Abstract—The paper deals with the boundary conditions for continuous equations of conservation of mass,
momentum, and turbulent stresses of the disperse phase in a twophase flow. The boundary conditions and some
assumptions made in deriving them are verified by comparison with the results of numerical solution of the
kinetic equation for the probability density function (PDF) of the particle velocity.
for heavy particles whose density exceeds considerably τ u v 'y v 'x d 〈 v 'x 〉
2 2
τ u v 'y
that of the continuous carrier phase. In this case, the × 1 + 
 1 –   + 

6 〈 v 'x 〉 〈 v 'x 〉 dy
2
6 〈 v 'y 〉
2 2
only substantial interfacial force acting from the ambi
ent medium on a moving particle is that of aerodynamic
v 'y d 〈 v 'y 〉 v 'x v 'y 〈 v 'x v 'y〉
2
drag. The particle relaxation time τu may depend on the
2
(3)
relative velocity between the particle and medium. × 3 –   + 
 ,
〈 v 'y 〉 dy
2 2
〈 v 'x 〉 〈 v 'y 〉
2
Therefore, Eq. (1) is not confined to the effective range
of Stokes’ law and is valid at high values of the Stokes 1
number of flow past the particle. In addition, the Φ = ∫ Pdv, V i =  v i P dv,
Φ ∫
particle size is assumed to be small compared with Kol
1
mogorov’s microscale; however, the particles are
assumed to be sufficiently inertial to satisfy the condi Φ ∫
〈 v 'i v 'j〉 =  〈 ( v i – V i ) ( v j – V j )〉 P dv.
tion of τu > TLp. And, finally, the volume concentration Here, Φ and Vi denote the averaged volume concen
of the disperse phase is likewise assumed to be low tration and the averaged velocity of the disperse phase,
enough to disregard interparticle collisions. respectively; and 〈 v 'i v 'k 〉 denotes the turbulent stresses
The particle/wall interaction is described by the fol due to the involvement of particles in the pulsation
lowing function: motion of a carrier flow. Expression (3) may be used to
describe the velocity distribution of particles both for
the entire flow and for particles incident on the wall,
π w = χδ ( v x2 – φ x v x1 )δ ( v y2 + φ y v y1 ), (2) i.e., P1(vy < 0) = P(vy). According to Eq. (2), the veloc
ity distribution of reflected particles is
χ v –v
x, y .
relating the values of the particle velocity before colli
P 2 ( v x, v y ) = P
2 1 φ
(4)
sion with the wall (subscript 1) with those after colli φxφy x φy
sion (subscript 2). Here, δ is the delta function, and x
and y are coordinates in the directions parallel and per The boundary condition for some quantity ψ may be
pendicular to the wall. The reflection coefficient χ in found as a result of equating the flow of this quantity in
Eq. (2) characterizes the precipitation effect and is the wall region to the sum of incident and reflected
equal to the probability of recoil and return to the flow flows,
∞ 0 ∞
of a particle that collided with the wall. For particles
which are fully absorbed by the surface, χ = 0; in the
absence of precipitation, χ = 1. The collision coeffi
∫ ψ v P dv y y = ∫ ψ v P dv + ∫ ψ v P dv .
y 1 y y 2 y (5)
–∞ –∞ 0
cients φx and φy describe the effect of the loss of We assume ψ = 1 in Eq. (5) to derive the expression
momentum during particle/wall interaction. For sim for the particle velocity Vy (precipitation rate) normal to
plicity, collisions of particles with the surface are the wall,
treated disregarding slip and rotation; however, this
2
analysis may be readily extended to cover a more gen 2 〈 v 'y 〉 1
eral case including the known model with rotation of V y = – A ( 1 – χ ) 
 , A = . (6)
π 1+χ
particles.
On substituting ψ = vx into Eq. (5), we find the
boundary condition for the velocity Vx parallel to the
SOLUTION OF EQUATION FOR PDF wall,
BY THE PERTURBATION METHOD 2 2
τ u 〈 v 'y 〉 dV x 2 〈 v 'y 〉
  = Bχ ( 1 – φ x )  V x,
In [3–5], the boundary conditions for the mean and 2 dy π (7)
pulsation velocities of the disperse phase are found 2
from the solution of Eq. (1) by the perturbation method. B = .
( 1 + χ ) ( 1 + χφ x )
This solution is given in the form of an asymptotic
expansion using an equilibrium Gaussian distribution 2 2
The substitution of ψ = v 'x and ψ = v 'y into Eq. (5)
as the first term. In view of the first two terms, this
expansion is represented as leads to the boundary conditions for the pulsation
2 2
velocity 〈 v 'x 〉 and 〈 v 'y 〉,
Φ v 'x
2
v 'y
2 2
τ u 〈 v 'y 〉 d 〈 v 'x 〉
2
1 – χφ 2 〈 v 'y 〉
2 2
P =  exp – 
 – 
   = V y + x2 
2
 〈 v 'x 〉 , (8)
4π 〈 v 'x 〉 〈 v 'y 〉
2 2 2 2 〈 v '
x
2
〉 2 〈 v y
'
2
〉 3 dy 1 + χφ x π
accordance with Eq. (6), the reflection coefficient χ P ( v y > 0 ) = N 2 exp – 
 .
2 〈 v y〉 2
2
must not differ greatly from unity.
By simplifying the appropriate differential equation It must be emphasized that the distribution given by
following from Eq. (1), one can derive the following Eq. (13) depends on the complete normal component of
simple expression for the tangential stress of inertial velocity as distinct from the expansion given by Eq. (3),
particles (τu @ TLp) in the wall region: which is a function of the pulsation component of
velocity. The coefficients N1 and N2, as well as the mean
2
τ u 〈 v 'y 〉 dV x squares of velocity of incident and reflected particles,
〈 v 'x v 'y〉 = –   . (10) are determined from relation (4) and the normalization
2 dy
conditions
In view of Eq. (10), the boundary condition (7) is 0 ∞
represented in the form of a relation for the tangential
stress of the disperse phase on the wall, Φ = Φ1 + Φ2 , Φ1 = ∫ P dv , y Φ2 = ∫ P dv . y
–∞ 0
2
2χ ( 1 – φ x ) 2 〈 v 'y 〉 Hence follows
〈 v 'x v 'y〉 = – 
 
V x. (11)
( 1 + χ ) ( 1 + χφ x ) π Φφ y χ
2
N 1 = 
  , N 2 = 2 N 1 ,
In the limiting case of inertialess particles (τu 0), χ + φ y π 〈 v 2y〉 1 φy (14)
the “noslip” conditions
〈v y〉 φy 〈 y〉 1 .
2 2 2
= v
2 2
V x = 〈 v 'x 〉 = 〈 v 'y 〉 = 0 Note further that, in fact, it is necessary to determine
follow from Eqs. (7)–(9). only the PDF of the particles incident on the wall,
because the PDF of the reflected particles may be
In the absence of precipitation (χ = 1) and in the related to the distribution of particles moving towards
presence of an absolutely elastic interaction of particles the wall by relation (4).
with the wall (φx = φy = 1), the boundary conditions (7)– Equations (13) and (14) yield the following expres
(9) transform to sion for the precipitation rate:
2 2
dV d 〈 v 'x 〉 d 〈 v 'y 〉 2φ y 〈 v y〉
2
x = 
 = 
 = 0. V y = –( 1 – χ ) 
, (15)
dy dy dy π ( 1 + χφ y ) ( φ y + χ )
Note that the boundary condition (6) was first where 〈 v y 〉 is the perfect mean square of velocity of
2
derived by Razi Naqvi et al. [10] for Brownian parti
cles. In addition, the following expression for the dep particles on the wall,
osition rate was derived in [11] on the basis of the Φ 1 〈 v y〉 1 + Φ 2 〈 v y〉 2
2 2
2
〈 v y〉 = V y + 〈 v 'y 〉 = 
2 2
assumption of a normal velocity distribution of parti 
cles: Φ
φ y ( 1 + χφ y ) 2
2 〈 v 'y 〉
2  〈 v y〉 1 .
= 
V y = – f 
, (12) φy + χ
π
A comparison of expressions (6) and (15) reveals
where f is the fraction of particles moving towards the differences of two types between them. First, according
wall (it was assumed in [11] that f = 1/2). It is obvious to Eq. (6), Vy is a function of χ alone, while, in accor
that formulas (6) and (12) prove to be identical for χ = dance with Eq. (15), Vy depends on two parameters χ
(1 – f )/(1 + f ) = 1/3. and φy , which appears to be more substantiated from
A B
4
1.6 5
6 4
7
1.2 3
2 3
3 4
0.8 1 2 5
1 1 2
0.4 6
0 0.5 χ
0 0.5 χ
Fig. 1. The coefficient A (1) in Eq. (6) and (2, 3) in Eq. (16)
as a function of the parameters χ and φy. (2) φy = 0.5, Fig. 2. The coefficient B (1, 2) in Eq. (7) and (3–6) in
(3) φy = 1; (4–7) solutions of Eq. (28): (4) ε = 0.01, φy = 1; Eq. (20) as a function of the parameters χ, φx, and φy: (1) φx =
(5) 0.01, 0.5; (6) 0.1, 1; (7) 0.1, 0.5. 0, (2) φx = 1; (3) φx = 0, φy = 0.5; (4) 1, 0.5; (5) 0, 1; (6) 1, 1.
mulas, we will write Eq. (15) in the form We use the correlation 〈vxvy〉 = VxVy + 〈 v 'x v 'y 〉 and
Eq. (15) to find from Eq. (18) the pulsation component
2 of tangential stress on the wall,
2 〈 v 'y 〉
V y = – A ( 1 – χ ) 
,
π 〈 v 'x v 'y〉
(19)
1 – χφ 1 – χ 2φ y ( φ y + χ ) 〈 v y〉
2
φy
1/2
= – x –  
V x.
A = , (16) φ y + χφ x φ y + χ π ( 1 + χφ y )
( φ y + χ ) ( 1 + χφ y ) Γ
1/2 1/2 1/2
Fig. 3. The distribution of velocity for the cases of (a) com In order to simplify the analysis, we will assume the
plete adsorption and (b) inelastic collision: (a) χ = 0, φy = 1; time of interaction of particles with turbulent vortexes
(b) χ = 1, φy = 0.5; (1) Y = 0, (2) Y = 0.5, (3) Y = 1. TLp and the intensity of turbulent pulsations of velocity
2
of fluid 〈 u 'y 〉 in Eq. (26) to be constant quantities. The
assumptions made are based on the fact that the fairly
On the other hand, the value of 〈 v y 〉 in the wall
3
inertial particles react weakly to the characteristics of
region may be determined from the conservation equa flow in the wall region, and their behavior is largely
tion for the third moment. defined by the average (over the entire region) charac
teristics of flow. In this formulation, Eq. (26) was
With Uy = Fy = 0, Eq. (1) yields the following equa solved by Swailes and Reeks [12] for the calculation of
tions for the first and third moments of the wallnormal precipitation of particles from a turbulent flow. Our
particle velocity component: numerical solutions are directed to verify the assump
tions made in deriving the aboveidentified boundary
dΦ 〈 v y〉 Φ
2
conditions. Therefore, Eq. (26) is solved with the
 + V y = 0, (22)
dy τu boundary condition on the surface corresponding to
relations (2) and (4) for the description of the “parti
cle/wall” interaction,
dΦ 〈 v y〉 3Φ 3 2T Lp
4
 +  〈 v y〉 – V y 〈 u 'y 〉 = 0.
2
(23)
τ τ χ
P ( v y > 0 ) = 2 P – y for y = 0.
dy u u v
(27)
The fourth correlation moment of velocity in φy φy
Eq. (23) is expressed in terms of the second moments,
according to Eq. (13), as Equation (26) is represented in a dimensionless
form,
2 2
χ(1 – φy ) ∂P ∂wP ∂ P
2
w  = ε  + 2 ,
〈v
2 2 y
y〉 = 3D 〈 v y〉 ,
4
D = 1 + 
. (24) Y =  ,
φ y ( 1 + χφ y )
2
∂Y ∂w ∂w h
(28)
v τ u 1/2
w = y 
For particles fully absorbed by the surface (χ = 0) or 2 1/2 h
 , u0 = 〈 u 'y 〉 , ε = 
.
in the case of elastic collisions (φy = 1), when D = 1, u 0 T Lp u 0 ( τ u T Lp )
1/2
relation (24) assumes the equality to zero of the fourth
order cumulant, i.e., transforms to the wellknown Here, Y is the dimensionless distance from the wall,
hypothesis of Millionshchikov of the correlation w is the dimensionless normal component of the parti
between the fourth and second moments. cle velocity, h is the thickness of the wall layer being
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 6. Zaichik, L.I. and Gusev, I.N., Turbulent Flow and Pre
cipitation of Particles in Channels, in Engineering Tur
This study received financial support from the Rus bulence Modelling and Experiments, Amsterdam:
sian Foundation for Basic Research (grant no. 9902 Elsevier, 1990, p. 907.
17001). 7. He, J. and Simonin, O., NonEquilibrium Prediction of
the ParticlePhase Stress Tensor in Vertical Pneumatic
Conveying, Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on GasSolid Flows,
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