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Roll No. :

Topic :
Mohammed
Ph : 9391326657,
Asif 64606657

THERMODYNAMICS
The branch of physics which deals with the heat energy and other
forms of energies is called Thermodynamics. P, V, T are thermodynamic
variables (These are inter convertible)
→ JOULES LAW: - The amount of work performed is directly
proportional to the amount of heat produced

∴ W = JH
W∝H mgh = J× m s ∆ θ
W = JH
d r a g g e d
I C E V
m

x
gh = JS ∆ θ Work done against
h P.E →heat
friction so some ice
gh
is melted
∆θ=
JS W=JML
µ mg× x = JML

W=J µ mgx
M=
Bullet H JL
→ V is stopped
∴ all its K. E is converted into heat
energy I C E V i s
∴W = J H M
1
m v2 = J × ms ∆ θ Stopped before coming to rest
2 mass of
v2 ice melted is M
= JS ∆ θ
v ∴ W=JH
1
∴ v2 M v2 = J × mL
∆θ = 2
2 JS
Mv2
=m
2 JL

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→ ZEROTH – LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: - If 2 systems A and B are
separately in thermal equilibrium with a 3rd system C, then A and B are also
in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Internal Energy: - U = Uk + U p

C
D I A T H E R M A L W A L L

A D IA B A T IC
A
L
A B
L

→ INDICATOR DIAGRAM: - A graphical representation of the state of system,


with the help of two thermodynomical variable is called as Indicator –
Diagram.

P
A B
P P ( P2 , V2 )
1 ( P1 V , 1 ) 2

E X P A N S I O N C O M P R E S S IO N
( P2 , V2 )
P 2 B P 1 A ( P1 V , 1 )

O V
V 1 2 V V 2
V 1

∴ AREA UNDER P – V – diagram is numerically equal to work done


W = P∆V

Ex: -
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1)
P
W = Area of Rectangle
P 2 ( ) (
= P2 − P1 × V2 − V1 )

P 1

V 1 V 2 V

2)
P

P W = Area of Triangle
2
1
=
2
( ) (
P2 − P1 × V2 − V1 )
P 1

V 1 V 2 V

3)
P

P
W = Area of the circle
2 r1 = π r1 r2
r2

( P2 − P1 )  v2 − v1 
×
P 
1 2  2 

V 1 V 2 V

4)
P

P r1
2

W =− π
( P2 − P1 )  v2 − v1 
× 
r2 2  2 
P 1

V 1 V 2 V

→ WORK DONE IN NON – CYCLIC PROCESS: -

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1)
P B

A C W = Area under A B C D E A

E D V

2)
P
C

W = Area under A B C A
B

A
V

3)

W = Area under A B C D E
FA

THERMODYNAMICS

1. Two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas are confined within a cylinder by a


massless spring loaded with a frictionless piston of negligible mass and of
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cross – sectional area 4 X 10-3 m2 . The spring is initially in its relaxed state.
Now the gas is heated by a heater for sometime. During this time the gas
expands and does 50 J of work in moving the piston through a distance of
0.1m. The temperature of the gas increases by 50 K. Calculate the spring
constant and the heat supplied by the heater?

2. Two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas are confined within a cylinder by a


massless and frictionless spring loaded piston of cross – sectional area 4 X
10-3 m2 . The spring is initially in its relaxed state. Now the gas is heated by
an electric heater, Placed inside the cylinder, for sometime. During this
time the gas expands and does 50 J of work in moving the piston through a
distance of 0.10 m. The temperature of the gas increses by 50 K. Calculate
the spring constant and the heat supplied by the heater?

3. An ideal gas with adiabatic exponent r is heated at constant pressure. It


absorbs Q amount of heat. Determine the fractions of heat absorbed in
raising the internal energy and performing the work.

4. A piston can freely move inside a horizontal cylinder closed from both ends.
Initially the piston separates the inside space of the cylinder into two equal
parts each of volume V0 , in which an ideal gas is contained under the same
pressure P0 and at the same temperature. What work has to be performed
in order to increase isothermally the volume of one part of gas n times
compared to that of the other by slowly moving the piston?

5. Consider the cyclic process ABCA, shown in figure performed on a sample


of 2 mole of an ideal gas. A total of 1200 J of heat is withdrawn from the
sample in the process. Find the work done by the gas during the part BC?

6. Figure shows the variation in the internal energy U with the volume V of 2.0
moles of an ideal gas in a cyclic process abcda. The temperature of the gas
at b and c are 500 K and 300 K respectively. Calculate the heat absorbed
by the gas during the process.

7. A gas expands in a piston – cylinder device from volume V1 to V2 the process


a
being described by P = + b, a and b are constants find work done in the
v
process.

8. An ideal gas is taken through the cycle A → B → C → A , If the net heat


supplied to the gas in the cycle is 5 J, the work done by the gas in the
process C → A is ___

9. A thermodynamic system is taken through the closed cyclic P Q R S p


process. The net work done by the system is ____

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SOLUTIONS

1. L = initial position of piston when spring is relaxed.


When the gas is heated, it expands and pushes the
piston up by a distance x, (say). The spring is
compressed. k
F=kx P 0
F kx M
PS = = ( pressure exerted on the gas by
A A L x
the spring)
∴ P = Po + PS G a s

kx
= Po +
A
∴ Increase in volume dv = A . dx.
∴ Work done is given as
x x x
kx 
W = ∫ P.dv = ∫  Po +  . A. dx = Po A ∫o dx + k ∫ x . dx
o
A o
1
w = Po A x + kx2
2
1
∴ 50 = 1.013 × 105 × 4× 10−3 × 0.1 + k. ( 0.1) 2
2
∴ k = 1896 N / m
Po = 0.76 m of Hg
= 0.76 X 9.8 X 13600
= 1.013 × 105 N / m2
W = 50 J For the heat energy Q supplied by the heater,
we use the
A = 4 X 10-3 m2 first law of thermodynamics
Q ∆U + w  for monoatomic gas C = 3 R 
X = 0.1 m  V 
 2 
Now ∆U = n CV ∆T
3 3
∆V = n R ∆ T = × 2 × 8.31 × 50
2 2
= 1246. 5 J
∴ Q = 1246 . 5 + 50
= 1296 . 5 J

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2. F = P1 A + k x
w = ∫ F.dx = ∫( P 1 )
A + k x dx
1
w = P1 A x+ k x2
2
1
(
50 = 105 × 4 × 10−3 × 0.1 +
2
)
× k ( 0.1) 2
Solving we get k = 2000 N/m
H e a t e r
dQ = du = dw
3
= n R T + 50
2

3
= × 2 × 8.3× 50+ 50
2
= 1245 + 50
dQ = 1295 Joule

3. At constant pressure heat absorbed by system is


Q = n Cp ∆T
And ∆U = n CV ∆T
∆U n CV ∆T C 1
∴ fraction = = V =
Q n/ CV ∆T Cp r
From first law of thermodynamics, we know
w = Q − ∆U
w Q − ∆U ∆U 1
Fraction = =1− = 1−
Q Q Q r

4. Let volume of chamber change by ∆V.


According to the problem, the final volume of
left chamber is n – times final volume of right
chamber. P o Vo T o
P o Vo To

∴ Vo ∆V = n vo − ∆ V ( )
n − 1
∆V =   Vo
 n + 1 L R
As piston is moved slowly ∴ K . E is zero.
By W. E – T, we can write
Wgas in right + Wgas in left + Wext = ∆ k .E
chamber chamber Agent

(
∴ Wext Agent = − wgas ( R ) + wgas ( L ) )
We know that in isothermal process,
 Vf 
W = nR T ln  
 Vi 
 Vo + ∆ V 
WL = Po Vo l n  
 Vo 

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 2n 
= Po Vo l n 
 n + 1 
 
 Vo − ∆ V 
WR = Po Vo l n  
 Vo 
 2n 
= Po Vo l n 
 n + 1 
 
 2n   2n 
Wext agent = − Po Vo l n   − PoVo l n  
 n + 1  n + 1
2
 n + 1
Wext agent = PoVo l n 
 4n 
 

5. In the Cyclic process


∆U = 0 T
C
∴ Q = ∆U + W
∴ W = Q = ∆ U = − 1200− 0
5 0 0 k B
W = − 1200 J
From C to A, ∆V = 0 3 0 0 k
A
∴ WCA 0
O
For the whole cycle V
WAB + WBC + WCA = W Now work done from A to B
In the process V ∝ T so P =
∴ W + W = − 1200 J constant
AB BC
∴ PV = n R T
∴ 3324 + WBC = - 1200 J
P ∆ V=n R ∆ T
WBC = − 4524 J ∴ WAB = P ∆ V
=nR ∆T
= 2 × 8.31× 500− 300 ( )
= 33245

6. In the process a to b and c to d


U
As ∆ U = 0 ∴ ∆ T = 0 ( or ) T = constan t
Vf
a b 5 0 0 k
W= ∫ Pdv
Vi
wehavePV = n R T

nR T
P= d c 3 0 0 k
V
vf
nR T
∴W =
vi
∫ v
.dv
V 0 2 V0 V

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vf
dv vf  vf 
W = nR T
vi
v∫= n R T  l n V = n R T  l n
vi


vi 
2 vo
∴ Wab = n R Tb l n = 2R × 500l n2 = 1000R l n 2
vo
v 1
Wcb = n R Tc l n o = 2R × 300l n = − 600R l n 2
2vo 2
There is no volume charges from b to c and from d to a, so
Wbc = Wda = 0
∴ W = Wab + Wbc + Wcd + Wda
= 1000 R l n 2 + 0 – 600 R l n 2 +0
= 400 R l n 2
∴ from FL OT Q = ∆U +W
= 0+ 400R l n 2
∴ Q = 400R l n 2

v2 v2
a 
7. W=
v2
∫ P.dv = ∫  v + b .dv
v1
v2
= al n v + bv
v1

(
= al nv2 + bv2 − al nv1 + bv1) ( )
v 
w = al n  2  + b( v2 − v1 )
 v1 

8. from A→B
wAB = P  vB − vA 
2 B
C
= 10 ( 2 − 1) V ( 3 m)

= 10 J 1
A
from B → C , V = constan t
P ( N2 ) / m
∴ WBC = 0 1 0

Given Q = 5 J
∴ W = WAB + WBC + WCA
5 = 10 + 0 + wCA
(
WCA = − 5 J Q it is anti clock wize )
9. W = Area Q MNR – Area PMNS
= 100 × 103 ( 300 − 200) × 10−6 − 300× 103 ( 300 − 200) × 10−6
= ( 10 − 30) J
= − 20 J

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P
P S
2 0 0 k p

1 0 0 k p R
Q
M N
1 0 0 c c 3 0 0 Vc c

→ FLOT: - It is an extension of the principle of conservation of energy


dQ = dU + dw
In other words
Suppose a heat Q is given to a system. This heat is partly used by
system in doing work against its surroundings and partly its internal energy
gets increased and form energy conservation principle.
Heat added to system Q > 0.
Q = ∆ U + ∆W Heat removed from system Q < 0.
Work done by the system W > 0.
Work done on the system W < 0.

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