conveying Basic Principles Positive Pressure Conveying System Product Air Blower / Compressor Feeder Air

Positive Pressure Conveying System

Product

Air Blower / Compressor Feeder Air & Product Separator Air
Air
Blower /
Compressor
Feeder
Air & Product
Separator
Air

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Product

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Pneumatic Conveying Basic Principles

Vacuum Conveying System

Product

Conveying Basic Principles Vacuum Conveying System Product Air Feeder Air & Product Separator Exhauster Air
Air Feeder Air & Product Separator Exhauster Air
Air
Feeder
Air & Product
Separator
Exhauster
Air

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Product

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Modes of Conveying

Lean Phase / Dilute Phase

Modes of Conveying Lean Phase / Dilute Phase ▪ Fully Suspended Flow ▪ Entrains the material
Modes of Conveying Lean Phase / Dilute Phase ▪ Fully Suspended Flow ▪ Entrains the material

Fully Suspended Flow

Entrains the material in a high velocity air flow

Can either be positive pressure or vacuum

Pipe diameters must be large to achieve reasonable transfer rates

Component and pipe wear is high because of the high transfer velocities

Lower capital costs

Energy consumption can be high

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Modes of Conveying

Dense Phase

Modes of Conveying Dense Phase ▪ Material is transferred through the pipe in discrete plugs with
Modes of Conveying Dense Phase ▪ Material is transferred through the pipe in discrete plugs with

Material is transferred through the pipe in discrete plugs with pockets of compressed air in between

Mostly positive pressure systems

Velocity is much lower resulting in lower air demand & reduced pipe wear

Pipes are much smaller than lean-phase

Higher capital costs

Energy consumption is low and usually directly proportional to the actual transfer rate

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Modes of Conveying

Modes of Conveying Principles of Pneumatic Conveying © Clyde Bergemann Materials Handling , Doncaster - All
Modes of Conveying Principles of Pneumatic Conveying © Clyde Bergemann Materials Handling , Doncaster - All

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Ash Transfer System

Multiple options available depending on transfer capacity and conveying distance

Wide range of vessels utilising the same key

components

Systems are bespoke designs targeted at customers specific requirements

Robust design capable of conveying a wide range of

particle distribution and composition

a wide range of particle distribution and composition ▪ Conveying aids available for problematic materials
a wide range of particle distribution and composition ▪ Conveying aids available for problematic materials

Conveying aids available for problematic materials

Before we can select the right technology we need to take into account the Fly
Before we can select the right
technology we need to take into
account the Fly Ash properties.

Capability Presentation ~ Tractebel ~ Feb 2017

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Capability Presentation ~ Tractebel ~ Feb 2017 © Clyde Bergemann Materials Handling , Doncaster - All

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Flyash properties

Fuel Type ( Solid, Liquid, Gas)

Boiler Type (PFB, CFB)

Name of presentation

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Materials Handling , Doncaster - All rights reserved ▪ Bulk Density ▪ Particle Size Distribution ▪

Bulk Density

Particle Size Distribution

Moisture Content

Flow Characteristics

Chemical Composition

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Flyash properties Particle Size Distribution

p r o p e r t i e s Particle Size Distribution Fine Flyash d50

Fine Flyash

d50 = 30 50 mic

Course

 

Flyash

d50 = 70 90 mic

Fine Grit

d50 = 130 160 mic

Coarse Grit

d50 = 580 620 mic

130 – 160 mic Coarse Grit d50 = 580 – 620 mic Name of presentation ©
130 – 160 mic Coarse Grit d50 = 580 – 620 mic Name of presentation ©

Name of presentation

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Geldart Classification

Geldart Classification Dense-Phase Pneumatic Conveying © Clyde Bergemann Materials Handling , Doncaster - All rights

Dense-Phase Pneumatic Conveying

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Flyash properties Particle Shape

Flyash properties Particle Shape Fine Fly Ash Sand Coarse Fly Ash Name of presentation © Clyde
Flyash properties Particle Shape Fine Fly Ash Sand Coarse Fly Ash Name of presentation © Clyde

Fine Fly Ash

Sand

Flyash properties Particle Shape Fine Fly Ash Sand Coarse Fly Ash Name of presentation © Clyde

Coarse Fly Ash

Name of presentation

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Fly Ash Name of presentation © Clyde Bergemann Materials Handling , Doncaster - All rights reserved

Grit Fly Ash

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Selection Criteria

Selection criteria should include:

Selection Criteria Selection criteria should include: ▪ Material Properties ▪ Pipe wear ▪ Energy consumption at

Material Properties

Pipe wear

Energy consumption at all operating conditions

Lifetime operating costs over at least 10 years

Capital Cost

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Dense Phase Options

Dense Phase Options Used for short to medium distance conveying on multi collection hopper applications CLYDE

Used for short to medium distance conveying on multi collection hopper applications

CLYDE Bergemann

Ash Vessel

Incorporates the World renowned

Clyde Bergemann Dome Valve

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Clyde Bergemann Ash Vessel

Clyde Bergemann Ash Vessel ▪ Cast Vessel ▪ Low Cost ▪ Capable of conveying most Fly
Clyde Bergemann Ash Vessel ▪ Cast Vessel ▪ Low Cost ▪ Capable of conveying most Fly

Cast Vessel

Low Cost

Capable of conveying most Fly Ash & Grits

Max conveying distance <500m

Conveying rate <= 25tph at 200m.

distance <500m ▪ Conveying rate <= 25tph at 200m. Principles of Pneumatic Conveying © Clyde Bergemann
distance <500m ▪ Conveying rate <= 25tph at 200m. Principles of Pneumatic Conveying © Clyde Bergemann

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Used for long distance conveying on multi collection hopper applications CLYDE Bergemann MD-Pump Incorporates the
Used for long distance conveying on multi collection hopper applications CLYDE Bergemann MD-Pump Incorporates the
Used for long distance conveying on multi collection hopper
applications
CLYDE Bergemann
MD-Pump
Incorporates the World renowned Dome Valve

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Clyde Bergemann MD-Pump

Clyde Bergemann MD-Pump Principles of Pneumatic Conveying © Clyde Bergemann Materials Handling , Doncaster - All

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Materials Handling , Doncaster - All rights reserved ▪ Fabricated Vessel ▪ Capable of conveying Fine

Fabricated Vessel

Capable of conveying Fine Fly Ash

Max conveying distance <1000m

reserved ▪ Fabricated Vessel ▪ Capable of conveying Fine Fly Ash ▪ Max conveying distance <1000m

1818

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Principles of Pneumatic Conveying © Clyde Bergemann Materials Handling , Doncaster - All rights reserved 1

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Used for long distance high capacity conveying applications CLYDE Bergemann D-Pump Incorporates the World renowned
Used for long distance high capacity conveying applications CLYDE Bergemann D-Pump Incorporates the World renowned
Used for long distance high capacity conveying applications
CLYDE Bergemann
D-Pump
Incorporates the World renowned Clyde Bergemann
Dome Valve

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Clyde Bergemann Double D-Pump Operating

Cycle

Clyde Bergemann Double D-Pump – Operating Cycle Start conveying Stop conveying Vent valve Balance open valve
Start conveying Stop conveying Vent valve Balance open valve open Vessel 1 conveying Vessel 2
Start conveying
Stop conveying
Vent valve
Balance
open
valve open
Vessel 1
conveying
Vessel 2
filling
Continuous
air supply
Principles of Pneumatic Conveying
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Clyde Bergemann D-Pump Intelligent Dome

Valve

Clyde Bergemann D-Pump – Intelligent Dome Valve ▪ Discharge Dome Valve fitted with valve positioner ▪

Discharge Dome Valve fitted with valve positioner

Partially open position controlled and modulated by logic controls based on attaining pipeline pressure set-point

Pressure too high

Valve ~ valve partially closes Positioner ▪ Pressure too low PLC Logic ▪ ~ valve
Valve
~ valve partially closes
Positioner
▪ Pressure too low
PLC Logic
▪ ~ valve partially opens
Control
▪ If blockage forms (causing
pressure to continue to rise)
Panel
▪ ~ valve fully closes
Pressure set-point
Time
Pressure

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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2323

Used for single and multi outlet fly ash handling and intermediate transfer systems CLYDE Bergemann

Used for single and multi outlet fly ash handling and intermediate transfer systems

CLYDE Bergemann

PD-Pump

Incorporates the World renowned Clyde Bergemann Dome Valve

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Clyde Bergemann PD-Pump

Clyde Bergemann PD-Pump PD-Pump for high efficiency, single or multi outlet fly ash handling ▪ For

PD-Pump for high efficiency, single or multi outlet fly ash handling

for high efficiency, single or multi outlet fly ash handling ▪ For conveying dry, fluidisable materials

For conveying dry, fluidisable materials

High transfer rates over medium to long distances

High material : air ratio low air and power consumption

High Volume Batch Transfer System

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Storage Facility CLYDE Bergemann TD-Pump Incorporates the World renowned Clyde Bergemann Dome Valve Used to
Storage Facility CLYDE Bergemann TD-Pump Incorporates the World renowned Clyde Bergemann Dome Valve
Storage Facility
CLYDE Bergemann
TD-Pump
Incorporates the World renowned Clyde Bergemann
Dome Valve

Used to Transport Fine Ash from the Intermediate Silo to the Ash

Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Principles of Pneumatic Conveying

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Principles of Pneumatic Conveying © Clyde Bergemann Materials Handling , Doncaster - All rights reserved 2

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Lean Phase Positive Pressure system Eductors

Benefits

Material

Phase Positive Pressure system Eductors Benefits Material ▪ Cheap and Cheerful. ▪ No fancy controls required.

Cheap and Cheerful.

No fancy controls required.

Low headroom requirement.

No Cooling Water Requirement

No Density Stablisers or Boosters

Low capital cost.

Name of presentation

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Compressed Air

Drawbacks

High conveying velocity, 15-30m/s.

High wear of pipes & bends.

Large bore pipes / large volume of low pressure transport air.

Each Pickup point requires dedicated conveying line

Close coupled dedicated blower.

Very limited conveying distance.

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Lean Phase Positive Pressure system Eductors

Lean Phase Positive Pressure system Eductors APH Grit Handling System Name of presentation © Clyde Bergemann
Lean Phase Positive Pressure system Eductors APH Grit Handling System Name of presentation © Clyde Bergemann
Lean Phase Positive Pressure system Eductors APH Grit Handling System Name of presentation © Clyde Bergemann
Lean Phase Positive Pressure system Eductors APH Grit Handling System Name of presentation © Clyde Bergemann

APH Grit Handling System

Name of presentation

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Lean Phase Positive Pressure system Air Lock Vessels

Lean Phase Positive Pressure system Air Lock Vessels ▪ Low Pressure System Usually run from a
Lean Phase Positive Pressure system Air Lock Vessels ▪ Low Pressure System Usually run from a

Low Pressure System Usually run from a 1 barg Roots Blower

Non Coded vessels (cannot be used in EU)

Can convey up to 500m @ 70-100 tph.

Uses Hardened Cast chrome alloy pipes and

bends with compression coupling.

Capable of handling wide range of ash. (One system can handle ECO, APH & Flyash).

No Cooling Water Requirement

No Density Stablisers

Lower capital cost.

Very mature technology.

Very Common in US & Asia

Preferred choice of Korean EPC’s

Much Cheaper than Dense Phase systems.

Name of presentation

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Lean Phase Vacuum system

Lean Phase Vacuum system Combination Collector/Filter Airlock SILO BAGHOUSE Vacuum Blower An airlock is needed to
Combination Collector/Filter Airlock SILO BAGHOUSE Vacuum Blower
Combination
Collector/Filter
Airlock
SILO
BAGHOUSE
Vacuum
Blower
Collector/Filter Airlock SILO BAGHOUSE Vacuum Blower An airlock is needed to transfer material from the vacuum

An airlock is needed to transfer material from the vacuum system into the silo.

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Lean Phase Vacuum system

Lean Phase Vacuum system Disc Swings Open (out of the ash flow stream) Swing Disc Closed
Lean Phase Vacuum system Disc Swings Open (out of the ash flow stream) Swing Disc Closed

Disc Swings Open

(out of the ash flow stream)

Vacuum system Disc Swings Open (out of the ash flow stream) Swing Disc Closed Type “HC”

Swing Disc Closed

Swings Open (out of the ash flow stream) Swing Disc Closed Type “HC” Material Handling Valve

Type “HC” Material Handling Valve

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Lean Phase Vacuum system

Lean Phase Vacuum system This valve works on the same, “vacuum high” and “vacuum low” principle
Lean Phase Vacuum system This valve works on the same, “vacuum high” and “vacuum low” principle

This valve works on the same,

“vacuum high” and “vacuum low” principle as the swing valve but, it

is specially designed for fine

fluidisable materials.

TYPE “E” Valve "Hg 0" 18" © Clyde Bergemann Materials Handling , Doncaster - All
TYPE “E” Valve
"Hg
0"
18"
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"Hg 0" 18"
"Hg
0"
18"

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Lean Phase Vacuum system

Typical Advantages:

Lean Phase Vacuum system Typical Advantages: ▪ Economical for one destination with many pick-up points. ▪

Economical for one destination with many pick-up points.

Vacuum systems leak inward (clean).

Low headroom requirements at pick-up points.

Capable of handling wide range of ash. (One system can handle ECO, APH & Flyash).

Single pneumatic valve under each hopper.

One I/O per valve

Typical Disadvantages:

limited to 200m distance max.

Costly for multiple destination requirements.

Vacuum is limited (~ 22”Hg/ 745 mbar), unlike pressure systems.

Collector filter media limits ash temperatures to ~ 200 C .

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Conclusions

Conclusions ▪ Dense Phase conveying has edge on high conveying rates and long distances. ▪ Capital

Dense Phase conveying has edge on high conveying rates and long distances.

Capital cost is higher

Maintenance cost is lower

Running cost is lower

Lean Phase conveying can handle most of the modern fly ash handling applications

Capital cost is lower

Maintenance cost is higher

Power industry is price driven.

Lean Phase conveying always has advantage on cost.

Name of presentation

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Dense-Phase Pneumatic Conveying

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