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City branding: a facilitating framework for stressed satellite cities

Bill Merrilees, Griffith University

Dale Miller*, Griffith University

Carmel Herington, Griffith University

Original Submission: 02 November 2009

Final Submission: 26 February 2010

Send correspondence to
Bill Merrilees, Department of Marketing, Griffith Business School, Griffith
University, Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia
T. +61 7 55527176 F. +61 (0)7 55528085 Email:

Dale Miller*, Department of Marketing, Griffith Business School, Griffith University,

Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia
T. +61 (0)7 55529084 F. +61 (0)7 55528085 Email:

Carmel Herington, Department of Marketing, Griffith Business School, Griffith

University, Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia
T. +61 (0)7 55528897 F. +61 (0)7 55528085 Email:

*Corresponding author

City branding: a facilitating framework for stressed satellite cities


Satellite city branding research is minimal relative to other city types. Satellite cities are
adjacent to larger, metropolitan cities and face social problems, including unemployment and
few jobs. Residents often commute to nearby cities to work.

We apply the city branding framework to stressed satellite cities. Two satellite cities provide a
basis for generating a common city brand profile of satellite cities. Quantitative studies of
residents are the basis of the study.

The positive city brand features in satellite cities include government services, a surprise,
which is generally absent from self-sustaining cities. Government presence creates some local
employment as well as symbolic and actual support. A further contrast to self-sustaining cities
is the dominant role of negative city brand attributes. A lack of local jobs triggers various
consequential problems, including the need to commute out of town for work. A lack of
leisure options compounds the stress.

Keywords: city branding; brand attitudes; city attributes; residents; satellite cities

City branding: a facilitating framework for stressed satellite cities

City branding is a sub-field of place branding and emphasizes the marketing and branding
of cities to the residents (and potential residents) as a place to live and to businesses as a place
to invest. A corporate branding framework underpins much of the recent literature on city
branding (Kavaratzis, 2005). Scope exists to extend the city brand concept. For example,
Trueman et al. (2007) identify city brands with negative perceptions as a major line of
enquiry for city branding. The current paper addresses the stressed nature of many cities and
applies city branding concepts to understand the nature of the problem.
There are several types of stressed cities, including depressed downtown districts, urban
slums and industrial cities affected by factory closures. The focus of the current paper is on
“satellite cities”, also called dormitory or edge cities, adjacent to a large metropolitan city. As
the term dormitory suggests, a satellite city often lacks many local jobs, so the residents sleep
in their city, but commute to the adjacent metropolitan city to work. If this situation becomes
too imbalanced then social problems arise, creating a stressed city.
The current paper applies a city brand framework to understand satellite cities. Ipswich
and Logan, two Queensland, Australia satellite cities which are adjacent to Brisbane, the state
capital, are the focus. A two city study facilitates the discovery of common features of such
cities, enabling development of a profile for that city-type. Indicative of stressed cities,
government statistics show that the two satellite cities have much higher rates of
unemployment, and lower levels of incomes compared with Brisbane (ABS, 2006a, 2006b,
2006c). Resident surveys were conducted of Ipswich (n=448) and Logan (n=490). Analysis of
the data uses a corporate branding framework and multiple regression analysis.

Literature review
The literature review begins with an emphasis on studies of innovative cities. In a sense,
creative cities are vibrant and innovative and the antithesis of stressed cities. Nonetheless
lessons for stressed cities can emerge, partly because innovation is possibly one potential
means of revitalizing “laggard cities” (Marceau, 2008). Various well-known cities, including
Singapore, Barcelona, Copenhagen and Manchester have partly gone down this route,
sometimes with overt city branding support (Carrillo, 2004; Daniels and Bryson, 2002;
Hospers, 2008; Komninos, 2002; Landry, 2000; Marceau, 2008; and Sim et al., 2002). These
innovative city studies yield some positive take-outs with an emphasis on hubs, networks, a
pool of creative people and open-minded culture (Florida, 2003). However, the process of
developing innovative cities has limitations, including limited infrastructure, ecological
damage, congestion, possible lack of social inclusion and insufficient co-ordination (Marceau,
Besides innovative cities, the literature also clusters other city-types, including industrial
cities and cultural cities. For example, the study by Bramwell and Rawding (1994) indicates
the common issues of marketing industrial cities in five British cities (Bradford, Birmingham,
Manchester, Sheffield and Stoke-on-Trent). All five were then experiencing severe decline
based on reduced traditional manufacturing activity. All five cities made use of tourism as a
counter-strategy for both economic and image reasons. Short-break packages, festivals,
business conventions and sports facilities were some of the various tourist strategies.
Business-economic motives dominated, with image considerations secondary, providing some
lessons for our cases in the current paper. Virgo and de Chernatony (2006) elaborate a
stakeholder perspective of the Birmingham city brand. Trueman et al. (2004) highlight
conflicts in branding Bradford.

Evans (2003) explores cultural cities in his European study, and focuses on arts-led city
renewal, hard branding the city through cultural flagships and festivals, especially the French
Grands Projets Culturels, the designated European Cities of Culture and the special case city
of the Guggenheim museum in Bilbao in Spain. While recognizing that culture-led projects
can help revitalize and re-brand a city, Evans (2003) concludes with disquiet that it is not just
the institution or collection or whatever the flagship project is that is being branded, but the
city itself – hinting that re-imaging may have been taken too far. This disquiet is elaborated
by Garcia (2004) who adds further concerns about cultural funding not continuing to support
the new ventures (in Glasgow in particular) and the possibility that broader grass-roots
components may be disenfranchised by the flagship emphasis. Both of these issues raise
doubts about the continuation of the cultural renaissance. Elaborating on Garcia (2004), if
cultural investment does falter, then the sustainability of culture-led city rebranding is
Stressed cities are often the focus of another related aspect of urban studies through the
issue of urban renewal or city revitalization (Doyle, 2004; Mitchell and Kirkup, 2003; Rex
and Blair, 2003). Relatedly, some studies examine urban regeneration and within city impacts
of social issues such as the availability of fresh food and the roles of public policy to address
these concerns (Wrigley et al., 2004). However, despite their context and relevance, the
branding domain is not the focus of these studies.

Research design
A corporate branding (with city brand attitude akin to corporate brand attitude) conceptual
framework underpins the relationship between city brand attitudes as the dependent variable
and various city brand attributes as the independent variables. Multiple regression analysis
facilitates the identification of important city brand attributes, expressed through the beta
coefficients. Higher beta coefficients indicate greater importance for the corresponding city
brand attribute.
A quantitative study used a self-administered survey to collect data from a sample of
residents across the Logan and Ipswich local government areas. Both cities are characterized
by disadvantaged residents of lower socio economic means. The overall populations of each
city are 178,300 for Logan City (ABS, 2006a) and 143,600 for Ipswich City (ABS, 2006b).
Stratified random sampling was utilized to collect the data. Random sampling was also
utilized within each strata group. The strata groups composed suburbs randomly selected to
give a broad socio-economic cross-section of residents for each city. A direct-to-household,
letterbox delivery firm was utilised to distribute the surveys randomly to households. The
response rate for the Logan sample is 17%, whilst a response rate of 13% was achieved from
Ipswich households, resulting in sample sizes of 490 and 448 respectively. Summaries of the
demographic characteristics are provided in Table 1. Characteristics are similar for both
samples, with similar distributions for gender, income, employment status, education,
marriage and home ownership.
Insert Table 1 here
This research adopts the measures used in recent literature, with adaptations made where
necessary to reflect the relevant city and city characteristics for a “stressed” city. Two single
items measures were also included to investigate the importance of a clean environment
(“Logan is clean and free from pollutants”) and a safe environment (“Logan residents feel
safe living here”). Seven-point Likert scales (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree) were
used to capture responses.
All items for both samples pass the normality tests. In order to discount non-response bias,
the early and late responses for each sample are compared using independent t-tests to test for

significant differences in the mean responses for each item (Armstrong and Overton, 1979).
No evidence of major non-response bias is uncovered.
Individual constructs are assessed to ensure unidimensionality (CFA) and reliability
(Cronbach alpha). Exploratory factor analysis is used to ensure discriminant validity amongst
constructs along with assessment of AVE’s. Multiple regression analyses are performed to
examine the impact of the independent variables upon the dependant variable (city brand).
Regression analysis is considered most appropriate as it enables more in-depth examination of
nature of the causal relationships between independent and dependent variables.

Firstly, all items used to capture each of the constructs of interest as well as an outcome
variable, “Intentions”, are loaded into an exploratory factor analysis. Using an oblimin
rotation, nine factors are requested. For the Ipswich sample, sampling adequacy is established
with a KMO above 0.6 (KMO = 0.957) and a significant Bartlett’s test of Sphericity (at the
0.00 level). Items load satisfactorily and appropriately onto their respective factors, at levels
exceeding 0.40 and without cross-loading, thereby indicating convergent validity. The nine
factor solution explains 72.4% of variance. The Logan sample also performs as expected, with
sampling adequacy determined (KMO = 0.952, Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity = 0.00), all items
loading adequately onto their respective factors, providing an explanation of 67.2% of
variance. Convergent validity is also indicated for this sample with individual factor loadings
exceeding 0.40 and no issues with cross-loading. Hence, for both datasets, nine individual
multi-item factors is an appropriate solution.
Reliabilities for each scale are satisfactory, with all Cronbach alphas exceeding the 0.70
benchmark (Hair et al., 2006). Composites for each of the constructs of interest are created
and discriminant validity assessed amongst the composites by comparing the Average
Variance Extracted to the correlation coefficients between pairs of constructs (Fornell and
Larker, 1981). Discriminant validity is demonstrated for all constructs with the square root of
the AVE’s all exceeding the inter-correlations among each pair of constructs. Table 2
provides the scale reliabilities for each factor of interest for the Logan and Ipswich samples as
well as the AVE’s and inter-correlations amongst the variables. Therefore, the proposed sets
of items and construct components pass typical psychometric tests.
Insert Table 2 about here
Confirmatory factor analysis was then utilised to assess the measurement model for each
sample and to provide additional evaluation of the validity of the scales (Gerbing and
Anderson, 1988). A good fit was found for the Ipswich sample. All indices achieve
benchmarks, with CFI (0.92) and GFI (0.90) reaching 0.90 and the SRMR (0.05) at the
recommended level. A good fit was also found for the Logan sample, with CFI (0.93) and
GFI (0.93) exceeding the 0.09 benchmark and SRMR (0.04) below the 0.05 cut-off.
The perceptions of the two cities in relation to each of the constructs of interest were
examined through an investigation of the means and differences in means between the two
cities (see Table 3). Mean values for some of the demographic characteristics of each of the
variables were also explored to see if significant differences exist on demographic
characteristics. More differences were found among the Ipswich sample. For example those
not in the workforce are significantly more positive about Ipswich’s natural environment,
shopping, government services and cultural activities. Those with lower levels of education
have significantly more positive towards shopping, transport, cultural activities and
government services in Ipswich, whilst in Logan respondents with the highest level of
education were significantly more negative about cultural activities.
Insert Table 3 about here

An interesting finding is in relation to socio economic status overall. For both satellite
cities, those in the highest socio-economic group viewed shopping, government services, safe
living and the overall city brand significantly more negatively. Hence, for this highest socio
economic group, living in a stressed satellite city causes them some additional stress.

Testing the city brand model for Ipswich and Logan

Table 4 presents the results of the multiple regression analyses used to test the model with
the Logan and Ipswich samples. For Ipswich, the overall fit of the model is very good, with an
adjusted R-Square of 0.67 explaining 67% of the variance in city brand attitudes.
Multicollinearity is not a problem with VIF’s all below 4.0 (Neter et al., 1989). In addition,
none of the correlations between the independent variables are above the cut-off of 0.70
indicating that inter-correlations are not too high (Tabachnick and Fidell 2001). The model
demonstrates good predictive validity with a high correlation (r = 0.70) found between city
brand and intention to continue living in the city.
Insert Table 4 about here
For the Logan sample, a similar result applies, with a good overall fit demonstrated by an
adjusted R-square of 0.61 explaining 61 % of the variance in city brand attitudes.
Multicollinearity is not present with all VIF’s less than 3.0 (Neter et al., 1989). Correlations
between the independent variables are all below the cut-off of 0.70 indicating that correlations
are not too high (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2001). Good predictive validity is found with a high
correlation (r = 0.51) between city brand attitude and intention to continue living in Logan.
In terms of the detailed parameter results for Ipswich, safety has the highest standardized
beta coefficient (0.31), significant at the one percent level. This means that a one-unit increase
in safety perceptions increases perceptions of the city brand by 0.31 units. Two other factors,
social bonding (beta=0.18) and business and job opportunities (beta=0.13), are strong and
significant at the one percent.
Next were three factors significant at the five percent, including cultural activities
(beta=0.14), government services (beta=0.11) and nature (beta=0.10). No other factors were
statistically significant.
For the Logan sample, nature (beta=0.23) and business and job opportunities (beta=0.22)
are very strong. Safety (beta=0.18), government services (beta=0.18) and social bonding
(beta=0.16) are also strong.
Interestingly, for both cities, clean environment, shopping and transport have a statistically
insignificant influence on city brand attitudes. Unique to the Logan sample is the finding that
cultural activities are also found not to have a statistically significant influence on city brand

Discussion and implications

In terms of assessing the mean ratings of key variables, there is a consistent and common
low performance of the two satellite cities (Ipswich and Logan) in terms of three areas:
transportation, cultural activities and job and business opportunities. For both cities, the mean
ratings on these three variables were very close to 4.0, the neutral mid-point. The essence of
the satellite city problem could stem from these three areas. A fourth problem area, shopping
facilities, was more uneven across the two cities. In Ipswich, shopping rates as low in
performance, while in Logan it rates more positively, as average. Another relatively low
performing satellite city brand attribute is safety.
The lack of local jobs is particularly telling, as it comes close to defining a satellite or
dormitory city, namely where the locals sleep locally, but have to work in adjacent cities. In
the two satellite city cases, the adjacent major cities are Brisbane (the Queensland state
capital) and the Gold Coast. In some ways, the transport problem compounds the lack of local

jobs. The motorway link from Ipswich to Brisbane has been particularly problematic for a
decade, with increased congestion. Therefore, Ipswich residents have difficulty getting local
jobs, look outwards to Brisbane, but are doubly penalized because of poor transport networks.
Commuting to Brisbane and elsewhere through poor road networks helps define the
satellite city worker. However, the issues and stress continue because when the worker returns
home, the leisure options within the city are limited. Cultural activities and shopping facilities
rate poorly in both cities. The lack of things to do within a reasonable distance contributes to
higher than national averages of crime. The vicious cycle of despair repeats itself on a daily
basis. Lack of local jobs leads to (slow and frustrating) commuting, followed by a lack of
leisure options, followed in some cases by despair and desperation (crime). This is a norm,
rather than applicable to everyone and there are certainly pockets of suburbs where the
problem is not pronounced. For many, the vicious cycle of despair suggests a systematic
problem driven by a lack of local job opportunities and a lack of local leisure (cultural and
shopping) options.
At the other end of the spectrum, three areas of satellite city attributes, namely social
bonding, nature, and government services are reasonably strong in performance. The cities of
Ipswich and Logan rate very similarly across these attributes. Social bonding seems
ubiquitous across Australian cities and suburbs. Friends and family form a strong foundation
for any society or sub-culture. Expressed differently, the social bonding level is invariant to
city and suburb. Importantly, social bonding is therefore a vital positive for a satellite city to
develop minimal city self-esteem.
Nature also rates highly across Ipswich and Logan. Both cities have access to considerable
native flora as well as parks and gardens. Certainly, the local residents favourably perceive
the nature city attribute. Nature thus combines with social bonding as a solid positive
foundation for the two satellite cities. This is an important finding for understanding the base
from which to rebuild satellite city brands.
The third positive city attribute in both satellite cities is government services, such as
health, education and local government. The positive role of government services is
noteworthy because it contrasts with the pessimistic assessment of mainly private sector job
and business opportunities. Unlike social bonding and nature, government services are more
fickle and subject to funding cutbacks and policy changes. These three pillars of strength
underpin satellite cities, despite the potential fragility of the government services pillar.
A further way of understanding the two satellite cities is through interpreting the multiple
regression results. The beta coefficients indicate which city brand attributes influence overall
city brand attitudes, essentially telling which attributes reflect the brand meaning of the city.
Interestingly, safety dominates the Ipswich multiple regression relative to all other
variables, with a standardized beta coefficient of 0.31. In Logan, the same beta coefficient is
also very high, at 0.18. For a given level of perception about safety, there is a higher impact
on city brand attitudes. In a study of the Gold Coast, which can be termed a self-sustaining
(non-satellite) city, the beta coefficient is much less (Merrilees et al., 2009).
Another standout difference for satellite cities compared to self-sustaining cities is the role
of government services. Government services play a major role in shaping city brand attitudes
in satellite cities, especially in Logan (where the beta coefficient is a large 0.18), but also in
Ipswich (beta coefficient is 0.11 and significant at the 2 percent level). In contrast, in the Gold
Coast, government services play a minimal and insignificant role (Merrilees et al., 2009).
Although perhaps an unfair interpretation, a welfare state appears to prop up the
disadvantaged satellite cities, contrasting with self-determining private enterprise led cities
(getting some, but less critical support from the public sector).
Job and business opportunities are important in both Ipswich and Logan, though they are
marginally more important in Logan, with a beta coefficient of 0.22 compared to 0.13 for

Ipswich. Thus, residents in both Logan and Ipswich associate job and business opportunities
with their attitudes to the city brand, despite very low perceptions of such opportunities. The
desperation seems greater in Ipswich because the (slightly) lower level of perceptions about
job and business opportunities combines with a (slightly) lower impression of such
opportunities in shaping city brand attitudes.
In summary, satellite cities shape their city brand attitudes with a four-prong base of
safety, government services, job and business opportunities and social bonding. Such a
combination seems unique to satellite cities with the lead role of safety and the presence of
government services. One other city attribute, cultural activities in the case of Ipswich and
nature in the case of Logan supplements the positive position of each satellite city. Ostensibly,
it is a good thing for the basic economic (opportunities and government services) and social
(bonding and safety) city attributes to be supplemented by a cultural or leisure factor.
However, the lack of depth in supplementary city attributes portends a deeper problem with
satellite city brands.
Self-sustaining cities are associated not just with strong economic and social roots, but with
a rich array of culture, including overt cultural activities (including entertainment and
festivals), shopping facilities and recreation in nature settings, including parks and other
outdoor settings (Merrilees et al., 2009). Such a rich city brand experience is not forthcoming
in satellite cities.
The first contribution of the research is that it is the first international study to profile the
city brand experience of satellite cities, using two cities to generate an initial generalization
based on commonalities across the two cities. Nature, social bonding and government services
are the backbone of the city-type, with weaknesses in job and business opportunities,
transportation, safety and a clean environment. The social and economic base of the city-type
is adequate rather than strong, but the cultural component is weak, with limited leisure
options. Expressed differently, the city brand experience is shallow, not deep and
symptomatic of stress compared to self-sustaining cities. No other study has configured the
city brand experience of satellite cities or indeed any other cities under stress. It is important
to profile the city brand experience of a city-type if we are to understand how the city brand
works in practice. This profiling leads to the second contribution.
The second contribution is that it provides a systemic explanation for the stress in satellite
cities. The term “vicious cycle of despair” describes the systemic problem: poor job
opportunities forces out of city movement for many workers leading to fatigue and frustration
with journey time, followed by limited local leisure options and a narrower city brand
experience. The cycle repeats itself on a regular, almost daily basis. A systemic model
explaining the processes contributing to stress in satellite cities, contrasts with the broader
literature on stressed cities (or cities in crisis). Generally, as shown, the existing literature
simply assesses specific, essentially one-off interventions in stressed cities. Historically, such
interventions have mixed results with limited reflection on the lessons learned. Rarely does a
conceptual framework of the type proposed here inform such interventions.
The third contribution of the study is the provision of a conceptual framework of the
process of city brand-experience creation, enabling assessment of previous government
interventions to improve city life. For example, Ipswich council has introduced some well-
received crime reducing measures such as video camera surveillance. In terms of our
regression model, there may be consequential benefits of an increased perception of safety,
influencing city brand attitudes. However, the change in city brand perception is likely to be
tiny, though perceptions of safety are slightly greater in Ipswich compared to Logan.
Notwithstanding, video camera surveillance does little to break the vicious cycle of despair
created by long and slow commuting time out of town and ending with limited leisure options

on return. The cycle of despair is unchanged because the two main determinants (local jobs
and local leisure options) are unchanged.
As a further example, Logan Council introduced a six-year Branding Logan City campaign
in 1999. At that time in the words of the then Marketing Manager, “Logan was generally
regarded as a socio-economic basket-case” (Russell et al., 2009, p. 233). The basis of the
campaign was to get local residents to have greater self-esteem, with slogans like “Loving life
in Logan” and “Proud to be me”. The Logan Council conducted market research, which
indicated that residents did like the advertisements. The market research did not evaluate any
change in brand attitude. Unfortunately, as with the Ipswich interventions, a pure brand
advertising campaign does little to break the vicious cycle of despair created by long and slow
commuting time out of town and ending with limited leisure options on return. The cycle of
despair is unchanged because the two main determinants (local jobs and local leisure options)
are unchanged. Advertising per se, can support other city brand initiatives, but of itself does
not change the brand essence of a satellite-city.
A fourth contribution of the study is the guidance of appropriate measures that can start to
address substantially the vicious cycle of despair. In Logan, in the past two years there has
been considerable retail development, with the construction of a very large IKEA store and
other major stores. Large retail stores create local jobs as well as increase local leisure options
(shopping), the two fundamental drivers to enrich the city brand experience in satellite cities.
Large superstores like IKEA remain on the outskirts of Logan city center. Logan Council still
lacks major city center precincts, which could potentially bolster shopping options, but also
cultural activity options, the remaining key weakness in the Logan city brand experience.
Therefore, Logan Council needs to create one or two dedicated city center precincts as a
priority for future city-brand building. The options for Ipswich are more difficult. The
Commonwealth and State Governments are investing heavily in the multi-billion dollar
highway linking Ipswich and Brisbane. When completed in two years time there will be less
commuting frustration. However, the fundamental drivers of local jobs and leisure options
need addressing. Encouraging major retailers like IKEA would be useful, which a new
motorway would facilitate. “Targeting” a small number of industries with incentives can be
part of a revamped economic development plan. The lack of current local job opportunities is
the number one obstacle for Ipswich to enjoy a rich and vibrant city-brand experience.

Satellite cities in this study exhibit stress. The insights from the satellite city branding
framework firstly identify a profile for satellite cities and secondly suggest a self-perpetuating
causal model of stress.
The profile of a satellite city comprises both positive and negative features. The positive
features include strong social bonding networks, abundant natural resources, and the
provision of government services. The idea of government services as a positive city brand
attribute is unusual. In contrast to self-sustaining cities, in stressed cities, government
presence creates some local employment, as well as symbolic and actual support to the
residents. The negative features are dominant and highlight the lack of jobs, lack of cultural
and shopping leisure activities, and poor transportation.
The model, which this study presents, reveals the interplay between the negative city brand
attributes. Insufficient local employment is the primary problem, which results in extensive
out-of-town commuting to work. Concomitantly, a lack of leisure options compounds the
Thus, one benefit of the study is a diagnostic. A second benefit is that policy interventions
can utilize the profiles and the model to reduce satellite city stress.

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Table 1 – Demographic characteristics of samples – Logan and Ipswich

Logan Ipswich Logan Ipswich

Gender Married
Males 32% 31.5% Yes 65.1 65.6
Females 68% 68.5% No 34.9 34.4
Income Children under
1-25999 23.1 20.3 Yes 36.5 43.1
26000-44999 22.4 22.5 No 63.5 56.9
45000-62999 21.2 22.5 Renting
63000-84999 15.5 17.6 Yes 17.3 19.6
85000 + 17.8 17 No 82.7 80.4
Age* Education
18-25 6.3 10.3 7-9 5.3 5.4
26-35 13.5 19 10 20.8 18.8
36-45 22.9 25.2 11 2.9 3.3
46-55 28.8 20.8 12 18.2 15
56-65 20.2 15.8 TAFE 21.8 20.1
66-75 5.9 6.2 University 30.6 37.5
76+ 2.4 2.7
Employment Number of
status years
Part-time 22 24.6 15.4 22.6
Full-time 46.9 45.5
Not in the 25.9 25
Unemployed 5.1 4.9

Table 2 Correlation/Discriminant validity matrix and scale reliabilities Ipswich (Logan)

Construct 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Reliability
Nature .84 0.84
(.76) (0.78)
Business/job .52 .73 0.89
opportunities (.46) (.67) (0.87)
Shopping .60 .58 .78 0.80
(.60) (.52) (.81) (0.82)
Transport 36 (.39) .46 .40 .87 0.70
(.46) (.33) (.96) (0.77)
Cultural .70 .61 .67 .44 .72 0.87
activities (.67) (.58) (.69) (.39) (.71) (0.84)
Government .56 .63 .59 .54 .65 .73 0.82
services (.56) (.60) (.55) (.63) (.61) (.72) (0.82)
Social .50 .49 .47 .26 .51 .52 .84 0.87
bonding (.42) (.36) (.35) (.27) (.35) (.36) (.73) (0.82)
Brand .62 .61 .62 .39 .66 .63 .62 .91 0.88
(.63) (.58) (.53) (.45) (.55) (.62) (.51) (.85) (0.83)
Intention .51 .48 .52 .30 .51 .50 .48 .70 .94 0.82
(.40) (.35) (.35) (.25) (.37) (.34) (.31) (.51) (.87) (0.78)

All correlation are significant at the 0.01 level

Note: The figures corresponding to square-root of AVE for each column construct is typed in bold
along the diagonal. Other figures are the [absolute value] correlation between two constructs. Logan
figures are bracketed throughout.

Table 3 – Mean values for constructs of interest for Ipswich and Logan

Construct Ipswich Logan

Nature 5.30 5.21
Business/Job opportunities 4.15 4.55
Shopping 4.63 5.37
Transport 3.64 4.44
Cultural Activities 4.32 4.25
Bonding 5.06 4.92
Government services 5.08 4.86
Safe living 4.94 4.73
Clean 4.56 4.65
Brand 5.08 5.06

Table 4 Multiple Regression Results for Ipswich and Logan Samples

Attribute Ipswich sample Logan sample

(n = 448) (n = 490)
Beta VIF Beta VIF
Clean 0.03 (0.93) 1.76 0.05 (1.24) 1.77
Safety 0.31(8.39)*** 1.85 0.18 1.60
Nature 0.10 (2.38)** 2.26 .23 2.23
Business/Job 0.13 2.04 0.22 1.86
opportunities (3.23)*** (5.56)***
Shopping 0.08 (1.86) 2.71 0.06 (1.42) 2.16
Transport 0.01 (0.52) 1.51 0.01 (0.27) 1.74
Cultural 0.14 (2.70)** 3.57 0.01 (0.21) 2.65
Government 0.11 (2.53)** 2.45 0.18 2.56
services (3.97)***
Social 0.18 1.69 0.16 1.36
bonding (5.14)*** (4.88)***

Adjusted R- 0.67 0.61

Square (103.01)*** (82.97)***

Correlation 0.70 0.51

Brand with
*** Denotes significant at the 1% level.
** Denotes significant at the 5% level.
* Denotes significant at the 10% level.