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POSITIONAL IDEAS IN CHESS

by

John Love

AMERICAN CHESS PROMOTIONS


Macon, Georgia
©Copyright 1992. American Chess Promotions. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN 0-939298-84-8

First published in 1985 by A & C Black (Publishers) Ltd, 35 Bedford Row,


London WClR 4JH with the title Positional Ideas in Chess.
Copyright © 1985. John Love.
Contents

Preface

I n t ro d u c t i o n : T erra i n

P art O n e: R out e s
1 H ow P awn s Ch a n g e th e B o a r d 15
2 M a i n ly F i l e s 22
3 M a i n ly D i a g o n a l s 29
4 Mai n ly Ranks 34
5 A l 1 R o u t es 39

Part Two: Paw n s


6 Ki n ds o f P awn s 47
7 Pa s s e d Pawn s 53
8 Paw n s t o A v o i d 67

Part T h r e e: Pawns a n d P l a c e s
9 S q u ar e s a n d P i e c e s 81
10 P awn M as s e s 92

Part F o u r: Th e C e n tre
11 Th e C e n t re 1 13
12 A L o o k I n t o H i s t ory 122

P a r t F i v e: O t h er S tra t eg i e s
13 Res t r i c t i o n 135
14 T h e P r o b l em o f C o l ou r 1 43
15 A c t i v i t y o n Two F ro n t s 155
16 T h e M i n o r i t y A t t a ck 1 69
17 I s o l a t e d a n d H a n g i n g Pawn s 177

Part S i x: I l l u s t ra t i v e G a m e s
Game 1 Re s h e vs k y - T y l o r 195
G ame 2 B o twi n n i k D o n n er 200
Game 3 B o twi n n i k Chekh over 206
Game 4 S my s l o v R u d a k o vs k y 212
G ame 5 B o go l j u b ow N i mz owi t s c h 216
Game 6 Keres Smy s l o v 222
Game 7 Ts e s h k o vs k y Hort 228
G ame 8 C o l l e - N i mz owi t s ch 234
G ame 9 Kas p a r o v - Pr i by l 239
Preface

I t is ass umed that t h e reader p aw n c o n f i gu r a t i o n e n h a n c e s o r


i s a cq u a i n t e d w i t h t h e m a i n d i m i n i s h e s t h e i r p ow e r s .
t a ct i ca l i deas (pi n, fork ,
d i s co v e r e d a t t a ck , a n d s o o n ) The posi t i o n a l e l ements
for t h es e are the e l ements presented, explored and
wh i ch t h e begi n n e r f i rs t i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s book are as
e n c o u n t er s a n d e mp l o y s i n t h e essential a part of the
e a r l y d a y s o f c h e s s ch es s p l ay e r ' s eq u i pment as a
a p p r e n t i c es h i p . S u c h t a ct i c s k n ow l e d g e of t a c t i ca l i d e a s o r
a r i s e f r o m t h e b a ck gr o u n d o f t h e a b i l i t y t o e v o l v e en d
p os i t i o n a n d i t i s t h e e l em e n t s c a l cu l a t e c o mb i n a t i o n s . I n f a c t
wh i ch m a k e up t h e n a t ure of c o m b i n at i o n s d e p e n d f o r t h e i r
pos i t i on that are the concern s ou n d n ess a n d s u ccess on an
o f t h e pres e n t v o l u m e . awareness of pos i t i on .
S p i e l m a n n , a g r e a t a t t a ck i n g
T h e f o u n d a t i o n u p o n wh i c h a n d combi n a t i ve player, once
a ny p os i t i on i s b u i l t i s t h e wrote of A l ekh i ne, 'I can
board i tself, t h a t apparent ly compreh e n d A l e k h i n e ' s
s i mp l e s p ace of s i x t y - f o u r c o mb i n a t i o n s we l l e n ou gh , b u t
s q u a re s , a r r a n g e d i n a l t er n a t e wh e r e h e g e t s h i s a t t a ck i n g
l i g h t a n d d ark c o l ou r s , a n d t h e c h a n ces f rom . . . i s b e y o n d me.
b o o k b e g i n s w i t h a Gi ve me the pos i tions he
c o n s i d e ra t i o n o f t h a t s p a c e i n obtains and I s hould se ldom
a n a t t e m p t t o s h ow t h a t i t i s f a l t er . '
n ot q u i t e a s s i mp l e a s i t f i rs t
appears . I t t h e n moves o n t o Alekhine created those
s t u d y t h e e f f e c t t h a t p aw n s a n d pos i t i on s wi t h painstak i n g
p i e c e s h a v e on t h e p l ay i n g attenti on to detai l and the
s u rface, mod i fy i n g i n bri l l i a n c e of t h e c o n c l u s i on s
r e m a rk a b l e w a y s t h e very t o many of his games can b l i nd
t erri t o ry o n wh i ch t h e s t r u g g l e o n e t o t h e e ar l i e r p r e p a ra t i o n
t a k e s p l a c e ; h ow p awn s c h a n g e t h a t h a d t ak e n p l a ce . I t i s t h e
t h e n ature o f t h e arena, a i di n g author's hope t h a t t h i s book
o r i n h i b i t i n g t h e p l a y e r s , h ow wi l l assist the reader to
t h e i r r e l a t i ve d i s p o s i t i ons understand the n e ed for
h e l p o r h i n d e r t h e mo v e m e n t o f p r e p a ra t i o n a n d t o s h a rp e n h i s
p i e c e s ; h ow p i e c e s f i g h t f o r p o s i t i o n a l s e n s e s o t h a t wh e n
t h e c o n t ro l of rou t es a n d u s e a n a t t a ck b e g i n s i t i s l a u n ch ed
t h os e l i n e s o n c e t h e y h av e b e e n f r o m a s o u n d b a s e , o r wh e n a
es t ab l i s h e d 1 a n d h ow t h e i r d ef e n c e i s n e e d e d t h e res o u r ces
relationship t o that of the wi l l be to h a n d .
T h e book b e g i ns w i t h t h e s t u mb l i n g k i n d o f progress
s i mp l e s t i d eas a n d , i n t h e w h i ch o f t e n o c c u rs w h e n t o o
early s t a g es , n e w i d e a s a r e mu c h h a s t o b e a b s o r b e d t o o
i n t r o d u c e d s l ow l y s o t h a t t h e y r a p i d ly .
are t h e m o r e e a s i l y
ass i mi lated. Pr o b l e ms and Th ere i s great s at i s f a ct i on
q u es t i o n s a p p e a r i n a p prop r i a t e t o b e ga i n e d i n a ch i e v i n g o n e ' s
p l a ces t o en courage t h e reader o b j e c t i v e s t h ro u g h p o s i t i o n a l
to p r a c t i s e t h e i d e a s as h e me a n s . Th i s i s n o t t o d e n i gr a t e
goes a l o n g . W h e n , t h r o u gh t h i s t h e p l e as u r e t o b e d e r i v e d f r o m
m e t h o d , h e h a s b e c o m e f am i l i a r t h e s u c c e s s of a t a c t i c a l
w i t h those e l emen t s , t h ey are f i n e s s e o r s p a r k l i n g
extended in greater depth and combi nat i o n 1 i t i s more to
n e w o n e s are i ntrodu ced more s ug g e s t t h a t t h e k n ow l e d g e t h a t
q u i ck l y . T h i s g r a d u a l a p p r o a ch o n e 's s u ccess i s t h e produ ct of
i n both range and d i ffi culty pos i t i on a l s en s e a n d s ou nd
w i l l c a r ry t h e r e a d e r a l o n g a prepara t i o n enhances o n e ' s
s m o o t h c u r v e o f l e a rn i n g a n d , p l easure in the t o t a l
it is hoped, avoid the concept i o n .
INTRODUCTION

Terrain

As a g e o metri c d es i gn of s i xt y of squ ares stops a t t h e edges


four squares d i agram 1 i s easy o f t h e b oard and t h es e four
t o u n d e r s t a n d 1 a s t h e t erra i n b o u n d a ry l i n e s , t h e s i d e s o f
across w h i ch the chess s trugg l e t h e l arge square, a r e of
moves i t is an area of f a r c ru c i a l i mp o r t a n c e .
gre a t e r c o mp l e x i t y . It is
u s ef u l t o c o n s i d e r t h e b o a rd D i a gram 2
d e vo i d o f c h e s s m e n t o b egi n
w ith for i t w i l l reduce the
diffi cu lty of gras p i n g
p o s i t i on a l c o n ce p t s a n d g i ve a
c l earer i ns i ght i nto t h e
f u n d am e n t a l i d e a s o f p o s i t i o n .

Di a g r a m 1

Th e p os i t i on i n d i agram 2 i s
repeated o n t h e i nf i n i t e board
of d i a g r a m 3. If w e c o m p a r e
each piece in 2 with the
c orres p o n d i n g o n e i n 3 w e s oo n
rea l i s e t h e vi t a l part the
b ou n d a r i es p l ay o n t h e rea l
ch e s s b o a r d .
As o u r eyes wander over t h e
d i a g r a m t h e ch e q u er e d p a t t e r n I n 2 , B l a ck ' s K i n g i s m a t ed ,
breaks up i nt o r a n k s a n d f i l es w h e r e a s i n 3 it c a n s t e p o u t o f
of a l ternately col oured ch eck f r o m W h i t e ' s R o ok a n d i t
s q u ares , s h ort and long i s c l ear t h a t t h e Ki n g wou l d
d i agon a l s , d a r k a n d l i gh t a lw ays b e more d i f f i c u l t to
d i ag o n a l s . E a ch o f t h e s e l i nes m a t e on t h e i n f i n i t e board.
D i a g r am 3

W h i t e wou l d n e e d a n ot h e r Rook T h e bou n d a r y e f f e c t o n p a w n s ,


som e w h e r e a l o n g t h e 9 t h r a n k t h e n , i s cons i d era b l e .
(to form a n a rt i f i c i a l e d g e ) i n
ord er to g i v e ma t e . For e a s e o f c a l c u l a t i o n o f
m a t e r i a l t h e r e h a s to be a
T h e e f f e ct on p a w n s i s s ca l e of t h e r e l a t i v e va l u e of
i nt eres t i n g. The p a w n a t a 7 i n p i e c e s a n d i t i s g e n e ra l ly
2 i s o n e mo v e f ro m q u e e n i n g b u t a c c e p t e d t h a t , cou n t i n g a p a w n
i n 3 i t i s a s f a r f ro m a s u n i t y , N•B•3 , R " S a n d Q•9 .
p ro mo t i n g a s i t e v e r w a s . B u t a t any mom e n t p i e c e s v a r y
Ag a i n , i n 2 t h e p a w n i s u n a b l e f rom t h e i r m e a n va l u e a c cord i n g
to fork or u n m a s k a d i s co v e r e d t o pos i t i o n a n d t h i s ot h e r
attack , bei n g a s i d e pawn con s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g va l u e
w h e r e a s i n 3 i t c a n fork a n d d e p e n d s l a r g e l y o n t h e a mou n t
threatens to u n mask a o f s p a c e t h e y co m m a n d . F o r
d i s co v e r e d a t t a c k f ro m t h e e x a mp l e , i n 2 t h e B i s ho p a t d 5
Wh i t e Qu e e n 1 nor doe s i t s u f f e r h as t h i rt e e n s q u ar e s to move to
a n y of t h e e n d g a m e b u t t h e o n e on e 1 h a s o n l y
d i s a d va n t a g e s i n h e r e n t i n s e v e n , a p prox i ma t e ly h a l f. O n e
Rook 's p a w n s on a norma l boar d . B i s hop , t h e r e for e , has a
spat i a l effect, or value be B l a ck King in the midd le of the
i t o n l y t e m p o r a�y n ear ly b o a rd. I t mu s t b e d r i v e n t o o n e
t w i ce t h at o f t h e o t h e r , c a u s e d o f the e d g es f o r the de l i very
s o l e l y by t h e p res e n c e o f t h e of t h e f i n a l s t rok e. Look at
b o u n d ari es , f or i n 3 i t c a n b e o n e me t h o d o f c o n t i n u i n g:
s een that a l l the Bishops have
e qu a l s p a t i a l v a l u e s . C o m p a r e 1 Rc1
t h e Kn i gh t s a n d i t w i l l b e s e e n
t h a t a s i m i l ar e f f e c t a p p l i e s . L i m i t i n g t h e freedom of t h e
oppos i n g Ki ng. The Rook acts
Th e l i m i t a t i o n s i mp os e d by a l o n g the c- f i l e mak i ng that
t h e e d g e s o f t h e b o a rd a r e f e l t f i l e a new edge o f t h e board
by a l l t h e p i e c e s 1 Th e Ki n g i s and h e w i l l cont i n u e i n t h e
m a t ed w i t h m i n i mu m fo r c e t h e r e , s ame w a y , as if t h e board's
p i e c e s l o s e mu c h o f t h e i r b o u n d ar i es a re mova b l e .
s p at i a l va l u e , a n d t h e R o ok 's
p a w n s f i n d g r e a t f ru s t ra t i o n i n Kd6
t h e i r extreme p os i t i ons as
p l a y e rs w h o t ry t o p ro m o t e t h e m O t h erw i s e t h e R o o k goes t o
o n ly t o o often d i s cover. c S mak i n g a n e w edge fro m cS t o
h5.
Every begi n n e r h a s l earned
the bas i c endgame mates of 2 Ke4 Ke6
Qu e e n a n d Ki n g a g a i n s t K i n g ,
R o ok a n d K i n g a ga i n s t K i n g e t c. Black f i nds i t use less
retreat i n g on t h e d - f i l e s i nce
D i a gr am 4 W h i t e s i mp l y a d va n c e s o n t h e e ­
f i le. Now the W h i te Ki ng
creates part o f a n edge, dS,
e s , f S , a s a b a rr i e r to t h e
o p p os i n g Ki n g . (Th i s i s c a l l e d
t h e s qu a re o p p o s i t i o n o f
K i n gs . )

3 Rc6ch Kd7
4 KdS Ke7
5 Rd6

T h e Pi t a n d t h e Pendu lum.
Th e w a l l s press ever c loser on
t h e h a p l es s K i n g .

5 Kf7
6 Re6 Kg7
7 KeS Kf7
B KfS Kg7
9 R e 7ch KfB
O n e o n ly h a s t o c o n s i der
di agram 4 t o rea l i s e that not If 9 K h 6 , t h e n 1 0 R a 7!
a l l squ ar e s o r l i n es o f squ a r e s a w a i t i n g move forci n g mat e
are o f t h e s a m e i mp o rt a n c e n e xt t i me .
w h a t e v e r g e o m e t r i c a l
e qu i v a l e n c e t h e r e m i gh t b e . N o
o n e would a t t empt t o m a t e the
1 0 Kf6 Kg8 p i e c e s: t h e y e n a b l e d W h i t e to
1 1 Kg6 Kf8 w i n. I t w a s to B l a c k ' s
12 Re1! d i s a d v a nt a g e for he was
p r e v e nt e d f ro m d r a w i n g a s h e
M ate fol lows n e xt move . wou l d h a v e d o n e o n a n i n f i n i t e
b o a r d . F r e e do m f o r o n e s i d e
T h e Rook i s w e l l a d a pt e d to o ft e n i m p l i e s r e st r i ct i o n f o r
b eh ave l i k e s l i d i n g s et - s qu a res t h e oth e r a n d t h e s e r e l at e d
o n a d r a w i n g bo a r d a n d i s a n e l e m e nt s a r e t h e g i ft or
e x c e l l e nt e x a m p l e o f t h e m a i n i mpos ition o f t h e terr a i n .
th e m e o f th i s boo k : how p i e c e s
mod i fy terra i n. It w a s for th i s Th e g eo g r a p h e r , th e
r e a s o n t h at t h e e x a mp l e e n g i n e e r , th e g e n era l a n d e v e n
w a s c h os e n a n d n ot , o f cou r s e , th e h i k e r w i l l e x a m i n e c l os e ly
to i n s t r u ct t h e r e a d e r i n s o t h e topogra p h y b efore h i m w ith
s i mp l e a m ate. a v i e w to u s i n g its f e at u r e s to
f u rt h e r his plans. Th e
W h i t e ' s m et h o d h e r e w a s e n g i n e e r , for e x a mp l e , w i th th e
pos i t i o n a l : h e u s e d h i s p i e c e s t a s k o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a ro a d
f o r t h e c o n t ro l o f s p a c e . a cros s th e r e g i o n , w i l l d e v i s e
Pos i t i o n a l i d e a s a r e a s m u c h a m e t h o d s o f o v e r co m i n g t h e
p a rt of t h e n at u r e o f t h e g a m e v a r i o u s n at u r a l o b st a c l e s , a
a s th e t a ct i c a l i d e a s o f f o r k l ak e , a r i v e r , a m a rs h , a r a n g e
and pin, and th e goo d o f mou n t a i n s . H e w i l l b r i d g e
ch es s p l ay e r must t a k e both i nto t h e r i v e r , f i l l t h e m a rs h , a n d
h i s or h e r th i n k i n g. I n th i s s e e k th e b e st g r a d i e nt th rou gh
s e n s e t h e r e i s no s u c h th i n g a s the mo u nt a i n s a lo n g t h e
t h e ' pos i t i o n a l p l a y e r ' o r t h e v a l l e y s , a n d w h at e v e r p l a n h e
't a ct i c a l p l a y e r ' , o n l y t h e f i n a l l y a dopts w i l l r ef l e ct t h e
' c h ees p l a y e r ' w ho w e i g h s co n s t r a i n t s w h i c h t h e n at u r a l
th e pos i t i o n a n d th e t a ct i c s f e atu r e s i mpos e u pon h i m .
w i th a n e qu a l h a n d a n d b l e n d s
th e m a c co r d i n g to t h e d e m a n d s T h i s r e g a r d f o r th e n at u r e
of t h e s itu ation. o f s p a c e m u st a l so p r eo c c u p y
t h e m i n d o f th e c h e s s p l a y e r .
W e a r e a l l pos i t i o n a l T h e f i rs t f i x e d f e at u r e s w e
p l a y e r s b y th e v e r y f a ct th at n ot i c e a r e t h e e d g e s o f t h e
w e p l a y on a bo a r d w i t h a bo a r d a n d w e h a v e a l r e a dy s e e n
l i mited n u m b e r of squ a r e s . th e r em a rk a b l e i n f l u e n c e th e y
Thos e bou n d a r i es th e e d g e s of h ave on t h e p l ay. The rest of
th e board i mpos e l i mitation s th i s book i s d e vote d to a stu d y
o n t h e p i e c e s . F ro m th e e n d i n g o f t ho s e ot h e r f e at u r e s , t h e
w e h a v e j u s t s e e n a noth e r i d e a c h a n g i n g con f i gu ration of p a w n s
emerges . It w a s m u c h to W h it e ' s a n d p i e c e s w h i ch h av e a g r e at e r
a d v a nt a g e th at t h e B l a c k K i n g a n d more s u bt l e e f f e ct u pon th e
w a s r e s t r i ct e d b y t h e e d g e s o f s pace i n w h i ch the game tak es
th e bo a r d a n d b y th e mo b i l e place .
e d g e s m a d e w i th t h e W h i t e
CHAPTER 1

How pawns change the bpard

D i a gram 5 D i agram 6

pawns h ave an e n o r mo u s
I n t h e i r i n i t i a l pos i t io n s t h e i n f l u e n c e on s pa c e a n d h e n c e
t wo r a n k s of p a w n s look t h e f r e e do m o f t h e p i e c e s . O f
r e m a rk a b l y l i k e t h e e d g e s o f cou r s e , p a w n s w i 1 1 mo v e a n d
t h e bo a r d , d e n y i n g to t h e t h i n gs w i l l c h a n g e , b u t t h e
op pon e n t t h e u s e of a n y s q u a r e s nature of pawns wi 11 ensure
b eyond h i s f i f t h r a n k . t h a t , w h i 1s t t h ey r e ma i n o n t h e
D i a g r a m 6 r e v e a l s a not h e r boa r d , t h e i r e f f e c t o n s p a c e
e f f e c t of t h e p a w n r a n k . W h i l s t w i l l a l w a y s b e co n s i d e r a b l e .
t h e p a w n s rema i n t h ere, W h i t e's T h e r e i s a c l e a r d i s t i n ct ion
p i e c e s , a p a r t f rom h i s Kn i gh t s , b etween p i eces a n d pawns in t h e
a r e u n a b l e t o move a t a l l . F rom ro l e t h e y p l a y a s e l e m e n t s i n
t h e ou t s e t i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e f e a t u res o f t h e t erra i n .

15
D i a g r am 7 S u p pos i n g , a ft e r a c e rt a i n
n u m b e r o f moves , w ithout n ot i n g
at p r e s e nt w h at h a s h a p p e n e d to
t h e p i e c e s , t h at t h e p a w n
c o n f i g u r at i o n s t a n d s a s i n
d i agram B .

D i a gram B

Co n s i d e r t h e r e l ati ve
mob i l ity of p a w n s a n d p i e c e s i n
d i agram 7 .

T h e v a l u e o f p i e ces vari es
a c co r d i n g t o th e i r co m m a n d o f
s p a c e a n d mo b i l i t y . T h e y a r e
not f i x e d o b j e c t s a n d t h e y A l l th e n e c es s a ry moves h a v e
s p e n d th e i r l i ve s movi n g a bout b ee n m a d e to r e l ea s e t h e p i e ce s
th e boa r d con st a nt l y try i n g to f ro m t h e i r f i r s t r a n k , t h e
i m p ro v e t h e i r pos i t i o n . W h e n c e ntra l pawns h ave been
open i n gs occu r they are q u i ck e x c h a n g e d a n d o p pos i n g w i n g
to mo v e i n , w h e n atta ck e d t h e y g rou p s r e m a i n . O n t h e q u e e n s i d e
a r e a b l e t o r et r e at o r mo v e th e p a w n s a r e b lock a d e d i n
asi de . i nt e r lo ck i n g p aw n c h a i n s . T h ey
h a v e th e e f f e ct o f a mou n t a i n
T h e p a w n , p lod d i n g a n d r a n g e a n d f o r c e s m u s t mo v e
p e d est r i a n , l e a d s a d i f f e r e nt rou n d th e m i n o r d e r to i n v a d e
e x i st e n c e . It mo v e s s l ow l y o n o p�os i n g q u e e n s i d e t e r r i to r y .
i t s ow n f i l e u n a b l e t o l e a v e T h e y h a v e b e co m e a n a l mo s t
t h a t l i n e u n l e s s c a ptu r i n g . A s p e r m a n e n t f e at u r e o f t h e
oft e n a s not i t i s l i k e l y to topogr a ph y .
come u p a g a i n s t i t s o p pos i t e
number a n d so b e co m e T h e k i n gs i d e s how s g rou p s of
i m mo b i l i s e d . W h e n a s s a i l e d i t p a w n s s t i l l at th e i r o r i g i n a l
c a n n e ith e r s l i p a s i d e n o r posts , a s e n s i b l e a r r a n g e m e nt
r et r e at . T h e p a w n , t h e r e fo r e , i f t h e K i n g s h a v e b e e n c a st l e d
i s a s o m et i m e s s l ow mo v i n g , o n t h at s i d e f o r t h e y o f f e r
somet i m e s f i x ed f e ature of t h e sou n d d e f e n s i v e s c r e e n s . Th e y
boa r d , a n e l e m e n t w h i c h bot h c a n a l so a d va n ce , w h i ch m e a n s
f r i e n d l y a n d o p pos i n g for c e s t h e y c a n c h a n g e t h e n atu r e o f
m u s t f r e q u e nt l y r e g a r d a s a t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h at
portion of th at terra i n its e l f. portion of th e f i e l d of batt l e .
16
Th e abs e n c e o f p a w n s i n t h e D i agram 1 0
centre crea t e s a n o p e n area for
t h e f r e e m o ve m e n t o f p i e c e s a n d
so h er e i t is t h e e x ch a n g e o f
p aw n s t h at h a s m a d e a p e rma n e n t
i n f l u e n c e o ve r t h e t e rra i n .

S u c h a c o n f i g u ra t i o n o f
pawns cou l d wel l di ctate the
l i n es o f a ct i on of a game. A d d
a few pieces t o make the
pos i t i on o f d i agram 9.

D i a gr am 9

H e r e a ga i n p a w n m o v e m e n t h a s
f r e e d p i e c e s f r o m t h e Ba ck
l i n e, bu t no p a w n exch a n ges
h a ve y et t ak e n p l a c e. Pawn
grou ps o n t h e w i ngs remai n
m ob i l e a n d i t i s t h e c e n t r e i n
t h i s c a s e wh i ch i s becomi n g
b l o ck ad ed . B l a ck h as t h e c h o i ce
of fixing pawns f u rt h er
with . .. c4, or open i ng up one
f i l e (th e c -f i l e ) w i t h 1
c xd 4 2 c xd 4 .

P l ay w i l l a l m o s t i n e v i t ab l y T h i s t i m e , i n s t e a d o f a dd i n g
occur i n t h e open centre, u p pi eces , we can trace th e
a n d d o w n t h e o p e n c e n t r a l f i l es e vo l u t i o n o f t h e p a w n p a t t ern
and a long th e diagona l s i n the f r o m t h e a c t u a l m o v e s of a
d i rect ions i n d i cated in the vari ation of the French
di agram. A l l of th i s act i on i s Defen c e .
the produ ct of w h a t h as
previ ous ly h appened t o th e P l ay t h e f o l l ow i n g moves
p awn s . from t h e i n i t i a l pos i t i o n .

1 e4 e6

Th e F r e n c h D e f e n c e .

2 d4 d5
3 e5 c5
4 c3

17
D i a g ram 1 1 later on. I t i s s u fficient a t
t h e moment t o s i mp l y n o t e t h e
broad effects.

A t t h e end o f e a ch c h a p t e r
s o m e p r ob l e ms a n d p o s i t i o n s a r e
g i v e n f or y o u t o s o l ve . L o ok a t
the pawn patterns i n th e
f o l l ow i n g d i a g ra ms . C a n y o u
d e s cribe t h o s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s ,
their extent, permanency,
pres e n t s t a t e a n d i n f lu en c e o n
future p l ay ? I n doi ng s o
cons i der each pos i t i o n a s a
w h o l e a n d t h e n l o ok s e p a ra t e ly
at the queens i d e, t h e centre
a n d t h e k i n gs i d e .

Di agram 1 2

Th e f i rs t t h i n g o n e n o t i c e s
ab o u t d i a g r a m 1 1 i s t h a t n o
pi eces h a ve been move d : b o t h
p l ay ers h a ve b e e n t o o c o n c e r n e d
abo u t m o d i f y i n g t h e t e r r a i n
w i t h t h e i r p a w n s t o d o s oi y e t
it was t h e fre e d o m a n d t h e
f u ture o f t h o s e p i eces w h i ch
mo t i va t e d t h e i r e f f or t s .

Two pawn chains have


emerg e d : a B l a c k o n e f o r m e d by
the pawns at f7, e6 and dS,
whereas W h i t e 's extends a l o n g
t h e � i a g o n a l f r o m b2 t o e S , T h e
over l a p i n t h e mi d d l e gi ves a
f i xed pawn centre and t h e t o t a l
effect is to d i vi d e the board
in two. N o f i l es are open a nd
s o d i r e c t m o v e me n t u p a n d d ow n
t h e b o a r d i s u n l i k e ly for s ome
t i me. Act i vi t y wi l l h a ve to be
ob l i q u e . B l a c k w i l l s l a n t h i s
intenti ons towards the
q u eens i d e wh ereas Whi te's
movement wi l l s l ope in th e
oppos i t e d i rect i on. Aga i n i t i s
geography, c h a n ge d b y t h e
p a w n s , w h i c h d e t ermi n e s f u t u re
s t rat e gy .

W e s h a l l l o o k a t s uc h p a w n
arra n g e m e n t s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l
18
D i a g r am 13 D i agram 15

D i a gr a m 14 f a r a d v a n c e d b u t a re s o l i d a n d
s t ro n g .

On the queens ide White's


p a w n s a r e u n c o mm i t t e d 1 B l a ck ,
h ow e v e r , h a s v e n t u re d o n e o f
h i s and exchanged i t for
Wh i t e ' s d - p awn .

The k i ngside remai ns


u n d i s t urbe d .

T h e f i rs t e f f e c t o f t h e p a w n
p a t t ern o n future p l ay is the
p ers i s t e n t o n e o f t h e p a w n
e x c h a n g e . Th i s c o n f e r s o n B l a ck
t h e u s e of t h e h a l f o p e n c - f i l e
a n d on Wh i t e t h e h a l f open d­
f i l e. T h e B l a c k p a w n at d 6
c a n n o t b e defended b y a n ot h e r
p aw n a n d w i 1 1 make a u s ef u l
t arge t f o r W h i t e o n t h e d -f i l e
SOLUTIONS a l though i t is deep i n the
Black l i nes and not easy to
D i a g r a m 12 F e w p a w n m o ves h a ve a t t a ck . B o t h W h i t e ' s B i s h o p s
b e e n m a d e s o f a r a n d o n l y o ne a r e f r e e t o d e ve l o p t o a ch o i c e
exchange t ak e n p l ace a n d s o i t o f s q u a r e s w h er e a s B l a ck ' s , a s
i s proba b l e t h a t t h e game i s the s i tuat i o n stands , have a
s ti l l i n t h e early s t ages of more modest s cope, assumi ng
t h e o p e n i n g. that pieces are i n their
origi n a l pos i t i ons .
I n t h e c e n t r e B l a ck h as t w o
p a w n s t o o n e . T h e y a r e n o t v e ry I n genera l the s i tuat i o n is
19
f l u i d1 t h e p a w n p a t t e r n c a n In genera l, what has
e a s i l y, e v e n q u i c k l y , c h a n g e . happened to t h e pawns w i l l
Y o u w i l l p r o b ab l y r e c o g n i s e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e p l ay .
that t h e pos i t i on h a s evo l ved B o t h s i d e s mu s t s t e e r r o u n d t h e
from a Si ci l i a n Defence a n d q u e e n s i d e p a w n s b u t a h u g e area
t h i s f l e x ibi l i t y i s t h e v e ry ( t h e s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e k i n gsi d e
essence of t h e open i n g . p a w n s p l u s t h e c e n t ra l f i l e s
p l u s the area beh i n d B l a ck 's
D i agr a m 1 3 Th i s p os i t i o n i s o f q u eens i d e p a w n s ) i s open for
a m u c h m o r e d e c i d e d c h a r a ct e r . p i e c e a c t i v i t y . Not i c e t o o t h a t
Many p a w n s h ave been moved a n d t h e p a w n c o n f i gu r a t i o n w i l l
t wo p a irs e xcha nged. A c t i vi t y i n f l u e n c e e ve n t h e d i re c t i o n o f
i n t h e three areas o f t h e board t h a t a c t i vi t y . W h i t e ' s m o v e m e n t
h as b e e n o f d i f f e r e n t k i nd s a n d wi l l fl ow from the centre
h a s r e s u l t e d i n c o mp l e t e l y f orwards and t owards the
d i fferent s i t u a t i ons. k i n g s i d e1 B l a c k ' s f r o m t h e
q u e e n s i d e a n d c e n t r e t ow a rds
On the queens ide the pawns t h e k i n gs i d e .
h a ve m o ve d q u i ck l y t ow a rds e a ch
other bu t i ns t ea d of bei n g B l a ck ' s pawns on the
e x ch a n ge d t h ey p a s s e d e a ch q u e en s i d e are more a d v a n c e d
other and became fixed, than White's and this wi ll
e s t ab l i s h i n g a new and give h i m more space for
perma n e n t f e a t u r e i n t h e m a n o e u vr e n o t o n ly o n t h e
t erra i n . W e c a n d e s cribe t h i s q u e e n s i d e , w h i c h i s ob v i o u s ,
a s perma n e n t s i n c e o n ly t h e b u t i n t h e c e n t re t oo w h i ch i s
greatest vi o l e n c e piece not s o cl ear unti 1 you compare
s a cri f i c e c o u l d b l a s t a rou t e t h e n a rr o w c h a n n e l f or p i e c e
t h rough t h e r i d g e . d e ve l o pment between c 3 a n d f2
for W h i t e w i t h t h e more
Th e c lash of pawns i n t h e g e n e r o u s br e a d t h b e t w e e n c S a n d
c e n t r e h a s s w ep t t h e a r e a c l e a n f 7 f o r B l a ck .
a n d t h i s n ow o p e n s e c t o r c a n
aga i n b e r e g ar d e d a s p e r ma n e n t . D i a gr a m 1 4 M o v e m e n t h a s b e e n
It is u n l i k e l y t h at more t h a n co n f i n e d to t h e c - f i l e a n d
t h� o d d p a w n from a piece c e n tre. O n e p a w n e xchange h as
e x ch a n g e - w o u l d e ve r e n t e r i t taken p l a c e res u lt i ng i n a
a g a i n a n d b o t h s i d e s mu s t c o mp l e t e ly o p e n f i l e w h i ch b o t h
d e p e n d o n t h e d e p l oy m e n t o f p layers w i l l a t t empt to u s e .
p i e c e s f o r i t s c o n t ro l .
T h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e c en tre
O n t h e k i n gs i d e t h e p o s i t i o n i s b l o ck e d a l m o s t p e r ma n e n t l y ,
i s aga i n d i f fe r e n t . On ly o n e ' a l mos t ' b e ca u s e i t c o u l d be
p a w n m o ve h a s b e e n m a d e . T h e u n l o ck e d s h ou l d B l a ck w i s h t o
s i t u a t i o n h er e c o u l d b e c a l l e d venture f6. T h e ce ntre,
f l u i d , b u t o n e mu s t r e m e m b e r t h e n , forms a n i s l a n d aroun d
that p a w n moveme n t s in th i s w h i c h a l l a ct i v i t y mu s t f l ow
r egi o n w i l l b e i n h i b i t e d by t h e and the very shape o f that
n eed t o ret a i n good p a w n i s l a n d d e t e r m i n e s t h e d i re c t i o n
d efences for t h e Ki n gs , o f f l o w f o r e a c h s i d e : t ow a r d s
as s um i n g t h a t b o t h s i d es h av e t h e k i n gs i d e f or W h i t e a n d t h e
cas t l ed, or i ntend t o cas t le, q u e e n s i d e f o r B l a ck .
on that side.

20
W h i t e ' s c e nt r e p a w n s b e i n g C l e a r l y a n y a ct i o n , c e rt a i n l y
more a d v a n c e d g i v e h i m m o r e s e a i n th e f or e s e e ab l e f ut u r e , w i l l
r o o m f o r t h e m a n o e u vr e o f h i s b e c o n f i n e d t o th e a , b , g a n d
p i e ce s 1 B l a ck 's p os iti o n , h f i l e s . M o v e m e nt w i l l b e
t h o u gh s ou n d , i s c r a mp e d a n d h e st r a i g h t f o r w a r d r a t h e r t h a n
w i l l h a v e to t a k e c a r e i n d i a g o na l . B e c a u s e o f th e
d e v e l o p i n g h i s p i e c e s s o t h at a d v a n c e d n at u r e o f B l a c k ' s
th ey d o n ot g et i n e a c h oth e r ' s p aw n s h e h a s r e l at i v e f r e ed o m.
way . W h it e ' s m o st a d va n c e d p a w n i s
on the c - f i l e and it is
D i a gr a m 1 5 H e re a h u g e a r e a p r obab l e th at h e w i l l g a i n more
h a s b e c o m e b l o ck e d a s s u m i n g th e s p a c e f r o m m o v e m e nt o n t h e
p r o p o rt i o n s o f a n i s l a n d qu eens i d e and Black cou l d
c o nt i n e nt w i t h o n l y n a r r o w f u rt h e r h i s o w n c a u s e w i t h
c h a n n e l s t o l e ft a n d r i ght. a ct i vity o n th e oth e r w i n g.
CHAPTER 2

Mainly files

P a w n m o ves a n d e x c h a n ges a r e ab i l i t y o f t h e K n i g h t t o j u m p
i mp o rt a n t f o r t h e w a y i n w h i c h o v e r obs t a c l e s g i v e s i t a
t h ey f r e e o r c o n s t r i ct t h e gre a t e r f r e e d o m t h a n t h e o t h e r
mo veme n t o f p i e c e s . p i e c es i t h ey d e p e n d f o r e a s e o f
movement on open f i l es and
ranks a n d d i agon a l s , a n d t h i s
D i agram 16 me a n s p aw n a c t i vi t y .
W e w i l l cons i der c losely
what is happening when a pawn
a d va n c e s .

Di agona ls are opening a n d


c l os i n g .
2 Space i s being created
beh i n d t h e p a w n o n i t s f i l e i
s pace i s bei ng reduced i n
fron t .
3 T h e c l earance o f t h e s q uare
from w h i ch the pawn moves
a s s i sts i n c l eari n g t h e rank
through t h a t s q u are a n d ,
t h e r e f o r e , m o ve m e n t u po n i t .
4 The p a w n t r a v e l s f u r t h e r
a w a y from fri e n d ly f orces
a n d n e a r e r t o t h e e n e my
and s o the need for i ts
d e f e n c e w i l l i n cr e a s e .
5 T h e n e w s q u are w h i ch t h e
p a w n o c cu p i es preve n t s you
u s i ng that squ are f or a
I n t h e i n i t i a l p os i t i o n t h i s p i ece u n t i l the pawn moves
i s ob vi o u s . W i t h 1 e 4 t h e Q u e e n aga i n .
and Bishop are i mmedi at e ly
gi ven broader horizons and at Yo u r r e a c t i o n t o the
the same t i me the pawn forego i n g i s perh a p s t h a t a l l
c o n s t r i c t s t h e e n emy s i n c e a n y t h a t i s ob v i o u s , e v e n t r i v i a l .
B l a ck p i e c e t h a t a l i gh t s on d 5 B u t cons i der t h e f o l l ow i n g
o r f 5 w o u l d b e l o� t . T h e pos i t i ons :

22
D i a g ram 1 7 decreas e the s co p e o f h i s own
Rook w h i lst i ncreas i ng the
p o w e r o f t h e e n e my o n e. I n
d i agram 1 8 t h e o p p os i t e i s t h e
cas e a n d , t h erefore, t h e o n e t o
b e p r e f e rred b y W h i t e . T h e p o o r
u s e of R o ok s , p a rt i c u l ar l y i n
e n d i n gs , i s a c o m m o n e r r o r a n d
s o t h e a t t e mp t t o d i g d o w n t o
t h e bas i c e l ements of
p os i t i o n a l p l ay may n o t be s o
trivi a l after a l l.

W e s h a l 1 l o ok at f e w moves
f r o m t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n w h i ch
s h ow s o m e o f t h e effects of
m o vi n g p aw n s . ( T h e mo ves a r e
n o t a l w a y s t h e b es t 1 t h ey h a ve
been chosen to i l lustrate
p a rt i cu l a r p o i n t s . )

Di agram 1 8 1 d4

G i v i n g s o me m o ve m e n t o n the
ct- f i l e f o r t h e Q u e e n a n d o n th e
c 1 - h6 diagona l for the
B i s h o p , b u t o b s t ru ct i n g the
l o n g d i agonal a 1 h8.

d5

W i t h t h e s am e p o i n t s i n mi n d
a n d a l s o p r e v e n t i n g t h e f u rt h e r
a d va n c e o f t h e ct - p awn .

2 Nf3 Nf6

T h e K n i gh t s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t .

3 e3

O p e n i n g a d i a go n a l for the
White i s a pawn u p and so K i n g ' s B i s h op b u t c l os i n g one
h a s a c o ns i d e r a b l e a d va n t a g e i n f or t h e Qu e e n ' s B i s h op . A new
t h e e n d i ng. W h i ch o f t h e two l i n e o p e n s f o r t h e Qu e e n , th e
d i a grams shows the most d1 h 5 d i ag o n a l .
d es i ra b l e p o s i t i o n f o r t h e
Wh i t e R o o k ? 3 e6

To m a k e h i s w i n n i n g b i d M u ch t h e s ame can be s a i d
W h i t e w i l l h av e t o a d va n c e h i s f o r B l a ck ' s mo v e .
p a s s ed a - p a w n w i t h t h e s u p p or t
of h i s R o ok . I n d i a g r a m 1 7 t h e 4 c4
e f f e c t o f t h i s w o u l d be t o
M o r e f re e d o m f o r t h e Q u e e n h i gh w a y f o r t h e R o o k s and
whos e i n f lu e n c e n ow spreads o u t Qu e e n s o f e i t h e r s i d e .
i n t hree d i rect i ons .
b) 5 . . . exdS No open f i l e
4 c6 res u l t s from t h i s but n ow t h e
e - f i l e a n d c - f i l e h a ve o n l y o n e
B l a ck f orms a s o l i d t r i a n g l e pawn each and are c a l l e d h a l f
o f p a w n s i n t w o c o n ver g i n g p a w n o r s e mi - o p e n f i l e s , again
chains and opens another us efu l l i n e s o f a ct i vi t y f o r
d i a g o n a l f o r h i s Qu e e n a l t h o u gh f i l e p i eces. I t i s a ls o c l ea r
h i s Q u e e n ' s B i s h o p i s n ow b a d l y t h a t t h e c -f i l e w i l l b e more
h emme d i n . u s ef u l to W h i t e and the a- f i l e
t o B l a ck .
D i agram 1 9
cl 5 N( o r Q ) x d S . In
e i t h er c a s e t w o h a l f o p e n f i l e s
a re t h e res u l t : t h e d - f i l e a n d
c-fi l e .

I n t h i s w e h ave con centrated


m a i n l y on t h e e f f e c t on f i l e s
and i t i s c lear that pawn
m o ve m e n t s a n d e x c h a n g e s h a ve
c o n s i d e r ab l e a n d las t i ng
e f f e c t s u p o n t h e t e rr a i n .

T h e g r o u p o f e x am p l e s w h i ch
f o l l ow are for you t o i d ent i fy
a n d d i s t i n gu i s h a m o n g c l o s e d ,
o p e n a n d h a l f o p e n f i l e s . Th e
f i rs t t w o h a ve p a w n s o n l y , t h e
second pair contain pieces. In
e a ch p o s i t i o n t ak e e a c h f i l e , a
t o h , a n d say w h ether i t i s
Th e p o s i t i o n w e h a v e n o w c losed, open or h a lf open .
arr i v e d a t c a n b e u s ed t o s h ow
the cons equ ences of pawn
exchanges . I f W h i t e p l ays ,

5 cxd 5

B l a ck c a n r e p l y i n s e v e r a l
ways. He can capture with
either pawn, t h e Q u een o r t h e
K n i gh t .

a) 5 • • • cxd5 This method


c l ears a l l t h e p a w n s from t h e
c - f i l e w h i ch t h e n b e c o me s t h a t
v i t a l feature of t h e t erra i n ,
a n o p e n f i l e . (A n o p e n f i l e i s
o n e w i t h o u t p a w n s i rr es p e c t i v e
o f h ow m a n y p i e c e s l i e· i n i t . )
Th i s w i l l s e r v e a s a f i n e
24
D i a g r a m 2D Di a g r a m 22

D i a g ram 2 1 D i agram 2 3

It m a y n o t a l w a y s b e
d es i ra b l e t o open fi l es ,
p a rt i c u l ar l y i f t h e e n e my h a s a
b e t ter c h a n ce o f u s i n g t h em,
bu t s h o u l d w e co n s i d e r t h a t o u r
p i e c e s a r e r e a dy t o e xp e n d t h e n
w e n e e d t o b e a l ert t o t h e
p os s i b i l i ty o f p r i s i ng open
those lines .

25
D i a gram 2 4 I n t h e s a me w a y . l o ok f o r
means o f o p en i n g f i l e s u s e f u l l y
i n t h e f o l l ow i ng d i agrams .

Di agram 2 6

In d i agram 24, a s i mp l e pawn


exchange, 1 cxb5 cxb5,
crea tes a n open c -f i l e , a
u s ef u l h i gh w ay i n t o t h e B l a c k
p o s i t i on f o r W h i t e ' s R o ok s . Wh i te t o p l a y
D i a g ram 2 5
Di agram 2 7

H e r e t h e b -f i l e i s a l ready
h a l f o p en a n d a n e x c h a n g e o f B l a ck t o p l a y
p i eces i s a l l that i s needed t o
o p e n i t comp l e t e l y : 1 B x c 6 c h
b x c 6 . W h i t e w o u l d t h en d o u b l e
h i s R o o k s and m a k e a f o �mi d a b l e
e n t ry a t b 7 .
26
Di agram 2 8 D i ag ra m 2 1
C l os ed f i l es: b, d, e, g, h .
Open f i les : f.
H a l f open f i l es : a , c .

D i ag ram 22
C l o s e d f i l es : b, e, f, h.
Open f i l es : d.
H a l f o p e n f i les : a , c , g .

I t is o n l y the pres en ce or
absence of pawns which
d et erm i n e s t h e c l os e d or open
n a t u r e of t h e f i l e. The
pres ence o f p i eces does not
a ffect t h e i s s u e f or t h ey can
b e m o ve d o r f o r c e d a w a y f r o m
t h e f i l e w h ereas p aw n s m u s t b e
e i t h e r e x c h a n g e d or w o n t o
c l ear t h e l i ne.
Wh i t e t o p l a y D i ag r a m 2 3
C l o s e d f i l es : a , e , g , h ."
Di a gr a m 2 9 Open f i l es : b, f .
H a l f o p e n f i les : c , d .

S i x p i e ces l i e o n t h e f -f i l e
b u t i t mu s t s t i l l b e r e ga r d e d
as ope n .

D i ag ra m 2 6 1 h x g6 h x g6 o p e n s
u p th e h -f i l e, crea t i n g a f i n e
h i g h w a y i n t o t h e B l a ck K i n g ' s
p os i t i o n .

D i ag r a m 2 7 1 • • • Bxf5 2 exf5
R c e 7 a n d B l a ck has n o t o n l y
c o mp l e t e l y o p e n e d w h a t w a s a
half open e-fi le but has
d o u b l e d h i s R o o k s a n d i s r e a dy
t o i nvade at e2. W h i t e cannot
c h a l l e n ge on t h e f i l e for 3
Ra e 1 Rx e 1 4 Rxe1 Rx e 1 c h
5 Q x e 1 l e a ves h i s B i s h op e n
B l a ck t o p l a y pri s e .

D i ag r a m 2 8 T h e c - f i l e i s c l os e d
S O LUT I O N S and the opport u n i t y for open i n g
i t comp letely w i t h a pawn
D i ag ram 2 0 exch a n g e h a s ari s e n . W h i t e has
C l os ed f i l e s : b, e , g, h. t h e c h o i c e o f c a p t u r i n g e i t h er
Open fi les : d, f. t h e b or d-pawn and i t makes a
Half open fi les : a , c . l o t o f d i f f er e n c e w h i ch w a y h e
t a k e s . D o n 't b e m i s l e d b y t h e
27
f a ct t h at 1 c x d 5 cxd5 gi ves Qi�.&£�� -�� Here a piece
t h e s a m e p o s i t i o n a s 1 c xb 5 e xchange opens a f i le but not
c xb 5 b e c a u s e B l a c k d o e s n o t by 1 • • • Bxc3 becaus e Whit e
have t o recapture that way i n cou l d t h en recapture w i t h h i s
t h e s e c on d c a s e . H e c a n g o Qu e e n , b u t by 1 • • • Bxa3 2
1 • • • a xb 5 , k e e p i n g t h e c - f i l e b x a 3 , s p o i l i n g W h i t e 's p a w n s a t
h a l f o p e n an d h a l f o p e n i n g t h e the s ame t i me.
a - f i l e f o r h i s ow n u s e .

C o rrect i s t h e u n a mb i g u o u s
cxd5 cxd5, after which White
i n va d es a l o n g t h e c - f i l e .
CHAPTER 3

Mainly diagonals

D i agram 3 0 D i a gram 3 1

D i a go n a l s a r e i mp or t a n t f o r D i a g ram 3 2
b o t h Q u e e n s a n d B i s ho p s , b u t
m o r e p a rt i cu l a r l y f o r B i s h o p s
s i nce Qu e ens h ave other means
of gett i n g about. D i agram 3 0
s h ow s t w o w a y s f r o m t h e
i n i t i a l p os i t i o n o f c l eari n g
l i nes for a B i shop. Centra l
paw n moves free t h e m bu t t h e y
can a l s o b e d e v e l oped t h e o t h er
way by b3 and g3, when t h e
Bi shops can s tand o n t h e l ong
d i agona ls at b2 a n d g2 or
p erhaps f i n d o t h er u s e f u l
ou t l e t s a t a 3 a n d h 3 .

As the game d e v e l ops a n d


wh i l s t t h e B i s h op s r e ma i n o n
t h e b o a r d i t i s m o s t i mp o r t a n t
to keep d iagonals open or
e n s u r e t h a t t h ey c a n b e o p e n e d .

29
In d i agram 3 1 w i t h mos t o f Aga i n t h e only way to
t h e p a w n s b l o ck ad e d a n d t h e p r e v e n t ma t e .
res t l i k e l y t o f i n i s h t h e s a m e
way, t h e B i s h o p s a r e v e ry 3 Bxf6 1
res t r i c t e d i n m o v e m e n t a n d a r e
q u i t e u n ab l e t o p e n e t r a t e t h e Forci ng open t h e a 1 hB
opponen t ' s h a l f o f t h e board . d i a go n a l a g a i n a n d m a t e c a n n o t
be a vo i d e d. A good e xamp l e of
I n c o n t ra s t , t h e B i s h o p s i n f r e e f l ow i n g B i s h o p s .
d i. a g r a m 3 2 e n j o y f a r m o r e A l ess d rama t i c t h ough n o
freedom a lthough th ere are l e s s i mp o r t a n t e x a mp l e a p p e a r s
a l mo s t a s m a n y p a w n s o n t h e
i n d i a g ram 3 4 .
board.
D i agram 3 4
D i agram 3 3

B l a ck t o P l a y
In the next pos i t i o n
( d i agram 3 3 ) W h i t e can o p e n u p B l a ck 's prob lem i s t h e
d e ve l o pm e n t o f h i s q u e e n s i d e .
a line f or t h e B i s h o p at b2
w i t h d e va s t a t i n g r e s u l t s : T � e R o ok i s l o ck ed i n b y t h e
Bishop and i f t h e Bishop goes
t o d 7 i t s p ros p e ct s are n o t
1 c4 i mp r o v e d . W h i t e , i f g i ve n t h e
o pport u n i t y , cou l d p l ay eS a n d
T h ere i s o n ly o n e w ay t o c S , f i x i ng t h e o p p o s i n g p a w n s
s t o p t h e ma t e a t g 7 . a n d h e n c e s h utt i n g u p B l a ck ' s
B i s h o p f o r ever .
f6
B l a ck p l a y s 1 e5 whi lst
• • .

Unfort u n a t e ly i t o p ens u p a there i s s t i l l t i me, open i n g u p


new di agonal for the other a n a ve n u e f o r h i s B i s h o p .
Bish op .
A l ert n e s s for t h i s k i n d o f
2 B d S ch Rf7 d e ta i l . u n drama t i c t h ough i t
may b e , is at least as
30
i mport a n t as t h e a b i l i t y to o f w h i ch we s h a l l deal w i th
s p o t W h i t e ' s w i n n i. n g i d e a in h er e a n d oth ers w i l l b e treated
t h e p r e v i o u s e x amp l e . l a t e r. T h e f i rs t o n e is r e a l l y
a n i l l u s i o n a b o u t t h e g e o m e t ry
Di a g r a m 3 5 o f t h e c h es s b o a r d w h i ch i s w e l l
i l l u s t ra t' e d by Ri c h a r d R e t i i n
t h e f o l l ow i n g amu s i n g s t u d y .

D i a gr a m 3 6

W e h a v e s e e n t h a t the s i mp l e
!!!£��!!!��� of pawns opens
d i a g o n a l s ( a s w e l l , o f c o u rs e ,
as c l o s i n g o t h e r s ) u n l i k e
open i n g f i l es w h e n e x c h a nges W h i t e t o p l ay a n d d raw l
have to b e made. D i agona l s t o o
can b e opened b y e xchan ges a n d H i gh l y u n l i k e l y i s o n e ' s
i n t h i s cas e w i t h o u t c l o s i n g r e a c t i o n o n f i rs t s e e i n g t h i s
a ny o t h e r s . p os i t i o n , f o r t h e B l a ck p a w n i s
we l l c l ear of the White King
In d i a g r a m 3 5 W h i t e ' s B i s h o p whereas the White pawn is
enj oys o n e g o o d d i a g o n a l , d 1 - e a s i ly s t op p ed . 1 c 7 K b 7. e t c i s
h5, but 1 dxc4 dxc4 w i l l as hopeless as 1 K h 7 h4 2 Kh6
cons i d era b l y i mp r o v e i t s s c o p e h 3 3 Kh 5 h2 a n d s o o n . B u t
on t h e l o n g d i ag o n a l , aB h1, t h e r e i s a s o l u t i o n:
striking into the e n e my
queensi de. A n ot h er p o i n t t o 1 Kg7 Kb6
n o t i c e a b o u t d i a go n a l s i s t h a t 2 Kf6
t h ey a r e n ot a l w a y s , o r e v e n
of t e n , o p e n e d u p c o mp l et e l y b y N o w i f B l a ck c a p t u res t h e
a p a w n m o ve or a n e x c h a n g e , b u t p aw n h e l o s e s h i s own t o 3 K g 5 .
t h e e f f e c t o f e v e n a s ma l l
c l e ara n c e c a n b e w o r t h wh i l e . 2 h4
3 Ke5 h3
Opera t i n g o n f i l es i s , w i t h 4 Kd6 ! h2
many begi nners, better 5 c7
u n d e rs t o o d th a n m a k i n g t h e b e s t
u s e o f d i a g o n a l s . T h ere a re a Both s i des w i l l queen with a
n u mber o f r e a s o n s f o r t h i s , o n e d r aw n e n d i n g .
31
The p o i nt is that W h i t e moves D i a g r am 3 8
h i s King along the di agona l s o
that h e t hreatens both t o catch
t h e B l a ck pawn a n d prot ect h i s
own. From t h e origi n a l p os i t i on
i t takes n o l onger t o get t o eS
than to hS. If B l a ck h a d
captured the pawn when W h i t e
was a t e S , t h e n W h i t e w ou l d
move down t h e d i agon a l f 4 , g3,
h2 to c a p t u re B l a ck ' s p a w n ,
tak i n g n o l o nger o n th i s z i gzag
c ou r s e t h a n m o v i n g d i re c t l y o n
th e h -f i l e . T h e geometri ca l
d i s t a n ce a l o n g a d i a g o n al i s o f
cours e l o n g e r t h a n t h e l e n g t h
of a rank or f ile, but t h e
chess d i s ta n c e i s t h e s ame, f o r
h e re i t i s s i m p l y t h e n u m b e r o f
s q u a r e s t h a t i s i mp o rt a n t .

T h e f o l l o w i n g a re f o r y o u t o
s o l ve. What you h ave t o d o h ere
is to i mp ro v e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f
pi eces by mak i n g u s e o f Wh i t e t o p l a y
di agon a ls .

D i a g ram 3 7 D i a g ram 3 9

Wh i t e t o p l a y B l a ck t o p l a y

32
D i a g r am 4 0 been enhanced but the new
d i ag o n a l . a2 g B g i v e s h im a
p ow e r f u l p i n . Th i s i s a g o o d
e x a m p l e o f r a p i d r e s u l t s f r om
the openi�g of l i nes.

Q!_�_g_���-�g B 1 a ck 's B i s h op,


h emmed i n at b6 by h i s own
p a w n s , n e e d s t o b e e x h um e d .
There is no prospect of
a d va n c i n g h i s c - p a w n , w i t h o u t
l o s i n g i t , i n o r d e r t o o p en t h e
a7 g1 d i a go n a l . B u t 1
Nb 4 , b e c a u s e o f t h e t h r e a t
a ga i ns t W h i t e ' s Qu e en a n d a ­
p a w n , f o r c e s 2 N x b 4 , w h er e u p on
2 • • • c xb 4 n o t o n l y o p en s u p
t h e B i s h o p , bu t s t ra i gh t e n s o u t
h i s own pawns.

D i agram 40 B y g i v i n g u p on e
Wh i t e t o p l a y p a wn t o g a i n a n o t h e r e l s ew h e r e
w i t h 1 d6 B x d 6 2 B x b 7 R a 7 3 ·

B f 3 , W h i t e i n c r e a s e s t h e s co p e
SOLUTIONS of h i s B i s h o p a n d w e a k e n s
B l a ck ' s q u e e n s i d e p a w n s .
Di agram 37 I f W h i t e d oes n o t
react q u i c k l y B l a ck w i l l g o 1
b 4 a n d b u ry t h e W h i t e
Bi s h o p f o r e v e r. Th e r e f o r e 1
b4, open i n g u p a r o u t e o n t h e
a2 g B d i a g o n a 1 i s
imm ed i a t e ly e s s e n t i a l .

No t i c e t h e o p e n f i l e s i n t h i s
d i agram. T h e c , f , h f i l es are
all f u l l y o p e n b u t s i n c e t h e r e
are n o f i l e p i e c e s l ef t o n t h e
board those often vita l
h i ghways h ere h a ve the
appeara n c e o f o ve r g r ow n a n d
an ci en t t ra ck s .

Qi�&.���-�� T h e p os i t i o n of
Wh i t e ' s Q u e e n c o u l d c l e a r l y b e
im p r o v e d . O n e s y s t e m w o u l d b e 1
O d 2 , a im i n g a t c o n t ro l o f t h e
o p en d - f i l e a s w e l l a s t h e
pos s i b i l i t y o f u s e f u l a ct i o n o n
the e 1 a S d i a g o n a l . P r ob ab l y
s t r on g e r i s 1 c 4 f o r c i n g t h e
e x c h an g e , 1 • • • bxc4 2 Qxc4.
Now n o t o n ly h a s t h e p o w e r o f
the Queen o n t h e f 1 - a 6 l i ne
CHAPTER 4

Mainly ranks

Di agona l s open f i rs t , f i les a n d f i l e s a n d s o m o r e s e n s ib l e


f o l l o w , bu t r a n k s t e n d t o c l os e a i ms w o u l d b e t h e p a rt i a l
b e f or e t h ey o p e n a ga i n a n d i t openi ng o f vital ranks just as
i s much later i n t h e game t h a t w e h a ve s e e n t h e p art i a l
t h ey c ome i n t o t h e i r own . open i n g o f s e lected d i agona l s .

Consider the i n i t i a l It i s t h e R o ok m o r e t h a n
pos i t i o n . I f w e u s e t h e s a me a ny t h i n g wh i ch w i l l req u i r e
defi n i t i on for the moment as w e c l e a r r a n k s . T h e Q u e e n d o es n o t
u s e for o p e n f i les, t h en a r a n k d e p e n d o n t h e m a n d becau s e s h e
is open when no pawns s t a n d o n t ra v e ls o n d i a g o n a l s c a n r e a c h
i t , a n d t h er e w o u l d be s i x o p e n t h os e r a n k s w h i ch Rooks f o r
r a n k s i n d i agram 4 1 . l o n g f i n d i n a c c e s s ib l e .

D i agram 4 1 Th e R o o k s t a r t s l i f e w i t h
t h e d i s ad va n t a g e o f b e i n g s t u ck
i n a corner of the board.
C e n t r a l f i l es o p e n m o r e o f t e n
a n d e ar l i e r t h a n o t h e r s b u t t h e
Rook s t i l l has t o exerci s e
patience, w ai t i n g for other
p i eces t o c l ear before
o c c u py i n g t h em. E v e n gre a t e r
p a t i e n c e i s n ee d ed b e f o r e h e
can venture i nt o the f i l e and
l ook f or ranks to use.
Eventua l ly h e w i l l h ave t o, for
t h e R o ok w i l l n e e d to c h a n g e
d i rect i o n a n d seek n e w t arget s ,
but i f h e d o es so t o o q u i ck l y
h e w i l l be caught i n th e
o p e n i n g . B e g i n n e rs a t t e m p t a
reck l es s s o l u t i o n of th e
p r ob l e m w i t h 1 a 4 a n d 2 R a 3 b u t
t h ere i s l i t t l e po i n t , for even
Each p l ay e r ' s s e c o n d r a n k i f t h e R o ok i s n o t c a p t u r e d by
w o u l d n e ed e i gh t p a w n m o ves f o r a B i s h o p as s o o n as i t l a n ds o n
c o mp l e t e c l e a r a n c e a n d a s t h e s e a 3 , i t w i l l h a v e l i t t l e f u t u re ,
m o ves w e re b e i n g m a d e more becomi ng trapped between t h e
ra n k s w o u l d b e c l os i n g. C l e a r l y c l os i n g j aws o f two ranks o f
t h ere i s , from t h i s p o i n t of p awn s .
v i e w , m o r e a f f i n i t y" b e t w e e n
r a n k s a n d d i ag o n a l s t h a n r a n k s Later in the game the
34
opport u n i ty t o u s e t h e t h i r d As p i e c e s mo v e f r o m t h e
rank s af e l y can s omet i mes f i rs t rank a n d p a w n s from t h e
ari s e , and this can occur s e c o n d t h es e b e c o m e vu l n e rab l e
before any o t h er rank, t o R o ok a t t a ck s w h e n f i l e s
es p e c i a l l y t h e s e c o n d , of o p e n . The back rank mat i n g
c o u r s e , b e c o m e s a v a i l ab l e , t hreat ls of common o ccurrence
becau s e p a w n s o f t e n a d va n c e t w o a n d a s i mp l e e x a mp l e a p p e ars o n
squares , s t e p p i n g over t h e d i agram 4 3 .
third rank , o r s t a y w h er e t h e y
are t o begi n w i t h . T a k e s u ch a D i agram 4 3
pos i t i o n as w e s e e i n d i agram
42.

D i a gram 4 2

B l a ck h a s l e f t h i s b a ck r a n k
u n d e f e n d e d a n d 1 R e a is m a t e .
B u t even if B l a ck had been more
a w a re a n d m a d e a f l i gh t - s q u a r e
for h i s Ki ng (as W h i t e has
A Rook o n t h e h -f i l e wo u l d d o n e ) a n d a d va n c e d h i s h - p a w n
grea t l y a s s i s t t h e Q u e e n i n h e r a s q u a r e at an e a r l i er mo m e n t ,
attack but access via the W h i t e w o u l d s t i l l h av e 1 R e 8 ch
n orma l r o u t e , d 1 o r e 1 , i s K h 7 2 R e 7 w i t h a n i n vas i o n o f
u n a v a i l ab l e b e c a u s e d 3 a n d e 3 t h e s ev e n t h r a n k w h i ch wi l l n e t
are c o n t r o l l e d by B l a ck p i e c e s . him a pawn.
S u r p r i s i n g l y i t i s t h e Qu e e n ' s
R o ok w h i ch h as t h e q u i ck e s t T h e m o s t i mp o r t a n t t h i n g t o
r o u t e t o t h e k i n gs i d e b y 1 a 4 , notice here is that access to
Ba6, 2 Ra3 w i th a ccess t o both t h e s e v e n t h a n d e i gh t h r a n k s
f3 and h 3. was via a n open f i l e. We can
n ow d es cribe t h e e vo l u t i on of
I t i s n o t t h a t t h e t h i rd t h e R o o k ' s g r ow i n g p ow e r : i t
r a n k i s a n a t t a ck i n g l i n e i n s i ts p a t i e n t ly i n t h e corner
such m i d d l e game s i tuat i ons, u nt i l other pi eces are
bu t a me a n s o f s w i t ch i n g f or c e s d e ve l o p e d , m o ve s t ow a rds t h e
q u i ck l y b e t w e e n t h e t w o s i d e s c e n t r e f i l e s e x e r t i n g p r es s u re
of the board: a handy f rom a d i s t an ce, i t s l i p s i n t o
c o m mu n i c a t i o n t re n c h . e n e my s p a c e a l o n g t h e o p e n i n g
35
h i g h w a y s a n d t h e n e xp a n ds i n D i a gram 45
fu ll strength a long t h e far
r a nk s .

T h e r e i s a f o r m i d ab l e l o g i c
gu i d i n g t h e d e s t i n y o f t h e R o o k
w h i ch makes i t a f as c i n a t i n g
piece. It should be handled
w i t h g r e a t e r c a re a n d t h ou g h t
than is usua l ly gi ven to i t 1
n o t o n l y by b e g i n n ers , f o r w e
a l l from t i me t o t i me become a
l i t t l e i rr i t at e d t h a t i t s
growth i n i n f lu e n c e i s s o s l ow
a n d w e are i n c l i n e d to r e g a r d
i t a s c l u ms y w h e n i n f a c t w e
s h ou l d e x e r c i s e more p a t i e n c e .

H e r e a r e s o m e p r ob l e m s f o r
y o u t o w o rk o u t b a s e d o n r a n k s
a n d a c c e s s t o t h em .
How d oes W h i t e , t o p l ay ,
D i agram 44 e xp l o i t h i s d o ub l ed R o ok s ?

D i a gr a m 4 6

B l a c k t o p l a y . Ha has contro l
of the f - f i le. How does h e
e xp l o i t i t ? Wh i t e t o p l ay a n d w i n

36
Di agram 4 7 prepari ng t o doub l e t h e Rooks
o n t h e s eventh w i t h t e mpo -c5
3 Rdd7 and W h i t e w i ns the a or
f pawn .

T h i s d ou b l i n g o n t h e s e v e n t h
i s v e r y p o w er f u l . N o t i c e h o w i t
n ot o n ly rel egates t h e King t o
t h e b a ck rank , bu t threa t e n s
m a t e w i t h s o m e c o n f i gu r a t i o n s
of pieces and pawns. For
examp l e, s u ppos i n g B l ack h a d
tried to s ave his f -pawn w i t h
3 • • • f 6 . Th ere w o u l d f o l l ow : 4
R x h 7 c h K g B 5 R c g 7 mat e .
B l ack h ad a no t h er a pproach
t o h i s pro b lems as the
f o l l ow i n g s h ow s : 1 R d 7 a 5 2
Rb7 b5 3 Rd d 7 KgB, s eemi n g
t o s e cure a l l h i s w eaknesses.
B l a ck t o p l ay a n d w i n B u t a l l h i s p i e c es a r e n ow t i e d
d o w n t o t h e d ef e n c e a n d W h i t. e ' s
gr i p i s i r o n . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g
SOLUT I O N S free to s top Whi te's King
i n vad i n g a n d u l t i ma t e ly p a w n s
D i agram 4 4 By 1 Rf2. W h i t e
• • • mu s t f a l l .
h a s a ch o i c e b e t w e e n p r o t e ct i n g
h i s e - p awn w i t h h i s R o o k or D i agr a m 4 6 B l a ck i s c l e a r l y i n
movi n g i t . Hi s Ki n g i s t o o f a r t r ou b l e w i t h h i s Ki n g e xpos e d
away t o h e lp. I f 2 R e 1 t h en R h 2 o n t h e g and h f i l es. He cou l d
or 2 e4 then 2 •• • Re2, winning s w i t c h a Rook vi a t h e fourth
a pawn i n e i t h er c a s e . N o t i ce rank Rd5 g5 if
h o w u s ef u l t h e i n va s i o n o f t h e g i ve n t i me a n d s o W h i t e mus t
s even t h rank i s t o get i n r e a c t q u i ck l y .
beh i n d t h e e n e my p a w n s .
1 R a 3 . T h i s r a p i d s w i t ch of
P o s s i b l e e n t ry p o i n t s f o r t h e R o o k fro m q u e e n t o k i n gs i d e
t h e W h i t e R o o k i n t o t h e B l a ck v i a t h e t h i r d r a n k g i v e s B l a ck
p o s i t i o n a t d 6 , f 6 , f 7 , fB a r e no opportunity for the
guard e d b y a w e l l - p l a c e d B l a ck s ug g es t e d m a n o e u v r e a n d 1 • • •

K i n g. H a d t h i s n o t b e e n s o a n d Rd x 1 l e aves a mat e i n t w o : 2
the Black King had been at, R g 3 c h K moves 3 R h 4 .
say, c7, t h en, a f t er 1 Rf2
• • •

2 e4 Re2 3 Rf1 Rxe4 Bes t is 1 R f e B , t o mak e


• • •

4 Rf7ch, W h i t e i nvades t h e a f l i gh t - s q u are f o r t h e K i n g .


s e ve n t h a n d r eg a i n s h i s p a w n There wou l d fo l l ow : 2 Rg3 ch
w i th a good game. KfB 3 Rh4 when RhB mate
b e comes u n a vo i d a b l e .
D i a gr a m 4 5 Aga i n i t is t h e
seventh rank w h i ch i s D i a gr a m 4 7 A n o b v i o u s t a r g e t
vu l n erab l e . 1 R d 7 R a B 2 R c 7 - i s t h e p aw n a t b 2 .

37
1 • •• Re2 2 Rb 1 (2 b3 does • • • R a b 8 f i rs t w o u l d n o t
not work beca u s e th ere i s a p i n h a ve b e e n a s g o o d b e ca u s e W h i t e
o n h i s a- pawn after 2 • • •a xb 3 ) w o u l d have p r o t e c t ed his pawn
Rb8 (2 a3 also wins) 3 b3
• • • as w e l l as his second rank w i t h
a xb3 4 a xb3 R x b 3 ! e xp l o i t i n g 2 Rd2 .
t h e b a ck r a n k we a k n e s s .
CHAPTER 5

All routes

We h ave l ooked a t f i l e s , ranks 6 Nf6


and d i ag o n a l s s e p a r a t e l y i n 7 Bg2 Be7
order t o bri n g o u t t h e i r 8 0 - 0 0 - 0
part i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t
they are, o f cours e , S l o w l y t h e Rooks f i n d m or e
i nterre l a t e d a s w e s a w w h e n r o om i n w h i ch t o o p e r a t e .
cons i d eri n g r a n k s a n d a c c e s s t o
t h em t h r o u g h t h e f i l e s . A n 9 dxcS BxcS
e x am p l e f r o m m a s t e r p r a c t i c e
w i l l s h o w h o w a l l r o u t es are D i a gr am 4 8
i n terdep e n d e n t .

C a p ab l a n ca Z n os k o - B o r ow s k y

Pari s , 1 9 3 8

1 d4 dS
2 c4 e6
3 Nc3 cS

Th e T a r r a s c h Def e n c e t o t h e
i.)u e e n ' s G amb i t . I t l eads t o a n
open gam e w h e r e c o n tro l o f t h e
h i ghwa y s i s a l l imp o rt a n t .

4 cxd S exdS

M o r e l i n es a r e o p e n e d . B l a ck
has good routes for both h i s
Bi s h o p s a n d t h e p os s i b l e u s e o f
t h e h a l f o p e n a -f i l e . W h i t e h a s
yet t o re l ea s e h i s K i n g ' s
Bi s h o p b u t t h e c - f i l e s h o u l d White has opened the c-fi l e
q u i ck l y b e c ome h i s . c om p l e t e l y n o w , making a
p o s s ib l e r o u t e i n t o t h e e n em y
5 Nf3 Nc6 q u ee n s i de. N o t i ce h ow h is
6 g3 f i a n ch et t o e d B i s h o p con verges
o n t h e s am e v i t a l a r e a s o t h a t
So t h e Ki n g 's B i s h o p is t o two pi eces , a lthough on
be d e ve l o p e d o n t h e l o n g o ppos i t e s i des o f t h e board,
di a g o na l . a us e f u l l i n e o n a r e d e s t i n e d t o c omb i n e t h e i r
wh i c h o nly t w o B l a ck p aw n s l i e . e f f or t s .

39
1 0 Na4 D i a g r am 4 9

D r i v i n g a w ay t h e B i s h o p f r o m
the a7 - g 1 d i ago n a l , and
prep ari n g t o make u s e o f i t
h i ms e l f .

10 Be7
1 1 Be3

T h e W h i t e B i s h o p s n ow s t a n d
o n a d j a c e n t d i a g o n a l s , ma k i n g a
du a l carri ageway i n t o t h e
q u e e ns i d e .

11 Ne4

Not o n ly does B l a ck f i n d a
g o o d p o s t i n t h e c e n t re f o r t h e
Knight but h e c l ears f 6 ready
to put h i s Ki ng's B i s h op t h ere
so t h a t i t w i l l comma n d th e B l a ck a l s o u s e s t a c t i c a l
l ong a 1 h 8 d i agon a l . means f o r p os i t i o n a l e n d s . He
n e eds t o c h a l l e n g e W h i t e o n t h e
12 Nd4 NeS a8 h 1 d i ago n a l by bri n gi n g a
1 3 Rc1 Bi shop to b7, and on the c-fi le
w i t h a R o o k at c a . It i s a
A s s um i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e o p e n b a t t l e o f t h e h i gh w a y s a n d o n e
f i l e but, apart from t h e t h a t h e mu s t j o i n q u i ck ly
positional value of the move, b efore h e i s o ver-ru n . He n ow
t h e re i s a t a ct i c a l p o i n t f o r t h reat e n s t o gai n t i me w i t h
B l a ck c a n n o t n o w p l a y 1 3 1 4 . . . bS f or t h i s w o u l d w i n
N c 4 b e ca u s e o f 1 4 R x c d x c 4 1 5 the a-pawn after 1 5 Nc3 Nxc3
Bxe4 . e t c. If W h i t e prevents t h i s
w i t h 1 4 a 3 , t h ere c o u l d f o l l ow :
13 QaS 14 • • • b5 1 5 Nc3 Nxc3 16
Rxc3 B b 7 , w h e n W h i t e is
c l early n ot g et t i n g i t a l l h i s
ow n w a y o n t h e o p e n l i n es .

1 4 Bf4 1

B l a ck i s n o t a l l ow e d t o
a s s u m e a n y i n i t i at i ve f or t h e
a p p a re n t l y d e s i ra b l e 1 4•••Bf6
l os es a p i e c e to 1 5 Bxe4 d xe 4
1 6 RcS, f o rk i n g Q u e e n a n d
Kn i gh t ,

14 Ng6
1 5 Bc7

40
T h e d a rk s q u a red d i a g o n a l s E n cr o a c h i n g on t h e B l a ck
offer easy movemen t t o t h i s Qu e e n a n d t h r e a t e n i n g t o w i n
Bi s h o p . i t. Again t h i s is a tacti cal
means to a posi t i ona l end for
15 Qa6 B l a ck mu s t s e e k a f l i gh t - s q u a r e
1 6 a3 f o r t h e Ou e e n • • • •

Now W h i t e has t i me to 19 b6
pr o t e c t h i s a - p a w n , r e a d y t o
ch a l l e n g e t h e c e n t r e w i t h N c 3 . w h i ch opens further the long
l i gh t - s qu ared d i agon a l .
16 Bd7
1 7 Nc3 N xc3 2 0 e4
18 Rxc3
So t h at a fter t h e e xchange,
D i agram 5 0
20 dxe4
2 1 B x e4 ,

W h i t e h a s c o mp l e t e ly o p e n e d t w o
l i n e s : t h e l o n g di ago n a l a n d
t h e d - f i le. T h i s c lear and
p e rs i s t e n t l o g i c i s t y p i c a l o f
C a p ab l a n ca .

21 Rae8

D i agram 5 1

Becaus e of t h e threat
aga i n s t h i s w e a k a n d i s o l a t ed
d-pa w n , B l a ck h a s b e e n forced
to change off h i s best p l a ced
p i e c e i n e x c h a n g e f o r a Kn i gh t
w h i ch h ad b e e n p o o r ly p l a ce d a t
the edge of t h e board on ly a
moment before. N o w , as t h e
di agra m s h ow s , W h i t e ' s c o n t r o l
o f f i l e s a11d d i a g o n a l s i s
c o n s i d e r ab l e a n d h e a l s o h a s a
A m o s t r e v ea l i n g move. Th e
b e a u t i f u l l y c e n t ra l i s ed K n i g h t
Qu e e n 's Rook, w h i ch wou l d
at d4. n o rma l ly e x p e ct t o t a k e u p a
g o o d p os i t i o n o n t h e o p e n c - o r
18 Be6
d-fi le, is f o r c e d t o s e e k
19 b4
r e f u ge o n t h e e - f i l e, h udd l i n g
41
t og e t h e r a w k w a rd l y w i t h t h e t h e Q u e e n , b u t a c t i vates the
o t h e r B l a ck p i e c e s , a d m i t t i n g K i n g 's Rook .
that W h i t e has t a k e n con tro l of
a l l t h e i mport a n t l i n es o f 27 Kh B
commu n i c a t i o n . 2 1 R a c6 2 6 Rf f 2 Rf7
wou l d a l low 2 2 Nxe6 fxe6 23 29 Rfd2 1
Qd7 .
D i a gram 5 2
22 Nxe6 fxe6

Another weak pawn appears,


t h i s t ime a t e 6 .

23 B c 6

Not s at i s f i ed w i t h the l o n g
d i ag o n a l t h i s B i s h o p n o w t a k e s
o ve r t h e a 4 eB l i n e .

23 Bf6

To defend the a-pawn


since • • •Rc6 wou l d be use less
a ga i ns t B d 7 .

24 b5 Qc6
2 5 R c2

By removi ng his own Rook An ama z i n g pos i t i o n . Not i c e


fro m d a n g e r h e r e n e w s t h e t h at W h i t e h as n o t w o n a ny
a t t a ck o n B l a ck 's . B l a ck c a n n ot m a t e r i a l . H e ha s p u r s u e d a
ca p t u r e o n c7 b e ca u s e o f B x e 6 . r u t h l es s p o l i cy of c o n t ro l l i n g
t h e l i n e s o f c omm u n i c a t i o n ,
25 Re7 p a rt i cu l a r ly w i t h h i s R o o k s a n d
Bishops. Th i s has given h i m
Th e c o n t o rt i o n s o f t h e B l a ck e normous freedom o f movement
p i e ces i n s u ch cramp ed s p a c e a n d res t r i c t e d B l a c k a l m os t t o
a r e a g o n y t o wa t c h . t h e p o i n t of c om p l e t e
i mm o b i l i t y . A l l W h i t e n e e d s t o
26 Bd6 do n ow is t o con vert t h i s
EQ�i!iQ��! a d v a n t a g e i n t o
A n d h o w s p r i g h t l y W h i t e' s m a t e r i a l g a i n o r a ma t i n g
B i s h o p s s e em i n comp a r i s o n . a t t a ck .

26 Rd6 29 Rg6

S a vi n g t h e e x c h a n g e w i t h a A n o t h er i g n o mi n i o u s r e t r e a t
pi n . b u t n e c e s s a ry s i n c e W h i t e
t h reat ened Be 6 .
2 7 f4
30 Qh5 Qd6
T h i s n o t o n l y t h r e a0 t e n s 2 6
f5 exf5? 29 Bd5ch , w i n n i n g White was t hreaten i ng Be4

42
th a d i s c o v e r e d a t t a ck on t h e s t r•J g g l e . T h e K n i g h t c a n n o t b e
een and Bxg6 t o f o l l ow . prot ect ed nor h as i t anywh ere
though W h i t e h a s a l s o got a t o go t o : 31 NfB, for
scovery o n t h e d - f i l e t h i s i s i ns t a n c e , 3 2 BxfB w i t h mate t o
e l e s s e r o f two e vi l s . f o l l ow . � 1 • • • R d 7 , a t t em p t i n g
t o w i n B i s h o p f o r K n i gh t , f a i l s
31 Be4 a g a i n s t 3 2 Bxg6 h6 33 Qd 1 ,
a n d B l a ck i s a p i e c e d own .
Even w i t h o u t t h e a t t a ck o n
e Qu e e n t h e m o v e i s s t i l l s o A w o n d e rf u l d i s p l ay of s p a c e
w e rfu l t h a t B l a ck c h o s e t h i s c o n t r o l t hr o u gh t h e o p e n i n g u p
int t o g i ve up the u n eq u a l o f f i l es a n d d i ag o n a l s .
CHAPTER 6

Kinds of pawns

We b e g a n by co n s i d er i n g th e w a y I n d i a g r a m 5 3 W h i t e h a s two
i n w h i c h t e r r a i n i s mo d i f i e d g ro u p s o f p a w n s , t h e a a n d b ­
a n d w e s a w t h at p a w n s p l a y a p a w n s fo r m o n e a n d t h e e , f , g
g r e at p a rt i n t h i s , so m u c h s o a n d h - p a w n s m a k e u p t h e ot h e r .
th at w e m u s t l o o k a t p a w n s a n d I n th e s e co n d grou p it does not
co n f i g u r at i o n s o f p a w n s i n m att e r t h at t h e h - p a w n i s not
greater d et a i 1 . I n th i s c h a pt e r i n to u c h at th e mo m e n t , f o r a
w e s h a l l d e f i n e w h at i s m e a nt g ro u p co n s i s t s o f p a w n s i n
by t h e n a m e s w e g i v e t o a d j a c e nt f i l e s s o l o n g a s th e y
d i f f erent k i n d s o f p a w n s . c a n a t s o m e t i m e b e c.o m e
con n e ct e d .
Pawn Grou p s o r I s l a n d s
D i agram 5 3 I n t h e s a m e w a y B l a ck h a s
t h r e e p a w n grou p s , o r i s l a n d s ,
a s t h e y a r e s o m et i m e s c a l l e d ,
a n d h e r e th e p a w n p a i r i n th e
m i d d l e i s a s m u c h a g ro u p ,
a lth o u g h th e p a w n s a r e o u t o f
tou c h , a s thos e at th e s i d es o f
th e boa r d .

A s f ar a s th e n umber o f p a w n
g ro u p s e x i s t i n g i n a g i v e n
p o s i t i o n i s co n c e r n e d , in
g e n e r a l i t i s a n a d v a nt a g e to
h ave th e sma l l er n u mber of
g ro u p s , f o r t h e r e i s t h e n mo r e
c o h e s i o n w i t h i n e a c h g ro u p ,
s i n c e i t w i l l co n t a i n mo r e
p a w n s , a n d o n e ' s o p po n e nt h a s
not s o m a n y t a r g et a r e a s to a i m
at.

47
C o n n e c t ed P aw n s support a n d is u n l i k e l y to
a c h i e v e a n y w i t h ou t h e lp f u l
D i agram 5 4 pi e c e e x c h a n g e s f r o m h i s
opponent when p i eces are on the
board a n d W h i t e 's h - p a w n is a
s i mi l a r case. S u c h p a w n s as
thes e last two are ca l l ed
i s o l ated pawns.

I s o l a t ed P aw n s

We s a w t w o i s o l at ed p a w n s i n
the previ ous di agram. In
Di agram 5 5 B l ack h as i s o l a t ed
pawns at a5, f6, h4 and White
a t e 2 . B l a ck , h a vi n g more
i s o l at e d p a w n s , n a t u ra l ly h a s
m or e i s l a n ds o r g r o u p s o f p a w n s
t h a n W h i t e a n d s o h as t h e
w eaker pos i t ion. I s o l ated pawns
a r e i n t h e ms e l v e s w e a k 1 t h e y
c a n n o t d ef e nd e a ch o t h er a n d ,
B l a ck 's a a n d b -p a w n s form a w h e n u nder attack, requ ire the
little cha i n. Th ey l i e i n s u p p o rt o f p i e ce s w h e n p i e ces
adj a c e n t f i l e s o n a d i ago n a l shou l d be goi n g about more
a nd t h e a - p aw n s upports t h e b ­ i mportant tasks. Other
p a w n . As t h ey a d v a n c e t h e r e a r weaknesses appear i n their
one gi ves s upport to the vicinity, as we s ha l l see
f o rw a r d o n e . T h i s r e l at i o n s h i p later.
b e t w e e n c o n n ected p a w n s g i ves
them strength a n d mak es t h e m
l es s vu l n era b l e , in norma l D i a g ram 5 5
c i r c u ms t an ce s , t o a t t a ck .
W h i t e ' s q u e e n s i d e p aw n s are
a l sc:i c o n n e c t e d .

W h i t e ' s d- p a w n a n d a - p a w n ,
though d i s connected at t h e
mome n t , a r e i n t h e s am e p a w n
gro u p a n d c a n g e t t o g e t h e r
w h e n e v e r t h ey w i s h .

A l t h o ugh B l a ck 's h -p a w n i s
very f a r a d v a n c e d t h ere i s
noth i n g t o stop g5,
• • • g4,
• • •

giving support i n this


part i c u l a r p os i t i o n . H o w e v e r ,
s u c h a p o s i t i o n c o n t a i ns o t h er
weakness es t h a t wi 1 1 appear
l ater.

B l a ck ' s d - p aw n is without

48
Dou b l ed Pawn s Ba c kward Paw n s

T h es e are paw n s w h i ch , t h r o u g h D iagram S 7


e x c ha n g e s , ha v e f o u n d
t h ems e l v es o n t h e same f i l e .

D iagram S 6

I n d iagra m S 7 B la ck ca n a d va� c e
1 • • • b 6 i n s p i t e o f t h e W hi t e
pa w n a t c S b e ca u s e a f t e r ,
2 c x b 6 h i s a - pa w n i s r ea dy t o
W h i t e has a pa i r o f d o u b l e d r e ca p t u r e 2 ••• a x b 6 . W h i t e ha s
pawns on t h e c-fi l e 1 even a s i m i la r g r o u p o f t h r e e paw � s
worse h e has d o u b l e d a n d o n t h e Ki n g 's w i n g bu t t h e r e i s
i s o la ;e d pa w n s o n t h e h - f i l e . o n e v i ta l d i f f e r e n c e: i. f h e
B la c k a l s o ha s d o u b l e d a n d w i s h e s t o ad va n c e h i s g -paw n i t
i s o la t e d pa w n s o n t h e f - f i l e , w o u l d b e l o s t t o t h e B la c k paw n
and a l t h ough t h e s e are c l os e r a t f 4 . T h e g - pa w n i s t h e r e f o r e
t o g e t h e r , t h ey a r e o f n o h e l p s a i d t o b e ba c k w a r d . T h e
to one a n o t h e r a n d s o m u s t b e g e n e ra l t e n d e n cy o f paw n s i s t o
cou n t e d as v e ry w eak . a d va n c e, Ba ck wa rd n e s s i n h i b i t s
t h i s m o b i l i ty a n d s o ba c k wa r d
pa w n s m u s t b e r e ga r d e d a s
i n h er e n t ly w eak .

B l a c k ' s e - pa w n i s a l s o
ba c k wa r d for after the
a d va n c e • • • e S i t ca n g o n o
f u r t h e r f o r n o pa w n s u p p o r t i s
a va i la b l e .

49
Ha ngi ng Pawn s D iagram S 9

D iagram SB

W h i t e 's h - pa w n i s pas s e d f o r
Thes � ar � paw n s w h i c h l i e s i d e n o B la ck pa w n ca n i m p e d e o r
by s i d e i n a d ja c e n t f i l e s w i t h ca p t u � e i t a s i t a d va n c e s .
n o pa � n s oppos i n g t h e m i n t h e i r B l � c k s e - pa w n i s pa s s e d i n
ow � f 1 � e s b u t w i t h e n e my paw n s s p � t e o f a W h i t e pa w n i n a n
l y i n g i n a m b u s h i n ea c h o f t h e a d ja c e n t f i l e a t f 4 f or i t d O B S
f �a n k i � g f i l e s . A n e xa m p l e i s n o t 1 i. e i. n t h e B la c k pa w n ' s
g i v e n i n d ia gra m S B . B la c k ' s d pa t h . W h i t e ' s q u e e n s i d e pa w n s
��
a � d e - pa w n s a r e ha n g i n
virtu e of t h e W h i t e c an � a r e b o t h pas s e d .
paw n s . W e ca n ma k e a f u r t h e r
d i. s t i. n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e pas s e d
�� e ma i n t h i n g a b o u t t h e p �w n s i. n t � e d ia g ra m . W h i t e ' s
ha n g i n g pa w n pa i r i s t ha t i f
��� �
� d a n c e s , a pa w n e x c ha n g e
h pa w n i s a n i s o la t e d
pa s s e d pa w n i t h e b a n d c - pa w n s
tla ad by t h e oppo n e n t are c � n n e c t e d pas s e d paw n s a n d
r e n ders t h e o t h er o n e i s o la t e d • B la � k s a - pa w n , b e ca u s e i t i s
H o w e v e r , t h e s u r v i v i n g pa w n ' s o l i d l y prot e c t e d b y a n ot h e r
� h ough w eak f r o m i t s i s o la t i o n ' paw n , i s ca l l e d a s u p p o r t e d
i s s t ro n g f r o m b e c o mi n g pas s e d pas s e d paw n .
a s � a s ha l l s e e la t e r , a n d
ha n g i n g pa w n s ca n b e w ea k o r T h e p r e s e n c e of p i e c e s
s t r o n g a c c o r d i n g t o a � y w h e r e o n t h e b oard mak e s n o
c i. r c u ms ta n c e s . d i f :e :e � c e a t a l l t o a n y o f t h e
defi n i t i ons w h i ch a r e depend e n t
o n l y o n t h e r e la t i v e p o s i t i o n
Pas s ed Pawn s o f paw n s . Pi e c e s ca n m o v e o r b e
d r i v e n a wa y ; pa w n s a r e
A pa s s e d pa w n i s o n e w h i c h h s c o m m i. t t e d t o t h e l i n e s t h e y
n � o p p o s i n g pa w n s i n i t s pa t '� s � a r t o n a n d ca n o n l y b e
e i t h e r i n i t s o w n f i· 1 8' o r i. n di verted by ca p t u r e or
. e xc ha n ge .
e i· t h e r f lank i n g o n e .
so
T h ere i s mu ch more t o b e D iagram 6 2
sa i d a b o u t a l l t h es e d i f f ere n t
k i n d s o f pa w n s , e s p e c i a l l y
pas s e d pa w n s , a ma t t e r w h i c h
w i l l b e ta k e n u p la t e r . I t i s
suff i c i e n t at th e moment t o
u n d e r s ta n d t h e d e f i n i t i on s , a n d
t h e d iagrams w h i c h f o l l ow w i l l
gi ve you p ra c t i c e i n
r e c o g n i s i n g paw n t y p e s .

D e s c r i b e ea c h pa w n in the
fo l l ow i n g po s i t i o n s .
D ia g ram 6 0

Diagram 6 3

D iagram 6 1

51
SOLUTIONS b a c k w ard p a w n 1 t h e o t h e r f o u r
p a w n s b e l o n g t o t h e s a m e gro u p ,
Q.i�&!:.� !!! _§.Q.White: a i s an e a ch i s m o b i l e n ot b l o ck e d by
isolated passed pawn1 d and e an o p p o s i n g p a w n i m m e d i at e ly t o
are con n e ct ed pawns b e l o n g i n g t h e front - and t hree of t h em,
t o t h e s ame group or i s l a n d as a t f2, g3, h 4 , f o r m a ch a i n , a
are a l s o g a n d h . l i ne of pawns on t h e adja cent
s q u ar e s o f a d i a g o n a l .
B l a ck : c a n d d a re c o n n e ct e d
p a w n s , p a w n s i n t h e s a me g ro u p i B l a ck : c a n d d a re h a n g i n g 1
t h e t h re e k i n gs i d e p a w n s f o r m a t h e o t h er t h r e e f o r m a grou p o f
gro u p a n d i n c l u d e a p a i r o f c o n n e c t e d a n d mo b i l e p aw n s .
d ou b l e d p aw n s o n t h e g - f i l e .
Q.!.�.&!:.� !!! _ §. � White: a is
Di agram 6 1 White: a and b are isolatedi the c pawns are
a pair of connected passed d o u b l ed a n d i s o l a t e d i t h e res t
pawns 1 e i s a n i s o l a t e d pas s e d form a group of mob i l e pawns
pawn , the g -f i le pawns are i n c l u d i n g a ch a i n e 4 , f 3 , g2 .
doub led a n d i s o l at e d .
B l a ck : a i s f i xe d i b i s
B l a ck : c a n d d a r e c on n e ct e d backward1 e i s iso latedi th e
p a s s e d pa w n s 1 g is a f i xe d p a w n r es t f or m a g r o u p w i t h d ou b l e d
( a s i s W h i t e ' s p a w n a t g4 l 1 h p aw n s o n t h e g - f i l e .
i s a b a ckward p aw n .

White:
Q.i�& r a !!!_§.� a is a
supported passed p a w n 1 b i s a
CHAPTER 7

Passed pawns

I t i s t h e a mb i t i o n o f e very p awn maj ori ty a n d f rom i t a


h ea l t h y m o b i l e p a w n t o b e c o m e a p a s s e d p a w n c a n b e cre a t e d ,
passed pawn and of e very W h i t e c a n p r o c e e d : 1 c 4 b6 2 b4
pa s s e d p aw n t o b e c om e a Qu e e n . w h e n h e w o u l d be rea dy f o r 3 c S
and then, after the pawn
D i a g r am 6 4 exchange, a passed pawn
a p p e a rs .

It is v e ry i m p o r t a n t t o
not i ce t h a t 1 b 4 , movi ng t h e
o t h e r p aw n f i rs t , i s n o t a t a l l
the same thing becaus e of the
poss i b l e respons e: 1 . .. bS and
W h i t e 's c - p a w n i s s u dden ly a
b a c k w ard p a w n a n d c a n n o l o n ger
be a d v a n c e d . T h e c - p a w n , t h e
o n e o n t h e f i l e w h e r e n o B l a ck
pawn l i es , i s the one which
w i l l e v e nt u a l ly q u e e n a n d s o i s
ca l l ed t h e 'cand i d a t e ' .
Re member that it i s the
c a n d i d a t e w h i c h m o v e s f i rs t a n d
t h en c o n t i n u es to b e t il e
l e a d i n g member o f t h e grou p
w h en t h ere w i l l b e n o fear of
i t b e c o mi n g b a c k w a r d .
Many aspire, few succeed,
but s i nce one passed pawn Th e passed pawn i n this
c o n f e r s a h u g e a d va n t a g e o n t h e p os i t i o n aros e from t h e n a t u r e
pos s es s or a n d t w o a r e u s u a l ly of t h e p a w n s t ru c t u r e : i t w a s
overw h e l m i n g i t does not embedded in the pos i ti on.
ma t t e r . Passed pawns can a lso arise
t a c t i c a l l y a s i n t h e f o l l ow i n g
Wh ere d o passed pawns come e x amp l e .
fr o m ? I n d i a g r a m 6 4 W h i t e h a s
two pawns to one on t h e In d i agram 65 p lay cou ld
queens i d e. T h i s i s ca l l ed a cont i nu e :
D i a gr am 6 5 D i a gram 6 6

1 Qd6ch Qxd6 B l a ck t o p l a y a n d wi n

H a d t h e r e b e e n no f ork B l a ck Di agram 6 7
wou l d not h a ve b e e n forced t o
e x ch a n g e Qu e e n s .

2 c xd 6 ,

a nd a p as s ed pawn a p p ears a t a
poi n t remot e e n o ugh fro m t h e
o p po s i n g K i n g t o r u n t h r o u gh
s a f e ly .

S o l vi ng the fol low i ng


p os i t i o n s w i l l g i v e y o u m o r e
i d eas about crea t i ng passed
pawn s .

Wh i t e t o p l a y a n d w i n

54
D i agram 6 8 D i agram 70

Wh i t e t o p l a y a n d w i n Wh i t e t o p l ay a n d w i n

D i agram 6 9 SO LU T I O N S

D i a gr a m 6 6 B l a ck h a s a p a w n
maj ori ty o n t h e qu eens i d e 1
W h i t e o n e o n t h e k i n gs i d e .
Both , therefore, h a ve a
p o t e n t i a l p a s s ed p a w n . H o w e ver,
B l a c k ' s maj o r i t y i s r e m o t e fro m
t h e K i n gs a n d t h i s g i v e s h i m a
c l e a r a d va n t a g e . 1 • • • a S . T h e
c a n d i d a t e h a s a l re a d y a d va n c e d .
2 K g2 b4 3 axb4 axb4 4 Kf2
b3, and t h e p aw n goes t h rough
long before t h e Ki ng can
i ntercept .

I n t h e vast maj ori ty of


games both s i des cast l e on th e
k i n gs i d e 1 c o n s e q u e n t ly pawn
m a j or i t i e s remot e from t h e
K i n gs a n d s o u s u a l l y o n t h e
B l a ck t o p l a y a n d w i n q u e e n s i d e , c o n f e r o n t h e ow n e r
a s i g n i f i ca n t a d va n t a g e . It i s
a poi nt that has to be kept in
m i n d a l m o s t f r o m t h e b e gi n n i n g
D i a g r a m 7 0 s h o w s a o f t h e game .
d e l i g h t f u l e x a mp l e w h i c h i s
u s ef u l t o k n ow s i n c e i t p r o m p t s D i a gr a m 6 7 Here W h i t e _h a s t h e
one to s e e k s u c h s o l u t i o n s i n q u e e n s i d e maj ori t y , t h i s t i m e
ana logous pos i t i ons . of three pawns to two. The

55
w i nning method i s : 1 a S . Th e h ave been forced a lth ough t h i s
candidate agai n leads the i s u n l i ke ly . C a r e l es s n e s s o r
a d va n c e . 1 • . • K f 7 2 bS cxbS. co l l u s i o n o n B l a ck 's p a r t a r e
L e a v i ng W h i t e t o e x c h a n g e p a w n s m o r e r e a s o n a b l e e xp l a n a t i o n s .
does not preven t the pass ed S h o u l d y o u ga i n s u c h a
p a wn e merg i n g o n t h e a - f i l e . p a s s e d p a w n , h ow e v e r , y o u w i l l
3 cxbS Ke7 4 a6 bxa6 S bxa6 q u i c k l y recogn i s e i ts va l u e.
and t h e pawn cannot be s t opped. Y o u r o p p o n e n t w i l l a l w ay s h av e
B l a c k ' s k i n gs i d e m a j o r i t y w a s to k e e p h i s eye on i t a n d i t
o f l i t t l e u s e t o h im . w i l l e n gage more p i eces t h a n a
m e r e p a w n i s n o r ma l l y w o r t h . I t
Q. i. £ .& !: £ !!! _ §. � I n t h i s a b e comes a pi vot around w h i ch
s a cri f i ce, whi ch B l a ck is W h i t e c a n work t a c t i c a l a s w e l l
forced t o acce p t , crea t es t h e a s pos i t i o n a l p l ans .
passed pawn. 1 e6 ! fxe6 2 g6
and there is n o way i n wh i ch Th i s p a rt i cu l a r p a s s e d p a w n
t h e K n i gh t c a n i n t e r c e p t t h e is s u pported by t h e p aw n a t
paw n . 1 g 6 f i r s t wou l d work d4 - w h i c h m e a n s that i t w i l l
e q u a l ly we l l . b e a p e r ma n e n t t h or n i n B l a ck ' s
f l e s h s i n c e o n l y s a cr i f i c i a l
Di agram 69 Kc6. B l a ck m e t h ods are l i k e ly t o remove
plays on the unfortunat e it.
p os i t i o n of W h i t e's B i s h o p
w h i c h h a s very l i t t l e freedom Th ere are cert a i n other
l eft. 2 BdB (2 B b B l os e s t h e va l u e s w h i ch a s u p p o r t e d p a s s e d
piece to 2 Kb 7 ) Kd7 p a w n h o l ds b o t h i n c o m m o n w i t h
3 BaS. W h i t e h as been f orced and in contra s t t o a n o t h e r a n d
i n t o th e fo l l ow i n g e x c h a n g e a n d more u s u a l t ype o f m i d d l e game
n ow 3 ••• NxaS 4 b x a S l e a ves passed pawn, Th i s is th e
Black with a passed b-paw n i s o l a t e d p a s s e d pawn of w h i ch
wh i c h i s n o t t o b e s t o p p e d . w e can see an example i n the
n e xt d i agram ( 7 2 ) .
D i a gr a m 7 0 1 gS ! h x gS 2 fS I
gxfS 3 h S. T h e passed pawn Di agram 7 1
ap�ears a n d a l t h o ugh B l a ck h a s
one too (three ! ) W h i t e w i l l
q u e e n w i t h ch e ck . C h e ck f o r
y o u rs e l f t h a t a p as s ed p a w n i s
cre a t e d h o w e v e r B l a c k c a p t u r e s .

So far we h a ve cons i dered


the passed p a w n i n t h e endgame
b u t i t h as o t h er r o l es to p l ay
i n t h e mi d d l e game .

The k i nd of pas s ed pawn


w h i ch appears i n di agram 7 1 i s
n ot often s e e n in a good game
of ch ess. W h i t e h as been
a l l o w e d t o a cq u i r e t h e p a w n a t
es, he h as not had t o f i gh t f o r
it s i n ce B lack 's d and f -pawns
h a ve b o t h vo l u n t ar i l y "p a s s e d '
i t. T h e pos i t i on cou l d , j u s t,

S6
D i agram 7 2 As t h e p a w n m o v e s f or w a r d ,
s p a c e f o r ma n o e u v r e i s c r e a t e d
beh i n d the pawn for p i eces.

W e a k n e s s es Some o f t h e s e h a v e
a l re ady b e e n s u gges t e d i n t h e
l i s t o f s t r e n gt h s .

M o s t i m p o r t a n t i s t h e l a ck
of s u p port from o t h e r p a w n s s o
t h a t w h e n t h e p a w n c o mes u n d e r
att a ck , wh i ch i t u n d oubted ly
w i l l, b e i n g a n a tura l t arget
f o r t h e e n e my , i t w i 1 1 h a v e t o
b e d e f e n d e d b y p i e c es , a t as k
w h i c h frequ e n t ly be comes more
d i ffi cu l t t h e further from
i t s own l i n e s t h e p aw n s t r a y s .

T h e s q u a re i m m e d i a t e ly i n
front of t h e passed pawn
Stren gth , u n l ess it i s b e comes a w eak s quare for t h e
c o mp l e t e l y o v e rw h e l mi n g , is p a w n ' s o w n e r a n d a s t r o n g ·o n e
rare l y p r e s e n t o n t h e for h i s opponent. I n fact, s o
ches s b o ard w i t h o u t t h e i mp o rt a n t i s t h i s s q u a r e t h a t
a c c o mp a n i m e n t o f w e a k n e s s a n d w e mu s t i n s ert h ere a s h ort
this amb i v a l e n ce cannot be s e c t i o n d e vot ed t o i t ,
b a t t e r i l l u s t r a t e d t h a n by t h e
i s o l a t e d p a s s e d p aw n . Di agram 7 3

S t r e n gt h s Th e a b i l i t y t o m o v e
f o rw a r d f r e e l y , prodd i n g at
pairs of squares deeper a n d
d e e p e r i n t o e n e my t e rr i t o ry ,
consta n t l y i n creas i n g i t s
q u ee n i n g p o t e n t i a l , i m bu es t h e
pawn w i t h great dy n a mi c
s t r e n gt h .

The fact that the pawn i s


pass e d m e a n s t h a t , u s u a l ly , t h e
f i l e s e i t h er s i d e o f t h e p a w n
are open, the c and e fi les i n
the cas e o f d i agram 72. The
owner o f t h e p a w n w o u l d h o p e t o
make u s e of a t l e a s t o n e of
these f i les for the furt h e r
i n fi l t r a t i o n o f e n emy s p a c e.

T h e c o n t r o l of s q u a r e s t o Not t o confuse the issue we


e i t h er s i de, c6 a n d e6 i n t h e w i l l cons ider h a lf a chess
examp l e , s e c u r e s s q u a r e s f o r pos i t i on as i n di agram 73.
p i eces , o f w h i ch more w i l l b e A s s u m e t h at W h i t e i s p r o t e ct i n g
said later. h i s p awn w i t h p i e c e s .

57
A movi ng t arget is not n i ne t i mes i t s va l u e is the
eas i ly destroyed a n d s o th e h e i gh t o f i n e f f i c i e n cy .
b es t w ay t o d e a l w i t h a p a s s e d
p a w n i s t o b l o ck a d e i t a n d r o b Look at ... B e ? d 6 a n d you
i t o f i t s dyn ami c s t r e ngt h . w i l l s e e a d i f f e r e n c e s t r a i gh t
away f o r t h e B i s h o p l os es n o n e
I n t h i s p os i t i o n t h e of i ts strengt h . Simi lar ly ,
b lockading s quare i s d6 and a f t er . . . N e B - d 6 t h e k n i gh t
B l a c k c a n c h o o s e a m o n g Qu e e n , i s a l s o u n i n h i b i t e d . O b vi o u s l y
R o ok , B i s h o p a n d K n i g h t f o r h i s t h e K n i gh t a n d B i s h o p a r e t h e
b l ock a d i n g p i e c e . Ki n gs c a n b e t t e r b l o ck a d e r s . T o g o o n e
a l s o b e u s e d , o f c o u rs e , b u t s t ep further a n d compare t h e s e
gen era l ly n o t i n mi d d l e g a m e t w o p i e c e s w e s h o u l d n ot e t h a t
p os i t i o n s ow i n g t o t h e d a n g e r the B i s h op i s l o n g- r a n ge d a n d
o f b e i n g c a u g h t i n a ma t i n g t h e K n i gh t s h o r t -r a n g e d . Sh o u l d
n e t . T h e Qu e e n c a n g e t t h e r e i n s om e e m erge n cy ari se in a
o n e m o v e , t h e o t h ers i n t w o . distant part of t h e board t h e
B i s h op wou l d be a b l e t o deal
We h ave to a ccept t h at w i t h i t m o r e e xp ed i t i o u s l y .
whatever piece we final ly C o n s equ e n t l y , i f o n e i s t h en
decide to settle on d6 is c h o o s i n g b e t w e e n t h e K n i gh t a n d
l i k e ly t o be th ere a l o n g t i me, B i s h op f o r t h e ro l e of
p e r h a p s a v e ry l o n g t i m e . T h e b l o ck a d e r , t h e K n i gh t s h o u l d b e
p i e c e chos e n f o r t h i s stati c chosen l eavi ng t h e B i s h op for
r o l e mu s t b e o n e t h a t l e a s t t h e more d i s t a n t du t i e s . Th e
los es power by bei n g th ere. K n i g h t , t h e n , i s t h e b l o ck a d e r
S u p p o s i n g B l a ck c h o s e t h e R o o k p a r e x ce l l e n c e. I n t h e endgame,
a n d p l ay e d R d B d 6 . Th e Rook w h en ma t i n g p ros pects recede,
a s a b l o c k a d e r h as t h e the Ki n g makes a n exce l l e n t
adva n t a g e o f a t t a ck i n g t h e b l o ck a der, f o r i t i s s h o r t ­
p awn, but don't be decei ved, s t eppi n g like the Kn i gh t ,
f o r t h i s i s t h e o n l y a d va n t a g e . l os i ng none of i ts power and i n
T h e R o ok now h a s no i n f l u e n c e a d d i t i o n a t t a ck s t h e i s o l a t e d
in t h e oppos i n g h a l f of t h e p aw n a t t h e s ame t i me.
b o .a r d , is l i mi ted to the
squares d 7 a n d d B i n t h e f i l e Thes e are genera l ru les a n d
a n d i s u n l i k e ly t o f i n d u s e f u l i n chess don't forget that
p e n e t ra t i o n p o i n t s a l o n g t h e e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u ms t a n c e s ca n
r a n k . As a l re a dy n o t e d , a r i s e i n w h i ch t h e ru l es h a v e
associated with the iso lated to be amended, It may o n
p a w n are a d j a c e n t open f i l es , o ccas i o n s b e n e cess ary t o u s e
here the c and e f i les, and t h e the least effi ci ent pi ece, o r
Rook wou ld be far better o n e may be s i mply l e f t w i t h n o
e mp l o y e d i n c o n t es t i n g t h o s e c h o i c e i n t h e m a t t e r . Th e r e i s
f i les. C l early the Rook i s a e ve n a g a m e o f T a l ' s i n w h i ch
p o o r b l o ck a d e r . h e de l i berat e l y ch oos e s t h e
Q u e e n a s t h e b l o ck a d er .
Try . . . Qd6, T h e Qu een l os e s
f i l e s t r e n g t h t o o a l t h o u gh i t s T h e b l o ck ad e r, i f t h e r i gh t
d i a go n a l i n f l u e n c e i s o n e i s c h o s e n , c a n b e a s t ro n g
u n i mp a i re d . H o w e v e r , t o g i v e pi e c e . By t h e very n a t u r e o f
s u c h a l ow l y t a s k a s b � o ck a d i n g t h e oppos i n g passed pawn, t h e
a pawn t o a p i e c e w h i ch h a s b l o ck a d e r c a n n o t b e a t t a c k e d b y

5B
a p a w n a n d i s a l s o i m mu n e f r o m D i a g ram 7 5
a t t a c k a l o n g t h e f i l e on w h i c h
i t s ta n ds - a t l e a s t from t h e
fr o n t .

One furt h er p o i nt. Th e


p a s s e d p a w n s h o u l d b e b l o ck a d e d
as s o o n a s p os s i b l e b e fore i t
has a d va n ce d t o o f a r, a s t h e
e x amp l es w i l l s h ow .

D i a gr a m 7 4

Here the paw n has s l i pped


t hrough t o the s i xt h rank. T h e
b l o c k a d i n g K n i g h t s t i l l
c o n t r o l s good s q u ares b u t n o n e
i n t h e e n e my h a l f a n d s o i s
l es s o f f e n s i v e .

M ore i mportant l y , White's


c o n t r o l o f t e rr i t ory b e h i n d t h e
In d i agram 74 t h e i s o l at e d a d va n c i n g p a w n h as i n cr e a s e d ,
pa s s e d p a w n h a s b e e n s t o p p e d a t w h i l s t B l a ck 's pos i t i on has
i t s f o u rt h r a n k . B o t h s i des b e c o me c r a m p e d a n d h e w i l l f i n d
wi l l h a ve t o m a n o e uvre arou n d great d i ffi cu lty i n movi n g
this f i xed pos i t i on at d4 a n d f o rw a rd . A n o t h e r p o i n t e m e r ges
d5 a n d b e cau s e B l a ck h a s b e e n f r o m d i a gr a m 7 5 : s i n c e t h e
a b l e t o b l o ck a d e e ar l y h e h a s b l o ck a d er is fi xed on the
gained more space for h i s s ev e n t h ra n k c o m m u n i c a t i o n s
pi eces. Th e K n i gh t i s w e l l b et w e e n t h e q u eens i d e a n d t h e
po s t e d , c o m ma n d i n g f o u r s q u a r e s k i n gs i d e a r e cu t o f f , T h i s i s a
i n t h e e n e my h a l f . T h e Q u e e n f r eq u e n t c a u s e of d i s a s t e r , f o r
has been a b l e t o move away from i f W h i t e makes a c o n c ert e d
the b a ck r a n k a l l ow i n g t h e effort o n o n e w i n g h e l p ed by
Rooks t o c o m b i n e a n d c h a l l e n g e h i s o w n eas e of moveme n t
the e - f i le. A s a c o n s eq u e n c e b e t w e e n t h e w i n gs B l a ck w i l l
B l a ck r e t a i n s h i s f a i r s h a r e o f be h ard put t o i t t o g e t h i s
s p a c e a n d h i e p os i t i o n i s as o w n f or c e s a cr o s s a n d m a t c h
f l e x i b l e a s W h i t e 's . p i e c e f o r p i e c e . T h e Qu e e n i s
a ls o awkw ard ly p l a ce d a n d the
C o mp a r e t h i s s i t u a t i o n with Rooks are unab l e to come
t h e o n e i n d i a gr a m 7 5 . t o ge t h e r .

59
T h e s e v e n t h a n d e i gh t h r a n k s 7 d4 1
w e re d i s c u s s e d i n an ea r l i e r
chapter a n d t h os e i deas h ave Of c o u rs e. White cannot
s ome beari n g o n the pres e n t capture t h e e -p a w n b e cau s e o f
pos i t i on. O n ce t h e passed p a w n t h e Q u e e n f o rk . W h i t e r e n e w s
h as arrived at the s i xth ra n k the threat by removi ng the
i t c o n t r o l s two s q u ares o n t h e King.
s e v e n t h ra n k , c 7 a n d e 7 , w h i c h
a r e p o i n t s o f p e n e t ra t i o n f o r 8 0 0 Nc6
the Rook s . W h i t e is a lready 9 e3
t h re a t e n i n g R e 7 a n d d o u b l i n g u p
o n t h e e -f i l e . B l a ck h a s a f i n e p a w n c e n t r e
and s o White begins to reduce
Th e whole of this is a i t, aimi ng to sadd l e h i s
r e m a r k a b l e e x a mp l e o f h o w a o p p o n e n t w i t h t h e p r o b l e ms o f
s i n g l e p a w n c a n mod i f y a n iso lated pawn. Su ch a
t e r r i t o ry . pros p e c t , h ow e ver, does not
trou b l e T a l i h e h as f a i t h i n
To i l lustrate the ideas t h a t p aw n ' s d y n ami c q u a l i t i e s .
w h i c h s u rr o u n d t h e p r o b l e m o f
the iso lated passed pawn we 9 Be7
wi l l s e e how t h ey work o u t i n a 1 0 exd4 exd4
ma s t er game .
D i a g ram 7 6
Saigin Ta l
Riga, 1 954

1 d4 N f6
2 c4 c5
3 Nf3

A q u i et respon s e. T h e more
vigorou s line aga i n s t the
M o d e rn B e n o n i i s 3 d 5 .

3 e6
4 g3

St i l l p os s i b l e was 4 d 5 .
Appare n t l y W h i t e i s c o n t e n t t o
a l l ow B l a ck a s t ron g c e n t r e ,
perh ap s with the i nt e n t i o n o f
u n d e rmi n i n g i t .

4 cxd 4 The isolated passed pawn


5 N xd 4 d5 a p p e a rs . O n l y o n e a d j a c e n t f i l e
6 Bg2 e5 i s open, the c-fi l e bei ng h a l f
7 Nf3 c l o s e d b y t h e p a w n a t c 4 , b ut
o t h e rw i s e t h e s i t u a t i o n b e a r s
And i nde ed, f or t h e mome n t , s o me s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e
i t l o o k s as t h ough B l a ck h a s p os i t i o n s o f d i a gr a m s 7 4 a n d
o c c u p i e d t h e c e n t r e t o o q u i ck l y 75, w i t h B l a ck having the
f o r b o t h h i s p a w n s ·a r e n o w i s o l at e d p a w n . Th e p a w n i s o n e
u n d e r p res s u r e . s q u ar e f u rt h er o n t h a n i n 7 4

60
and o n e s q u ar e less than in 75. B e gi n n i n g the queenside
e xp a n s i o n b u t t h e b l o ck a d e o f
White has c o mp e n s a t i on t h e d - p a w n w a s s t i l l t h e f i rs t
f i rs t l y i n t h e h o p e t h a t t h e pri ori ty. B l a c k i mmed i a t e l y
B l a ck d - p a w n w i l l b e c o m e s t a t i c s t i f l e s t h e a d va n c e :
and weak and then in h i s three
pawns t o t w o q u e e n s i d e 15 as
maj o r i t y . B u t t h e d - p a w n w i l l 16 NeS
not become f i xed w i thout
pos i t i ve a ct i o n. Wh i t e 's T h i s is the other route to
o bj e c t i v e s n ow s h o u l d b e , i n d 3 but o f course B l a ck wi 1 1 n o t
ord e r o f p r i o r i t y , t o b l o ck a d e a l l ow t h e K n i gh t t o r e a c h t h a t
the d-pawn, contest t h e e - f i l e square .
and t h e n e x p a n d o n t h e
q ueens i d e . 16 NxeS
1 7 RxeS b6
1 1 N bd2 Be6 1 8 Nf3
12 Re1 ?
The d - p awn i s n ow a t t acked
The right idea but i n the three t i mes and o n ly defended
wro n g o r d e r . I f y o u l o o k a t a l l twi c e , h en c e t h e r e p l y .
t h e p o s s i b l e b l o ck a d e r s o f t h e
d -p a w n y o u w i l l q u i ck ly c o m e t o 18 BcS
the con c l u s i o n that the bes t 1 9 Qd2
ca n d i d a t e i s t h e N a t f 3 . Th a t
p i e c e n eeds e 1 t o g e t t o d 3 b u t Threat e n i n g t o drive away
e1 h a s n ow been o c cu p i ed by a the Bishop with b4. There is a
R o ok . W h i t e ' s p i e c e s , i n o t h e r h i n t h er e o f h ow w eak t h e
word s , a r e b e gi n n i n g t o g e t i n i s o l ated pawn can be i f on ly i t
e a ch o t h e r ' s w a y a n d a l i t t l e can b e f i xed a n d s ufficient
t h o u gh t g i ve s y o u t h e c l u e t o force then brought t o bear.
w h y t h i s i s s o : t h e v e ry p a w n
that demands this attenti o n 19 Ng4
restri cts W h i te's s pace for 2 0 Ree1 d3 I
ma n o e u v r e b e c a u s e i t i s w e l l
a d va n c e d .

12 0 0
1 3 b3 Qd 7

B l a ck i s a l mo s t fu l ly
deve l o p e d , w i t h h i s R o ok s n o w
ready t o s u p p o r t t h e c e n t r e .

1 4 Bb2

This i s the best way t o


deve lop t he Bishop s i n ce i t
s tr i k es a t t h e i s o l at e d pawn
a n d s h o u l d t h e p a w n a d va n c e t h e
l o n g d i a g o n a l wo u l d b e c l e a r e d .

14 Rad8
1 5 a3

61
D i a g ram 7 7 A beau t i fu l move, q u i et ly ,
b u t v e ry f i r m l y , e m p h a s i s i n g
B l a c k 's gri p o n t h e s i t u a t i o n .
S o f a r h i s a d va n t a g e h a s b e e n
in the centre1 now, w i thout
removi ng a n y p o w e r f rom t h a t
regi o n , t h i s s i mp l e m o v e
s ud d e n l y p rodu c e s a n i n f l u e n c e
o n b o t h w i n g s at b 4 ,
p r e ve n t i n g a W h i t e a d v a n c e , a n d
at g3, preve n t i n g W h i t e from
dri vi n g away t h e K n i gh t w i t h
h 3 , f o r th i s wou l d weaken t h e
p a w n a t g3, a l l ow i n g a
later • • • Q x g 3 ! s i n c e t h e f ­
p aw n i s p i n n e d .

22 Qc3

M a k i n g use of his one


o p e n l i n e , t h r ea t e n i n g mat e a n d
W h i t e pays t h e pen a l t y of s o g a i n i n g t i me to e xchange
n eg l e ct i n g t h e b l ockade. The b l o ck a d e r s o n d 2 .
p a w n a v o i ds i t s a t t a ckers by
a d va n c i n g a n d n ow a w h o l e n e w 22 f6
grou p of p i e ces mu s t be 2 3 Rad 1 RfeB
mu s t e r e d i n o r d e r t o b r i n g i t
u n d e r pressure aga i n . A t t h e Now the e - f i l e f a l ls i nto
s ame t i m e B l a ck h a s e x p a n d e d B l a c k h a n d s . Wh i t e w a s o f f e r i n g
his t erritory and further the a-pawn for the d-pawn
restri cted W h i t e's. H i s B i shop t h r o u g h 2 3 ••• B x a 3 24 Bxa3
at c5 has a new l i ne opened and Qxa3 25 Rxd3, w h i ch B l ack
n ow c o mb i n es w i th t h e K n i gh t n a t u ra l l y i g n o re d .
a ga i n s t t h e f - p a w n , and two
p oi n t s , d e e p i n W h i t e 2 4 Rd2
t e rr i t o ry , a t e 2 a n d c 2 , a r e
f a l l i n g i n t o B l a ck ' s h a n d s . Th e n ew b l o ck a d e r .

21 Rf1 24 Bf5

Giving up the a-fi le to Th e i s o l a t e d p a w n l o o k s w e l l


prot ect t h e f -p a w n . W h i t e h a s defended agai n .
a c c o mp l i s h e d none of h i s
obj ecti ves and the Rook 2 5 NgS I
r etreats i n i gnomi ny. A l l h e
h as l e f t i s a r e a rg u a r d a ct i o n
w i t h b l o ck a d e a t d 2 w i t h t h e
Qu e e n , the last piece which
should be used for such a
p u rpos e .

21 Qd6

62
D i a g ram 7 8 Dr i v i n g a w a y t h e b l o ck ad e r .
F o r t h e e x c h a n g e B l a ck h a s a n
extra pawn, control of the
s e venth rank a n d t h e prospect
of free passage for his
i s o l a t e d " p a w n . N o t i c e n ow h ow
t h e Wh i t e forces are s p l i t . The
Rook a n d i ts s u pport i n g d - pawn
c u t t h e W h i t e p os i t i o n i n t w o .

29 Qc3 R xg2

Di agram 7 9

O f c o u r s e t h e K n i gh t c a n n o t
be taken becaus e of mate.
Wh i t e 's i d e a i s B d S c h , cu t t i n g
off s o me o f t h e p r o t e ct o r s o f
the d - p a w n , b u t T a l i s r e a d y
w i t h a n e q u a l l y s h a r p
!"ej o i n d e r .

25 Ne3 1

Ho l d i n g u p B d S c h . I f W h i t e
!"efu s e s t h e o f f e r a n d m o v e s h i s
Rook, t o e 1 , s ay , t h e n : 2 6 • • • W h i t e ' s o n e h o p e o f t ry i n g
Nxg2 2 7 Rxe 8ch Rxe8 2 8 Kxg2 t o s p l i t t h e B l a c k f o r c e s by
Qc6ch 29 f3 (2 9 N f 3 wou l d be B d S d i s a p p e a rs a n d h e r e s i g n s .
met by 29 ••• Be4) Re1 and T h e r e was o n l y :
Wh i t e i s h e l p l e s s .
3 0 K xg2 d2
2 6 fxe3 B x e 3 ch
27 Kh1 Bxd2 T h e t h r e a t o f q u e e n i n g pr o t e c t s
t h e B i s h op a t f 5 .
I t i s c l e ar t h a t t h e
sacri f i ce i s a l l t o d o w i t h t h e 31 Rd1
b l o ck a d e r . O n c e a p a s s e d p a w n
is b l o ck a d e d t h e genera l A g a i n b l o ck a d e . N o t e h ow t h e
s t r a t e gy i s p l a y t o r e m o v e t h e b l ocka d i n g square has moved
obs t a c l e s o t h a t t h e p a w n c a n f r om d 3 t o d 2 t o d 1 • • • •
pass o n t o i ts u l t i ma t e goa l .
Th e R o o k i s r e p l a c e d b y t h e 31 Bg4
Q u e e n a ga i n .
• • • a n d h o w a g a i n t h e
28 Qxd2 Re2 u nd ermi n i n g of t h e b l o ckader

63
c r e a t e s t h e p r o s p e c t of f u r t h e r Wh i t e has a n i s o lated passed
e xp a n s i o n f o r t h e p a w n . p a w n w h i ch i s m i s s i n g f r om
t h e b o a r d . On w h a t s q u a r e
32 Nf3 Qd3 1 wo u l d y o u p l a c e i t ?
2 What comp e n s a t i o n s does
Th e ra c e i s n o w run and B l a ck e n j o y ?
ma t e ri a l t umb l e s . 3 W h i t e t o p l ay . How wou l d h e
p r o c e e d a n d B l a c k re p l y ?
3 3 Qxd3 Rxd3
D i a g ram 8 1
T h e K n i gh t w i l l fall f i rs t
a n d t h e n t h e R o ok .

N i mzow i t s c h , w h o o f t e n w r o t e
w i t h treme n d o u s a n d s omet i mes
u n contro l led gusto, wrote of
the isolated passed pawn 's
' l u s t t o e xp a n d ' 1 Ta l ' s
t r e a t m e n t o f i t h e r e vi n d i c a t e s
t h e e xt r a v a g a n c e .

T a l . renow n ed for t h e
bri l l i an c e a n d origi n a l i t y of
h i s h a n d l i n g of t h e m i d d l e
game, bases h i s play, as we
h a ve s ee n , o n s ou n d a n d b a s i c
pos i t i o n a l c o n c ep t s .

Here are s o me pro b l e ms ,


based on pass ed paw n s , for you
t o s o l ve . There i s n o passed pawn i n
t h e p os i t i on a t t h e moment.
D i a gram 8 0 W h i ch s i d e i s a b l e t o creat e
one?
2 How?
3 W i t h B l a ck to p l ay g i v e t h e
n e x t few moves o f a poss i b l e
conti nuation with reasons
for your choice.

64
D i a g ram 8 2 SO LUTIONS

D i a g r am 8 0

1 C1 e a r l y at d 5 .

2 B l a ck h a s c o m p e n s a t i o n i n
a s o l i d q u e e n s i d e maj ori t y a n d
t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t es t t h e e ­
f i le.

3 W h i t e cou l d i mmed i at e ly
set about removi ng th e
b l o ck a d e r w i t h 1 N b 5 . B l a ck
f i n d s a s afe s q u are for h i s
Queen, 1 Qd 7 , with out
• • •

i n t erf eri n g w i t h t h e f r e e d o m o f
t h e R o o k s o n t h e b a ck rank a n d
then, after 2 Nxd6 Nxd6, White
h a s t h e a d v a n t a ge o f t h e B i s h o p
p a i r w h i l s t B l a c k h a s b r o u gh t
t h e b e s t b l o ck a d er t o d 6 .
A cas e w h ere a p as s e d p a w n
becomes dyn ami c a s s o on a s i t D i agram 8 1
appe a r s . W h i t e t o p l ay a n d
cre a t e a w i n n i n g i s o l a t ed On ly B l a ck has the
pa s s e d p aw n . o p p o rt u n i t y .
D i a g ram 8 3 2 B l a ck c o u l d c h o o s e t o d o
s o, although h e may not
consid er i t the best i dea i n
t h e c i r c u ms t a n c e s , i n w h i c h
c a s e h e wou l d a v o i d i t , p erhaps
b y a n e xc h a n g e o n c 4 . Th i s
w o u l d l e a d t o a decrease of
tens i on i n the centre and a
r a p i d e x c h a n ge o f m a j o r p i e c e s ,
w h i c h w o u l d be a l l r i gh t f o r
h i m i f h e w a s l o ok i n g f or a
q u i e t l i f e . O t h e rw i s e h e c o u l d
t a k e o n a l l t h e pros pects a s
w e l l as the pro b l ems of an
i s o l at ed p a s s ed p a w n w i t h
d4.
3 1 d4. N o w , if t h ere
• • •

w a s a good pro s p e c t o f W h i t e
w i n n i n g t h e d - p a w n h e m i gh t b e
jus t i f i ed i n d o u b l i n g u p on t h e
d - f i l e . H o w e ver, B l a ck c a n a ls o
doub l e Rooks on the fi l e as
B l a ck c a n d e c i d e w h e t h e r o r n o t w e l l as s upport t h e pawn
to e x c h a n g e p a w n s i n t h e with . • • Ne6. Since h e cannot
centre . What s h o u l d h e d o ? w i n t h e p a w n by d i re c t m e t h ods
65
h e mu s t f i x i t a n d c h o o s e a Q i � & � � � -�� B l ack should
s u i t a b l e b l o ck a d er. 2 B d 3 w o u l d cert a i n ly s ad d l e W h i t e w i t h a n
b e n o g o o d f o r t h e n B l a ck c o u l d i s o l a t e d p as s e d p a w n by ,
capture a t f 3 , break i n g u p t h e
k i n gs i d e p a w n s . Th e Kn i g h t 1 exdS
w o u l d m a k e a b e t t e r b l o ck ad e r 2 e xd S ,
a n y w a y a n d s o 2 N e 1 s e e ms t o b e
t h e n e xt mo ve. B l ack h a s f or he can q u i ck l y bri n g h i s
s evera l good i d eas now. He own force t o bear upon it,
c ou l d b r i n g t h e K n i gh t t o e 6 w h ereas White h as great
n o t o n ly defen d i n g t h e pawn but d i f f i c u l t y i n d ef e n d i n g. B l a ck
w i th t h e p os s i bi l i ty of g o i n g c ou l d s tart a s t eady b u i l d up
t o f4 to cha l lenge the by d o u b l i n g o n t h e d -f i l e , b u t
b l o ck a d e r w h e n i t a r r i v e s o n t h e p i n on t h e centre pawn
d3. Hi s p i eces at b7 a n d c7 a l l o w s a r a p i d r es o l u t i o n .
s trike t h rough t h e c e n t r e a n d
i n t o t h e o p p os i n g k i n gs i d e. H i s 2 Be6
pos i t i on begins to look
attract i v e . W h i t e needs another defender
b u t t h e r e i s n ' t o n e a va i l a b l e.
D i agram 62 Pu s h i n g t h e p a w n i s t h e o n l y
r e s o u r c e a n d h er e i t s a d v a n c e
Nd6 Bxd6 i s n o t a g gres s i o n b u t d e s p er a t e
d ef e n c e .
B l a ck captures becaus e o f
t h e f o rk , t h o u g h i n t h e l i gh t 3 d6
of events i t w o u l d h ave been n o
worse t o g i ve u p t h e e xc h a n g e T h e p aw n , s t ray i n g f u rt h er
s t r a i gh t away . f r o m i t s o w n 1 i n es , b e c o mes
e v e n m o r e vu l n er a b l e . I n f a c t ,
2 c xd 6 Qd7
3 QcS,
B l ack i s n o t g i ve n t i me t o
c h o o s e a b l o c k a d er . w i n s i t i mm e d i a t e ly .

3 NcS I t i s very i mp or t a n t t o k e e p
t h i s k i nd of p os i t i on in m i nd,
R e m o vi n g t h e o b s t ru c t i o n f o r t h e w e a k c o mp o n e n t o f t h e
i mmed i a t e ly . i s o l a t ed p a s s e d p aw n i s a l w a y s
pres e n t .
3 QfS
4 d7 QxcS W e s ha l l return t o this
5 d xc B • Q RxcB t h eme a t a l a t e r s t a g e .
6 Q xb 7 ,

a n d t h e r a p i d p a s s a ge of t h e
passed pawn across the
p os i t i o n l ea v e s B l a ck w i t h t h e
e x c h a n g e down and n o th i n g t o
h o p e f or.

66
CHAPTER 8

Pawns to avoid

We h ave d i s cu s s e d the w ea k n e s s t emporari ly because w e are


of i s o l at e d b u t s o far only i nterested i n t h e v a l u es o f t h e
d e f i n ed d ou b l ed , b a ck w a r d a n d pawn groups t h e ms e l v e s .
h a n gi n g pawns. It is these la� t
t h ree w h i ch w i l l be treated in E a c h m a j o r i t y c o u l d
this chapt e r . e ve n t u a 1 1 y g i v e b i rt h to a
.
p as s e d p a w n , a n d o t h er t h i n gs
b e i n g eq u a l , a draw w o u l d be
Do u b l e d Pawns t h e mos t l i k e ly r e s u l t .

D i agram B4 Look a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t � e
n e xt d i agram, ( B S ) . Th ere i s
o n l y a very s ma l l d i ffere n c e ,
t h e p a w n a t c 7 b e i n g n ow a t b.6 .
White can sti l l pro d u ce h i s
p a s s e d p a w n b y p l a y i n g f4 , g 4
a n d fS in t h a t ord er and at a
suitable t ime, but h ow d o es
B l a ck creat e h i s passed p aw n ?

D i a g r am B S

Here b o t h p l ayers h ave two


gro u ps o f p aw n s , White a 3-2
maj o r i t y on t h e k i n gs i d e and
B l a ck a 3-2 maj ori ty on the
other w i n g . In o t h e r words , the
p o s i t i o n i s p e r f e c t l y e v e� .
Th i s b a l a n c e m i gh t b e u p s e t i f
t h e K i n gs w e r e o n t h e b o a r d ,
tipp i n g i n t h e favour of �n e
s i de a ccord i n g t o t h e r e l a t i v e
pos i t i o n o f t h e K i n gs . Bu t w e Experi ment y o u rs e l f with
have removed th i s e lement B l a ck ' s qu eens i d e pawns a n d you

67
w i l l f i" n d t h a t n o . p a s s e d p a w n In di agram 86 th e �awns are
w i l l
·
ass istance
emerge
of
w ithout
W h i" t e .
the
For
n ot o n l
Th e r e
r s
d ou b l ed b u t i s o l a t ed.
no prospect of a
e xa mp l e ,
mo v e s
p l ay i n g a l l B l a ck
bS, a 5, • • •
p as s e d p awn h ere
offer ea ch oth er
��r d o t h eY
pport and
·
• • • • •

b 4 , • • • b S • • • • a4 • N o f u r t h e r s u c h a r� g g e d grou p e a s i ly
· .
f a l l s v i c t i m t o p r o w l i. n g p i e c e s
p r o gr e s s c a n b e m a d
� pro v i d e d
White d
bxa4,
�� s n o t o b i· g e w i t h
l owi n g Black t o
.
a n d p e n e t r a t i n g K i n gs .

s traighten out t he p awns . If


n ow • • • a x b 3 ' a x b 3 B l a ck h a s pawns
Th e w e ak n e s s
i. s obvi ou
o
:
�oubled
in the

d o u b l e d a n d i s o l 'a t d p a w n s endgame· E a r l i e r� h owever

wh i ch are rea l ly n o be t a r t h a n t h ere a re cert a i n
:
pects of
one . doub l e d pawn pos i
cannot b� regarded a

on w h i ch
weak a nd
N o w c h a n g e t h e d i· .a g r a m b y others i n w h i ch they are a
placing
at b7 c
� l a c k 's q u e e s i
a nd b 6 . Th � /:
pawn s
s � uation
p o s i t i v e a d va n t a ge .
o i· a g r a m 8 7
is d i ffer e n t . If B ack can

'i ii'"W/.
- -� - ��,.,:-=­
-=-
u =;--=
m
a d va n c e u n m o l e s t e d t o o b t a i n

· � � ;

r
�� a-- .. . t
'•
P ? W n s a t b S a n d c S th e n • • • c 4


-t-· �
w i l l p r o d u c e a p a s s e d p awn .
.• �-

• • t "•••
.
It s c l ear, t h en, that
!
: �;\
dou b l e� pawn com r s. e s t h

: ��
;
. "d
.
pawn p in whi h i es and
a pa
o n l y
pawn i s o bt a i n a b l e
u n d e r
c i r cums t a n c e s •
s p e c i· a l . ."•
- " --
·
D i a g ram 8 6
• ·
aftaT i ' I •
�� "4 .!!. �
� �� 'Z_J· &TB
·'©· · ·� �.�
� t::I
' " d i. a g r a m 8 7 B l a c k
opport u n i t to 'sadd e' his
as t h e
t
f
o p p o n e n t w i· h a d o u b l e d p a w n o n


t h e f - f i l e by 1 • • • B f 3 , bu t
h e wou l d t
e v ery f o o l s h t o d o
so s i n c e e w o u l d b e u n l i" k e l y
1
t o l as t o n g e n ou gh t reap the
reward
.

t h e e n d g a m • Af t e r 2
g �f 3 W h �� e h as a f i n e h a l f open
f i l e f o r t h e u s e o f h i" s m a j o r
· .
p i e c e s w h i" l s t h i s o w n K i" n g i s
s a. f e l y t u ck e d a w a y o n t h e o t h e r
wi ng •

68
D i agram 8 8 a dou b l ed pawn c o mp l e x ,
p a rt i cu l a r l y i n t h e c e n t r e , c a n
b e a n advantage, provi d i n g
a d d i t i o n a l p o w e r t h ere. B l a ck
h a s s u cR pawns i n d i agram 8 9 .
H e c ou l d g o :

dS

and i f ,

2 e xd S NxdS ,

B l a ck f i n i s h e s w i t h t w o pawns
t o o n e o n t h e c e n t ra l f i l es .
B u t not :

2 e xd S ,

b e c a u s e t h e p a w n s t h e n rema i n
On the other h a n d , in t h e n o t o n ly d ou b l e d b u t i s o l a t ed .
pos i t i o n o f d i a gram 8 8 , i t
wou l d c l ea r l y be good s e n s e t o Wh i t e c o u l d t ry ,
exch a n g e B f or K n i gh t a t f 3 ,
ai d i n g B l a c k i n a k i n gs i d e 2 es,
a t t a ck .
a vo i d i n g the exch ange, but
D i a gram 8 9 after,

2 Ne8,

B l a ck w i 1 1 be ready for • • •d6,


f o rc i n g t h e e x c h a n g e t h i s t i me .

As a s t ructure, t h e doub l ed
p awn i s weaki as a f eature
e n h an c i n g power t h ey c a n b e
s t r o n g i n c e rt a i n p os i t i on s ,
but noti ce that even h ere
r e a l i s i n g t h at a d vantage i n
t e r ms o f p a w n p r e p o n d era n c e i n
t h e c e n t r e i n vo l ve s u n d o u b l i n g
t h o s e p awn s .

Can you f i n d means of


p ro d u c i n g d o u b l e d p a w n s i n t h e
f o l l ow i n g p o s i t i o n s ? I f s o , s a y
i n each cas e w h ether they
Ag a i n , i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s c o n f er a d va n t ag e o n t h e c r e a t or
of t h e g a m e , t h e a p p e ara n c e o f of not .

69
D i a g r am 90 D i a gr am 9 2

Wh i t e t o P l a y Wh i t e t o p l a y

D i ag ram 9 1 D i a g ram 9 3

B l a ck t o p l a y Wh i t e t o p l a y

wou l d norma l ly expect to


SOLUTIONS p rodu c e a p a s s e d p a w n , is
c o mp r o m i s e d . E f f e c t i ve l y B l a ck
D i a g r a m 90 W h i t e c a n c r e a t e a i s a pawn down for the
d o u b l e d p a w n w i t h a Kn i gh t f o r k d ou b l e t o n o n t h e b -f i l e i s
at dS. After 1 NdSch Kd6 l i t t l e better t h a n a s i ng l e
2 N x b 6 a x b 6 , B l a ck ' s qu e e n s i d e p a w n , w h i l s t W h i t e ' s k i n gs i d e
pawn maj ori t y , f rom w h i ch h e maj ority rema i n s i n tact.
70
W h i t e has s cored another h av e t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r t h ere i s
vi c t o r y . H e h a s g a i n e d B i s h o p any poss i b i l i ty of d i rect
for Kn i gh t b e c a u s e i n a n o p e n a t t a c k a ga i n s t t h e e n e my Ki n g.
pos i t i o n s u c h a s t h i s B l a ck ' s H e c o u l d t ry : 1 Q d 2 f 6 2 b 4 ,
Bis h o p w a s s u p er i o r. P l a y c o u l d b u t t h e n B l a ck c o u l d c h a n g e o f f
"
cont i n u e : 3 K e 3 K d S 4 f 4 , a n d B i s h o p f or K n i gh t a n d o b t a i n a
White wi l l h ave l i t t l e p e rf e c t l y d e f e n s i b l e p o s i t i o n .
diffi cu l ty i n w i n n i ng the O r W h i t e c o u l d s t e e r f or t h e
end i n g . endgame, crea t i ng paw n
w e a k n es s es o n t h e w a y w i t h : 1
D i agr a m 9 1 B l a c k h a s a n e a s y Nf5ch KeB 2 Qxd7ch Kx d 7
win with 1 Nd4 2 Qd1
• • • Bxf3 3 Bxc5 bxc5, creat i n g doub l ed
3 gxf 3 , and more s i g n i f i ca n t and iso lated pawns on the
than the doubl i ng of the pawns queens i de. This would not
i s t h e c r a ck i n g o f t h e W h i t e automati ca l ly gi ve White
Ki n g 's p a w n d e f e n c e s . 3 Qh3
• • • v i c t ory f o r K n i gh t a n d p a w n
and W h i t e w i l l h ave t o give up e n d i n gs c a n be d i ff i c u l t t o
h i s Qu e e n t o s a ve m a t e b e c au s e w i n , b u t i t u n q u es t i o n a b l y
of t h e t h r e a t o f Nxf3ch g i ve s h i m t h e b e t t e r pros p e c t s .
et c .

A n o t h er i n t eres t i n g i d e a B a ckward Pawns


co m e s t o l i g h t h e r e . Th e
def e n d er w o u l d o f t e n w i s h t o D i agram 9 4
bri n g a p i e c e , a Qu e e n o r a
Rook p erhaps , from the
queens i d e to ass ist the
tro u b l e d K i n g . T h e d o u b l i n g o f
the f -p a w n s i mpedes t h i s
becaus e t h e pawn o n f 2 i s
b l o ck a d e d b y t h e p a w n o n f 3 a n d
makes rank commu n i cat i on
between the wi ngs very
d i f f i cu l t .

T h i s i s a n o t h er exce l l e n t
examp l e of h o w t h e p a w n
con f i gu ra t i o n mod i f i es t erra i n .

D i agram 9 2 W h i t e d o es n o t h a v e
to b u t h e m i g h t be t e mp t ed t o
doub l e B l a ck 's pawns w i t h 1
Bxf 6 s i n c e 1 gxf6 i s forced
• • •

becau s e o f the fork threat a t


c7. But W h i t e w ou l d t h e n White has two pawns to one on
re a l i s e t h a t t h e e n d g a m e i s a t h e a a n d b - f i l es a n d B l a ck h as
long way off a n d a l l h e has t h e s ame o n t h e g a n d f -fi l e s .
succ e e d e d i n d o i n g i s o p e n a I t i s i n t er e s t i n g t o c o m p a r e
line t h e g-fi l e - agai nst h i s t h e s e t w o grou p s . W h i t e c a n n o t
own K i n g . B l a ck c a n c as t l e l o n g a d va n c e h i s a - p a w n b e c a u s e i t
and p i l e up a n a t t ack o n t h e has n o s upport from a
k i n gs i d e . n e i gh b o u r. S u c h a p a w n , w h e n i t
is u na b l e to move forward
D i agr a m 9 3 White will f i rs t b e c a u s e of t h e t h r e a t of
71
c a p t u r e by a n o p p o s i n g p a w n , p os s i b l e. W h i t e w i t h t h e move
a n d l a ck i n g t h e s u p p ort o f a from the d i agram cou l d go 1 h4,
fri e n d l y paw n i n a n a d j a c e n t mak i n g B l a ck ' s g - p aw n b a ckward .
f i l e , i s s a i d t o b e b a ck w a rd .
B l a ck h a s a b a ck w a rd p a w n at
T h e p o i n t c a n b e e mp h a s i s e d e S . It i s a p a rt i c u l a r l y s evere
b y l o ok i n g a t B l a ck ' s p o s i t i o n c a s e for i t s a d va n ce i s o p p o s ed
on the g and h -fi les. There by t w o p aw n s , a t d 3 a n d . f3.
B l a ck h as t h e s am e m a j o r i t y a s E v e n w i th t h e h e lp o f a p i ece
W h i t e 's on t h e q u eens i d e , b u t i t c o u l d n o t move w i th o u t l os s .
t h e r e l a t i ve pos i t i ons o f t h e
pawns makes a l l t h e d i fferen ce. I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e f i rs t
B l a ck i s a b l e t o a d v a n c e 1 • • • a n d mos t o b vi o u s weakness of
h S beca u s e after 2 g x h S h e c a n t h e b a ck w a rd p a w n i s t h e l oss
recapture w i t h a p a w n , 2 of mobi lityi the second
g xh S , w e akn es s i s i ts i na b i l i ty to
become pas s e d , even w h e n part
Can you s pot two other o f a p aw n maj o r i t y .
b a ckwa r d p aw n s i n d i a g r a m 9 4 ?
D i a gr a m 9 6
T h ey a r e t h e W h i t e p a w n a t
e4 a n d t h e B l a ck o n e a t c 7 .

D i a gram 9 5

An other w eakness e merges


f r o m a c o n s i d er a t i o n o f d i a g r a m
9 6.

Look for backward pawns i n W h i t e h a s a b a ck wa r d p a w n a t


l i agram 9 5 . c 3 . He c o u l d m a k e a t h r e a t on
the g-fi le w i t h ,
White has one at b2.
. l t h o u gh a t t h e m o m e n t i t c a n 1 Rg1
1 o v e i t w i l l s oon be brou g h t t o
e s t at b4. Not s o w i t h B l a ck 's I t is p o s s i b l e f or B l a ck to
awn at g 7 f or a f t er 1 ... gS s u p p ort h i s p a w n w i t h Rook or
h e t w o p a w n s a r e s i d !l b y s i d e K i n g, b u t t h i s w o u l d t i e a
nd furt h er p r o gr e s s is p i ece down t o the meni a l task
of gu a rd i n g a p a w n . A n o t h er w a y a n d o n i t l i e s a b a ck w a r d p a w n
is: at c7. Let us s ee what happens
i f W h i t e p i les u p h i s p i eces on
g6 , it.

s e e k i n g s u p p o r t f r o m a. n e. i g h - 1 Rc6 Rfd8
bour i n g p a w n a n d e s t a b l i s h : n g a 2 Rec1 Rd7
formi d a b l e o bs t a c l e t o W h i � e , s 3 Q c2 Qe7
furt h e r a m b i t i o n s i n t h a t f i l e .
Attack and defence are
W i t h B l a ck to p l ay fro m t h e b a l a n ced o n t h e f u l crum o f t h e
d i agram a s i m i l ar s ort o f b a ck w a r d p a w n . B l a c k i s a b l e � o
thre a t wo u l d b e , hold the pawn but all his
p i eces are n ow p i n n e d d o w n t o
Rc8, i t s d ef e n c e and t h e ms e l ves
occupy mea n and cramped
and t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e q u ar t e rs .
is p i ece s u pport :
W h i t e, h ow e ver, h a s great
2 Kd2 freedom o f moveme n t and a s h e
c o n t i n u e s t o p i n d o w n t h e e n emy
B a ck w a r d p a w n s , t h e n , a r e forces h e wi l l be ab l e to
vu l n e r a b l e t o a n a t t a c k o n a _
c r e a t e o p p o rt u n i t i es e l s ew h ere.
s emi - o p e n f i l e a n d , b e c a u s e o f He c o u l d a d v a n c e t h e b - p a w n
t h e i r l i k e l y p e r m a n e n cy , t h e y e f f ect i v e l y for t h ere i s n ow a
have a great e f f e ct u p o n pi n on the c-fi l e .
t e rra i n . A n d t h e y o f t e n b e c o m e
a b u r d e n t o p i e ce s w h i ch w o u l d A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b a c k w a rd
be b e t t e r o p e ra t i n g m o r e pawn i s a s erious square
amb i t i ou s l y e l s ew h ere . w e a k n e s s i n f r o n t o f t h a t p awn .

D i a gram 9 7 I n d i a gra m 9 8 W h i t e h a s a
b a ck w ard p a w n a t d 3 . I t i s n o t

D i a gr am 9 8

I n d i agram 9 7 t h e c- f i l e i s
h a l f o p e n e d i n W h i t e ' s f a vo u r
73
a t t a ck e d a t p r e s e n t a n d e v e n i f pi eces to p l ay i n this
B l a ck d o u b l e d h i s Q u e e n a n d pos i t i o n .
R o ok o n t h e d - f i l e , W h i t e w o u l d
f i n d adeq u a t e d ef e n c e for t h e T h ere f o l l o w s o m e p os i t i o ns
pawn w i th h i s t h ree p i e ce s . on t h e b a c k w a rd p a w n t h em e f or
Th e y w o u l d , h ow e v e r , b e t i e d you t o s olve.
down, as w e s aw i n t h e previ o u s
e x a mp l e , s o t h a t t h i s w o u l d b e D i agram 9 9
s e n s i b l e B l a ck s t r a t e g y . B u t
there i s t h e o t h e r w e a k n es s
r e l a t e d t o t h e b a ck ward p a w n ,
w h i c h i s o b v i o u s i n t h e p re s e n t
p o s i t i o n : t h e s q u a re w e a k n e s s ,
o r ' h o l e ' i n f r o n t o f t h e p aw n .

Nd4

A f i n e pos i t i o n for t h e
Kn i gh t . S i n ce W h i t e ' s m i n or
p i e c e i s a w h i t e -s q u a r e d B i s h o p
the o n ly p os s i b l e w a y he cou l d
r e m o v e t h a t Kn i gh t w o u l d b e
bri ng h i s Rook round and
s a cr i f i c e t h e e x c h a n g e .

2 Qd 1

Any o t h er Qu e en move wou l d


a l l ow B l a ck t o break u p h i s W h i t e to move. How s h o u l d p l ay
k i n gs i d e p aw n s o r f o rk Q u e e n c o n t i n u e a n d w h a t i s t h e l i k e ly
a n d R o ok . re s u l t ?

T h e p os i t i o n o f t h e K n i gh t D i agram 1 D D
f o r ms a p i v o t o f a c t i v i t y f o r
t h e r e s t o f t h e B l a ck f or c e . I t
i s beau t i f u l ly centra l i s e d a n d
s o B l a ck c a n c o n s i d e r p l a y o n
e i ther w i n g. I t s a d va n c e d
pos it i on means that h e
p o s s e s s e s m o r e s p a c e b eh i n d t h e
p i ece a nd cons equ e n t ly
res t r i ct s W h i t e t e rri t ory . I n
d ef e n c e o r i n r e g ro u p i n g f or a n
a t t a ck W h i t e w i l l b e c o n s t a n t l y
a w a re o f t h e c o n s t ra i n i n g
i n f l u en c e o f t h a t t erri b l e
t h orn i n h i s f l es h .

W h et h e r t h e a d va n t a g e s t h a t
B l a ck e n j oys h ere are
suff i ci ent t o w i n i s another
matt er, b u t w h at i s c l ea r i s
t h a t a n y p l ayer g fv e n t h e
c h o i ce w o u l d s e l e c t t h e B l a ck Does p o s s es s i o n of the move
74
affect t h e res u l t of this S O LU T I O N S
p os i t i o n ?,
D i a gr a m 9 9 E a ch p l ay e r h as a
D i a g r am 1 0 1 pot en t i a l passed pawn i n h i s
p aw n m aj o r i t y a n d B l a ck h a s
s l i ght ly t h e better Ki ng
p o s i t i on s i nce h i s is more
advanced. However, he has
n eg l e c t e d h i s q u e e n s i d e pawn
c o n f i gu r a t i o n a n d W h i t e n o w h a s
1 as, rendering the b-pawn
b a ck w a r d . I f B l a c k g o e s a f t e r
that a - p awn w i t h h i s Ki ng,
W h i t e q u i ck ly con verts h i s
m a j o r i t y i n t o a p a s s ed p aw n a n d
ru n s t h r o u gh o n t h e o t h e r w i n g.
I f B l a ck s t a y s i n t h e c e n t r e a
w i n n i n g method i s : 1 • • • KdS
2 h4 g xh 4 3 gxh4 KeS 4 hS
KfS 5 Kd4 KgS 6 KcS KxhS
(the p a s s e d pawn h as been u s ed
as a decoy) 7 Kb6 e t c. Had
B l a c k ' s b - p a w n b e e n a t b 6 ti e
t o o cou l d h ave creat e d a p a s s e d
W h i t e t o p l ay . How s h o u l d h e p aw n .
cont i n u e i n order t o crea t e a
b a ck w a r d p a w n a n d t h e n e x p l o i t
A backw ard p aw n i n a K i n g
it?
and pawn endi ng does not
Di agram 1 0 2 a u t o ma t i c a l l y g i v e a w i n t o t h e
o t h e r s i d e , b u t t h i s e x a mp l e
i l l u s trates t h e n eed t o a vo i d
weak n e s s es that can prove
f at a l .

D i agr a m 1 0 0 Y e s . W i t h t h e m o ve
W h i t e c a n e s ca p e t a ct i ca l ly
f rom h i s d i s a d vantage o f t h e
backward paw n at h 4 : 1 h S !
gxhS ( i f 1 KdS then 2 h6
• • •

wins) 2 g6 and Black cannot


s t o p t h e p aw n .

B l a ck t o p l ay g o e s 1 KdS
• • •

and t h e Ki n g c a n c u t o f f a n y
p as s ed p aw n o n t h e k i n gs i d e. I f
then 2 Kf4 Ke6 and White can
m a k e n o m o r e p r ogres s a n d B l a ck
can w i n o n t h e queens i d e.

T h i s e xa mp l e w a s g i v e n t o
B l ack t o p l ay . H o w c a n h e u s e demonstrate that a pawn
the t h e m e t o r e s t ri c t W h i t e 's m a j o r i t y , e v e n t h ough
p os i t i on ? c o mp r o m i s e d by a b a c k w a r d p a w n ,

75
can occas i on a l ly prod u c e a H a ngi n g P a w n s
wi n n i n g p a s s e d p a w n .
D i agram 1 D 3
Di agram 1 D 1 W h i t e can r e n d er
h i s o p p o n e n t 's d -p a w n b a ck wa r d
i m me d i a t e ly a n d w i t h a g a i n o f
t e mp o : 1 e 4 . Aft e r 1 Bg6
• • •

t h e w e a k n e s s c a n b e q u i ck l y
e xp l o i t e d : 2 B a 3 Rfd8 3 RdS
(occupy i n g t h e w eak s quare i n
fro n t o f t h e p a w n ) R d 7 4 R a d 1
RadB 5 Q b 6 . B l a ck c a n s u m m o n
n o more ass i s tance and so t h e
pawn f a l ls.

D i agr a m 1 D 2 H e c a n c o n s t r a i n
W h i t e by creat i n g backward
pawns at c2 and a2. To p lay
1 • • • b 4 s t ra i gh t a w a y may n o t
b e t h e b e s t b e ca u s e W h i t e c ou l d
choos e a ct i v i t y , e v e n i f r i s k y ,
to p a s s i v i t y by g i v i n g u p a
pawn temporari ly: 2 c41
bxc e . p . 3 Rd3 Qb4 4 Qc2, Han g i n g p a w n s a p p ear i n p a i rs
and White is on his way to a n d W h i t e h a s s u ch a p a i r a t c4
rega i n i n g his pawn w i t h no and d4.
c o n s t r a i n t s o n h i s p os i t i o n . I n
f a ct he w i l l come out w i t h a The weakness of this
q u e e n s i d e p a w n m a j or i t y . ( Th e c o n f i gu r a t i o n i s t h a t s h o u l d
B i s h o p , e xp o s e d a f t e r t h e f ­ W h i t e w i s h t o a d v a n c e e i t h er
p a w n a d va n c e s , w o u l d c h a s e a w a y o n e a n e x ch a n g e i n i t i a t e d by
t h e B l a ck K n i g h t i f h e t r i e d t o B 1 a ck w i 1 1 1 e a d t o a n i s o 1 a t e d
s u p po r t t h e e xt r a p a w n w i t h p a w n . 1 d S e x dS 2 c x d S i s o n e
NdS . l cas e and t h e s ame s ort of t h i n g
h ap p e n s w h e n W h i t e p u s h e s t h e
"B 1 a ck s h o u l d p r o c e e d m o r e o t h e r p aw n f i rs t .
pat i ent l y w i t h 1 Rc3,
b l o ck a d i n g t h e c - p a w n a n d N o t i c e , h ow e v e r , t h a t t h e
prepari ng t o d ou b l e , even i s o l at e d p a w n w h i c h emerges i s
triple, i n t h e c-fi le. White a l s o p a s s ed and s o , s h o u l d
c a n s t i l l p u t u p a f i gh t b u t h e W h i t e f i nd h i ms e l f i n a
is c l e a r ly s t ru g g l i n g i n p os i t i o n w h ere a n i s o l at ed
cramp e d c o n d i t i o n s . p a s s e d p a w n· i s a s t r e n g t h
r a t h er t h a n a w e a k n e s s , t h en
t h e h a n g i n g p a w n s t h e ms e l v e s
mu s t be regarded as an
a d va n t a g e .

T h e s y m m e t ry i n d i ag r a m 1 D 3
i s not a lways t h e cas e a n d a
s 1 i gh t r e a rr a n g e m e n t o f t h e
p a w n s g i ve s d i a g r a m 1 D 4 .

76
D i agram 1 0 4 D i ag ram 1 0 5

Ag a i n W h i t e ' s c e n t r a l p a w n s Here t h e d i st a n ce between


re h a n g i n g a n d w h i l s t 1 c4 t h e oppos i n g pawn groups being
xc4 2 dxc4 gi ves a l l the g r e a t e r , W h i t e a p p e a rs t o h a ve
oss i b l e s trengths and more s co p e w i t h h i s central
eak n e s s e s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , pawns. None the less they are
he a l t ernat i v e , 1 d 4 , g i ves s t i l l h a n g i n g , f o r i n h er e n t i n
i s e to q u i t e a d i f fere n t t h a t p a w n s t ructure are t h e
ituat ion. Now t h e c-pawn i s po s s i b i l i t i es o f i s o l a t i o n a n d
ackward and n e i ther paw n has b a ck w ar d n e s s w h e n e v e r W h i t e
uch h o p e o f break i n g away from c h o o s e s t o a d v a n c e t h em.
h a t w e a k , i mm o b i l e s t r u c t u r e .
he points c4 and d S are s trong H o w to rea l i s e t h e s t re n g t h s
os t s f o r e n e my p i e c e s w h i c h a nd e xp l o i t t h e w ea k n es s es of
ould prove d i f fi cu l t t o h a n g i n g p a w n s w i 1 1 be l e f t to a
emo v e . more s u i t a b l e p l a c e .

Of c o u rs e , W h i t e d i d n o t
ave t o p l a y 1 d 4 , b u t h e c o u l d
ave been forced to d o s o by
i s o p p o n e n t b y pres s u re o n t h e
3 p awn i n t h e h a l f o p e n f i l e .

An o t h e r a l t e r a t i o n t o t h e
awn p o s i t i o n g i v e s d i a g r a m
OS.

77
THREE
CHAPTER 9

Squares and pieces

The t h eme of th i s c h a p t e r h a s a d v a n c e d a n d b e c a u s e B l a ck h as
a l r e a dy b e e n i n t r o d u c ed w h e n w e moved h i s f- and b -pawns s o
w e r e c o n s i d e ri n g t h e s q u a r e i n t h a t t h ey n o l o n ger w a t ch e 6
f r o n t o f t h e b a c k w a rd p a w n , a n d c 6.
which proved to be a strong
squ are f or t h e o pp o s i t i on . A These weak squares in
simi lar conclus i on was made B l a c k ' s t e rr i t o r y mak e f i n e
w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e b l o ck a d i n g e n t ry p o i n t s f o r t h e W h i t e
square i n front of an i s o lated p i e c e s . F o r e x a mp l e , 1 N e 6
pas s ed p a w n . I t i s i d e a s s u ch ( W h i t e wou l d not a t t h i s s tage
as thes e that are now c h o os e t o i n t r u d e w i t h t h e Rook
d eve l o p e d . s i n c e i t c o u l d be e as i ly d r iv e n
a w a y b y t h e o p p o s i n g Kn i g h t )
D i a g ram 1 0 6 and t h e Kn i ght assumes a
p ow e rf u l p os i t i o n , s u p p ort e d by
a pawn, and gai ns i nflu ence
o v e r many s q u ares in B l a ck 's
h a l f o f t h e b o a r d . S u c h a p i e ce
i n s u ch a p os i t i o n i s referred
to a s an outpost. It is true
that u n der cert a i n cond i t i on s
i t c a n be e xc h a ng e d o f f ,
a lthough prudent s u pport by
other p i eces h er e t h e R o ok o n
the open fi l e ens ures that a
replacement i s t o hand. T h e
i mp o rt a n t p o i n t i s t h a t i t
c a n n o t b e dri ven off by a p aw n
s ince Black has a l ready
c o mmi t t ed h i s d a n d f pawns
f o rw a r d . S u c h s q u a r e s a s e 6 a r e
h o l es i n t h e B l ack p os i t i on ,
h o l es through w h i ch W h i t e
p i eces can p o u r. c 6 i s a l s o a
In di agram 1 06 the pawn h o l e , b u t l es s u s ef u l , for
ituat ion i s fluid on the W h i t e c a n n o t occu py i t w i t h a
i n gs i d e a n d l ar g e l y f i x e d i n piece.
he centre a n d o n t h e
ueens i d e. Look for good T h er e a r e vu l n e ra b l e s q u a res
quar e s f o r W h i t e . O b vi o u s o n es i n t h e W h i t e p os i t i o n t o o , at
re e 6 a n d c 6 a n d m a d e s o d 4 a n d c3 , for i ns t a n ce, but
eca u s e t h ey a r e c o n t ro l l e d by n o t o n e s t o b e ea s i l y o c cu p i e d .
h e d - p aw n , w h i c h is s e c u r e a n d T h e s q u a re i n front of t h e
81
White a -pawn i s a l s o a h o l e but avai lable to support
a g a i n B l a ck c a n n o t u s e i t a n d o u t p os t s . Th e s e p o i n t s are
even i f h e cou l d it is so far d i ffere n t f r o m d S , b u t h o l e s
a w a y from t h e f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y in Black 's game none the
in this game as to be l es s , u n l e s s B l a ck c a n p l u g
i rr e l e va n t . them w i th pi eces. A
f i a n ch e t t oed B i s h o p at g 7
eS s eems to b e a good s q u ar e wou l d go a l ong way to d o
f o r B l a ck a t f i rs t g l a n c e b u t , this .
once White has moved his 3 a6 i s a good s q u are for
Kn i gh t , f2 - f 4 w o u l d q u i c k l y White because of the
d i s c o u r a g e B l a ck f r o m k e e p i n g a i s o l a t i o n o f B l a ck ' s a - p a w n .
p i ece there. B e i n g a t t h e e d g e of t h e
board and away from t h e
D i a gram 1 0 7 k i n gs i d e (as s u m i n g B l a ck h a s
cas t led short ) i t i s
u n l i k e ly t o be used i n t h e
middle game but cou ld
c e rt a i n l y h a v e s o m e e n d g a m e
va l u e .

B l ack wou l d see as s trong


s q u ar e s :

d4, and hope t o o ccupy i t


w i t h a piece, a beau t i f u l
c e n t ra l p os i t i o n . T h e s q u ar e
has a l l t h e virtues of
Wh i t e ' s d S .
2 f4, i n front of Whi te's
i s o l a t e d a n d d o u b l ed p a w n s
and
3 h3 a n d h4 w h i ch s er v e a s
f i n e e n t ry p o i n t s b e ca u s e o f
the i s o la t i on of Whi te's h ­
I n d i a gr a m 1 0 7 a g a i n i t i s pawn .
the pawn s tructure whi ch
affects t h e nature of t h e C o n s i d e r t h e n e x t t w o d i a g r a ms
t erra i n a n d w i t h i n i t t h e a n d p i ck out t h e strong p o i nts
p o i n t s a n d l i n e s o f s t r e n gt h f o r e a ch s i d e i n t h e s ame way .
and weakness.

Look i n g for h i s own s tr o n g


p o i n t s , W h i t e wo u l d f i n d :

dS, a s trong square made s o


b y t h e b a ck w a r d p a w n a t d 6 ,
a n d a f i n e o u t p o s t
p a rt i cu l a r l y f o r a K n i gh t o r
Bishop.
2 f 6 a n d h 6 a r e s trong s qu ares
pro vided W h i t e can occupy
and mai ntain them w ith
pi eces , s i nce n o pawns are
82
Di a g r a m 1 0 8 a R o ok m a y b e u s e f u l i n s u c h a
s p o t i n t h e s i xt h r a n k e x ert i n g
p r es s u re a g a i n s t the i s o l a t ed
d - p a w n as w e l l as c o n t ro l l i n g
the fi le.

b 6 i s a n o t h er u s ef u l s q u a re ,
d e p e nd i n g f o r i t s i mp o rt a n c e o n
t h e area o f m a i n a ct i vi ty, f or
i n s t a n c e , i t s i mp o r t a n c e w o u l d
d e c l i n e i f B l a ck h a d c a s t l e d o n
t h e o t h e r s i d e . Bot h Kn i gh t a n d
B i s h o p h av e e a s y a c c e s s . A R o ok
wou ld be w e l l -p l a ced there,
e x e rt i n g s i mu l t a n e o u s p r e s s u re
o n t h e back ward paw n at b 7 and
t h e i s o lated pawn at d 6 .

Black has an excel lent


s q u a r e f or a n o u t p o s t a t e 4 . c5
i s a l s o good, especi a l ly for a
D i a g r am 1 0 9 K n i gh t . N o t i c e h ow t h a t p i e c e
c o u l d move between b o t h strong ·

p o i nts .

Q.i�K!:.� !!! _..!.Qg White has no


o b vi o u s l y g o o d o u t p o s t s q u a r e s .
T e ch n i ca l ly a5 is o n e b u t i s
u n l i k e ly t o b e i n t h e m a i n area
o f a c t i v i ty t h ou gh it may be
u s efu l in the end i n g. I f Wh i t e
c o u l d p l a n t a p i ece f i rmly o n
c6 w i t h adequate support h e
c o u l d t u r n t h e s q u ar e i n t o a
s tr o n g o n e a n d B l a ck 's c-pawn
i nt o a v i rt u a l b a c k ward o n e ,
but it wou l d n o t be easy to
s u p p ort and B l a ck w o u l d be
cons tant ly wary of anyth i n g
l a n d i n g t h er e .

Th ere is a good p l a ce for a


B l a ck o u t p o s t , i n fro n t o f t h e
SOLUT IONS b a ck w ard p a w n , at c4. e5,
s u rp r i s i n g ly , i s a l s o worth
Di agram 1 0 8 L o o k e d at from c o n s i d e ri n g. A p i e c e p l a c ed
Wh i t e ' s p o i n t o f v i e w e6 l e a p s there cou l d , admi t t ed ly, b e
t o t h e e y e , a b e au t i f u l o u t p o s t dri ven a way b y W h i t e ' s f-pawn,
square i n a n open f i l e. One bu t , s h o u l d t h a t happen, a new
wou l d e xp e c t a K n i g h t t o a l i gh t a n d r e a l h o l e appears i n
there w i th access vi a d4 bu t W h i t e 's game at e4 as we l l as a
not a Bi s h o p s i n c e t h ere i s n o b a ck w a r d p a w n a t e 3 . g 3 mu s t
clear way i n. A t a l ater stage a l s o b e n ot i ce d , for a B l a ck

83
occupat ion of that square wou l d n orma l ly be s en s i b l e t o
a ga i n s t a c a s t l e d Ki n g c o u l d o c c u p y i t w i t h a B i s h o p or
p ro v e m o s t f ru i t fu l . Kn i gh t , w i th a cc e s s v i a g4 or
g 3 , b u t i n c e r t a i n
W e n ow cons i der a square as c i rcums tan ces i t wou l d be
a s t ro n g p o i n t i n f o ur c l o s e ly s u i t a b l e f o r a R o o k , f o r a R o ok
related p os i t i on s a n d s e e h ow c ou l d i mp r o v e o n t h e g o o d w o rk
t h e t o t a l pawn s tructure a n d i t w a s a lready d o i n g i n the
t h e pattern of o p e n a n d c l os e d o p e n f i l e b y g a i n i n g r a n k p ower
l i nes i n t h at area a f f e ct t h e w i t h pressure agai n s t Black's
p ro s p e c t s o f i t s o c c u p a t i o n . e - p aw n .
T a k e , f o r e xamp l e , f S .

D i agram 1 1 0 M a i n t e n a n c e o f a n o u t p os t i s
i mp o r t a n t f o r i t i s n a t u ra l
t h a t t h e o p p o n e n t w i l l a t t a ck
s u c h a p i e c e a n d h e r e h e a vy
s u p p o r t f r o m m a j or p i e ce s w o u l d
b e ava i l a b l e i n t h e f i l e as
w e l l a s f u r t h er p a w n s u p po rt by
g4, s h ou l d i t be requ i r e d . I n
this situation, when the
outpost i s in an open fi le,
B l a ck m u s t b e m o s t car e f u l i n
e x ch a n g i n g i t , e v e n i f h e i s i n
a p o s i t i o n t o d o s o a n d a n x i ou s
t o be r i d of t h e i n t r u d e r , f o r
W h i t e c a n c h o o s e t o r e c a p t u re
w i t h t h e e -p a w n , s o creat i n g a
p assed pawn.

In d i a g r a m 1 1 1 B l a ck h a s a
b a ck w a r d p a w n a t f 6 a n d i t i s
i n t h e s q u ar e i m m ed i a t e ly i n
f r o n t t h a t W h i t e ' s s t ro n g p o i n t
l i es . T h e o c c u py i n g p i e c e i s
I n di agram 1 1 0 the f-fi l e i s a ga i n l i k e l y t o be Kn i gh t ,
o p e n a nd c o u l d b e c o n t e s t ed b y B i shop o r R ook for access is
either s i d e . In that fi l e l i es t h ere f o r a l l t h r e e . Th e f i l e
t h e i mp o rt a n t f S s q u are w a t ch e d i s h a l f o p e n i n W h i t e ' s f a vour
by W h i t e 's e - p aw n . Any W h i t e and s o s u p p ort for the o u t p o s t
p i e c e o c c u p y i n g t h a t s q u are offers l i t t l e di ffi cu lty.
c o u l d not b e d r i v e n off by a H o w e v e r , s h o u l d i t b e e x c h a n ge d
p a w n . I t i s a h o l e i n t h e B l a ck o f f b y B l a ck , r e t ak i n g w i l l n o t
p os i t i o n a n d a p i e c e a l i gh t i n g prod u c e a p as s ed p a w n 1 i n fact
o n i t b e comes a n o u t p o s t i n t h e i t w o u l d t en d t o w eaken W h i te's
oppos i n g h a l f of the board. It p aw n s t r u c t u r e .

64
Di agram 1 1 1 Di agram 1 1 3

D i a gram 1 1 2 g4 as a res erve. I t i s c l ear,


h ow e ver, that f S is n o t q u i t e
s o favoura b l e t o W h i t e a s a n
o u t p o s t i n t h i s ca s e .

I n d i agram 1 1 3 t h e f - f i l e i s
comp l e t e l y c losed s o that both
s u pport of and a s s au l t on a n
o u t p o s t a t f S is mu ch m o r e
d i f f i cu l t . I t c ou l d s t i l l p r o v e
a us efu l square for White i n
s p i t e o f the p ro b l e ms o f
access. B l a ck has some
c o mp e n s a t i o n i n t h e h a l f o p e n
g - f i l e wh i ch W h i t e cou l d reduce
by g2 g4 .

The value t o White of f5 i n


a l l t h e s e pos i t i o n s vari es
a c c o rd i n g t o e a s e o f a c ce s s a n d
maintenance, i n o t h e r words
I n d i a gr a m 1 1 2 f S i s i n a o p e n l i n es i n t h e v i c i n i t y .
f i l e h a l f o p e n t o B l a ck . H e r e
W h i t e ' s prob l em, s h ou l d h e w i s h Th e better t h e l i nes o f
to u s e t h e s q u a r e a s a n commu n i cat i on, the more
outpos t , i s o n e o f a c ces s . I t e f f e c t i v e t h e o u t p o s t wi l l b e .
is m o s t u n l i k e ly t h a t e i t h e r a
R o ok o r B i s h o p c o u l d g e t t h e r e T h e n e xt grou p o f p u z z l e s
and s o a Kn i gh t is t h e o n l y are a ga i n p a w n patterns b u t
pract i c a b l e c a n d i d a t e . T h e p o s t h er e y o u a r e i n vi t ed t o c h o os e
w o u l d b e a l m o s t i mp o s s i b l e t o t h e most s u i t ab l e p i e c e for the
su pport w i t h p i e ces , b u t pawn n e eds a n d o p p o rt u n i t i e s o f t h e
support is a d eq u a t e w i t h g2 - pos i t i on. T h e f i rs t is a n
85
e xamp l e . L o ok f or good p l a c es Di a g r a m 1 1 5
f o r W h i t e p i e c e s , s a y K n i gh t ,
B i s h op a n d Rook , s o t h a t t h ey
c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y t a k e a d va n t a g e
of weak points i n the oppos i n g
s t r u c t u r e . A Kn i gh t w o u l d b e
us efu l at e4 o r c 4 , ready for
t h e i m m ed i a t e o c cu p a t i o n o f d 6 .
T h e s q u are is o f easy a c cess
from a l mo s t anywhere o n t h e
b oa r d . E v e n a Kn i gh t a t i t s
ori g i n a l s p o t o n b 1 s o o n gets
t h ere v i a d 2 a n d e 4 . T h e B i s h o p
has l i t t l e difficu l ty i n
occupy i n g t h e post from s ay ,
c 1 , b 2 o r f 2.

A R o ok , s i t u a t ed a n y w h e r e
a long t h e f i rs t rank cou l d
q u i ck 1 y s w i t c h t o d 1 , t a k i n g
h o l d of the open f i l e, to
i n vade at d 6 at a n a ppropri a t e W h i t e t o f i n d s u i t a b l e s q u a res
mome n t . f o r B i s h o p , K n i gh t a n d R o ok
D i agram 1 1 4 D i a gram 1 1 6

N o w c o n s i d er t h e o t h e r t h r e e B l a ck t o f i n d s u i t a b l e s q u a r e s
pos i t i o n s i n t h e s ame way . f o r B i s h o p , K n i gh t a n d R o ok

86
D i a gr am 1 1 7 D i agr a m 1 1 6 T w o o b v i o u s l y w e a k
s q u ares i n t h e W h i t e c a mp are
d3 a n d f 3 . A n o t h e r, t h o u gh n o t
u n d e r t h e e y e o f a B l a ck p a w n .
i s h 3 , w h.i c h h a s 1 o s t i t s p a w n
g u a rd a n d m a y b e a v i t a l s p o t
if Wh i t e h a s cas t l e d o n t h a t
s i d e. You w i l l not i ce that
there i s n o access rou t e for a
K n i g h t f r o m B l a ck ' s s i d e t o d 3
a n d on ly one t o f3 gS and
e ve n t h at can b e c l os ed u p b y
h2 h 4 , a n d s o B l a ck w i l l h ave
t o a ct q u i ck l y i f h e w a n t s a n
o u t p o s t K n i gh t .

A B i s h o p h as more choi ce and


wou l d b e b e s t p l a ced o n e6 w i t h
q u i ck e n t r i es t o d 3 v i a c 4 a n d
f 3 vi a g4 as w e l l as k e ep i n g an
e y e o n h 3 . I t i s i n t er es t i n g t o
W h ere w o u l d W h i t e w i s h t o p l a c e note that the Bishop as a n
B i s h o p , K n i gh t a n d R o o k ? o u t p o s t a n d t h e pawn prop gi ve
mu t u a l s u p p o r t a n d h e r e ,
b ecau s e t h at prop at e4 i s
SOLU T I ONS i s o lated and therefore weak ,
s u c h s u p p o rt w i l l d o u b t l e s s b e
D i agr a m 1 1 5 H e r e t h e r e a r e t w o n e c e s s a r y . If t h e e - p a w n i s
tar g e t s f o r W h i t e , d 6 a n d f 6 , u n der i mm e d i a t e threat from
w i t h t h e l a t t er, s i n c e i t l i es Wh i t e t h e Bis h op may be needed
in an open fi le, the more at d S or fS to p r o t e c t t h e p aw n
attract ive, though o n ly f r o m b e h i n d , s o t h a t m a t t ers o f
c i r c u ms t a n c es , t h e d i s p o s i t i o n s t em p o a n d i n i t i a t i v e a s w e l l a s
of a l l t h e f or c e s , c ou l d m a k e a c c e s s d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r B l a ck
t h a t a c e r t a i n t y . F o r a K n i gh t i s able t o establish a Bi shop
access w o u l d b e vi a e 4 , a w e l l out pos t i n t h i s pos i t i o n .
shielded square, s o that even a
rem o t e K n i gh t , s ay a t a 3 , w o u l d A R o ok i s b e s t p l a c e d o n t h e
have p l e n t y o f t i m e to g e t half open f-fi l e and, should i t
t h e r e b e f o r e B l a ck c o u l d h o p e be able to land on f3, this
to c l os e t h e r o u t e d o w n : a 3 w o u l d g i v e i t e n t ry t o d 3 a s
b1 d2 e4. we l l .

A Bi s h o p , prob a b ly l y i n g D i agram 1 1 7 B l a c k h as a t s o m e
ini ti a l ly o n e i ther of t h e t i m e b e e n f o r c e d to r e c a p t u r e
di agon a l s c 1 h6 and e1 h4, on f6 with h is g-pawn, leaving
wou l d e as i l y f i n d a w a y i n t o h i s pos i t i o n fu l l o f h o l es . Two
f6, but i t is o bvi ous ly o b vi o u s o n es a r e d S a n d f S , b u t
u n l i k e l y that i t w o u l d get t o h S a n d h 6 a r e a l s o g o o d s q u ares
d 6. . f or W h i t e. Th e b es t post for a
Kn i gh t w o u l d b e e 3 . A l t h o u gh d S
A R o ok a ny w h e r e o n t h e f i rs t a n d f S a r e l i gh t - c o l ou red
ra n k w o u l d b e r e a d y t o m o v e squares , a l i ght -coloured
i nto t h e o p e n f i l e . b i shop wou l d b e use less for i t
87
wou l d b e l o ck e d b e h i n d i t s o w n r e a ch i t . B l a ck , s i m i l a r l y , h as
p a w n s . A b l a ck - s q u a r e d B i s h o p a n exce l l ent place at d4,
wou l d be b e t t e r, p e r h a p s o n d 2 , e q u a l l y u n a t t a i n a b l e . H o w e v er ,
watch i n g h 6 , or e 1 w i t h h4 a n d for Wh i t e there i s e6, w e l l
pres s u r e aga i n s t t h e b a ckward a d va n c e d o n a n o p e n f i l e w i t h
p aw n i n m i n d . A n d t h e p l a c e m e n t i n f l u en c e i n t h e K i n g 's f i e l d,
of a R o o k i s t o o o b v i o u s t o a f i ne t arget and o n e that
m e n t i o n , a l t h o u gh d o n ' t f o r g e t B l a c k mu s t c o n t e s t i f h e c a n .
t h a t i f th i n gs b e c o m e c l os e d o n
t h e k i n gs i d e, t h e a - f i l e i s We s h a l l l ook at one
h a l f o p e n i n Wh i t e ' s f a vo u r . p o s s i b l e l i n e o f p l ay .

It has been assumed in the W h i t e f i rs t t r i e s to post


forego i n g t h a t s t rong squares t h e B i s h op at e6
have a p peared i n a r e a s o f t h e
board i mportant to the 1 Bg4 Bc8
p ar t i cu l a r p o s i t i o n . C l e a r l y
such squ ares remot e from the Contes t i n g t h e d i agona l .
maj or area of a ct i vi ty are A n ot h e r l i n e cou l d b e t o l et
i rre l e va n t , a t l e a s t at t h e the White Bishop i n whi ls t
mome n t , t h ough t h ey may p rove p r e pa r i n g t o c h a l l e n g e w i t h
va l u a b l e l a t e r . It i s t h e Na6 - c7.
r e l at i ve d i s pos i t i on of p i e ces
wh i c h d ef i n e s t h e v i t a l a r e a 2 Rae1
a n d w e n o w l o ok a t p o s i t i o n s
w i t h pi eces o n the board, t h e N a t u ra l ly t a k i n g h o l d o f t h e
ma i n a c t or s , a s i t w e r e , p l a c e d f i l e for the Rook w i l l a l s o
a g a i n s t t h e b a c k c l o t h of t h e s u pport a ny p i e c e h e m a n a g e s t o
p awn s t ru c t u r e . lodge at e 6 .

D i a gram 1 1 8 2 Qf7
3 BxcB

O f course he c o u l d go 3 B e 6
and rep l a c e it w i t h t h e Rook
a ft er t h e f orced e x chan ge, b u t
W h i t e wou l d rather get h i s
Kn i g h t t h ere. 3 R e 6 i s ref u t ed
by 3 fS, but not 3
• • • Bxe6 • • •

b ecaus e of 4 Bxe6, p i n n i n g the


Qu e e n .

3 R xc8
4 Ne2

T h e s e co n d c a n d i d a t e .

4 Na6

B l a ck c o u l d k e e p o u t t h e
K n i gh t w i t h 4 g S , bu t o n ly
• • •

Wh i t e 's strong point at c6 a t t h e c o s t o f d i s t u rb i n g t h e


is of l i tt l e use at pres ent k i n gs i d e p a w n s a n d c r e a t i n g
since no piece is likely to a nother weak s quare a t f S w h i ch
88
wou l d p r o v e a t l e a s t a s s er i o u s 1 0 dxe6
as the one a t e6 .
Here 1 0 Qxe6 Qxe6 1 1 Rxe6
5 Nf4 Nc7 R d 8 1 2 R e 7 , w o u l d c o mp l et e t h e
i n v a s i o ri , b u t t h e t e x t i s a n
A g a i n B l a ck i s r e a dy to a l t ernat i ve w h i ch i l lus trates
e x ch a n g e o f f t h e i n va d e r . h ow t h e p a w n p r o t e c t or o f a n
outpost i n an open fi l e can, a t
6 Ne6 Nxe6 t h e r i gh t m o m e n t , r e c a p t u r e a n d
7 Rxe6 t u r n i n t o a p ow e rf u l p a s s e d
p awn .
H e cou l d capture w i t h t h e
paw n , m a k i n g i t p a s s e d , b u t h e 10 QeB
is n o t q u i t e r e a d y f o r t h i s .
W h i t e mu s t n o w b e c a r e f u l n o t Th e Rook requ ired pro­
to a l l ow B l a ck t o ch a n g e t ect i o n .
everyt h i n g o f f f o r t h e n h i s
advantage wou l d b egi n t o 11 Qd S ,
d i s a p p e a r. I t i s s o m e t i me s b e s t
to d e l ay o c c u py i n g a p o s t f o r a n d B l a ck c a n r e s i g n . N o t i c e
th i s v e r y r e a s o n . B 1 a c k mu s t that now t h e Wh i t e d -pawn has
now a t t e n d t o t h e d - p a w n a n d t o c a p t u re d , i t s b l o ck a d er a t d 6
prot e c t i t w i t h a R o o k w o u l d b e h a s b e c o m e e xpos e d a n d i s i n
t o g i v e u p h ope o f c o n t es t i n g f a ct a b a ck w ard p a w n . N o t o n ly
the open f i l e. Th i s ga i n o f i s t h e d -pawn t h reatened but
temp o i s e n o u g h t o e n a b l e W h i t e t h er e i s a d i s c o v e r e d c h e ck o n
to convert his s pat i a l the d i agona l .
adva n t a g e i n t o a q u i ck w i n .
T h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e ms a r e
7 Qd 7 n o t t o b e t a k e n t o t h i s l e n gt h .
8 Rfe1 F i nd t h e best s t r o n g s q u a re,
a n d say h ow to o c cu py it and
W h a t n ow ? W h i t e t h re a t e n s t o h ow t h e o p p o n e n t s h ou l d c o n t e s t
take c o n t r o l of t h e s e v e n t h it.
rank w h i ch g i v e s B l a c k n o
choi c e .

a Re a
9 Qe4

Pow er f u l p l ay i n t h e f i l e
arou n d t h e p i v o t o f a c t i o n a t
e6 .

9 Rxe6

It i s e i t h e r this or l e a v i n g
the f i l e. A K i n g is o f t e n
usefu l i n d e f e n d i n g e n t ry
po i nt s i n a f i l e a n d s h o u l d n o t
be scorned b u t h er e Kf7,
• • •

prot ec t i n g t h e R o ok a s w e l l a s
e7, is n o good b e c au s e t h e h­
p awn i s l o os e .
89
D i a g r am 1 1 9 1 RaeB
2 Qd2
The d-pawn w i l l need
protect i o n .

2 Re3

Here the Rook e xerts l a tera l


p r e s s u r e a ga i n s t t h e d - a n d f ­
p awn s .

3 Bg2 RfeB

W i t h t h e t h r e a t of i n vad i n g
t h e s eventh rank .

4 Rae1

T h ere i s c l early n o
a l t er n at i ve t o c o n t es t i n g t h e
f i le .
Black t a p l ay
4 Qe7
D i agram 1 2 0 W h i t e mu s t n o w g o i n f o r
e x c h a n g e s a r t ry 5 K f 2 , A f t er
5 Rxe3 Qxe3ch 6 Qxe3 Rxe3,
he can n o l onger prot ect both
p awn s .

5 Kf2

N o w s o m e s or t o f b a l a n c e i s
s t r u c k . B l a ck w o u l d n o t ga i n
f a r e x c h a n ges a n d W h i t e c a n n o t
s i nce Black wou l d recapture
w i t h t h e p a w n , f o rk i n g Q u e e n
and King. But the W h i t e force
is n ow t i ed d ow n ta t h e d ef e n ce
o f t h e w e a k n e s s e & a n d B l a ck ca n
i n i t i a t e a K i n gs i d e p u s h w i t h
f S , et c.

D i agram 1 20 If yau compare


paw n s t ru ctures it i s c l ea r
t h a t B l a ck ' s i s s u p e r i o r . H i s
B l a ck t a p l a y o n e w e a k n e s s i s t h e i s o l a t ed a ­
p a w n . W h i t e, o n t h e at he r h a n d ,
h a s a p e r ma n e n t w � a k n e s s a t d 4
SO LUTIONS a nd a h o l e at b 3 w h i ch he w i l l
n a t f i nd easy t a p l ug. Black 's
D i agram 1 1 9 The t arget is i n Kn i g h t a t e S i s n ot w e l l - p l a ced
the open fi l e a t e 3 and a Raak a n d h e c a n i mp r o v e i t s p o s i t i o n
t h e c a n d i d a t e f or t h e p as t . wi th :
90
Nc6 3 Rf1

N o w b o t h h i s Kn i gh t and I f h e e x ch a n g e s h e h a s t o
Bishop h ave a n e y e on the c o n t e n d w i t h t h e Kn i gh t w h i c h
ou t p o s t s q u a r e a t d 4 . m a y p r� v e w o r s e t h a n t h e
Bish op.
2 N e2
3 Rb3
T h i s e xp o s e s h i s b - p a w n o n
t h e l o n g d i a g o n a l b u t o t h e rw i s e Us i n g t h e o t h e r h o l e t o
Black can choos e how he begin h i s i nvas ion o f the
o c cu p i e s d 4 , q u e e n s i d e . Th e r e i s n o n e e d t o
t ak e i t a ny further for i t i s
2 Bd4 c l e a r t h a t B l a ck has
c o ns i dera b l e advantage i n
I t is i n t er es t i n g t o s e e h o w space.
t h i s c e n t ra l i s e d p i e c e h a s
i n f l u e n c e o n b o t h w i n gs : h e
attacks t h e f - pawn a s w e l l as
s t i l l b e a r i n g d ow n o n b 2 .
CHAPTER 1 0

Pawn masses

We h ave s een t h a t t h e pres e n c e 1 2 1 . A l l the pawns are


o f p a w n s o n t h e b o a r d mod i f i e s blockaded, i mmo b i l e. The
s pa c e , e n h a n c i n g o r i n h i b i t i n g pos i t i o n each h a s ach i eved
t h e a ct i v i t y of t h e p i e c e s . c a n n o t b e a l t e r e d u n d e r i t s own
Pawns o p e n a n d c l os e l i n e s , volit ion. Only violence,
free o n e 's p i eces and restra i n s acri f i c e on t h e part of a
t h e e n emy 's , a n d create s t rong p i e c e , can creat e any
a n d weak p o i n t s . poss i b i l i ty of furth er move­
me n t .
Now w e l ook a t pawns i n t h e
ma s s . T h e y c a n b e o f two k i n ds , E a c h s i d e p o s s e s s e s t h e s a me
fi xed or flu i d and we sha l l a m o u n t of s p a c e f o r h i s p i e c e s
t h i n·k o f them under thes e to move about i n on h is own
h e ads . s i d e of t h e barri e r, b u t t h ere
is no h ope of confrontat i on.
Each has any n umber of s tron g
F i x ed Pawns p o i n t s i n t h e e n e my h a l f ,
w i t h o u t t h e f a i n t es t
D i a gr a m 1 2 1 p o s s i b i l i t y of o c cu py i n g e v e n
o n e of t h e m, n o t e v e n by a
K n i gh t , a p i e c e w h i ch u s u a l ly
c o m e s i n t o i t s o w n i n b l o ck e d
pos i t i o n s . B l o c k a d e d p a w n s are
o b v i o u s l y good for k ee p i n g t h e
e n e my o u t , b u t , w h e n o v e r d o n e ,
useless for pen etrat i n g
o p p o s i n g t erri t o ry .

Parts o f s u ch a p os i t i o n
a r e , h ow e ve r , l i k e ly t o a r i s e.
Tak e a s l i ce out of t h e m i dd l e
o f d i agram 1 2 1 a n d w e h av e t h e
po s i t i o n o f d i a g r a m 1 2 2 .

L o o k f i rs t a t t h e h i gh ly
i mprob a b l e p os i t i o n o f d i a g r a m
.

92
I n di agram 1 23 both s i des
h av e b a ck w a rd p a w n s , f 3 a n d f 6 1
b o t h s i d e s h a ve s t r o n g s q u ar e s ,
h o l es i n t h e e n emy g a m e , e a s i ly
a c c e s s i b l e t o mi n o r p i e c e s , a t
f4 and �S. Because the pawns
a r e f i xed t h e s e r e ma i n as
permanent strengths and
weaknesses. Th e pawns , of
t h e ms e l v e s , c a n n o t a l t er t h e
i nherent features .

D i a gram 1 2 2

Bo t h i s l a n d s o f w i n g p a w n s
are b l ockaded and this
h i gh l i gh t s t h e o p e n a r e a i n t h e
centre. From the p o i n t of vi ew
of p e n e t r a t i o n t h e c e n t ra l
fi l es a r e o f v i t a l i mp o rt a n c e ,
as a r e t h e d i a g o n a l s a 1 - h B ,
b1 h 7 and aB h 1 i n
part i c u l a r. N o w s o me of t h e
st r o n g p o i n t s b e c o m e
acces s i b l e 1 f o r e x a mp l e e 3 f o r D i a gram 1 2 3
B l ack ( a R o ok or B i s h o p c o u l d
get ther e ) and dS for W h i t e T h e k i n gs i d e p a w n s a r e n o t
(ava i l a b l e to a n y p i e ce ) . c o mp l e t e ly b l o ck e d s i n ce t h e f ­
Not i c e t o o t h e p a w n ch a i n s a n d pawns cou l d advance under pi ece
h ow t h ey h av e b e c o m e , o r m a y s u pport b u t e a ch s i d e w o u l d
bec o m e , vu l n e ra b l e t o f l a n k ensure that such a move was
attack . A W h i t e Rook on t h e m a d e d i f f i cu l t f o r t h e o t h er.
sixth r a n k wou l d a t t a ck both
Bl a ck ' s b a s e p a w n s a t h 6 a n d An o t h e r p o i n t a b o u t f i xe d
b6. Wh i t e 's b a s e p a w n s a t f 3 p aw n s i s b r ou g h t o u t i n a n o t h er
and c4 would come under u n l i k e ly s i t u a t i o n t o b e s e e n
pre s s u r e n o t o n l y f r o m t h e i n d i a g ram 1 2 4 .
fl anks b u t a l o n g d i ag o n a l s a n d
a B l a ck Kn i gh t p o s t e d a t eS
w o u l d a t t a c k b o t h
s i mu l t a n e o u s ly .

R e a r r a n g e t h e p os i t i o n a ga i n
on l y a l i t t l e a n d a n o t h e r
f ea t u r e o f f i x e d p awn s eme r g e s .

9�
D i agram 1 2 4 D i a gram 1 2 5

Beca u s e h i s pawns are more Th e W h i t e w e d g e , t h e p a w n


a d va n c e d , W h i t e e n j oy s m o r e chain h4 f 6 , dri ves i nt o the
space f o r h i s p i eces beh i n d t h e B l a ck pos i t i o n, cutt i n g off a
b a r r i e r . A n i mp o r t a n t e l e m e n t c as t l e d K i n g f r o m c e n t ra l a n d
i n t h e e a s e o f m a n o e u vr e , o r q u e e ns i d e s u p p or t .
f r e e d o m , f or p i e ces , i s t h e i r
a b i l i t y t o m o v e b e t w e e n w i n gs . W h e n t h e re a r e l a r g e a r e a s
W h i t e c e rt a i n l y h a s t h i s b u t of b l o ck e d p a w n s , as i n t h e
B l a ck h a s h i s p os i t i o n a l m os t pos iti ons we have been
cut i n h a lf , t h ere b e i n g b u t cons ideri ng, the l ines of
o n e th i n l i n e o f c o m mu n i c a t i o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e t h e ms e l v e s
between the q ueens ide and t h e f i xed and s u ccess w i l l l i e i n
k i n gs i d e . H o w i mp o rt a n t th i s i s m e e t i n g f o rce w i t h g r e a t er
wou l d r a p i d ly b e come o n ly t o o f or c e a l o n g l i n e s c l e a r t o b o t h
"
c l ear i f h e h a d cas t l e d s h ort s i d es . T h e r e a re u n l i k e ly t o b e
and found his King under a m b u s h es , n e w l i n e s o p e n i n g a n d
pres s u r e . T h e c a u s e o f t h e springi ng surprises, and
t rou b l e i s , o f c o u rs e , t h e preparat i o n s take place u nder
s p earh e a d o f W h i t e 's p a w n t h e f u l l gaze o f t h e e nemy. The
forma t i on at f 6 . In l ess p a w n s t r u c t u r e i mp o s e s i t s e l f
extravagant gu i s e t h i s i s a o n t h e v e ry s t y l e o f t h e game .
v e ry c ommo n s i t u a t i o n .

Th e p os i t i o n d o es n ' t h a v e t o Fluid, or M ob i l e Pawn M a s s e s


b e s o e xt r e m e t o h a ve t h e s a m e
effect s , Alter it a l i t t l e t o I n d i a g r a m 1 2 6 e a ch g ro u p of
p r odu c e d i a g r a m 1 2 5 , q u i t e a p a w n s i s f l u i d . Th e p o t e n t i a l
poss i b l e o n e i n a n or ma l g a m e . f o r c h a n g e i n b o t h t h e B l a ck
a n d W h i t e p os i t i on o n e i th e r
t h e q u e e n s i d e o r t h e k i n gs i d e ,
remai n s . N e w d i a go n a ls can b e
opened, pawns e xchanged and
open fi les created, more
94
t erra i n c on t r o l l e d , m o r e s p a c e p o s i t i o n , a t h r e e - p a w n b a rri er
m a d e b e h i n d t h e p a w� s f o r t h e a s o p p o s e d t o W h i t e 's t w o p a w n s
use of t h e p i e ces , a n d more w h i ch h a v e both b ee n a d v a n ced
cons t r i c t i o n a p p l i e d t o t h e a n d e xp o s e t h e Ki n g o n t h e a 7
oppos i n g f o r c e . N o t o n ly a r e g 1 a nd a 8 h 1 d i agona ls .
the pawns mobi l e : the whole
pos i t i o n i s f l u i d , c o n s t a n t ly Each s i d e has a half open
on th e br i n k o f c h a n g e . W e a k f i l e f o r h i s o w n u s e : B l a ck t h e
points can be e l i mi n ated, d - f i l e , W h i t e t h e f - f i l e . Th e
stro n g p o i n t s l o s t w h i l s t n e w f u l ly o p e n e d a - f i l e i s o n e
o n es a p p e a r. Mobile pawns w h i c h b o t h wi l l d i s p u t e .
confer o n t h e g a m e a p e r ma n e n t
state o f f l u x . A s f a r a s i n d i v i d u a l s q u a res
are concerned n e i t h er s i d e has
M u ch can be l earned by a s q u a r e i n e n e my t e r r i t o ry
study i n g p o s i t i o n s w i t h o u t t h e c o n t r o l l e d by a p a w n , t h a t i s ,
c o mp l i c a t i o n o f p i e c e s o n t h e a n outpost positi on. But the
boa r d . I n d i a g r a m 1 2 6 w e w i l l f a c t t h a t p a w n advan ces h ave
cons i d e r w h a t a d v a n t a g e s e a ch b e e n m a d e m e a n s t h a t s q u ar e s
side h o lds as a cons equence of h a ve b e e n l eft b eh i n d
the p awn s t ru c t u r e . u nd e f e n d e d by p a w n s . Th es e c a n
b e c o n t ro l l e d or occu p i ed b y
Di agram 1 2 6 o p p o s i n g p i e c e s . I n t h e B l a ck
p os i t i o n s u c h a o n e i s d 6 . I t
i s remote from t h e W h i t e l i nes
and should White place a pi ece
t h ere i t w o u l d n o t b e e a s y t o
s u p p o r t . A n y s u p p o rt i n g p i e c e ,
a K n i gh t a t e 4 , f o r i ns t a n c e,
c o u l d e as i l y b e d r i v e n o f f , bu t
B l a ck mu s t s t i l l k eep a
wat c h f u l e y e o n i t .

A s i m i l a r p o t en t i a l w e a k n es s
i n W h i t e 's p os i t i o n is at f3,
t h o ugh a ga i n a B l a ck p i e c e
there i s n o t eas i ly defended. A
m o r e i mp o r t a n t s qu ar e i s e 3 . I t
i s n o t d ef e n d e d by a p a w n a n d
a l t h ou g h a p i e ce t h er e cou l d
n o t be made the s o l i d outpost
t h a t a B l a ck p a w n a t d 4 w o u l d
cre a t e , i t i s on a n open f i l e
Each s i d e has a pawn a nd c ou l d w e l l b e s u pported by
maj o r i t y : Black on the fi l e pi eces. Therefore e 3 i s a
k i n gs i d e , W h i t e o n t h e o t h e r s t r o n g s q u are for B l a ck , a
wing. If both s id es have us efu l target and one which
cas t l e d o n t h e k i n gs i d e , W h i t e mu s t b e a c o n s t a n t s ource of
has t h e a d v a n t a g e of t h e a n x i e t y f o r Wh i t e .
q u e e n s i d e maj o r i t y .
It is probab l e, from the
Ag a i n , i f t h e y h a v e b o t h p a w n s t r u c t u r e , t h a t B l a ck h a s
ca s t l e d s h o r t , B l a c k h a s t h e c a s t l e d o n t h e k i n gs i d e a n d
better d e f e n d e d Ki n g 's W h i t e o n t h e q u e e ns i d e . I f t h i s
95
i s s o e a c h s i d e i s p o i s ed f o r , 2 W h at u s e can be made of open
a n d h a s a l re a dy b e gu n , a p a w n a n d s emi - o p e n f i l e s ?
ass a u l t a ga i n s t t h e oppos i n g 3 W h i ch d i ag o n a l s w i l l W h i te
Ki n g . wish t o use?
4 W h a t u s ef u l d i a g o n a l s are
In the event of an endgame a l ready o p e n f o r B l a ck and
the creat i o n of a passed pawn are t h ere a ny oth ers he
b e co me s p a ram o u n t . C a re mu s t b e wo u l d l i k e t o o p e n ?
taken i n the way that 5 I d e n t i f y g o o d e n t ry s q u ares
maj ori t i es ar e c on vert e d w i t h for b o t h s i d e s .
t h e proper s e q u e n c e o f p a w n 6 Are there any outpost
moves so as to avoid pawn s q u a re s ?
w e a k n es s e s , e s p e c i a l l y b a ck w a r d
pawns. B o t h s i des w i l l h ave t o
remember t h e r u l e t h a t i t i s C o mm e n t s
t h e candi date (the passed pawn
ca n d i d a t e , t h a t i s l w h i c h m o v e s They h ave mos t l i k e ly
f i rs t a n d n e v e r f a l l s b e h i n d c as t l e d o n t h e k i n gs i d e .
i t s n e i gh b ou r s . 2 White can use t h e h a lf open
c - f i l e t o put pres s ur e on
the u ns u pported pawn at c6.
D i a g ra m 1 2 7 B l a ck c a n use the a -f i l e to
a t t a ck W h i t e ' s e - p a w n a n d
r es t r a i n i t f r o m a d va n c i n g ,
b u t i n t h e f i l e h e h a s e6
wh i ch h i s Rooks can u s e t o
e n t er h i s t h i rd rank , not
on l y s u pport i n g t h e
q u ee n s i de, b u t s w i t c h i n g t o
t h e k i n gs i d e i n f r o n t o f h i s
own pawns f or a n assault
a g a i n s t t h e W h i t e K i n g.

The o p e n d - f i l e w i l l b e k e e n ly
c o n t e s t e d by b o t h s i d e s .
3 O n e f i n e d i ag o n a l s t a n d s o u t
s h ar p l y : a 1 h 8, and o n e
would h ope t h a t W h i t e has
retai ned h i s dark -squared
B i s h op i n order to t a k e
a d va n t a g e o f i t .

Exam i n e t h e pos i t i on of b1 h 7 cou l d prove u s eful


d i agram 1 2 7 a n d a n a l y s e i t i n f o r a Qu e e n a n d B i s h o p b a t t e ry ,
t h e s a me w a y . Compare your u nmas k ed a s t h e e - pa w n mo ves
t h i nk i n g w i t h t h e c o mme n t s . forward. a3 f8 i s a l s o worth
n o t i n g, for a B i s h o p at a3
To help you frame your w o u l d d r i v e o u t a R o o k fro m t h e
thinking h ere are s ome prot e c t i o n of f7, a lw ays a
q u es t i o n s t o a n s we r . s e ns i t i v e spot i n t h e B l a ck
K i n g ' s d o ma i n , as w e l l as
On w h i ch s ide h ave t h e keep i ng a wat chfu l eye on the
p l ay e r s mos t l i k e l y c a s t l e d ? potent i a l ly s trong d 6 .
96
4 cB h3 is good for the prove f at a l . Consequent ly,
Queen a n d B i s h op. T h e W h i t e f5 cou l d s erve as a good
pawn at h3 is a u s e f u l p o s t for a Kn i gh t u n t i l
t a r g e t a n d p i e c e s a cr i f i ces B l a ck b e came rea l l y
such as • • • B x h 3 or • • • N x h 3 d es p e r i! t e .
are n ot of u n common
o c cu rr e n c e . Lo ok at f 4 f ro m B l a ck 's
point of vi ew1 s i mi lar
bB h2 i s a n attract i v e a r gu m e n t s a p p l y . I t i s t r u e
li ne aga i n for Queen a n d t h a t a B l a c k Kn i g h t a t f 4 w o u l d
Bishop, w ith t h e Qu een at the b e w i t h o u t p a w n p r o t e ct i o n a n d
head, a n d t h e l o n g l i gh t w o u l d n e e d p i e c e s f o r s u r v i va l ,
diagonal wou ld come i nto its b u t W h i t e wou l d be even more
o w n a f t e r p a w n c l ea r a n c e s . re luctant t o drive i t away w i t h
h i s g - p a w n f or h i s h - p a w n w o u l d
Th e r e a re o t h e r d i a go n a l s , t h e n b e e x t r eme l y f e eb l e .
of c o u rs e , f o r b o t h s i d e s .
T h e f o l l ow i n g games
5 d6 m u s t be regarded as a i l l u s trate some of the ideas
good entry p o i n t f o r W h i t e. a bout f i xed a n d f l u id pawns we
It c a n n o t b e d ef e nded by a h a v e d e a l t w i t h so far i n t h i s
B l a ck p a w n a n d s h o u l d W h i t e c h ap t e r , a n d i n t r o d u c e s o m e n �w
win the c o n t e s t f or t h e d­ ones .
f i l e , d6 wou ld become a very
p ow e r f u l s q u a re f o r W h i t e . D i a g ram 1 2 B
Th e r e i s a l s o t h e
po s s i b i l i t y t h a t h e c o u l d H o r ow i t z
es t a b l i s h h i s a - p a w n a t e S ,
turn i n g d 6 i nt o a ge n u i n e
out pos t .

f5 i s i nt eres t i n g and i s
dea l t w i t h u n d e r q u e s t i o n 6 .

Sh o u l d B l a c k w i n t h e o p e n d ­
f i l e c o mp e t i t i o n t h e n d 4 , d 3
and d2 w ou l d a l l b e o me good
entry p o i n t s f o r h i m. d 4 c o u l d
be m a d e a s o l i d o u t p o s t w i th
the s u p p o r t f r o m a p aw n a t c S .

6 S o m e o f t h i s h a s a l r e a dy
b e e n a n s w e r e d i n q u es t i o n 5 .
L o o k a t fS f r o m W h i t e ' s
point o f v i e w . Su ppos i n g h e
p l a c e d a K n i gh t t h e r e , w e l l
prote c t e d b y t h e e -pawn bu t R e s h evs h y
vu l n er a b l e f r o m a t t a c k
by • • • g6 • • • or is it ? ... U . S . Ch amp i o n s h i p , 1 9 4 1
g 6 w o u l d weaken B l a ck i n
three w ay s : i t wou l d creat e Di agram 1 2 B s h ows t h e pawn
weak s q u ares a t f 6 a n d h 6 s tructure wh i ch faced the
and open t h e l o n g dark p l a y ers i n t h e m i d d l e game.
d i a g o n a l w h i c h c ou l d q u i ck l y E a ch h a s t w o i s l a n d s o f pawns
97
a n d e a ch a m a j o r i t y , W h i t e ' s o n t h e y a r e a u t o ma t i c a l l y go i n g t o
t h e k i n gs i d e , B l a c k ' s b n t h e r u s h f orward, b u t i n t h i s game
o t h er. A l l p a w n grou ps a r e t h e r e is a s p e c i a l q u a l i t y i n
f l u i d . Th e d -f i l e i s op e n 1 t h e their mob i lity. After due
e a n d c - f i l es h a l f o p e n . preparat i o n t h e y adva n c e o n a
As far as squares are broad front, s cat teri ng all
c o n cern e d , f S i s a g o o d o n e f o r before t h e m, u n t i l t h ey f i n a l ly
W h i t e. I t would be s u i t a b l e for s m a s h t h rough t h e e n emy l i n es .
a K n i gh t w h i ch w o u l d act a s a n S u c h a n a c t i o n is k n o w n a s a
outpos t , f o r t h e o n l y w a y t o p aw n r o l l e r. I t i s a f o rmi d a b l e
drive i t off w i t h a p awn wou l d a n d d y n a m i c w e a p o n w h i c h s e e ms
be • • • g6, a n d t h i s wou l d bad ly t o grow i n d es t ru c t i v e p ow er
w e a k e n t h e k i n gs i d e p a w n s . d 6 , t h e furth er i t advances . It is
i n t h e open f i l e , by-pas s e d by t o i n t r o d u c e t h i s n e w f e a t u re
t h e c - p aw n , c o u l d e v e n b e c o m e a of mobile pawns that the
s o l i d outpost for a mi n o r p i e c e e xamp l e h as b e e n c h o s e n , b u t
s hould W h i t e be a b l e to p l ay e4 other el ements are there too:
es . p l ay i n t h e f i l e s a nd
concentrat i o n o n s trong p o i n t s ,
B l a ck t o o h a s g o o d e n t ry b lended i nto a successful
squares o n t h e d-f i l e a n d a a t t a ck .
bu i l d u p t h er e c o mb i n e d w i t h a n
a d v a n c e of h i s q u e e n s i d e It is W h i t e t o p lay and it
maj ori t y i s a n a t t r a c t i v e p l a n . i s t h e e xp o s u r e o f t h e B l a ck
Bi shop and w eakness of the
A l l t h i s , o f c o u rs e , w i l l p i n n ed Kn ight t h a t gi ves
depend o n t h e d i s p os i t i on o f White's pawn r o l l er i ts
other forces a n d we w i l l n ow mome n t um .
l o ok a t t h e w h o l e p os i t i o n .
1 f4 Bd4ch
Di agram 1 2 9
H e mu s t r e m o v e t h e a t t a ck e d
p i e c e w i t h t em p o , o t h erw i s e 2
e S f o l l ow s .

2 N xd 4 Qxd4ch
3 Bf2

T h i s i n t er p o s i t i o n n ot o n ly
prevents loss of t empo but
s w i t c h e s t h e B i s h o p t o a n o t h er
part o f t h e board. Black has
h ad t o g i v e up h i s own B i s h op
a n d w i l l b e w e a k o n t h e d a rk
s q u a r e s , R e s h e vs k y s e e s t h e
e n t ry p o i n t a t d 6, as we
i d e n t i f i e d i t i n t h e p a wn
di agram, and begins to s teer
for it.

3 Qb4
Watch White's 'k i n g s i d e
p a w n s . Th e f a c t t h a t pawns are B l a ck probab ly s ensed a
n o t b l o ck e d d o e s n ' t mean that l o o s e n es s a b ou t t h e W h i t e p aw n s
98
wh i c h h e f e l t h e c o u l d t a k e t h e ad van c i n g pawns and this
some a d v a n t a ge of, a n d i t i s B l a ck n ow a t t e m p t s .
tru e t h a t t h e p a w n s a t a 4 , b 2 ,
e4 and f4, a lthough n ot 6 Nd4
isolated, are rather on their 7 Qd3
own a t t h e m o me n t a n d o u gh t t o
b e p u t u n d e r p r es s u r e . How e v e r , T h e d o u b l e a t t a ck o n t h e
t h e d y n am i c s t r e n gt h o f W h i t e ' s K n i gh t a l l ow s h i m t o l e a v e t h e
pos i t i o n is g r e a t e r t h a n a n y b - p awn f o r t h e mome n t .
t emp o r a ry s t a t i c w e a k n e s s .
7 Nf5
4 e5
Try i n g to prevent the
T h e a t t a ck o n t h e K n i g h t i n v as i o n o f d 6 b u t i t c a n n o t
en a b l e s h i m t o i gn o r e t h e l o o s e l as t f o r l o n g .
p awn a t f 4 .
8 b3
4 Nd5
Securing his queenside
A g o o d res p o n s e s i n c e i t n o t f i rs t . P a w n s w e r e i n d e e d l o o s e .
o n l y b r i n gs p r e s s u r e o n t h e f ­ H e has t i gh t e n e d t h e m a l l u p
paw n , bu t o c c u p i e s a n o u t p os t n o w a n d g a t h e r e d h i ms e l f
i n t h e open f i l e a n d en courages t ogeth er, as i t w ere, for t h e
the exchange of White's n e x t pu s h .
rema i n i n g K n i g h t w h i ch , B l a ck
can s e e , i s i nt e n d e d for d 6 . 8 g6

5 Ne4 ! Di a gr a m 1 3 0

Res i s t i n g t h e e xchange and


i n d i re ct l y p r ot e c t i n g t h e f ­
p a w n . I f n ow 5 Nxf4? then 6
• • •

Bc5 , wi n n i n g a p i e c e .

5 Ne6

Once agai n t h e f -pawn i s


attack e d a n d must n o w b e
proper l y p r o t e c t e d .

6 g3

W h i t e ' s a d v a n c e d p aw n s c ou l d
l e a v e t h e K i n g u n pr o t e ct e d , b u t
i n t h i s pos i t i o n th ere i s
plenty of space around the
mi d d l e o f W h i t e ' s h a lf o f t h e
board t o a l l ow h i m t o m a n o e u v r e
with ease and bri n g them t o t h e T h e K n i g h t req u i red s u p p ort
defen c e o f t h e K i n g i f n e e d b e . b e c a u s e W h i t e was t h r e at e n i n g 9
None t h e l es s , t h ere is a l ways Nf6ch ! a common m e t h od of
t h e d a n g e r t h a t t h e e n e my c a n b r e a k i n g u p t h e k i n gs i d e p a w n s .
i nfi l trat e h i s p i eces beh i nd N o w f 6 i s w e a k e n e d b u t B l a ck a t
99
l ea s t h a s t h e w e l l - p os t e d 1 3 Q x e 3 N x e 3 1 4 R f 3 a n d B l a ck
K n i gh t a t d 5 t o c o ve r i t . wi l l l o s e me t er i a l .

9 Bc5 1 3 f5 gxf5

S e e t h e n o t e t o move 3. W h e n Leavi ng W h i t e to e x c h a n ge
W h i t e p l a y e d Bf2 he c e rt a i n l y pawns wou l d not help since
i n t e n d e d p o s t i n g t h e B i s h op W h i t e t h reat ens 1 4 f x g 6 f xg6
even t u a l ly a t d 6 , b u t h e d i d 1 5 Nf6ch Nxf6 1 6 exf6 with f7
not ca l cu l a t e a l l t h e t o f o l l ow .
poss ibi l i t i es that might
i nt ervene. I t w ou l d h ave b e e n 1 4 gxf5 KhB
i mp o s s i b l e t o d o s o . I n s t e a d h e
u s ed h i s p os i t i o n a l j u d gement Now t h a t t h e g - f i l e i s o p e n
wh i ch t o l d h i m that a t some t h e K i n g m o v e s away .
future date th ere was an
e x ce l l e n t c h a n c e o f t h e B i s h o p 15 e6!
f indi ng i tse 1f at that
des i ra b l e s po t . Th i s t h e n i s A l th ough o n e pawn h as gone
t h e va l u e o f h a v i n g a t o n e ' s the dynami c s trength of the
fi nger-t ips the e l ements of rol ler rema i ns . Now 1 5 ... fxe6
pos i t i o n a l p l ay. It enab les you w o u l d a l l ow t h e f - p a w n t o r u s h
t o ma k e g e n era l j u d g e me n t s , t o on, f 6 f 7 , w i n n i n g ma t er i a l .
l o ok i n t o t h e f u t u r e w i t h o u t
e xa c t c a l cu l a t i o n , t o s e n s e t h e 15 f6
n e eds a n d d e t e c t t h e
oppor t u n i t i es i n h er e n t i n t h e The best w ay t o s t op a pawn
pos i t i o n . ro l l e r i s t o b l o c k a d e t h e p a w n s
w i t h y o u r ow n . B l a ck s u c c e e ds
9 Qa5 on t h e f - f i le b u t , of c o u rs e ,
1 0 g4 i t is t oo l a t e . W h i t e has a
s upport e d passed pawn at e 6 a n d
T h e ro l l er b e gi ns t o move t h e k i n gs i d e p a w n s a r e s ma s h ed .
agai n, dis lodgi ng vital Th e r o l l e r h a s a l r e a d y d o n e i t s
d e� e n d ers . wo rk .

10 Ng7
1 1 Bd6

T h e h o l e i s o c cu p i e d . T h e
mu t u a l s u p p o r t b e t w e e n t h e
Bi shop and t h e e-pawn means
that the f-pawn is freed t o
a d v a n c e a ga i n .

11 Q b 6 ch
1 2 Kh 1 a5

H e r e a n d l at e r t h e a t t emp t
t o redu ce t h e force of t h e
a t t a ck b y e x c h a n g e s w i t h 1 1 • • •

Qe3 f a i l s becau s e o f 1 2 N f 6 c h l
K h B ( t h e K n i gh t c a n n o t ' c a p t u r e )

1 00
D i a gram 1 3 1 2 2 Bf B I

a n d B l a ck r e s i g n e d .

If 22 KxfB
• . • 23 Qh Bch
K e 7 2 4 �x g 7 c h a n d m a t e f o l l o w s
s h ort ly .

If 22 • • • Qa7ch 2 3 Kh 1 b6
2 4 e 7 s h u t s o u t t h e Qu e e n ,
p r o t e c t s t h e B i s h op a n d l e a v e s
B l a ck h e l p l es s .

T h i s i s an exce l lent
i l l u s t ra t i o n of t h e power of a
p aw n r o l l er. I t d r i v e s a w a y t h e
d e f e n d i n g p i e c e s a n d b e ca u s e o f
t h e s peed and breadth of its
o p e ra t i o n , i t d e n i e s t h e m g o o d
a l t ernat i v e squ ares. Hence, t h e
e n e m y f o r c e s f i n d t h e ms e l v e s
1 6 BcS not o n ly dis lodged but
d i s or ga n i s e d . T h e r o l l e r g a i· n s
Th reat e n i n g to r e p l a ce h i s s p a c e f o r i t s p o s s es s o r w h i l s t
B i s h o p b y a K n i gh t a t d 6 , e . g . redu c i n g h i s oppo n e n t 's a n d s o
16 • • • Qd8 1 7 N d 6 t h reat e n i n g t h e d e f e n d i n g f o r c e , cramp ed
t h e R o o k a s we l l a s N f 7 c h . and d i s orga n i s e d, loses
cohes ion and f l exibi l i ty and
16 Qa6 r e n d er s h i m e v e r m o r e pro n e t o
1 7 Qf3 Rg 8 e rror. I n t h e s p a c e b e h i n d t h e
advan c i n g pawns f r i e n d l y forces
B l a ck ' s s o l i d K n i gh t a t d S e n j oy e a s e of m o v e m e n t a n d s o
effect i ve l y b l o c k s the d - f i l e f i n d s ou n d b a s e s f r o m w h i c h t o
and s o t h e g - f i le becomes s u p p ort t h e ro l l er a nd t h ru s t
i m p o r t a n t . B l a c k ' s k i n gs i d e i s it l i k e a batt eri n g ram in t h e
s o b ro k e n a n d h i s m a j o r p i e c e f i n a l a s s a u l t a ga i n s t t h e e n emy
so cu t o f f from i t s defen c e , pawn s , mak i n g t h e v i t a l breach
th ere i s l i t t l e l e f t f o r B l a ck . i n t h at l a s t l i n e of d e f e n ce
f o r t h e p i e c e s b eh i n d t o pour
1 8 Rg1 Ne8 t h rough .

Hop i n g for re l i ef i n The n ext examp l e i s ,


exch a n g e s . a ppropri at e ly , from a game by
N i m z o w i t s c h , f o r t h e d y n a m i cs
1 9 Qh S Rxg1 ch of t h e p a w n r o l l e r p l a y e d a n
20 Kxg1 Ng7 i mp o r t a n t p art i n h i s c o n c e p t
of the game.
The h-pawn cou ld not be
prot e c t e d .

21 Qxh6ch Kg8

White could w i n i n a number


of w a y s b u t h e n ow f o u n d :
101
D i a g ram 1 3 2 f o rmat i o n .
3 Nge7
N i mz ow i t s c h
Th e p a w n r o l l er p a u s e s for
f u r t h e r p i e c e d e v e l o pme n t .

4 0 07

Cas t l ing i nto the coming


s t o r m mu s t s u r e l y b e a n e r r o r .
W h i t e proba b ly r e a s o n e d t h a t
B l a ck i n t en d e d c as t l i n g o n t h e
q ueens ide w h i ch wou l d give
W h i t e s o m e a t t a ck i n g c h a n ces
a n d S p i e l ma n n w a s n o t t h e s o rt
o f p l ay e r t o l o ok f o r a defen ce
w h er e a n a t t a ck w a s p o s s i b l e.

4 Bh6

A g a i n he m o v es w i t h t empo
S p i e l ma n n for h e now threatens g4
h i t t i n g o n e K n i gh t a n d w i n n i n g
Car l s ba d , 1 9 2 3 t h e oth er.

T h e s i t u a t i o n i n d i a gr a m 1 3 2 5 Ne1
occurred when the game was
h a rd l y o u t o f t h e o p e n i n g . Th e s ame feature we s aw in
B l a ck r a p i d ly p u s h es h i s m o b i l e t h e previ ous game a p p ears : t h e
p aw n s i n a w i n g a t t a ck a g a i n s t r e t r e a t o f d e f e n d e rs w h i ch t h en
Wh i t e 's k i n gs i d e . E m b a rk i n g o n get i n eaph o t h e r ' s way .
a w i n g a t t a ck w i t h p a w n s s o
early i n the game can be 5 g4
h a zard o u s , b u t B l a ck j u d g es
that h i s pawn prepon deran c e i n H i t t i n g t h e t arget cre ated
th e centre w i l l s h i e ld h i s own by 3 h3.
Ki n g . W h i t e ' s Kn i gh t a n d B i s h o p
on the f-fi le are usefu l 6 Qd 1
t a r g e t s a n d a t t a ck i n g t h e m w i l l
provi de tempi a nd i mpart P r o t e ct i n g t h e K n i gh t and
m o me n t u m t o t h e p a w n ro l l e r. a t t a ck i n g t h e g - p a w n but
B l a ck ' s r e p l y w i n s a p aw n .
1 gS
2 Bg3 hS 6 Bxd2
7 Qxd2 gxh 3
The threat against the 8 Nd3 b6
Bi s h o p f o r c e s W h i t e t o m a k e a
f l i gh t - s q u a r e , W h i t e i s n o t e v e n to be
a l l ow e d a l i t t l e e x c u rs i o n t o
3 h3, cs .

w h i ch weakens his pawn 9 Rfe 1 h4

1 02
Th e p a w n s r u m b l e f o rw a r d mean t h a t both t h e s i d e fi les
aga i n a n d t h e b i s h o p r e t r e a t s . w o u l d b e c o mp l et e l y o p e n . W h i t e
des pera t e l y needs s h e lter and
10 Bh2 Kf 7 1 s o m e t i m e s e ve n e n emy p aw n s c a n
p r o vi d e i t .
D i a g ram 1 3 3
13 Be4ch
1 4 Bf3 Nf5

T h e rei nforcements pour i n ,


for W h i t e has no way of k eepi n g
t h em o u t .

1 5 Bxe4 d xe 4
1 6 Nf4

N o t 1 6 R x e 4 b e c a u s e of 1 6
Qd 5 , p i n n i n g .

16 e5

Wh i t e ' s d - p awn i s p i n n e d .

17 Ne2

D e f e n d e r s a re a g a i n t h r o w n
Do n ' t look at t h e next b a ck i n t y p i c a l d i s a rray .
comme n t u n t i l y o u h av e t r i e d t o
find out why 1 0 ... 0 0 0 17 Nh 4ch
w ou l d b e s o w r o n g t h a t i t w o u l d 1 B Bxh4
l o s e i mmed i a t e ly .
T h e Ki ng cannot t a k e t h e
White wou l d answer 1 1 Nc51 p a w n b e ca u s e o f t h e K n i gh t fork
w i n n i n g t h e B l a ck Qu e e n f o r, i f and to m o v e e l s ew h ere w o u l d b e
it s eeks s afety o n eB, 1 2 Ba6 t o a l l ow t h e Qu e e n i n a t h 3 .
is mat e and if 1 1 bxc5
12 B a 6 c h forc i n g B l a ck t o 18 Qg4ch ,
i n t er p o s e .
a n d m a t e f o l l ow s h ow e v e r W h i t e
In any cas e t h e B l ack Ki ng repl i es .
is b e t t e r a t f 7 s u p p ort i n g t h e
centre . 1 9 B g3 Q f 3 ch 2 0 Kf 1
h 1 •Q c h , e t c .
11 g4 1 9 Kxh2 R x h 4 ma t e .
1 9 Kf1 h 1 •Q ch , e t c .
T ry i n g t o e r e c t a r o a d b l o ck 1 9 Ng3 Qf3ch 2 0 Kh 3
on the g-fi l e . Rxh4ch 2 1 K x h 4 R h B c h , et c .

11 h x g4 e.p.
1 2 Bxg3 h2ch I n i t i at i ve w as i mportant
1 3 Kg2 h er e a n d w a s provi ded b y paw n
a t t a ck s on e xpos ed mi nor
Taking the pawn wou l d o n ly p ieces .

1 03
D i a g ram 1 3 4 B l a c k ' s mi n o r p i e c e s , t h o u gh
a d va n c e d , a r e n o t a gg r es s i ve ly
M a rs h a 1 1 p l a c e d ; i n f a c t t h e y l o o k l o os e
a n d i n v i t e p a w n a t t a ck s . I t i s
t h i s t h a t p r o mp t s R u b i n s t e i n t o
s et h i s pawns i n mot i on , for
t h e a t t a c k w i l l b e s h a rp e n e d by
t h e g a i n s i n t emp o .

1 f3 Be6
2 g4 Nf6
3 Ng3

A p a u s e t o bri n g h i s t roops
i n b e h i n d t h e p a wn s .

3 d4?

A n i n s t r u ct i v e e r r o r. Th e
move f i xes t h e four pawns i n
the centre w h i ch i s good for
W h i t e for it means that he w i l l
Rub i ns t e i n b e ab l e t o cont i n u e h i s a t t a ck
o n t h e k i n g s i d e u n t r o u b l e d by
Lodz , 1 90 8 c o u n t e r t h ru s t s i n t h e m i d d l e .
B l a ck cons i d ers t h a t h i s
P r o b a b l y t h e f i rs t t h i n g y o u q u e e n s i d e a c t i o n o n t h e b -f i l e
w i l l n o t i c e a b o u t t h i s p os i t i o n a s s i s t e d b y t w o B i s h op s b e a r i ng
is that a l l the pawns are s t i l l down o n that s i d e - wh i ch is
o n the board and a l most a l l are why he does not exchange a
a b le t o move. W h i t e 's pa wn s are Bishop o n h i s next move will
a l l c o n n e c t e d b u t a t s o m e t i me give h i m a s hare of t h e p l ay.
B l a ck h a s h a d t o r e c a p t u r e o n I n t h e e v e n t h e a ch i e v e s s o me
c6 and so he has a pair of c o u n t er - p l a y , b u t i t is s l ow
d oub led pawns a n d a n i s o l a t e d and far less i n ci s i ve than
one at a7. He has compens a t i o n Wh i t e ' s a t tack .
in the use of the h a lf open b­
f i l e . As f o r t h e r e s t of t h e 4 Bd2 Be7
fi les none i s open and s o the 5 Ng2 RbB
Rooks w i l l h a v e t o s e e k free d o m 6 b3 c5
by means o f pawn e x c h a n ge s a t 7 Nf5 B x f5
s o m e s t a g e.
O n e o f t h e B i s h o p s mu s t g o
B l a ck h as j u s t p l a y e d . . . a nd i n any case he cannot
d5, creat i n g t e n s i o n i n the a f f o r d t o l e t t h e Kn i gh t r e ma i n
c e n t r e , f or W h i t e w i l l n ot k n ow i n s u c h a p ow e r f u l p os i t i o n .
w h e t h e r t o e xp e ct dxe4
or . . . d 4 o r i nd e e d w h e t h e r i t B g xf 5
wou l d b e b e t t e r t o e x c h a n g e
h i ms e l f o n d 5 , a m o v e h e w o u l d H a l f open i n g the g- f i l e and
b e re l u c t a n t t o mak e s i n c e i t keepi n g th e centre s o l i d .
w o u l d g i v e B l a ck t w o p a w n s t o
one i n t h e centre as · w e l l as B Rb6
u n d ou b l i n g h i s c - p aw n s .
1 04
Pre p a r i n g t o d o u b l e a n d who s ecures the open b-fi le
c h o os i n g t h e t h i r d r a nk f o r i t w i t h a n e a s i ly w o n e n d i n g .
is clear and off ers the
pos s i b i l i t y o f a s w i t c h t o t h e 1 6 e5
other w i n g .
T h e p a w n !l r o l l o n a g a i n a n d
9 Rf2 Qd7 w i t h t h i s m o v e a n d h i s 1 8t h
10 Qe2 RfbB s t r i k e s a t t h e s ame t w o p i e c es
1 1 f4 as h e d i d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f
t h e a t t a ck .
A f t er p r e p a r a t i o n s t h e p a w n s
begi n t o ro l l a g a i n . Th i s 16 NeB
thrust n ot o n ly c h i ps a w ay a t 1 7 Bg3 Qa4
Black 's d e f e n ces but c l ears 1 8 f6 !
lines for W h i t e p i eces : a
diagona l f o r t h e Qu e e n , a f i l e D i agram 1 3 5
for t h e R o o k a n d a n e w l i n e f o r
t h e Bi s h o p a f t e r t h e e x c h a n g e
of p aw n s . Good v a l u e for o n e
mo ve .

1 1 exf4

1 1 Bd6 may have been


better b u t B l a ck p r o b a b l y
th ough t t h a t i t w a s p o i n t l es s
t ry i n g t o p r o p u p t h e c r u m b l i n g
k i n gs i d e a n d t h a t i t w a s m o r e
a c t i v e t o c r e a t e a d i v ers i o n o n
th e q u e e n s i d e .

12 Bxf4 c4

Temporari ly giving up a
pawn .

1 3 bxc4

W h i t e c a p t u res t h i s w ay t o 18 BfB
ensure t h a t B l a c k 's a ct i v i t i e s
are c o n f i n e d t o t h e q u e e n s i d e U n f o r t u n a t e l y n e c e s s a ry . I f
and n o c h a n c e s a p p e a r o n t h e d ­ 1 8 gxf6 then 1 9 Bh4!
f i l e t o s p o i l h i s own p l a n s . p i nn i n g t h e pawn with exf6 to
f o l l ow . N o r w a s t h ere a n y j oy
13 R b 1 ch in 18 • • • R x c2 1 9 Qg4 Qxa2
14 Rxb1 R x b 1 ch 20 N f 4 b e ca u s e i n s p i t e o f
1 5 Rf1 Rb2 co l l ecting two pawns and
o c c u py i n g t h e s e ven t h ra n k ,
N a t u r a l ly h e d e c l i n es t h e W h i t e ' s Ki n g i s s e cure and
s econd e x c h a n g e f o r o t h erw i s e B l a c k 's on t h e p o i n t o f
h i s q u e en s i d e ambi t i ons f i z z l e col lapse.
ou t : 1 5 Rxf 1 ch 1 6 Qxf 1
Oa4 1 7 Qb 1 1 and i t i s W h i t e 1 9 Qg4 g6

1 05
Black cou l d have captured A l i t t l e regrou pi ng with
t h e c- pawn w i t h h i s Queen s i nce t emp o .
the Bishop was safe but it
wou ld h ave been t o l i t t le 21 R xa 2
p u rp o s e : 1 9 . . . Q x c 2 20 Nf4 2 2 e xf 7 c h Kxf 7
and mate i s prevented. If t h en 23 Nf3 Nxf6
20 Qa4 (Wh i t e w a s 2 4 N g 5 ch Kg7
t hreat e n i n g Qc8 or Qd 7 ) 2 1 e 6 !
Nxf6 22 exf7ch Kh8 (t o 2 4 K e 7 a l l ow s ma t e i n two .
r e c a p t u r e w o u l d a l l o w a m a t e by
Qe6 ) 23 Qh4 (threat e n i n g N g 6 2 5 Rxf6
m a t e ) h 6 2 4 N g 6 ch , e t c.
R o u n d i n g o f f t h e a t t a ck n e a t l y .
2 0 e6 1
25 K x f6
The final assau lt and 26 Qf4ch Ke7
b r ea k t h r o u g h . Th e p a w n s h a ve 27 Qf7ch Kd 8
d o n e t h e i r w ork , b r o k e n o p e n 28 Ne6ch,
t h e Ki n g 's c as t l e a n d n ow i t i s
u p t o t h e p i e c es t o f i n i s h t h e a nd B l a ck r e s i g n e d j u s t i n t i me
task . t o s a v e t h e ma t e n e x t m o v e .

D i a gram 1 3 6 I n t h i s game W h i t e 's p awns


w e r e a c t i va t e d w i t h t e mpo,
d r i v i n g b a c k t h e e n e m y p i e c es
a n d l e a v i n g t h e m u n c o o rd i n a t e d
a n d vu l nera b l e, w h i l s t b eh i nd
the movi ng pawns t h e s trength
o f t h e W h i t e f o r c e s e xp a n d ed ,
pushing on the rol l er,
i mp a r t i n g a m o me n t u m s u f f i c i e n t
t o b r e a k d o w n t h e d e f e n c e s of
t h e o p p os i n g K i n g : a t y p i c a l l y
dramati c u n f o l d i n g of most
p l ots i nvolving f l u i d pawns.
Somet i m es it i s worth w h i l e
g i v i n g u p ma t er i a l t o i n i t i a t e
a movi n g p a w n ma s s , as Tarrasch
d o es i n t h e f o l l ow i n g p o s i t i o n .

20 R x c2

M o s t p l ay ers w o u l d e n j oy
p layi ng W h i t e 's game n ow
w h a t ever B l ack d o es a n d s o
t h e r e i s n o n e e d f o r e xh a u s t i ve
a n a ly s i s . O n e e xa mp l e w i l l
suffi ce: i f 20 fxe6 then 2 1
• • •

f7ch w i ns l ots o f materi a l .

2 1 Ne 1
1 06
D i a gr a m 1 3 7 and t ap t h e poten t i a l o f the
p aw n mas s .
T a rras ch
1 N e xcS
2 NxcS NxcS
3 Ba3

T h e r e is no r e a s o n w h y h e
should not take the Rook
i m m e d i a t e l y . N o w B l a ck o b t a i n s
a p a i r o f B i s h ops.

3 Nd3ch
4 Qxd3 Bxa3
5 BxcB RxcB
6 Ra1 Bb4ch
7 Nd2

It i s j u s t as w e l l W h i t e c a n
i n t e r p os e w i t h t h e Kn i gh t s i n c e
a pawn f ork at e4 was
threatened .
B r ey e r
D i a g ram 1 3 8
G il t e b o r g , 1 9 2 D

W h i t e ' s p a w n s , p a rt i c u l a r l y
on t h e q u e e n s i d e , a r e w e l l
adva n c e d . H e h a s p l e n t y o f r o o m
for man oeuvre b eh i nd t h e m a n d
he e v e n h a s a s u pport e d p a s s e d
p aw n a t b 6 .

B l a ck ' s p i e c es a r e r a t h e r
cra mp e d b e h i n d h i s o w n p a w n s
and h e n eeds breat h i n g s pa c e ,
h e n e e d s t o e xp a n d .

Perhaps W h i t e h as o ver­
re a c h e d h i ms e l f a l i t t l e w i t h
h i s p a w n a d va n ce . T h e c - p a w n i s
we a k , a t t a ck e d b y f o u r p i e c e s
a n d o n ly d ef e n d e d by t h r e e , b u t
fort u n a t e l y f o r h i m t h e r e i s a
p i n of t h e B l a ck Kn i gh t s
a ga i n s t t h e R o o k by t h e Bi s h o p Th e c o m b i n a t i o n i s o v e r . F o r
at h 3 . t h e e x c h a n g e B l a ck h as a B i s h o p
pair, a n extra pawn and a
It is B l a ck to m o v e . H i s m o b i l i s e d p aw n m a s s . W h i t e h a s
Kn i gh t a t e 6 i s e n p r i s e a n d s o w e a k qu eens i d e pawn s ,
h i s pre s s u re o n t h e c - p awn i s d i s l ocated R o oks , a n d a K i n g
being undermi ned. Rather than c a u gh t i n t h e mi d d l e w i t h a
retreat a n d r e l e a s e t h e t e ns i on s t e amro l l e r ready t o s ma s h
he deci des t o give u p materi a l t h r o u gh t h e c e n t r e .
107
B l a ck ' s g a m e i s d y n a m i c , 17 Nf1 Qe1 ch
Whit e 's passive and static. 1 8 Kc2 Qc3ch
B l ack i s a l r e a dy w i n n i n g a n d 19 Kd1 Qd 3ch
the method of finishing is a 20 Kc1 Rd 7 ,

ma t t er o f p e rs o n a l s t y l e .
a n d Wh i t e b e l a t e d l y r e s i g n e d .
T h e rema i n i n g m o v e s we r e :
T h e p o t e n t i a 1 e n e r gy o f a
7 e4 pawn mas s i s c l ea r l y worth
8 Qb3 cS ma t eri a l t o r e l e as e .
9 Kd1
T h e p u z z l e s w h i c h f o l l ow a r e
H e is u n a b l e t o c as t l e b u t based on the i deas of this
mu s t u n p i n t h e K n i gh t . ch a p t e r .

9 c4 D i a g ram 1 3 9
1 0 Qa2

A g a i n w e s e e h ow f ru s t r a t e d
pi eces become when thrown back
b y a d va n c i n g p awn s .

10 Qd6
1 1 Ke2 Ba6
1 2 b7

W h y n ot ? I t i s l o s t a nyway
and t h i s creates a l i t t l e
d i v e rs i o n .

12 Rb8
1 3 Kd 1

Th ere i s n o rest for t h e


Ki n g f r o m t h e B l a c k Bi s h o p s .
.
T h i s t i m e a d i s c o v e ry w a s
t h r ea t e n e d . I t i s B l a ck t o p l ay . H e h a s
a f ou r to t wo maj o r i t y of pawns
13 Rxb7 on the queen s i d e as Wh i t e has
1 4 f3 Kh B o n t h e o t h e r w i ng. How d o es h e
w i n q u i ck l y ?
R e m o vi n g s u rpri s es o n t h e a 2
gB di agon a l .

1 5 fxe4 d xe4
1 6 Kc1 Qxg3

W h i t e h a s d i s p ers ed B l a c k 's
pawn mass but it is t o o l a t e
for h i s pos i t i on i s i n r u i n s .

1 06
D i a gram 1 4 0 now cons i der h i s who l e pawn
c o n f i gu ra t i o n . W h a t s h o u l d h e
a i m for and what should b e h i s
f i rs t m o v e ? H o w , i n g e n e r a l ,
s h o u l d h e .p l a n a f t e r t h a t ?

S O LUT I O N S

D i a gr a m 1 3 9 W h i t e ' s p a w n s a r e
a l s o very g o o d a n d p o i s e d f o r
a t t a ck a n d s o B l a ck m u s t p l a y
a ggre s s i v e l y .

1 b5
2 Nd2

T h e o n ly s q u a re .

2 c4
3 Ba2
In d i a gram 1 40 W h i t e 's
d eve l o p m e n t i s r e s t r i c t e d t o H i s p i e c e s w o u l d b e c o m e e ven
his f i rs t t h r e e rank s . H e i s more c l u t t ered after 3 • • •Bd1
l ike a crouched a nima l poised a nd t o go t o c 2 w o u l d a l l ow a
to spri n g. W i t h Wh i t e t o p l ay , fork a t d 3 .
w h a t w o u l d h i s n e xt f ew moves
be? As s e s s t h e c h a n c e s f o r 3 d3
B l a ck a n d Wh i t e . 4 Qd 1

D i a g ram 1 4 1 H e h ad t o w a t ch o u t f or t h e
pin on th e a 7 g1 d i agona l ,
a n d 4 Q f 3 N d 4 i s n o t i n v i t i n g.

4 B xb 2 .

D i agra m 1 4 0 W h i t e mu s t a d v a n c e
h i s p a w n s t o m a k e s p a c e for t h e
p i e ce s b e h i n d . B l a ck s e ems t o
h a v e a more f l e x i b l e pos i t i o n
b u t c l os er exami n a t i on sh ows
t h a t h i s m i n or p i eces , t h o ugh
m ore a dvan ced t h a n W h i t e' s ,
bite on nothing and are
t h ems e l ve s e xp o s e d .

1 d4 exd4

If h e d o e s n ' t e x ch a n g e t h e
e-pawn i s i n danger of fal l i n g
a n d i f 1 . . . e4 t h e n 2 N d 2,
In diagram 1 4 1 White has winning the e-pawn when the
j u s t p l ay e d d 3 d 4 . B l a ck mu s t B i s h o p h as m o ve d .

1 09
2 exd4 Be7 s p a c e for h i s p i e ces beh i n d h i s
p aw n s , o p e n l i n es a nd
Not 2 Bd6 b e caus e 3 dS
• • • r e s t r i ct i o n o f t h e e n emy .
f o r k s Kn i gh t a n d B i s h o p .
W h i t e ' s c e n tre i s s trong, he
3 c4 h as a q u e e n s i d e maj o r i t y and
o b vi o u s a mb i t i o n s t h er e , b u t ,
T h e f ork t h re a t i s o n a g a i n . s u rpri s i n g ly , b e ca u s e o f the
A s w e s a w i n Ch a p t e r T h r e e p a w n f r e e d o m h i s p i e c e s n ow e n j oy
movements open d i agon a l s a n d e s p e c i a l l y th e d i ago n a l o n es
w i t h t h i s t h e Bishop at b2 h e m i gh t w e l l prep are f or a
comes t o l i f e on a f i n e k i n gs i d e a t t a ck .
d i a go n a l . I t i s tru e t h a t t h e
pawn a t c4 c l oses a l i n e for Qi� &��� -lil T h e k e y t o t h e
t h e o t h e r B i s h o p , bu t t h e p a w n s p os i t i o n i s t h e B l a ck Ki n g i n
w i l l c o n t i n u e t o f l ow a n d o p e n t h e m i d d l e w i t h n o p ro s p e c t of
it u p agai n . cas t l i n g e i ther s i d e. I t is
e s s e n t i a l f or B l a ck t o c l os e
3 Bf5 the centre and then proceed
4 dS Nb8 w i t h h i s a c t i vi t i es o n the
Ki n g's w i n g. To p l a y 1 . . . exd4
At l east from h ere t h e w o u l d b e m a d n es s a n d n o b e t t e r
K n i gh t c a n g e t b a c k i n t o t h e t o l eave W h i t e t o exchange
game via d7 whereas . . . NaS t h ere. In any case W h i t e is
w o u l d h a ve i n vi t e d more p a w n t h rea t e n i n g t o g o t o f S w i t h
prodd i n g . h i s Q u e e n . C l ea r ly 1 • • • e4 is
h i s bes t m o v e. A f t e r t h a t h e
5 b4 s h ou l d c o n t i n u e p r es s i n g o n t h e
k i n gs i d e w h e re he a l r e a d y has
Or 5 Nd4, among other s o m e i n i t i a t i v e . H e mu s t t a k e
pos s i b i l i t i es , but w e h ave gone c a r e t o k e e p t h e c e n t r e c l os e d ,
far enough. C o mp a r e the f i nd i n g w ays o f d ea l i n g w i t h
s i t u a t i o n n ow w i t h t h e i n i t i a l any p lans for its open i n g that
pos i t ion and we see that W h i t e may h a v e s u ch as b3
W tt i t e ' s game h as b e e n f o l l ow e d b y c 4 .
t ra n s f o rme d , g i v i n g h i m g r e a t e r
CHAPTER 1 1

The centre

D i a g r am 1 4 2 I n a n e a r l i er ch a p t e r w e
have cons i dered routes , t h e
l i n es o f travel w h i ch t h e
pi eces take, and i t would be
u s efu l t o be c o n s c i ous o f t h o s e
i d ea s i n t h e pres e n t o n e . S i n c e
t wo oppos i n g f orces face o n e
another at oppos i t e s id es of
the board i n North -South
pos i t i o n s i t i s natura l that
m u c h m o v e m e n t m u s t b e N o r� h ­
South or Sou th -Nort h. The
l o n g e r s l o p i n g l i n e s w h i ch t h e
d i a go n a l p i e c es w i l l s eek t o
u s e p a s s t h r o u gh t h e c e n t r e , as
s h own i n d i agram 1 4 3, a n d i t i s
c l ear t h at t h e c e n t re becomes
more o f a th oroughfare for a l l
t h e p i e ce s a s t h e g a m e g o e s o n .

C o n t r o l of t h e c e n t r e by
e i t h er party wou l d g i v e h i m a
e have ment i oned t h e centre treme n d o u s a d v a n t a g e .
lready b u t it i s so i mportant C o n s e q u e n t ly n e i t h e r p l ayer
part o f the t erra i n that i t w i l l vo l u n t a ri l y make
s w o r t h c o n s i d er i n g i n g r e a t e r conces s ions there and w i l l
et a i l a n d w e s h a l l s t ar t w i t h f i g h t f o r a t l ea s t a n equ a l
h e v e ry b a s i c i d e a s . s h are i n i t . M o re o ver, t h e
s trugg l e f o r t h e centre wi l l
Th e i n n e r f o u r s q u a r e s a r e i n f l u e n ce t h e p l ay e r s f r o m t h e
he true centre of the board, v e ry b e g i n n i n g o f t h e g a m e a n d
urrou n d e d b y t w e l v e m or e , t h e s o the opening adopted,
arger c entre, mak i n g an a rea whatever k i n d i t i s , o r the
n the m i dd l e w h i c h i s vi t a l d ef e n c e e mp l oy e d , w h a t ev e r t h e
or both p l ay ers t o k e e p i n theory beh i n d i t , wi l l be
i n d from t h e ear l i es t momen t s i n f l u e n ce d b y c o n s i d e rat i o n s o f
f t h e game. the centre.

113
D i a g ram 1 4 3 centre a n d t h e e n h a n ceme n t of
t h e p o w e r of a p i e c e a r e
paramount, then Nf3 i s t h e way
t o d ev e l o p .

T h i s i d ea can be a p p l i ed t o
a l l the p i e ce s . There is a
c l os e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e
power of a piece and its
i nflu ence i n the centre. I t is
a t w o -way f l o w , t h e pi eces s e em
t o d ra w p ow e r f ro m t h e c e n t re
t h e more t h ey u n i t e t o g a i n i t s
c o n t r o l . T h e r e a r e, o f c o u rs e,
o t h e r f a c t ors w h i ch a f f e c t t h e
s trength of a piece: i ts
r e l at i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r p i e c e s ,
t h e genera l pawn s tructure, and
so o n , but in t h e begi n n i n g the
c e n t re i s t h e f a c t or m o s t
l i k e l y t o e n h a n c e i t s va l u e .

T h e e xcept i on t o a l l t h i s i s
At t h e o u t s e t , p l ay ers a r e t h e K i n g w h i c h mu s t f o r i t s o w n
c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e ve l o p m e n t s a f e t y s h u n t h e c e n t re f o r mu c h
of pieces. I n it i a l ly the p i eces of t h e g a m e . I n t h e e n d g a m e ,
are t ra p p e d o r p r o t e c t ed , h o w e v e r, w h e n t h e K i n g c o m e s
depen d i n g h ow y o u l o ok at i t , i nto i ts own, a w e l l ­
b eh i n d a b arri e r o f p a w n s . T h ey c e n t ra l i s e d K i n g i s o f t e n t h e
need freedom, s pace for l arges t s i n g l e factor i n
manoeuvre, a n i n creas i ng ensuring a w i n .
i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e t erra i n . I n
a n e a r l i er c h a p t er w e h a v e s e e n F r o m t h e c e n t re force c a n b e
how t h e bou ndari es a f fe c t t h e a pp l i e d eff i ci e n t l y i n any
p i �c e s a n d h o w t h e p i e c e s d i r e c t i o n , i n a ct i v i t y t o w a rd s
i n creas e t h e i r p o w e r by m o vi n g t h e q u e e n s i d e or k i n gs i d e o r
t ow ards t h e c e n t re, s i mp l y d i rect ly a h ead, and d efens i ve
because they over look more m e a s u re s c a n b e t a k e n a cr o s s
s q uares as w e l l as more t h e w i d t h o f t h e b o a rd . C o mp ar e
i mport a n t s q u a r e s . F o r e x a mp l e , t h i s w i t h operat i n g s o l e ly o n a
N f 3 as a f i rs t move f o r a w i n g : t h e con centrat i o n of
Kn i g h t e n a b l e s i t t o o ve r l o o k f o r c e t h e r e c a n b e v e ry g r e a t ,
e i g h t s q u a res ( t w o o f w h i c h a r e b u t i t is res t r i c t e d and,
i n t h e centre) compared w i t h shou l d vi t a l points become
s i x from Ne2, f our from N h 3 a n d vu l n era b l e e l s ew h ere o n t h e
three from its i n i t i a l board, a force commi tted t o t h e
pos i t i on. T h i s i s not t o s ay s i d e w i l l b e h ard p u t to it t o
t h a t N h 3 a n d N e 2 a r e b a d m o ve s i f i n d q u i ck routes to the
i n c i rcums t a n ces where t rou b l e s po t .
consi derat i on s other than t h e
c e n t r e p re va i l i t m a y w e l l b e E x amp l es from master p l ay
d es i rab l e t o d e ve l o p t h e Kn i g h t w i l l s h e d m o r e l i gh t o n t h e s e
i n s u ch a wayi bu t w h e n t h e i d eas .

114
D i a gr am 1 4 4 2 bxc3

Botwi n n i k He wou l d h ave b e e n better


pres s i n g o n with 2 gxf6 Rxe3
3 O xe3, but after 3 Bxf 6,
• • .

White sti l l has the i n feri or


p os i t i o n .

2 Nxe4

In t w o m o v e s Bo t w i n n i k h a s
d e s t roy e d W h i t e ' s c e n tre a t t h e
cos t of a Rook for a p i e c e a n d
a p a w n 1 t h e l o n g d i agon a l i s
o p e n e d a n d o t h e r w e a k n es s e s
a ppear i n t h e c - f i l e .

3 Og4

He i s c o m m i t t e d t o t h e w i n g
a t t a ck a n d n ow has some
pressure o n e 6 a nd t h e prospect
P a d evs k y o f t h e u s e f u l t h ru s t , f 5 .

A l ek h i n e M emo r i a l T o u r n ame n t 3 OcB I


M o s c ow , 1 9 5 6
A beaut iful move, quiet,
W h i t e h a s a mass o f p a w n s s ubt l e a n d typi ca l ly Botw i nn i k
ready t o r o l l a t e 4 , f 4 a n d g 4 , in t h e w a y it comb i n es a t t a ck -
a n d a t i m e - s a vi n g t a rg e t i n t h e a l o n g t h e c - f i l e - w i t h d ef e n c e
Kn i g h t a t f 6 . T h a t t h e p a w n of e 6 and f 5 .
ro l l er h a s t h e b a ck i n g o f
s e emi n g l y w e l l - p l a c e d p i e c e s 4 Rf3 Nxb3
mu s t h a v e g i v e n P a d e v s k y
cons i d era b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Th i s exchange re l i eves
h i s p o s i t i o n a n d pros p e c t s f o r pressure on the a2 gB
a t t a ck . B u t t h e r e is a l a t e n t d i ag o n a l .
weakness i n his centre.
par t i c u l a r ly a t e 4 . T h r o u g h 5 a xb3 f5
th a t p o i n t p as s es t h e i n f l u e n c e
of t h e B l a ck B i s h o p at b 7 , Cre a t i n g s p a c e arou n d h i s
wh i c h s t r i k e s u l t i m a t e l y i n t o K i n g f o r e a s e o f d e f e n ce . T h ere
Wh i t e ' s K i n g ' s p os i t i o n . T h e c ­ is nothing for White in:
f i l e is h a l f o p e n for B l a c k ' s 6 gxf6 e . p . Rxf6 7 f5 e xf 5
use and h i s res tra i n ed but B Nxf5 BfB 9 N h 6ch Rxh 6 !
s o l i d centre, w i t h pawns a t d6 1 0 O x c B b e c a u s e B l a ck g o e s
and e 6 , d i s c o u r a g e W h i t e f r o m 10 • • • Rg6ch before recapturi n g
adva n c i n g t h e r e . the Queen.

1 g5 Rxc3 6 0h4

I m m ed i a t e l y h i gh l i gh t i n g t h e W h i t e 's a t t a ck is b e i n g
weak n e s s a t e 4 . pus h e d t o o n e s i d e, narrow i n g

115
i t s o b j e c t i v e s , w h i l s t B l a ck , 1 0 Bd2
wi t h ,
I f 1 0 Bxd4 then 1 0 • • • Q x c2
6 eS, 1 1 gxh6 N f 6 , a n d i t i s Wh ite
w h o i s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h m a t e as
counters vi gorou s l y in the w e l l a s h a v i n g h i s Qu e e n u n d e r
c e n t re . a t t a ck .

7 Rh3 h6 10 Qc6
B Qh5
T h e r e i s a t o u c h o f i mp i s h
T h e g - p awn w a s p i n n ed . h umour about t h i s move : having
u s e d t h e l o n g d a rk d i a g o n a l f o r
B Qxc3 1 d e f e n c e t h e Q u e e n n ow s w i t ches
t o t h e long l i ght one for
I t i s c e n t ra l w e a k n e s s w h i c h a t t a ck .
a l l ows t h i s d e vastat i n g e n t ry
of t h e Qu een. N o t o n ly i s t h e 1 1 g xh 6
R o o k t h r e a t e n e d b u t t h e Qu e e n ' s
pos i t i o n on t h e l o n g d i a g o n a l A t last but far too l at e .
i n d i r e c t l y , t h r o u gh t h e c e n t r e ,
p r o t e c t s t h e g - p awn . 11 Ng5 1

9 Rd1 exd4 F i n i s h i n g n ea t ly a n d i m­
provi n g o n t h e more o b vi o u s
D i a g ram 1 4 5 Nf6.

1 2 Rg3

As g o o d a s a ny t h i n g e l s e .

12 Q h 1 ch
1 3 Kf2 Ne4ch,

a n d Wh i t e res i g n e d .

This game is eloquent


t e s t i m o n y t o t h e ma x i m t h a t t h e
bes t w ay t o d efeat a w i ng
att ack i s a cou nter-thrust i n
t h e c e n tre. M o re, i t i s c l ear
t h a t B l a ck h a d regard for the
c e n t r e f rom t h e b e gi n n i n g and
th erefore moved from s trength
w h en t h e t i me came, wh ereas
White neglected the centre,
I t i s r e m a rk a b l e h o w , i n a made i ns u f f i ci ent prepara t i on
f e w s h o rt m o ves , B l a ck h a s and lashed out on the wing
domi nated the centre and before s ecuri ng t h e vital
s q u e e z e d W h i t e ' s a t t a ck t o t h e s q u ares i n t h e m i dd l e .
very e d g e o f t h e b o a r d . N ow , i f
1 0 g xh 6 t h e n 1 0 • • •dxe3, and B o t w i n n i k ' s u s e o f t h e Qu e e n
t h e Q u e e n d ef e n d s e v e r y t h i n g i n w a s a n o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e of
t h e B l a ck K i n g ' s c o r n e r . t h e game. B e f o re t h e f i n a l
116
entry o n m o v e t w e l v e h e m o v e d at d4 t o j o i n t h e o n e at e4
the Qu e e n j u s t t h ree t i mes , b u t a f t e r t h e prepara t i o n , c3.
each t i m e w i t h t e l l i n g e f f e c t . 4 d 3 , i s S t e i n i t z ' s o w n mo ve.
Look a g a i n at QcB, Qxc3 and
• • • H i s p l a n i s t o es tab l i s h a
Q c 6 t o t a s t e the fu l l f lavour m o d e s t . b u t v e ry s o l i d c e n t r e
of m o v e s i m bu e d w i t h r a r e p o w e r a n d t h e n , w h e n a l l is s e cure
a n d s u bt l et y . t h e r e , a n d o n ly t h e n , t o emb ark
o n a f l a n k a t t a ck a g a i n s t t h e
G o i n g b a c k i n t o t h e h i s t o ry e n emy Ki n g .
of t h e g a m e , f o r a l o n g t i m e
the valu e of central control 4 d6
w a s n o t u n d e rs t o o d a n d i t w a s 5 c3
n ot u n t i l S t e i n i t z s h o w e d t h e
way at the end of the last T o gu a r d c e n t r a l s q u ares a n d
c e n t u ry t h a t c h es s p l ay e rs b eg a n c e r t a i n l y n o t a s a preparat i o n
to re a l i s e t h a t t h e s q u a res i n for a n early d 4 .
t h e m i d d l e w er e o f t h e f i rs t
i mport a n c e . 5 g6
6 Nbd2 Bg7
Here i s a good examp l e in 7 Nf1
o n e o f h i s own games .
A i m i n g f o r e 3 f r o m w h ere t h e
Steinitz T c h i gori n Kn i gh t w i l l w a t c h cen tra l
H a va n a , 1 892 s q u a res .

1 e4 es 7 0 0
2 Nf3 Nc6 B Ba4
3 BbS Nf6
4 d3 T h e B i s h op s e e k s m o re u s e fu l
d i a g o n a l s : a2 gB and b 1 h7.
D i a g r am 1 4 6
B Nd7

Pre p a r i n g t h e a d v a n c e fS.

9 Ne3 NcS
10 Bc2 Ne6

Th ere h as b e e n a l t ogether
t o o mu c h m a n o e u vr i n g w i t h t h e
K n i gh t s . H e was r e a dy f o r • . •

f S a n d s h o u l d h a v e p l ayed i t
b u t w a s p r o b a b l y t em p t ed by t h e
i d e a of d r o p p i n g a Kn i g h t o n
f4.

1 1 h4I

S a t i s f i ed w i t h h i s c e n t re,
h e n o w l a u n c h e s o u t on t h e
wi n g .
Th e o p e n i n g i s t h e Ru y L o p e z
and W h i t e's objective i s a 11 Ne7
s tr o n g p a w n c e n t r e w i t h a p a w n
117
Of cours e , he needs another res t r i ct e d t h o ugh i t may be,
c o ver f o r f5. a dequat e ly k eeps out the
oppos i n g p i e c e s . I n any case,
12 h5 d5 B l a ck w a s h ar d l y r ea dy t o o p e n
the centre w i t h h i s queens ide
The best way to defend a s o u n d e ve l o p e d .
w i n g a t t a ck i s a c o u n t e r a t t a c k
i n the centre ... but White 16 Qc6
knew a l l that from the 17 Qe2
begi n n i n g a n d h i s centre i s
s e cure. I t w i l l b e B l a ck w h o It is n ot h i s i n t e n t i o n to
s u ff e rs f ro m t h e o p e n i n g o f n e w w i n t h e e-pawn s i nce it wou l d
l i nes as a conseq u e n c e of t h i s l eave h i s King and Qu een
c e n t ra l a c t i o n . e xp o s e d o n a n o p e n f i l e b u t t o
p repare l on g cas t l i n g a n d to
13 h xg6 fxg6 bri n g over t h e Qu e e n 's Rook t o
t h e k i n gs i d e .
Recapturing this way h e
gi ves p l ay t o h i s own Rook o n 17 Bd 7
t h e f- f i le and prevents the h ­ 1 8 Be3
f i l e from becom i n g comp let e ly
open. Now W h i t e i s t hrea t e n i ng
1 9 N g 5 , a t t a ck i n g h 7 a n d p i l i n g
1 4 e xd 5 Nxd5 up on t h e p i n n ed K n i g h t at e6,
1 5 Nxd5 Qxd 5 for 1 9 Qxg2 wou ld be
1 6 Bb3 a ns w ered by 20 0 0 0 and
Rd g 1 t o f o l l ow .
D i a gr am 1 4 7
18 Kh B

Unpi nning the Knight but


w i t h o u t f i n d i n g mu c h c o mf ort
for t h e Ki n g .

19 0 0 0

D e v e l o p m e n t i s c o mp l e t ed a n d
W h i t e i s c l ea r l y w i n n i n g. He
h as t h e h - f i l e , f i n e d i a g o n a l s
for h i s Bishops and a latent
t h r e a t o f d 4 , f o r e x c h a n g e s on
that square, w h i ch would
u l t i ma t e ly s et t l e a W h i t e
Bishop o n i t , wou l d l eave the
oppos i ng K i n g i n a t erri b le
s t at e .

19 RaeB
Un l i k e B o t w i n n i k 's Qu e e n
e n t ry i n t o t h e c e n t r e B l a c k i s
e xp o s e d h er e t o n e w t h r e a t s a n d B l a ck a l s o c o mp l e t e s h i s
W h i t e 's B i s hop s t r i k es down a d e v e l o pm e n t w i t h a n i n d i re c t
d i a g o n a l w i t h a n e n e m y 'K i n g a n d t h re a t t o W h i t e ' s Qu e e n i n
Q u e e n o n i t . Wh i t e ' s c e n tre, order t o d i s courage d 4 .
118
2 0 Qf 1 I 22 Bxd4
2 3 R xd 4 !
A f i n e move r e s o l vi n g t h e e ­
f i l e p ro b l e m a n d s e e k i n g e n t ry N a t u ra l ly . H e wou l d l i k e to
to t h e h - f i l e . f i n i s h .t h e e x c h a n g e s w i t h a
B i s hop o n d 4 .
20 as
23 Nxd4
B e i n g u n a b l e t o i mp r ove h i s 24 Rxh7ch l
defe n c e s h e s t a r t s a cou n t e r
a t t a ck . C a pt u r i n g o n d 4 wou l d a l s o
w i n e a s i l y , o f c o u rs e, b u t t h e
2 1 d4 t e xt i s e v e n s t r o n g e r .

And h ere i t comes. S e e t h e 24 Kxh 7


n o t e t o move f o u r . 2 5 Q h 1 ch ,

T h e t h reat o f d S , fork i n g a n d ma t e f o l l ow s :
Q u e e n a n d Kn i gh t , l e a v e s B l a ck
with l i t t l e cho i c e . 25 Kg7
2 6 Bh6ch Kf6
21 exd4 2 7 Q h 4ch KeS
22 Nxd4 2 8 Q x d 4c h ,

D i a g ram 1 4 8 a n d B l a ck r e s i g n e d b e c a u s e o f
28 KfS 29 Qf4.

S t e i n i t z k ept t h e cen tre


u n d e r contro l bu t h e a l s o kept
it f lu i d so t h at he cou l d make
a break t h e r e t o comb i n e l a t e r
w i t h h i s w i n g a t t a ck .

I n t h e n e xt e x a mp l e Tarras c h
t h r e w u p a s h i e l d o f b l o ck a d e d
p a w n s a c r o s s mu c h of t h e
q u e ens i d e and cen tre s o t h a t h e
cou l d con centrat e s o l e l y on a
w i n g a t t a ck•

W e n o w s e e t h e v a l u e of Q f 1 .
B l a ck c a n n o t r e t a k e o n d 4 w i t h
his Kn ight for t h i s wou l d
exp o s e t h e a 2 g8 d i agona l a n d
a l l o w R x h 7 c h f o l l ow e d b y Q h 1 c h
a n d a q u i ck m a t e . H e i s f o r c e d
to capt u re w i t h t h e B i s h o p ,
weakening t h e l ong, dark
diagona l .
1 19
D i agram 1 4 9 Wh ite, on the other hand,
h a s p l e n t y of room to move
Ma r c o a b o u t i n a n d n o w , w i t h the
c e n t r e s e cu r e a n d p a r t l y c l os e d
a n d t h e q u e e ns i d e l a r g e l y s h u t
d o w n , he w i l l be a b l e to expand
o n t h e k i n gs i d e , c r e a t i n g e v e n
more space for h i s u s e .

2 as
3 g4 Nh7

T emp o r a ri ly p r e ve n t i n g gS .

4 h4

R e n ew i n g t h e t h r e a t .

4 QdB

W i t h t h e s ame p u rp o s e .

T a rras c h S Bg3 a4

Vienn a , 1 B9 B H a vi n g h e l d u p W h i t e for a
whi l e he returns to the
I n t h e pos i t i on o f d i agram q u e e n s i d e, f or o n ly t h ere can
1 4 9 White has a choice between h e h o p e t o ga i n a n y a d va n t a g e .
w i n n i n g a p a w n by 1 d x cS d x cS
2 c x b S ( t h e p i n n e d K n i gh t a t c 7 6 Kh 1 RaB
e n s u res t h a t B l a ck c a n n o t 7 Rae1
recap t u r e ) a n d b l o ck a d e t o
res tri ct B l a ck 's pieces. A v o i d i n g e x c h a n g es w h e n t h e
Tarra s ch d e c i ded t h a t t h e a - f i l e o p e n s a n d t h e o p e n e­
p o s i t i o n a l a d va n t a ge w a s w o r t h f i l e is t h e n a t u r a l p l a c e t o
mor e t h a n t h e m a t e r i a l o n e a n d go .
p l ay e d ,
7 NeB
dS
Th e Kn i g h t t a k e s o ve r f r o m
T h e b l o ck a d e o f t h e p a w n a t t h e B i s h o p i n gu a rd i n g t h e d ­
d 6 w i l l mak e i t very d i f f i c u l t pawn s o that t h e Bishop can be
for B l a ck to manoeuvre, p osted on the l o n g d a rk
especi a l ly with h i s Bishops . d i a g o n a l t h.a t r e a c h e s i n t o t h e
queens ide. T h i s is good
b4 m a n o e u vr i n g i n difficu lt
c i rcums t a n c e s .
B l a ck r e s p o n d s by s e ek i n g
breath i ng s pace on the B Nf4 Bf6
q u eens i d e , h opi n g, l a t e r , t o 9 Ne6 1
open the a-fi l e .
This i s n ot rea l ly a
2 Ne2 s acri f i ce becau s e after 9
fxe6 1 0 f x e 6 b o t h t h e B i s h op
1 20
at d 7 a n d t h e K n i g h t a t h 7 w i l l To k eep the Queen ou t .
be e n p r i s e . T h e d i a g o n a l f o r
Wh i t e ' s Qu e e n a n d B i s h o p w o u l d 1 7 Bxg6 ,
also b e o p ened a n d rat her than
let t h i s h a p p e n B l a ck g i v e s u p a n d B l a ck d e c i d e d t h at i t w a s
"
t h e e xch a n g e . t i me t o res i g n . If 1 7 fxg6,
t h en 1 8 f 7 c h , e t c .
D i a gram 1 5 0
W h i t e ' s a t t a ck l e f t n ot h i n g
to chance. He d i d n 't push the
k i n gs i d e p a w n s b e c a u s e i t i s a
good s t a nd ard method of
a t t a ck i n g t h e K i ng. I t w a s the
product of s ou n d pos i t i on a l
j u d gement and s t rategic
p l a n n i n g . H e l o ck e d t h e c e n t r e ,
cut off the queenside with a
chai n of pawns and o n ly then
b e g a n h i s k i n gs i d e p u s h a n d
a lw a y s w i t h t h e p i eces movi n g
u p t o c o n t r o l t h e t er r i t ory
c l ea r e d b y t h e p awn ro l l e r .

W h e t h er the centre is f l u i d
or f i rmly f i xed o r part ly
b l o c k e d , s e c u r i t y t h e r e a ga i n s t
a n y e n e my b r e a k t h r o u gh mu s t b e
e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e e m b a rk i n g o n
9 a xb 3 a maj o r a t t a ck .
1 0 a xb 3 Qb6
1 1 Nx f8 Kxf 8 O v e r t h e p a s t h u n dred y e ars
12 g 5 1 or so i d e a s a b o u t t h e c e n t r e
h a v e c h a n g e d . I t i s i mp o r t a n t
It costs a mere pawn t o open t o u n d e rs t a n d t h o s e c h a n g es a n d
u p t h e h -f i l e . t h e i r e f f e c t u po n c o n t emp o ra ry
vi ews. It i s t h i s matter we
12 hxgS s h a l l l o ok i n t o i n t h e n e xt
13 h xgS NxgS ch a p t e r .
1 4 Qh2 1

It i s a l l o ver a f t er t h i s
Qu e e n s w i t c h .

14 KgB

Preve n t i n g ma t e .

1 5 N xg S BxgS
1 6 f6

T h e f i n a l t hrus t .

16 g6

121
CHAPTER 1 2

A look into history

Once t h e paramount i mp ortance a nd the Queen, B l a ck r e s p o nds


of the centre had been wi t h ,
r e c o gn i s e d , m a i n ly t h r o u g h t h e
examp l e o f S t e i n i t z , t h e r e e5,
e m e r g e d c o n t e n d i n g t h eori es
about how t o contro l t h e b e c a u s e h e a c q u i r e s t h e s a me
centre . a d va n t a g e s , e q u a l i s i n g i n t h e
contro l of s pa c e a n d prevent i n g
D i agram 1 5 1 f u r t h er W h i t e e xp a n s i o n w i t h
e5. Al l t h i s wou l d b e f i n e i f
it wasn't for t h e fact that
B l a ck ' s e - p a w n t h e n i m m e d i a t e l y
b e come s a t a r g e t f o r a t t a ck .

I n t h e K i n g ' s G amb i t ,

2 f4,

i t i s a t t a ck e d s t r a i g h t a w a y ,
and if Black accepts the pawn,
W h i t e p l ays N f 3 a n d t h e n h opes
to t a k e a d v a n t a g e of h i s e xtra
central pawn. I f he doesn't
capture then t h e pawn i s u nder
s tres s , Nf3 w i l l crea t e more
a n d B l a ck w i l l h a v e t o con cern
h i ms e l f w i t h i t s s u p p o r t .

I n t h e G i u o c o Pi a n o ,
O n e o f t h e ma i n p r o b l e ms i n 2 Nf3,
c h e s s i s h ow t o a v o i d cre a t i n g
weaknes s e s ; h o w t o mak e good t h e B l a ck p a w n i s a g a i n u n d e r
m o ve s w h i c h i mp ro v e o n e ' s pres sure. White has an
pos i t i o n w i t h o u t o f f e r i n g i n i t i a t i v e a nd c o n s t a n t ly c a l ls
t a rgets f o r e n emy a t t a ck . t h e t u n e s o that aft e r ,
Wh e n Wh i t e p l ay s , 2 Nc6
3 Bc4 Bc5
e4, 4 c3,
c o n t ro l l i n g c e n t r a l s q u a r e s a n d the threat of d4 demands that
op e n i n g l i n e s for the B i s h o p B l a ck mak e a d e c i s i o n a b ou t h i s
1 22
e - p aw n a n d , s h ou l d h e e x c h a n g e A s i m i l a r v i ew cou l d be
pawn s , h e w o u l d a l l o w W h i t e taken of the Queens i d e
paw n s a t d 4 a n d e 4 : a c l a s s i c a l o p e n i ngs .
centr e .
Af t e r.,
Or, in the Ruy Lopez
d i ve r g i n g f r o m the above a t 1 d4,
move t h r e e
t h e s ymme t r i c a l r e p l y ,
3 BbS,
dS,
W h i t e a t t a ck s t h e d e f e n d e r o f
the e - p a w n t o begi n w i t h a n d g i ves a c l ear t arget in t h e
w i l l t h e n f o l l ow u p w i t h d i re ct c e n t r e f o r Wh i t e w h o c a n b e gi n
att a ck : c 3 a n d d 4. t o e xp l o i t i t i mme d i a t e ly w i t h ,

I n a l l t h i s W h i t e h as a 2 c4,
s i mp l e , s tra i ght forward
s t ra t e gy , h ow e v e r c o m p l e x t h e w h en a cceptance of t h e gambit
vari a t i o n s i n t h e s e o p e n i n gs w i l l a ga i n g i v e W h i t e t w o p a w n s
m i g h t b e , a n d t h a t s t r a t e gy i s t o o n e i n t h e centre a n d t h e
bas e d o n B l a ck 's p r o vi s i o n o f a p r o s p e c t o f a c l a s s i ca l c e n t r e
t arget a t e s . w i th pawns at e4 and d4.
D t h e rw i s e ,
B e ca u s e o f t h i s o t h er f i rs t
moves f o r B l a ck b e g a n t o b e 2 e6,
u s ed ,
d e f e n d i n g t h e p a w n , gi v e s W h i t e
e6, the s i mp l e s t rat egy of
d e ve l o p i n g i n t o t h e c e n t r e a n d
wh i ch i s t h e F r e n c h D ef en c e , i n cr e a s i n g p r e s s u r e o n d 5 :
givi n g W h i t e n o t h i n g t o b i t e o n
a t h i s s e c o n d mo v e . 3 Nc3 Nf6,

cs, defendi n g .

is t h e S i c i l i a n Defen c e w h i c h , 4 BgS ,
though o n ly a t t a ck i n g o n e
centr a l square, d4, leaves p i n n i n g t h e d ef e n d er, and so
W h i t e w i th t h e choi ce of on.
leaving the pawn a lone or
a t t a ck i n g i t s o o n e r o r l a t e r C o ns eq u e n t ly a w h o l e array
w i t h d 4 , w h e r e u p o n t h e e x ch a n g e of a ltern a t i ve d e f e n ces h a s
of p a w n s l e a v e s B l a ck w i t h t w o d e v e l oped f or B l ack. T h e D u t ch
pa w n s i n t h e c e n t r e f i l e s a n d D ef e n c e ,
Wh i t e o n ly o n e .
fS,
T h e n t h er e i s t h e C a r o - K a n n ,
w i t h s i m i l a r i d e a s to Th e
c6, S i c i l i an D e f e n ce i n t h e Ki n g ' s
Paw n o p e n i n g, i s o n e syst em,
w h i ch , l i k e t h e F r e n c h , l eaves or,
W h i t e w i t h o u t a n i m m ed i a t e a n d
c o n cr e t e t ar ge t . Nf6 ,
1 23
where B l a ck comm i t s n o p a w n s 2 eS NdS
a ny w h er e in t h e c e n t re a n d 3 c4 Nb6
fo l l ow s u p w i t h a f i a n c h e t t o o f 4 d4
the Ki n g ' s B i s h o p (t h e K i n g ' s
I n d i a n ) o r t h e Qu e e n ' s Bi s h o p B l a ck t h e n h o l ds u p t h e p a w n
(the Queen's I n d i a n ) or e6
• • . ru s h w i t h moves l i k e d6
• • •

and • • • B b 4 , p i n n i n g t h e Wh i t e and • • • e 6 , h o p i n g t h a t Wh ite


Kn i gh t i f W h i t e g o e s c 4 a n d N c 3 has o v e r -re a c h e d h i ms e l f so
(th e N i mz o - I n d i a n ) . t h a t h e c a n d e s t roy t h e c e n t re.
H o w e v e r , in t h i s c a s e , if W h i t e
All of t h ese, and oth ers d o es n ' t press t o o hard too
too, a r e d e s i gn e d to a vo i d q u i ck ly , B l a ck i s r e a l l y a s k i n g
offeri n g Wh i t e a t arget i n t h e t o o mu c h f r o m t h e c r a m p e d
centre and cons equ ent ly a p os i t i o n w h i c h res u l t s .
s i mp l e s t r a t e g i c a p p r o a c h t o
the openi n g . W h at c omes o u t o f a l l t h i s
i s t h e idea that occupyi n g
S o me o f t h e s e f i rst moves central squares i s not
f o r B l a c k a r e a n a t t e mp t t o necess ari ly t h e o n l y o r even
turn the tables, t o provoke t h e r i gh t w ay o f c o n t ro l l i n g
Wh i t e t o a p r e ma t u r e c o m m i t m e n t t h e c e n t r e . B l a ck h a v i n g , a s i t
of h i s pawns i n the centre and were, retreat ed f ro m the
so offeri n g B l a ck target s c e n t r e , l e a vi n g W h i t e e xp o s e d
th ere. C o n s i d e r t h e Fren ch w i t h h i s p a w n s c o mmi t t e d a t d 4
D ef e n c e , f o r e xa m p l e : or e4, was gaining the
p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d va n t a g e , a n d
1 e4 e6 th i s s i tu a t i o n g a v e ri s e t o the
2 d4 dS, t h e o r i e s of t h e h y p ermoderns.
Breyer, Ret i , Ni mzow i tsch and
a n d i t i s W h i t e ' s pawn w h i ch o t h e r s p u t f o rw a r d t h e v i e w
c om e s u n d e r a t t a ck . H e t e mp t s that the centre cou l d be
Wh i t e t o p u s h o n w i t h , c o n t ro l l e d a s e a s i ly f r o m a
d i s tance, that there was no
3 eS, n eed for W h i t e to o ccupy it
. w i t h paw n s 1 that i ndeed, if he
e s t a b l i s h i n g w h at a p p ea r s t o b e d i d h e w o u l d n o t o n l y be
a s t r o n g c e n t re a n d t h e n b e g i n s offeri n g t a rgets to Black but
t o u n d ermi n e i t , c h i p p i n g a w ay t h o s e pawns c lu t t eri n g the
at the bas e of W h i t e 's pawn centra l s q u ares wou l d o n ly
chain, d4, with cs, i n t erfere w i t h t h e freedom of
Nc6 , Qb 6 . t h e p i e c e s . And s o o c cu p a t i o n
of t h e centre was s hunned in
E ven more provoca t i ve i s a t h e ear ly s tages of t h e game
f i rs t m o v e f o r B l a ck a ga i n s t 1 and pawn advances t h ere
e4, p o s t p o n e d t o a m o r e p r o p i t i ou s
mome n t .
Nf6,
R i chard R e t i w a s o n e of the
w h i c h is Alek h i n e 's Defen c e , f o r e m o s t m e m b e r s o f t h i s s ch o o l
d e l i b era t e ly p r es e n t i n g W h i t e a n d h e w o n m a n y h i gh p r i z e s i n
with a movi ng target if h e i nt ern a t i o n a l t ou r n a m e n t s
w i shes to take up·
the t hrough out t h e n i n et een
ch a l l e n g e : t w e n t i e s a n d h e r e i s a n e xa mp l e
of h i m p l ayi ng a game whose
1 24
open i n g b e a r s h i s n a m e . I n a d va n c e d , c o m mi t t e d , B l a ck p a w n
Carls bad, 1 9 2 3 , R e t i (aga i n s t at d4 .
Ru b i n s t e i n ) p l ay s W h i t e .
5 d3 Bg7
1 Nf 3 6 b4

Th i s move, common enough W h i t e i n t e n ds t o f i a n c h e t t o


today, mu s t h a ve s e e m e d h i s Qu e e n ' s B i s h o p a n d s o w o u l d
s t ra n g e , s u r r e a l i s t i c p er h a p s , h av e t o m o ve h i s b - p a w n a ny w a y ,
when it f i rs t a pp e a r e d . I t i s but i n s t e a d o f a d va n c i n g i t t o
n ow k n o w n a s t h e R e t i O p e n i n g. b 3 h e g a i n s t i m e b y a t t a ck i n g
Th e Kn i g h t k e e p s a w a t ch f u l e y e c S , a s q u a re w h i c h B l a ck w i l l
on t w o c e n t r a l s q u a r e s b u t n e ed t o u s e f or t h e s u p p o rt o f
offers n o t a r g e t s . his d-pawn.

dS 6 0 0
7 Nbd2
B l a ck o c cu p i es t h e c e n t r e .
So t h a t h e c a n p l a y on to t h e
2 g3 t a r g e t by N b 3 .

The Bishop i s to be 7 cS
deve l o p e d a t g2, t u ck e d i n
s af e l y b e h i n d i t s o w n p a w n s . Di agram 1 5 2
rea dy t o w a t c h t h e c e n t r e , f r o m
a distance.

2 Nf6
3 Bg2 g6

Th ere is a t ou c h of t h e
hypermod e r n i n f l u e n c e a b o u t
Ru b i n s t e i n ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e
open i n g t o o , a l t h o u g h h e d o e s
be long t o a n ea r l i er
genera t i o n .

4 c4

B l a ck h a s o f f e r e d a t a r g e t
in the centre at dS and s o
W h i t e a t t a ck s i t . I f B l a c k
ta k e s W h i t e h a s t w o p a w n s
aga i n s t o n e i n t h e m i d d l e f i l es
as w e l l a s g a i n i n g c l e a ra n c e o f Wh i t e c ou l d t ake t h e c- pawn
the l ong l ig h t d i agonal for t h e i f h e w i s h e d , th o u gh h ard l y
us e of h i s B i s h op a t g2. h o l d o n t o i t , b u t i n a ny c a s e
it i s the pawn in the centre,
4 d4 the d-pawn, that he is
i nt eres ted i n. I f h e does
Avo i d i n g t h e e x c h a n g e b u t c a p t u r e B l a ck w o u l d r e p l y ,
open i n g t h e d i a g o n a l a l l t h e N c 6 , p r o t e ct i n g t h e d - p awn .
same. 4 . . . c 6 w a s b et t e r. N o w
White has a f i ne t arget : a n 8 Nb3
125
Now t h e c-pawn i s rea l ly D i a gr am 1 5 3
threatened • • • •b6 is no good
b e c a u s e i t e xp o s e s h i s R o ok t o
the Bishop on the long
d i agona l , masked o n ly by t h e
Kn i g h t a t f 3 • Nc6 wou l d b e
• • •

n o good e i th er b e cau s e o f b 5
a n d s o h e mu s t f i r s t t a k e t h e
b - p awn .

B cxb4
9 Bb2

A n d n ow t h e d-pawn is
a t t a ck e d t h r i c e .

9 Nc6
1 0 Nbxd4 N xd 4
1 1 Bxd4

S u c c e s s . B l a ck ' s adva n ced


centre d i s app ears a n d t h e W h i t e The hypermoderns brought a
p aw n s a t e 2 a n d d 3 , w a i t i n g i n h ea lthy breath of fresh air
r e s e r v e , c a n c o m e ou t w h e n e v e r i nto a chess world that was
t h ey w i s h a n d o c cupy t h e becomi ng s t ereotyped. To them
cent r e . openi ngs, as w e have seen i n
this game, w e r e n o t t o be
11 b6 p l a y e d as a s t o c k s e r i e s of
1 2 a3 Bb7 moves based on h i storical
13 Bb2 a cceptance, b u t t o b e treated
1 i k e a ny o t h er p a rt o f t h e game
B l a ck was threa t e n i n g a n d p l ay e d to a p l a n i n w h i ch
Bxf3 and Qx d 4 . e v e ry m o ve w a s t o b e c o n s i d e red
o n i t s m e r i t s a n d a c c e p t e d or
13 bxa3 r e j e c t e d a c c o rd i n g t o h ow w e l l
1 4 Rxa3 Qc7 i t a s s i s t e d t h e a d v a n c e m e n t of
15 Q a 1 1 t h a t s c h e m e , I n a s e n s e t h ey
were s ay i n g as you would
d e t e c t i f y o u w er e t o p l ay o ver
t h e o p e n i n g m o v e s a ga i n - t h a t
t h e m i d d l e g a m e b e gi n s o n m o v e
o n e a n d pos i t i o n a l t h i n k i n g is
vi t a l f ro m t h e o u t s e t .

On t h e w h o l e W h i t e h a s t h e
b etter p o s i t i o n because o f the
p a w n s o n t h e c e n t ra l f i l e s
w h i ch can now be u s ed to
contro l and i ndeed occupy the
c e n t r e . T h e y h a v e b e e n· h e 1 d i n
reserve a n d are n o w ready t o
a s s um e t h e i r proper d u t y . I t
wou l d s eem, then, that the
controversy i s n o t b et ween
1 26
o ccupa t i o n , o n t h e o n e h a n d, 19 d4
a n d r e m o t e c o n t r. o 1 o f t h e
cen t r e o n t h e o t h e r , b u t t h e T i me t o o c cu py t h e c e n t r e .
t i mi n g o f t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . T o o
ear ly , t o o h a s t i l y , a n d i t w i l l 19 Be4
be t h e e n emy r es e r v e s t h a t w i l l 2 0 'R d 1 as
wi n t h e d a y 1 p r o v i d e d , t h a t i s ,
one is not over-r u n at t h e T h e p a s s e d p a w n i s B l a ck 's
firs t c h a r g e . o n ly a s s e t b u t i t i s h a rd t o
mak e i t effect i ve aga i n s t the
Nor i s th ere a nyth ing h e a vy p i e c e s w h i c h o p p o s e i t .
h a c � n e y e d a b o u t W h i t e ' s Qu e e n Th i s a d v a n c e l e a ve s t h e b - p a w n
m o ve. N o rma l ly t h e l as t p l a c e b a ck w a r d a n d c r e a t e s a h o l e a t
t o p u t a Qu e e n wou l d b e i n a bS.
c o r n er, b u t i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i t
s l i p s i n b e a u t i f u l ly b eh i n d t h e 21 d5 NcS
R o ok a n d B i s h o p f ormi n g a Q u e e n 22 Nd4
and Bi s h o p b a t t e ry d o w n t h e
l o n g d i ag o n a l i n t o t h e k i n gs i d e A n o t h e r h o l e a p p e a rs a t c6
and a Rook and Que e n ram d o w n a n d t h e K n i gh t h e a d s f o r i t .
the a-fi le into the q u eensi de.
It i s m o s t o r i g i n a l a n d 22 B xg 2
effect i v e . 23 Kxg2 Rfd8
24 Nc6 Rd6
From t h e p o i n t of v i ew o f 25 Re3 Re8
t h i s g l i mp s e i n t o h i s t o ry , t h e 26 QeS
m a i n i n t erest o f t h e g a m e i s
over a n d s o t h e r e s t i s g i v e n T h e Q u e e n ' s e n t ry i n t o t h e
w i t h b r i e f a n n o t at i o n s . c e n t r e i s des i g n e d t o provok e
f u r t h er w e a k e n i n g p aw n move s .
15 Ne8
26 f6
R u b i ns t e i n d e c i d es t h a t t h e
Qu e e n a n d B i s h o p b a t t e ry i s t o o O t h erw i s e 2 6 Rd7 27
s t ro n g t o b e l e f t i n t a c t . Qxc7 Rxc7 2 8 Rb1 Na4 2 9 Ra3
a n d t h e b - p aw n f a l l s .
1 6 Bxg7 Nxg7
17 0 - 0 2 7 Qb2 eS

At l a s t , a n d t h e f a c t t h a t B l a c k g i ves h i ms e l f more
he has been ab l e t o leave the room and deni es e6 to a White
King in the m i d d l e of the board p i ece, but now W h i t e has a
for so l o n g is proof t h a t Wh i t e s u p po r t e d p as s e d p a w n a t d 5 a n d
has had the centre u nder h i s K n i gh t o u t p o s t i s s e cu re .
c o n t r o l t h r o u gh o u t . N o t 1 7 R x a 7
Rxa7 1 8 Q x a 7 b e c a u s e of 1 8 28 QbS Kf 7
RaB. 2 9 Rb1 Nd7

Bl ack just manages to hold


17 Ne6 o n e a ch t i me a ga i n s t t h e W h i t e
1 8 Rb1 Bc6 threat s .
T h e a - p aw n n ow n e e d s d i re c t 30 f 3 Rc8
p r ot e ct i o n . 3 1 Rd3
1 27
B l a ck w a s t h r e a t e n i n g t o D i a g ram 1 5 4
s i mp l i f y b y . • •Nbe, which
wou l d h ave s o l ved most o f h i s
p r o b l e ms , b u t n o w i t w o u l d b e
m e t by 3 2 c 5 ! B l a ck , fru s t r a t e d
by t h i s cramped p os i t i o n ,
o f f ers a p awn f o r f r e e d o m .

31 e4
32 fxe4 Ne5
3 3 Q xb 6 ! Nxc6
34 c5 1

Not 34 d xc6 because of


34 Rxc6, and Black's
p r o b l ems e v a p o r a t e.

34 Rd7
3 5 d xc 6 Rxd3
36 Qxc7ch Rxc7
3 7 e xd 3 Rxc6
Th e rem a i n i n g m o v e s w e r e :
W h i t e h a s i n i t i at ed the 39 Ra6 40 R b 6 Rae 41
s i mp l i f i c a t i o n t o h i s own Rxf6 a4 42 Rf2 a3 4 3 Ra2
advantage . Kd 7 44 d5 g5 45 Kf3 Ra4
46 K e 3 h5 47 h4 gxh4
3e Rb 7ch Kee 4e g x h 4 Ke7 49 Kf4 Kd7
39 d4 50 Kf5 a n d Black then did
res i g n .
A d e l i gh t f u l v i n d i c a t i o n o f
t h e w h o l e W h i t e s t ra t e gy i n N e xt w e s e e C a p a b l a n c a u s i n g
t h i s game. Havi n g refra i ne d the Ret i Open i n g a n d i n his
from enteri n g the centre h a nds , a s o n e wou l d e x p e c t , the
t h ro u gh o u t t h e o p e n i n g h e n ow i d e a s a r e s i m p l e a n d l u c i d . Of
h a s a p e rf e c t c l a s s i ca l c e n t r e c o u r s e, by 1 9 2 9 , w h e n t h i s ga me
w i t h p aw n s a t e 4 a n d d 4 . w a s p l ay e d i n Barce l o n a , the
o p e n i n g s y s t em a n d h y p e r m o d ern
Rub i ns t e i n s h ou l d have i d e a s w e r e b e i n g a b s o r b e d by
res i gned, b u t perhaps h i s m o s t o f t h e p r a c t i s i n g m a s t ers.
disbelief i n what h a d happened Capab l a n c a i s wh i t e.
made h i m f or g e t t h a t i t w a s a
p os s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . 1 Nf3 Nf6

N a t u ra l ly , by t h i s t i m e,
B l a c k a l s o l o o k e d o n c e n t ra l
o c cu p a t i o n w i t h s u s p i c i o n .

2 c4 g6
3 b3

The fi anchetto of the


Qu e e n ' s B i s h o p f i rs t w a s a
f avourite t reatment of
C a p a b l a n c a 's , a i m i n g s t r a i gh t
1 2e
d ow n t h e d i a g o n a l a n d i n t o t h e o p en i n gs i n w h i ch b o t h s i d e s
B l a ck King's pos i t i on. I t has a f i r s t a d va n c e t h e c e n t r a l p a w n s
s i mp l i c i t y a n d d i r e c t n e s s t h a t and then contrive to defend
natura l l y a p p e a l e d t o h i m. t h e m a s t h e y c o m e u n d e r a t t a ck .

3 Bg7 B d4
4 Bb2 0 - 0
5 g3 d6 A n d a s s o o n a s B l a ck a r r i v e s
t h e r e W h i t e is r e a d y to a t t a ck
Pr o b a b l y b e t t e r i s 5 c5 h im .
but B l a ck w i s h es to p l ay e5
and s o s t r e n g t h e n s t h a t s q u a r e B Nd 7
with t h i s a n d h i s n e xt mo v e .
H a v i n g s p e n t s o mu c h t i m e
6 Bg2 Nc6 p r e p ar i n g e 5 a s a s t r o n g p o i n t ,
7 0 - 0 h e i s l o a t h t o g i ve i t u p a s h e
w ou l d be d oi n g if he tried th e
A f t e r s i x B l a ck m o v e s a n d more a g g r es s i v e e4.
s even W h i t e o n e s t h e c e n t r e i s
s t i l l v i r g i n t e rri t o ry . 9 dxe5

7 e5 P l ayed s o that he can


c o n t i n u e w i t h s i mp i e
B l a ck i s t h e f i rs t t o e n t e r . d eve l o p m e n t . N c 3 a n d s o o n .

Di a g r a m 1 5 5 9 Ndxe5
1 0 Nc3 ReB
1 1 Nxe5 Nxe5

B y t h e s e e x c h a n ge s
C a p a b l a n c a a v o i d s c o mp l e x i t y
a n d g r a d u a l l y i n c r e as es t h e
s co p e o f h i s p i e c e s . Not i c e h ow
the long l ight d iagona l i s
c l eared o f p i eces a n d the long
d a rk o n e o f p aw n s .

1 2 Qd2

S i mp l e b u t e ff e c t i ve. W i th
t h i s h e i mp r o ve s t h e p os i t i o n
of h i s Queen, protects the
B i s h o p a g a i n s t s u rpr i s es o n t h e
d i a g o n a l a n d c l e a rs t h e b a ck
r a n k f o r t h e u s e o f t h e R o ok s .

It i s i nteresting to W h i t e h as been a b l e to
o n s i d e r h o w B l a ck h a s p r e p a r e d c o mp l e t e h i s d e ve l o pm e n t w i t h
or t h i s b y b r i n g i n g p a w n s a n d e a s e. B l a ck h as a prob l e m w i t h
ieces to bear o n e 5 b- efore h i s Qu e e n ' s B i s h o p a n d h e w i l l
o v i n g h i s p a w n t h e r e � This h ave t o p l ay t o protect h i s b ­
ainstak i n g pre p a r a t i o n b e f o r e p a w n , p erh a p s w i t h RbB,
ommi t t i n g p a w n s i n t h e c e n t r e b efore i t c a n b e b rough t out.
ontra s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h o s e B l a ck . h o w e ve r , i s m o me n t a r i l y
1 29
d i v e r t e d f r o m t h e ma i n p u r p o s e A q u i e t l i t t l e m o v e d e ny i n 1
of d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c e n t r a l t h e u s e o f g 4 t o B l a c k ' s B i s h o�
c o ntro l a n d i s t e mp t e d t o l ay a a n d K n i g h t a s w e l l a s p re p ari n1
tra p , b u t a s s o o f t e n h a p p e n s f o r a l a t e r a d v a n c e o n the
w h e n t h e e n e my f a i l s t o f a l l k i n gs i d e .
i n t o i t , i t s i mp l y w a s t e s t i m e .
14 Bd7
12 as 1 5 NdS

D i agram 1 5 6 W h i t e ' s p l a n is s i m p l e anc


s o o n r e v e a l e d . T h e Kn i gh t a i m�
a t t h e d a r k s q u a r e s i n t he
e n e my p o s i t i o n , p a rt i c u l a r l y e i
a n d f 6 , He t h e n i n t e n d s t c
d r i v e a w a y t h e c e n t r a l K n i gh t
a n d e x c h a n g e t h e d a r k - s q u a rec
B i s h o p s . T h e Qu e e n w i l l t h e r
assume t h es e d u t i es o n the a 1
hB d i ago n a l fro m wh i ch the
B l a ck K i n g ' s b es t d e f e n d e r , t he
B i s h o p o n g 7 , h a s b e e n removed,
a n d B l a c k w i l l be u n a b l e t c
a ch i e v e a b a l a n c e w i t h h i s ow n
Q u e e n o n t h at l i n e b e c a u s e of
t h e W h i t e Kn i g h t c o n t r o l l i n g
f6. Bl ack 's i rre l evant
sk i rmi s h , a 4 , mea n s that
a l l t h i s i s a c c o mp l i s h e d w i t h
t e mpo for n ow t h e s t ray pawn i s
en prise.
Th e i dea i s t o con t i nu e
with . . . a 4 a n d i f t h e n 1 4 Nxa4 15 b6
t h er e w o u l d f o l l ow 1 4 , , , N x c 4 ! 1 6 f4 Nc6
s evere ly d i srupt i n g Wh i t e 's 1 7 Bxg7 Kxg7
q_u e e n s i d e . 1 8 Qb2ch f6

W h i t e c a rr i es o n w i t h n orma l F orced .
d e ve l o pme n t ,
1 9 g4 1
13 Rac1 ,
T h e p l a n h a s s u c c e e d e d.
i n c i d e n t a l ly p r e ve n t i n g B l a ck W h i t e t h re a t e n s to p i l e up on
from spri ngi ng h i s trap, t h e p i n n e d p a w n a t f 6 a n d B l a ck
for , , , N x c 4 w o u l d t h e n b e can o n l y try t o redu ce the
answered by recapturi n g w i t h f o r c e s a t t a ck i n g i t .
t h e R o ok i n s t ea d o f t h e b - p awn .
19 Nb4
13 RbB 20 g S N xd S
21 cxdS
B l a ck r e t u r n s to t h e m a i n
t h em e , bu t he has w a s t e d a B e t t er t h a n c a p t u r i n g w i th
mo ve . t h e B i s h o p for n o w t h e c-fi le
i s h a l f o p e n a n d B l a ck ' s c - p a w n
14 h3 rendered b a ck w a r d . W h i t e now
1 30
has t argets o n b o t h s i des of w i t h t h e Qu e e n a t h 6 a n d t h e
th eboard . R o ok a t c 7 1 or, s i mp l y , 2 8 Qc3 '
enteri n g the s eventh rank
e x c h � n g i .n g t h e Q u e e n s a n d

21 Rea
22 e4 c6 w i n n i g Vfl t h t h e p as s e d pawn s .
A brave a t t e mpt t o r i d 28 Qd4
h l" ms e l f of � h e w e a k n e s s q u 1. ck l y
f o r- o t h e rw i s e h i s p \ · eces w i l l D i a gram 158

u na b l e t o a s � i· s t o n t h e
b ecome t i" ed d ow n t o s defen c e . ,
- �
/L
and be
ot h e r w i n g. ,,

2 3 d xc6 Rxc6
24 gxf 6ch

28 Bf5

Dr 2 8 " " B e 6 2 9 R c 6 R d 8
3 D Qf4 Rd 1 ch 3 1 Kf2 a nd
B l a c k r u n n i· n g o u t � f s t e a m ,

w i l l b � �n a b l e t o o p e w i t h
·

Qh 6. I 1 QfB then 3 2
Rc7ch, etc .
2 9 B d 5 ch Kf B
3 D Qf 4 Rxe5
3 1 Q h 6 ch Ke8
2 5 e5 Rxc1 32 f 7ch R es i g n s .
26 Rxc1 dxe5
2 7 fxe5 QbB B l a ck h a; o n l y 3 2 • • • K e 7 a n d
t h e n wou l d a l l ow :
J-
No better is 2 7 • • Be6.
W h i t e w o� d t h e n h a•v e t h e 3 3 R c 7ch Bd 7 ( t h e Qu�en cannot
ch o i c e o f Rc6 fo l l o� ed b y 2 9 capture becau s e o f8 =Qc h ,
Qc1 w i t h t h r e a t s o f i n va d i n g etc. J
131
34 fB =Qch Qxf B 35 Rxd7ch and va l i d i ty of a n y met h o d l i es i n
B l a c k wi l l l o s e h i s Qu e e n . t h e s ou n d n e s s o f t h e v a r i a t i ons
w h i ch e ns u e.
D o e s w h a t w e h av e d i s cu s s e d
i n t h i s chapter demon s t ra t e I t i s t r u e t h at p aw n s and
t h a t o c c u p a t i o n of t h e c e n t re p i e c e s i n t h e c e n t r e i mp e d e
i s now to be regarded as o n e ' s o w n f or c e s ; t h a t p aw n s i n
u ntenable? That the middle of t h e mi d d l e o f f e r t a r ge t s t o t h e
t h e b o a r d mus t r e ma i n a n e m p t y e n e my , b u t i t i s e q u a l l y t r u e
waste land u nder the b a l efu l t h a t t h o s e s a m e p a w n s h a mp e r
eyes o f w a t ch ers o n t h e f l a n k s 7 e n emy m o vem e n t s , i n t e rru p t h i s
T h a t t h e c l a s s i c a l c e n t re w i t h l i nes of commu n i ca t i on , and
p a w n s a t d 4 a n d e4 s p e l l t h a t p i e c e s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e re
d i s a s t e r f o r t h e p o s s e s s or ? gain strength from their
Shou l d w e agree w i t h Breyer gre a t e r command o f s p a c e and
that " . • • a f t e r 1 e4 W h i t e ' s t h e i r a b i l i t y to move r a p i d ly
pos i t i o n is in the last t o p o i n t s a n y w h e r e o n t h e b o ard
t h ro e s ? " w h e r e t h e y m a y b e r e q u i r ed
w h e t h e r f o r a t t a ck or d e f e n ce.
T h e a n s w e r i s a n e mp h a t i c It is n o t a p er f e c t w o r l d a n d
no. t h e r e a r e n o s i m p l e a n s w e rs .
Chess i s a m a t t e r i n t h e e n d of
T h e p o i n t we h ave t o make i n j udgement and balance,
th i s chapter i s that occupat i o n s t r e n g t h s mu s t b e b a l a n ced
o f t h e c e n t re i s n o t t h e o n ly a g a i n s t w e a k n e s s e s 1 o n e mu s t
mea n s o f contro l l i n g i t . Th e w e i gh t h e pros a n d co n s , make a
h y permodern i d e a s h a v e n o w j u d gement and decide on a
become a b s orbed i n t o o u r s t r a t e gy , w ar t s a n d a l l .
t h i nk i ng, e nri c h i n g our own
i d e a s , b u t t h e modern S o m e w h ere between the
c h e s s p l ay e r h as n o t t h r o w n o u t t e n t a t i ve a pproach t o th e
t h e b a by w i t h t h e b a t h wa t e r . c e n t r e w h i c h a l l o w s t h e e n emy
t o o v e r - r u n y o u as s o o n as a n
W h a t h as e m e r g e d i s t h a t t h e a t t a ck b e g i n s a n d t h e p rema t ure
centre i s s t i l l p aramou n t and c o m m i t m e n t of y o u r o w n c e n t r e
t �e s t r u g g l e t o a c h i e v e a t is t h e r e g i o n i n w h i ch t h os e
l e a s t e q u a l i t y t h e r e mu s t b e d e c i s i o n s mu s t b e mad e .
e v ery p l a y e r ' s f i r s t
cons i d e ra t i o n. W h e t h e r or n o t C l a s s i c a l a n d H y p e r m o d e rn
h e o cc u p i es i t , o r o c cu p i e s i t centres are equ a l ly valid.
w i t h pi eces o r p a wn s , d ep e n d s H y p ermo d e r n t h e o ry h as m o d i f i ed
e n t i re l y on t h e c h a n g i n g o u r approach t o t h e c l a s s i cal
s i tu a t i on. W h i t e can s ti l l p l a y c e n t re, n ot d em o l i s h e d i t . In
e4 or d4 a n d B l a ck r e p l y i n t h e age of p ra g ma t i s m the
k i n d , a s t h ey s t i l l f r eq u e n t l y c h e s s p 1 a y e r t o d a y a p p r o a c h es
d o 1 b u t when t h e centre i s a n y t h e ory w i t h t h e q u es t i o n,
o c cu p i e d t o d a y i t i s w i t h d o e s i t w o rk ? I f i t d o e s , h e
greater a w a re n e s s t h a t a n y u s e s i t , i f n o t h e d i s ca r d s i t .
t a r g e t s o f f e r e d mu s t b e c a p a b l e
of a d e q u a t e d e f e n ce. It is no
longer a q u e s t i o n o f whether t o
o c cu py o r n o t b u t t o c o n t r o l by
t h e means bes t s u i t ed t o t h e
occas i on. Th e proof of the
1 32
FIVE
CHAPTER 13

Restriction

As p a w n s m o v e f o r w a r d s p a c e 4 g3 Bb7
decreas e s i n f r o n t o f t h e m a n d
more a p p e a r s b e h i n d . P r o v i d e d Today Ba6 is a system
• • •

other fa ctors are equa l , h o l es oft e n p l ayed a ga i ns t W h i t e ' s


a n d o t h e r s t ru c t u r a l w e ak n e s s es comi ng f i a n ch e t t o, a i m i n g t o
do not appear, v i t a l fi l es a n d prof i t o n a d i agon a l , a6 - f 1 ,
d i a go n a l s a r e n o t l e f t a s w h i ch i s a b o u t t o b e a b a n d oned
h i gh w a y s f o r o p p o s i n g p i e ce s t o b y Wh i t e .
pour i n b e h i nd t h e p a w n s , t h e n
th e a d va n c e o f t h e p a w n s gra n t s 5 Bg2 Bb4ch
m ore t e r r i t o ry t o t h e i r o w n e r 6 Bd2 Bxd 2 ch
and d e n i e s i t t o t h e e n e my . 7 Qxd2 d6
Thus t h e process o f restr i ct i o n 8 0 - 0 Nbd7
begi n s . W e s h a l l s e e h o w i t 9 Qc2
cont i n u es as w e l o ok through
examp l e s . W h i t e a i ms at central
c o n t ro l by o c cu p a t i o n w i t h N c 3
Res h e vs k y S i r G e o r g e T h oma s a n d e4 t o f o l l ow . P a s s i v e p l a y
H a s t i n gs , 1 9 3 8 o n B l a ck ' s p a rt w i l l a l l ow h i s
p o s i t i o n t o b e o v e r - ru n .
1 d4 Nf6
2 c4 e6 9 Qc8?
3 Nf3 b6
P r o mp t e d by t h e d e s i r e to
T h e Qu e e n ' s I n d i a n Def e n c e . protect h i s B i s h op agai n s t
Th e i d e a i s t o c o n t r o l t h e l o n g s u r pr i s es o n t h e l o n g d i ag o n a l ,
light di agonal i nto the b u t h e w a s a l ready s h ort of
oppos i n g k i n gs i d e a n d , t h r o u g h room for movement and cou l d
the u s e of t h e Qu e e n ' s B i s h o p i l l -a f f or d t o c l u t t e r h i s ow n
and t h e K i n g ' s K n i gh t , t o f i rs t r a n k w i t h h i s Qu een.
a t t a c k e 4 , a c e n t r a 1 s q u a r.e i n Better was Qe7.
t h e W h i t e h a l f o f t h e b o a rd .
Natura l l y i t w a s a popu l a r 1 0 Nc3 0 0
d e f e n c e a m o n g t h e h y p er m o d e r n s . 1 1 e4

135
D i a g ram 1 5 9 D i a g ram 1 6 D

On e obj ect i ve of t h e remot e B l a ck h a s a ch i eved l i t t l e i n


control of the centre is to the l a s t few moves w h ereas
avoi d obstruct i o n o f o n e 's own W h i t e has s t rengthened h i s
pieces and genera l ly to pos i t i on cons i derably. The
i ncrease f l exi b i l i t y o f curve of h i s p a w n s from a2 to
mov eme n t . I n t h i s B l a ck h a s h 2 i s s t r i k i n g l y s y m m e t r i cal
f a i l e d d i s ma l ly . H i s K n i gh t s and beh i n d those pawns a deep
h av e l i t t l e r o o m f or m a n o e u v r e , a nd w i d e s p a c e h a s b e e n c r ea t ed
h i s Rooks are d i s connected for t h e coordi nat i o n of his
beca u s e o f t h e poor p l a c i n g o f p i eces .
h i s Qu e e n a n d i n h i s c r a m p e d B l a ck ' s a d v a n c e h a s b e e n
q u arters h e a t t e mp t s l i t t l e res t r i c t e d t o h i s t h i rd rank
more t h a n w a i t i n g m o v e s , h o p i n g and t h e s p a c e b e h i n d h i s p awns
f or W h i t e t o a l low h i m more i s patchy a n d broken so that it
f r-e e d o m S p a c e , h o w e v e r , i s
• i s i mp o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o bri n g
j u s t t h e t h i n g t h a t R e s h evs k y h i s pi eces together and combine
i ntends to deny h i m a n d wh i l s t f or s ome u s ef u l purpos e.
B l a ck c a s t s t e n t a t i v e ly a r o u n d Fru s t r a t e d , B l a ck s t r i k e s out
W h i t e s t e a d i l y i mp r o v e s h i s w i l d ly , only to create
pos i t i o n . perma n e n t weak n es s es o n t h e
k i n gs i d e . T h i s i s a c o m m o n
11 a6 reaction to a p o l i cy of
12 Rf e 1 h6 res t ri ct i on. It acts on the
13 b3 Nh 7 d e f e n d e r ' s n e rv e s a n d creates
14 Rad 1 RbB p s yc h o l ogi ca l t en s i ons wh ich
15 Nh4 QdB c a n b e as d e s t r u c t i v e a s
16 f4 a ny t h i n g w h i c h i s h a pp e n i n g o n
t h e b oa r d .

16 gS
1 7 fxgS hxgS
1 8 Nf3 Qf6
Th e k i n gs i d e n e e d s s u p p o r t B l a ck c h o os e s t o a d va n c e t h e
and h e h op e s t o g en er a t e s o me p a w n f o r protecton rather t h an
a c t i v i t y f o r h i ms e l f . A t l e a s t e x c h a n g e p i e c e s . E . g. ,
h e h as m o r e f r e e d o m . 21 • • •Bxe4 22 Qxe4 (this
c e n t r a l i � a t i o n i s s t r o n g. W h i t e
1 9 e5 ! n ow t h r e a t e n s p a w n s w i t h Q c 6 )
R f c B ( t ry i n g t o p l u g t h e l e a k )
By o p e n i n g u p t h e d i a g o n a l s 2 3 h 4 ! f orci ng o p e n t h e h - f i l e
wh i ch c ro s s on e4 - h ow i n t o w h i c h h e c a n s w i t c h R o ok s
i mp o rt a n t t h a t s q u a r e t u r n s o u t a f t er K f 2.
to b e a n d h o w n e g l e c t e d by
Bl ack i n s p i t e of e a r ly g o od T h i s i d e a m a k e s a p o w e rf u l
i ntent i on s White obtains poi nt about how vital the
ac t i o n o n b o t h w i n g s . The c e n tre i s. T h e Queen l ands on
peri o d o f q u i e t e xp a n s i o n f o r e4, threatens th e queens i d e,
his p a w n s i s o v e r a n d t h ey n ow d r a w s a d e f e n d i n g R o ok a w a y
serve t o probe t h e o p p os i n g f r o m t h e k i n gs i d e a n d t h e n
pawn s t r u c t u re a n d o p e n t h e W h i t e i mmediately turns h i s
lines f o r h i s p i eces. att ent i on to a tota l ly
d i fferent area, t h e h - f i le.
19 Qh6 There can be no better
d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e e f f i c a cy
He r i ght ly avoids pawn o f c e n t ra l c o n t r o l .
exch a n g e s w h i ch w o u l d o n l y g i v e
more s c o p e t o t h e b e t t e r p l a c e d T o r e t u rn to the game
W h i t e p i eces and s eeks a n p os i t i o n o f d i a g ram 1 6 1 .
attack a l o n g t h e h - fi l e .

2 0 e xd 6 c xd 6 21 d5
2 1 Ne4 2 2 Nd6

T h e K n i g h t n ow a t t a c k s t h e P r o b e s h av e l e a d t o b re a c h es
weak e n e d d - p aw n . and now th e pi eces fi lter
t h ro u g h .
D i a g ram 1 6 1
22 BaB
23 Ne5 Nxe5

I f 23 RbdB t h en 24 cxd5
• • .

a n d t h e Qu e e n e n t er s vi a c 7 .

If 23 Nhf6 24 cxd5 exd5


• . •

2 5 N x d 7 N x d 7 t h e Qu e e n e n t e r s
a t c 7 a ga i n a n d t h e R o ok a t e 7 .

24 dxe5

T h e Kn i gh t i s n ow a w e l l
s u p p o r t e d o u t p os t 1

24 dxc4
2 5 Qxc4 Bxg2
2 6 K x g2 f5 1 ?

137
Rather than death by S �mi s c h N i m z ow i t s c h
s tr a n gu l a t i o n B l a ck f i gh t s f o r Copen h age n , 1 9 2 3
fre e d o m b u t h i s p o s i t i o n i s n o w
t oo c o m p r o mi s ed f o r t h i s t o 1 d4 Nf6
work . 2 c4 e6
3 Nf3 b6
2 7 exf6 e . p . Rxf6
28 Nf5 1 T h e Qu e e n ' s I n d i a n , as in
t h e p r e v i o u s game .
B l a ck w a s h o p i n g t o d o u b l e
h i s Rooks on the f-fi l e but 4 g3 Bb7
t h i s s h a rp i n t erve n t i o n c r o s s es 5 Bg2 Be7
his plan and hastens th e end. 6 Nc3 0 0
Of course t h e e - pawn cannot be 7 0 -
0 d5
defended n o w s i n c e t h e B l a ck
Q u e en i s forced a w ay and Th i s w a s i n t h e e a r l y d ays
Qg6 fai l s t o N e 7ch. of the openi ng. 7 Ne4 w o u l d
b e p r e f erre d t o d a y .
28 Rxf 5
29 Rxe6 8 Ne5 c6
9 cxd5
Wh erever t h e Q u e e n goes i t
w i l l fa l l t o a d i s covered D i agram 1 6 2
c h eck .

29 Rf2ch

I n s t e a d o f res i gn i n g .

3 0 Kxf2 Qxh 2 c h
3 1 Kf3 R es i gn s .

31 Rf8ch is met by
32 Rf6 dis ch and 31 Qh5ch
by 32 Kg2.

In this game W h i te's pawns


curt a i l e d B l a ck 's fre e d o m ,
probed at t h e oppos i n g pawn
s tructure u n t i l h o l e s appeared
f or t h e i n f i l t ra t i o n of m i n or
p i eces a n d f i n a l ly ri pped o p e n
t h e c e n t re f or t h e tri u m p h a n t
e n t r y o f t h e maj o r o n e s .
Stronger i s 9 e4 and i f
T h e c l as s i c cas e of t h i s B l a ck g o es i n for t h e w i n o f a
k i n d was produced by t h e h i gh pawn by 9 • . •d x c4 1 0 Nxc4
p r i e s t o f r e s t r i c t i o n h i ms e l f , Ba6 1 1 b3 b5 1 2 Ne3 b4
N i mzowi t s c h . 1 3 Ne2 Bxe2 1 4 Qxe2 Qxd4,
W h i t e has 1 5 Bb2 w i t h f i n e open
l i nes for h i s pieces, control
of t h e centre a n d a u s eful
t a r g e t i n t h e w e a k p aw n a t c 6 .

138
9 cxdS 16 fS
1 0 Bf4 a6
Black has made space for
A t t h e m o m e n t i t w o u l d s e em h i ms e l f o n t h e q u eens i de,
t h a t W h i t e h a s at l e a s t as m u c h s ecured the centre and now
s p a c e u n d e r c o n t r o l a s B l a ck , b e gi n s t o e xp a n d o n t h e K i n g ' s
but now Black gradu a l ly wing.
e n cro a c h es , e a ch m o v e n i b b l i n g
away a t t erri t ory, a n d W h i t e , 17 Qd1
without mak i n g any gross
errors , i s pu s h e d b a c k . Ad mi t t i n g t h at h i s twe lfth
m o v e w a s a w a s t e o f t i m e , bu t
1 1 Rc1 bS t h e t ext i s more a ggres s i ve
1 2 Qb3 t h a n it looks becau s e he n ow
t h r e a t e n s e 4 , w i t h a d i s covered
A poor move because i t a t t a c k o n t h e l o o s e Kn i gh t a t
does n ' t re a l l y i mprove t h e t h e edge of the board a n d a
s c ope o f t h e Qu e e n i n s p i t e o f chance to break u p Black's
its adva n c e a n d t h e n e e d t o centre or c l o s e i t u p
c l e a r t h e b a ck r a n k f o r t h e u s e c o mp l e t e ly w i t h e S .
of t h e Rook s . Wh i t e 's pa c e o f
d e v e l o p m e n t i s s a t i s f a c t o ry i 17 b4
h i s pr o b l e m i s t h a t h e h a s n o t
comp et ed f o r t h e c e n t re a n d n ow E n c r o a ch i n g ag a i n a n d a f t e r ,
h a s d i f f i cu l t y i n f i n d i n g g o o d
places for h i s p i eces. H i s 1 8 Nb 1 ,
Kn i gh t a t e S l o o k s g o o d b u t i t
i s a n i l lu s i on f o r i t w i l l s oon w e f i n d t h a t a l l W h i t e ' s p i eces
be exch a n ge d or d r i ve n o f f , h a v e b e e n d r i v e n b a c k to h i s
whereas B l ack 's grip on e4, f i rs t t wo r a n k s .
w i t h Kn i gh t , p a w n a n d B i s h o p t o
co ntro l i t , i s s tr o n g. 18 BbS

12 Nc6 F u l ly c o n s c i o u s of W h i t e ' s
1 3 N x c6 Bxc6 i n t e n t i o n s h e p i n s t h e e - p aw n .

A g o o d e x c h a n g e f o r B l a ck . 1 9 Rg1 Bd6
1 4 h3 Pi n n i n g the g-pawn and
threatening to break in
W h i t e , s e e i n g n o p r os p e ct o f wi t h • • • f4 . B u t h a s n ' t h e
advan c i n g either on the f o rg o t t e n W h i t e ' s t h re a t o f e 4 ?
queens i d e o r i n t h e centre,
ma k e s p r e p a ra t i o n s f o r a c t i v i t y 20 e4
o n t h e k i n gs i d e . I t i s q u i ck l y
fores t a l l e d .

14 Qd 7
1 5 Kh2 NhS
16 Bd2

He h a s no cho i ce but to
retre a t a g a i n .

1 39
D i a g ram 1 6 3 W h i t e w a n t s t o g e t b a ck t o e 3
rat h e r t h a n d 1 .

22 RafB
23 Kh1

Unpinning both the Bis hop


and the g-pawn.

23 R Bf5
24 Qe3 Bd3

T h reat e n i n g Re2.

25 Rce1

T h e Q u e e n c a n n o t l eave the
g-paw n and s o now the only
p i e ce t h at e n j oy s a n o p e n l i ne
mu s t b e u s e d t o p ro t e c t e 2 .

Wh i t e was relyi n g on t h i s 25 h6! !


m o v e a n d i t c e r t a i n ly l o o k s
effecti ve. If 20 g6, D i a gr a m 1 6 4
p r o t e c t i n g t h e K n i gh t , t h e n 2 1
exdS etc. o r 2 0 ... Nf6 2 1 eS
f o rk i n g K n i gh t a n d B i s h op .

20 fxe4 1 I

A f i n e a n d ori g i n a l
s a cr i f i c e d es i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e
a n e v e r - t i gh t e n i n g g r i p o v e r
the whole board. It is a
r e� a rk a b l e c o n c e p t i o n , g i v i n g
u p a c o mp l e t e p i e c e s i m p ly f o r
restri cti on, b u t t h e s i mp l e
l og i c o f B l a c k 's t h i n k i n g i s
r e ve a l e d a s t h e g ame g o e s o n .

21 QxhS Rxf2

For t h e p i e c e B l a ck h a s t w o
p a w n s , c o mp l e t e c o n t r o l o f t h e
open f-fi le, an advanced and
s o l i d centre and a Rook o n t h e A r e m a rk a b l e p o s i t i o n . T o
s eventh rank. N i mzow i t s ch appre c i a t e i t f u l ly e x a mi n e
cons i dered t h i s more t h a n e a ch W h i t e p i e ce i n t urn t o s ee
c omp e n s a t i o n . h ow i t can move a n d w i t h what
c o n s eq u e n c e s .
22 Qg5
T h e Q u e e n h a s n o move .
Si nce the Q u e e' n wi 1 1
inevi tably be dri ven away ,
1 40
Th e R o o k a t g 1 c a n m o v e t o White is said to be in
f1 where i t cou l d b e taken by Z u gz w a n g i a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e n o
the B i s h o p . i mmediate threats , what ever
W h i t e does l eads to d i saster,
The R o ok a t e 1 c a n m ove o n l y c l ea r e vi d e n c e t h a t B l a ck h a s
with the loss of the Qu e e n a s s umed t o t a l c o n t ro l of t h e
to Re2. b o a rd. H i s p o l i cy o f g r a d u a l
r e s tr i c t i o n i n c r e a s e d h i s g r i p
The Bi shop at d2 can go t o o n W h i t e t erri t ory t o t h e p o i n t
c1 bu t t h e n t h e Kn i gh t i s l o s t w h e r e W h i t e w a s u n a b l e t o m o ve
to the Bi s h o p at d 3 . a t a l l . A s p l en d i d e xamp l e o f
t h e t h e o ry o f r e s t r a i n t .
The other Bishop can go t o
f1 b u t B l a ck a t t a c k s t h a t Two p os i t i ons from actual
square t h r e e t i mes . p l a y appear now for you t o
s o l ve .
The King can go to h2 but
then 26 Rf5f3 when the D i a gram 1 6 5
Queen i s l o s t .
R a g os i n
Try p aw n moves :

26 a 3 a5
2 7 axb4 a xb 4 ,

and t h e s i tuation has n ot


ch a n g e d .

2 6 b3 a5 ,

and W h i t e i s i n t h e s a m e
pos i t i o n a g a i n , c o mp e l l e d t o
mak e s ome l o s i n g mo v e .

Suppos i ng,

26 g4 Rf 5 f 3
27 Bxf3 R h 2 ma t e .

O r , f i n a l ly , C a p a b l a n ca

2 6 h4 gS M o s c ow , 1 9 3 5
2 7 h xg S h xgS ,
B l a ck h a s j u s t p l ay e d h i s
and Bl a ck w i l l f o l l ow w i t h King from f 7 t o e8, i ntend i n g
Qh7ch, etc. If, i n t h i s , 2 7 h 5 t o r e m o ve t h e m o n a r c h f r o m t h e
then 2 7 Qf7, or even b e s i e g e d k i n gs i d e . H o w s h o u l d
another w a i t i n g move, 2 7 Wh i t e c o n t i n u e ?
Kh 8 1 w i 1 1 l e a v e W h i t e w i t h t h e
s a me p o mp u l s i o n to c h o o s e
be t w e e n l o s i n g m o v e s . W h i t e
res i g n e d .

1 41
D i a g ram 1 6 6 1 , fS,

R os s e t t o w h e n B l a ck m a d e r o o m f o r h i s
Ki n g w i t h ,

Qe7
In s u c h p o s i t i o n s t h ere is
n o h u rry t o b r e a k t h rough i
w h i l e B l a ck s l o w l y a n d c l u ms i l y
tri es t o bri ng order to his
c o n g e s t e d p i e c e s Wh i t e h a s a l l
t h e t i me i n the world to
o rg a n i s e i n s u ch a w a y t h a t
w h e n t h e b r e a k t h r o u gh c o mes h i s
p i e ces w i l l be at their most
e f f e ct i v e .

D i agram 1 6 6 F i s c h e r f o u n d ,

Bb3 1

F i s ch e r N o w i f B l a ck m o ve s h i s K i ng
a n y w h e r e W h i t e w i n s t h e K n i gh t
Mar d e l P l at a , 1 959 with 2 RbB.

R e s t ra i n t c a n b e a p p l i ed i n If t h e Kn ight goes to d7 it
t h e mos t o p e n o f games . Here i s w i l l b e p i n n ed agai n s t t h e Rook
a n e n d g a m e w i t h v e ry l i t t l e by 2 B e 6 .
left o n t h e board. Wh i t e has
t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a p as s ed p a w n , B l a ck is l eft with pawn
w h i c h r es t ra i n s B l a c k 's R o o k move s :
a l r e a d y . W h i t e n ow f i n d s a m o v e
wh i ch c o mp l e t e l y i mmob i l i s es 1 as
t h e B l a ck f or c e . 2 a4

T y i n g up t h e q u ee n s i de. All
SOLUTIONS W h i t e has to do is exh a u s t the
e n e my p a w n m o v e s w h e n B l a c k
w i l l b e forced t o mak e the
Q_ i_ � g_ � � � - .!. §. � w h i t e c 0 u 1 d
cons i der opening u p li nes l o s i n g p i e c e m o v e s a l r e a dy
a g a i n s t t h e e n e my K i n g i n t h e me n t i o n e d .
m i d d l e b y e x ch a n g i n g p a w n s a t
es or f6 but t h i s wou l d r e l i eve
B l a ck i n some measure. H i s 2 h6
p o s i t i o n i s v e ry c o n g e s t e d , h i s 3 h3 gS
p i e c es g e t i n e a c h o t h e r 's w a y 4 g4 f x g4
a n d s o w h y m a k e m a t t e r s e as i e r 5 hxg4,
f o r h i m ? C a p a b l a n c a ch os e t o
cont inue h i s p o l i cy of at w h i ch p o i n t B l a ck r es i g n ed.
r e s t r i c t i o n by , H e i s i n Z u gzwa n g .

1 42
CHAPTER 1 4

The problem of-colour

Th i s i mp or t a n t f e a t u re of i mp e d e i t a n d n o d a r k - s q u a r e d
pos i t i o n i s b e s t i n t r o d u c e d B l a ck B i s h o p t o o p p o s e i t .
through e xa m p l e s .
W h i t e cou l d w i n a p a w n w i t h
F i r s t l y a v e ry s t r i k i n g a n d 1 Rxe6 but this would let the
s i mp l e o n e . Ki n g out vi a f 7 wh ereas at t h e
moment it i s conven i en t ly
D i a g ram 1 6 7 c o n f i n e d . At t h i s p o i nt i n h i s
t h i n k i n g W h i t e mu s t h a v e
Ret i rea l i s ed that there was a
tremendous dark -squared
w e a k n e s s i n t h e B l a ck p o s i t i o n
a n d c o n c e i v e d a r e m a rk a b l e
j ourney .

1 Kh2 Nd6
2 R g 7 ch

D r i v i n g t h e K i n g r i gh t i n t o
the corner for 2 • • •KfB woul d
e xp o s e h i m t o a d i s c o vered
c h e ck .

2 KhB
3 Rd 7 Nb5

If 3 • • • NeB W h i te w i ns i n a
s i m i l a r w a y by a K i n g m a r c h .
T a rras ch 4 Kg3 1 Nxc3
5 Kf4 Nb5
Vi e n n a , 1 922
No better is 5 Ne2ch 6
Ke5
Both s i des h ave f i ve p a w n s
and a Rook and W h i t e has a 6 Ke5 ReB
Bishop for t h e Kn ight. Th e n ext 7 Kf6
poi n t t o n ot i c e i s t h a t t h e
B i s h o p i s a d a rk - s q u a r e d o n e a n d B l a ck r e s i g n e d .
a n d B l a ck 's p a w n s a r e o n w h i t e
s q u ares. T h i s g i ves t h e B i s h op T h e u n ma n a g e a b l e t h r e a t i s B
gre a t f r e e d o m o f m o v e m e n t , Kf7 R g B ( t o s t op B g 7 mat e ) 9
t h er e a r e n o B l a ck p a w n s t o RdB! N d 6 c h ( o t h e rw i s e ma t e
1 43
f o l l ow s ) 1 0 R x d 6 a n d n o t h i n g h idden by the c h e q u e red
w i l l prevent t h e Rook return i n g pattern .
to dB.
T h e n e x t i l l u s tra t i on is _ a
B l a ck ' s c o l o u r w e a k n e s s , d u e g a m e g i v e n i n f u l l f o r t h ere i s
t o t h e a b s e n c e o f a s u i. t a b � e s u c h a f o r m i d a b l e l o g i_ c t h a t
Bi shop and t h e p l a ci ng of h i s pervades t h e w h o l e o f it t� a t
pawn s , w a s s o s evere that th e i t w i l l e s t a b l i s h the i m­
W h i t e K i n g m a r c h e d s t r a i. g h t p o rt a n c e o f co l o u r w e a k n e s s an d
through the defences. Th e s t r e n g t h b e t t e r t h a n m a n y s h ort
c o n c e p t c o u l d b e s t �t e d t h e e x amp l e s .
o t h e r w a y , o f c o u rs e , i n t e r ms
o f Wh i t e ' s c o l o u r s t r e n g t h . N i mz ow i t s ch Morrison
Lon d o n , 1 9 2 7
Th e i d e a o f c o l o u r w e a k n e s s
· s o n e w h i ch i s not a l w a� s
i 1 b3 g6
r e c o g n i s e d a s q u i· c k l y a s i t
s h o u l d b e e s p e c i a l ly by l e s s Watch the d i agona l a 1 he.
e xp e r i e n c e d p l ay e r� . I! t h e O t h e r l i n e s p l a y a p a r t i. � t � e
b o ard w a s d i v i d e d a s i n d i a �r a m evo l u t i o n o f t h e game bu � i t i s
1 6 8 i t w o u l d be m o r e o b v � o u s i n t h i s o b l i q u e , t y p i ca l ly
t h a t h a l f t h e s q u a r e s a r e l i gh t hyp ermodern l i n e t h a t the
a n d t h e o t h e r h a l f d a rk . c o n t e n t i o n f o r s u p r e ma cy t akes
place.
D i a gram 1 6 8
D i a g ram 1 6 9

----
----
----
·--·
---·
----
----
---- �
W h i t e ' s B i s h o p , f o r e x a _mp l e ,
w o u l d b e p er ma n e n t l y b a n i s h e d W h i t e ' s f i rs t m o v � , � h e
from h a l f the board. Dr a N i m z o w i t s ch A t t a ck , w i t h i ts
.
p l ayer w i th a w eakness on � h e i n t e n d e d 2 B b 2 , s t r i_ k e s f i r s t
l i gh t s q u a r e s w o u l d b e h � n d i � g at the c entre s q u ares a nd then
o ve r h a l f t h e t er r i t ory t o h i s i n t o t h e h e a r t of t h e B l a ck
o p p o n e n t . T h i s mu s t a l s o b e k i n gs i d e f r o m t h e re mote
t ru e o n t h e n or m a l c h es s b ? a r d , f a s t n e s s o f b 2 . T h e r e i. s n o
but it is d i sgu i s e d o r a l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y o f B l a ck
1 44
ch a l l e n g i n g t h a t B i s h o p f r o m lJ i a g ram 1 7 0
the f r o n t o r a f l a n k 1 o n l y f r om
d i rect o p p o s i t i o n a l o n g t h e
dia go n a l . I t m u s t b e e i t h e r
exch a n g e d f o r B l a c k ' s Ki n g ' s
Bi s h o p o r b l o ck a d e d a n d t h e
lead i n g p o i n t i n t h a t b l o ck a d e
must be t h e p o i n t e5. What
Black ca n n o t d o i s i gnore t h e
chal l e n ge. This game is a
batt l e for t h e b l a ck s qu a res
and w h o e ver l os es , l o s es h a l f
the board. If Black can
estab l i s h a n d m a i n t ai n a p a w n
a t e5 h e w i l l n e u t ra l i s e t h e
eff e c t o f t h e f i a n c h e t t o e d
Bis h o p .

2 Bb2 Nf 6
3 g3 Bg7
4 Bg2 d6
Th i s w a s a c o m m o n r e t r e a t a t
Prep a r i n g f o r e5 the t i m e w i t h the i d ea of
bri ngi n g t h e Kn i gh t i n a gai n
5 d4 vi a d 7 b u t t oday Na5 woul d
. • .

b e pref erre d . I f t h e n B Bc3,


And W h i t e prepares to B l a ck w o u l d c o n t i n u e B • • •c5
co n t e s t e 5 . Ad mi t t ed l y W h i t e i s 9 Qd2 b 6 w h e n W h i t e has th e
o b s t ru c t i n g h i s o w n B i s h o p w i t h i d ea, a t t ract i ve i n i t s e l f , of
th i s a d va n c e , b u t t h e p a w n i s doub l i n g Bl ack 's pawns o n t h e
not f i x e d 1 i t c a n e i t h er b e a-file with 1 0 Bxa5. But i t
moved o r e x c h a n g e d . w o u l d b e a n t i - p os i t i on a l a n d
a ga i ns t t h e s p i ri t o f t h e game
5 0 0 so far, for it wou l d give u p
6 c4 Nc6 t h e d ark s q u ares t o B l a ck ' s
Ki n g ' s Bi s h o p .
To s u p port e5 . B Nc3 Nbd7
7 d5 With its eye o n e5 aga i n .
O p e n i n g t h e dark d i a go n a l 9 Nf3 a5
ag a i n a t t h e c o s t o f c l o s i n g
half t h e l i gh t o n e . B u t t h e Th e g a m e h a s t r a n s p o s e d i n t o
i d e a i s s t i l l l o gi ca l : B l a c k a Ki ng's Indian Defence. The
must s trive for • • •e5 when t h e t e xt i s t o p r o t e c t c 5 , mak i n g
pawn c a n b e c a p t u red e. p . , i t s e c u r e f o r t h e b l o ck a d i n g
op e n i n g u p t h a t l i n e a ga i n . move Nc5.
7 NbB? 1 0 Na4

1 45
D i a gram 1 7 1 D i a gram 1 7 2

A s t r a n g e method o f B l a ck h a s a n o t h er p a w n ready
prevent i ng • • .NcS for this t o f r u s t r a t e W h i t e o n t h e d a rk
p l a c e s t h e Kn i gh t o f f -s i d e . diagona l. However, White
However, i t i s l ogi cal, for fores ees that after • • • e5
B l a ck 's threat has much t o d o th ere w i l l b e a weaken i n g o f
w i th w h o controls t h e a 1 hB l i gh t s q u a r e s , p a rt i cu l a r l y at
diagona l . Suppos i n g Wh i t e d S , a n d s o t h e Kn i gh t i s s e nt
c a s t l e d , s a y , i n s t e a d . B l a ck o f f o n a l o n g j ou rn e y t o o c cu py
would p lay 1 0 NcS and wou l d
• • • that poi n t .
t h e n be t hreatening 1 1 a4
• • •

12 b4 a3! and if then 1 3 Bc1 13 eS


t h ere w o u l d f o l l o w 1 3 Nce4,
. • •

and it is Black who has Bl ack is aware of his


t r i ump h e d o n t h e l o n g d i a g o n a l . opponent's i ntenti ons but the
m o v e i s s t i l l n e c e s s a ry b e c a u s e
10 eS h e must open a l i ne for his
Quee n ' s Bish op .
O b s t ru c t i n g t h e v i t a l l i n e
w h i ch N i mzow i t s ch c l ears 1 4 Nc2 KhB
i mme d i a t e l y .
Movi n g off the a2 gB
1 1 d xe 6 e . p . f x e 6 d i a g o n a l n ow t h a t i t h a s b e come
p a r t l y e xp os e d .
Another candidate for
b l o ck a d e a p p ea rs . 1 5 e4 NhS

12 a a Qe7 A n a w k w a r d l o ok i n g m o v e b u t
13 Ne1 I h e mu s t mak e w ay for t h e o t her
K n i gh t w h i c h c a n n o t d e v e l o p
t ow a rd s t h e q u e e n s i d e b e ca u s e
o f W h i t e ' s K n i gh t a t a 4 . 1 0 Na4
w a s n ot q u i t e s u c h an o f f - s i d e
p l ay after a l l .
1 46
1 6 Ne3 Ndf6 20 Bg4
1 7 NdS N xd 5
1 8 exdS It is not clear what he
i n t e n d e d w i t h t h i s m o v e s i n ce
D i a g ram 1 7 3 t h e B i s h o p h a s n o f u t u re h ere.
It wou l d h ave been better to
u s � t h e t i me to bri n g h i s
Q u e � n ' s R o ok t o e B .

2 1 f3 Bd7
22 Qd2

Th is u n obtru s i ve move
a ct u a l l y a c c o mp l i s h es qu i t e a
l o t : i t c o n t r o l s d a rk s q u ares ,
prot e c t s t h e B i s h o p a n d c l ears
t h e f i rs t r a n k f o r t h e R o ok s .

22 b6
23 Rae1 QdB

U n f o rt u na t e l y n e c e s s a r y
because of the pin on the s­
p a w n . He cannot a l l ow W h i t e to
p l ay f 4 f o l l ow e d by 2 5 f x e S
d x e S , w h e n the e -p a w n becomes
N o w W h i t e h a s r e - es t a b l i s h e d i s o l a t ed on t h e o p e n f i l e . B u t
1is pawn chain a2 - dS, beh i nd h ow much better t h e text w o u l d
1 h i c h h e h a s a mp l e s p a c e t o h a v e b e e n i f h e h a d a l ready
nan o e u v r e and B l a ck has p layed Ra e B .
1ucceeded i n c l os i n g t h e d a rk
liago n a l w h i l s t o p e n i n g l i n es 24 f4 exf4
'or h i s o t h e r p i e c e s . P l a y
: o n t i n u es t o r e v o l ve a b o u t t h e Av o i d i n g t h e i s o lated pawn,
ioi nt eS and, after d u e b u t n ow , a f t e r ,
ireparat i on , W h i t e h op es t o
rndermi n e i t w i t h f 4. 2 5 R xf 4 ,

1B Bd7 W h i t e h as succeeded i n his


1 9 Nc3 g e n e r a l s tr a t e gy o f o p e n i n g t h e
d a rk d i a g o n a l .
The K n i g h t h as f i n i s h ed i t s
w ork a t a 4 a n d W h i t e d o e s n o t
want h i s q u eens i d e p a w n s broken
J P b y l e t t i n g B l a ck e x ch a n g e i t
for t h e B i s h o p .

19 Nf6
20 a4

Se cur i �g t h e q u eens i d e s o
t h a t n o B l a ck e x c u rs i o n s t h e r e
wi l l d i vert h i m from
D O n c e n t ra t i o n o n e 5 .

147
D i a g ram 1 7 4 26 Qd 7

Aga i n 2 6 Bh6 is not


p o s s i b l e : 2 7 g4 B x g4 2 8 Rx f 6 !
B x d 2 2 9 Rxf8 m a t e . As s o on as
t h e d a rk - s q u a r e d B i s h o p c o m e s
o f f t h e vi t a l l i n e , B l a ck i s
lost.

27 Nd4 Rae8

He s h o u l d h ave p l ay e d this
moves a g o .

Y e t a ga i n 27 8h6 is
defeated, th i s t i me b y 2 8 Ne6
R f 7 2 9 g 4 B x g4 3 0 R x f 6 Bxd2
3 1 Rxf7 d i s ch Kg8 32 Rxd7
Bxe1 3 3 R g 7 c h K h 8 3 4 R x g6 d i s
c h a n d ma t e f o l l ows .

Th e s ce n e s h i f t s f r o m e 5 t o 28 Nxf5 g x f5
f 6 a n d t h e B l a ck K n i g h t t h e r e
wh i c h now a s s u mes the ro l e o f E x ch a n g i n g R o o k s f i rs t w o u l d
t h e b l o ck a d e r o f t h e d i ag o n a l . o n ly l e t W h i t e ' s Q u e e n i n at
e6.
Bu t has n 't White mad e a n
error? Surely 25 . . . Bh 6 p i ns 29 Ref1
R o o k a ga i n s t Q u e e n a n d w i n s t h e
exchange? Now the f - f i l e w i l l be
brea c h e d a n d t h ere w i l l then be
T h e a ns w e r w o u l d be 26 N e 4 , nothing to stop the White
p i n n i n g t h e K n i gh t a s w e l l a s p i e c e s p o u r i n g t h r o u g h . B l a ck
a t t a ck i n g i t a n d t h e c o l o u r g o e s f o r t h e R o ok , h o p i n g to
p r o b l e m i s s u d d e n l y h i gh l i gh t e d s a l vage someth i n g from the
if t h e game c on t i n u es : 2 6 . . . w r e ck .
Bxf4 27 Qxf4 Kg7 28 Rf1 ,
w i n n i n g t h e K n i gh t. I m m ed i a t e ly 29 Bh 6
B l a c k 's Ki n g 's B i s h .o p 30 Bh3 Qe7
d i s a p pe a r s t h e W h i t e p i e c e s a r e
r a mp a n t o n t h e d a rk s q u a r e s . T h re a t e n i n g t o e xc h a n ge
Queens by Qe3ch and so
25 Bf5 redu c e t h e f orce o f t h e att ack .

N o w t h a t t h e K n i gh t i s e x ­ 3 1 Bd4 B xf 4
p o s e d o n t h e f - f i le h e s h i e lds 3 2 Qxf4 Qe4
i t with h i s Bishop.
Th i s s udden f l u rry of
26 N b 5 a ct i v i t y i s s h or t - l i v e d f o r h i s
K i n g ' s B i s h o p h a s g o n e a n d th e
En rou t e t o d4 from w � i ch d a rk s q u a r e s w i l l p r o ve f a t a l .
s q u a r e i t a i ms a t t h e h o l e a t
e6 as w e l l as t hreat ening t h e
Bishop a t f5. 3 3 Qd2 c5

148
Ha s t e n i n g t h e e n d b u t t h e re Di a gr a m 1 7 5
was l i t t l e e l s e h e c o u l d d o .
Su l t a n K h a n
3 4 d x c6 e . p . Qxc6
35 Qh6

I t i s a l l o ve r .

35 d5
Unmas k i n g h i s Qu een to
pro t e c t t h e Kn i gh t .

3 6 Bxf5

Th r e a t : 3 7 Q x h 7 ma t e .
36 Rf7
3 7 B xh 7 R xh 7
3 8 B xf 6 c h ,

and the f i n a l tri umph of the


Bishop on the d ark d i agona l
g a v e B l a ck a s u i t a b l e m o m e n t i n Sou l t an b e i e f f
wh i c h t o res i g n .
L i ege , 1 930
W h i t e ' s o bs ess i on w i t h t h e
dark s q u a res i n t h i s game i s a n W h i t e mus t strive to
e x c e l l e n t e xamp l e o f a c o n f l i c t ma i n t a i n a b a l a n ce o n t h e l o n g,
for s u pr e m a cy o ve r a s i n g l e l i gh t d i a g o n a l , s h o u l d h i s
c o l ou r . Ki ng's Bi shop l eave i t , t h e
B l a ck c o u n t er p a r t l u rk s a t a B ,
In t h e n e x t e xamp l e W h i t e ready t o t ak e o ver. At pres e n t
loses b e c a u s e o f h i s n e g l e c t o f t h e e - p a w n b l o ck s t h e l i n e a n d
t h e l i gh t s q u ar e s . s o t h i s i s t h e p o i n t t h a t n e eds
t o be d e f e n d e d . A n o t h e r l i g h t ­
s q u a r e p r o b l em a p p e a rs o n b 3 , a
backward pawn on a h a l f open
fi le.

T h e g ame c o n t i n u e d :

N xf 3 c h
2 B xf 3 Nd4

A dau n t i n g move for Wh i t e t o


m e e t f o r t h e K n i gh t u n m a s k s t h e
Bishop, attacks the White
B i s h o p a t f 3 a n d t h e b a ck w a r d
pawn at b3 as w e l l as
establi s h i ng i tself i n a f i ne
outpos t .

3 Bd 1

1 49
Pres ervi n g t h e Bi s h op a n d o n t h e l ong d i agonal, t h e two
protect i n g t h e pawn, but too l i nes cross i n g a t the vital f3
mu c h s t r a i n i s p l a c e d o n t h e square, the focus of all
Bishop a n d the aB h 1 d i agon a l B l a c k ' s e n er g y , f o r i t i s a ls o
i s b er e f t o f d e f e n c e . w a t ch e d b y h i s K n i gh t .

3 fS Th e w h i t e - s q u a r e w e a k n e s s i s
a pparent at a g l a n ce and White
Seek i ng to pri s e the c l ea r ly f a ces a h o p e l e s s tas k .
d i agona l ope n .
6 Rf1 Rf3
4 e xf S ?
Hard ly a s u rpri s e ; i n such
H e g i v e s u p t o o e as i ly . N d 2 , s i t u a t i o n s i t s c a r c e l y s e e ms
s h ori n g up t h e a -p a w n f o r a l i k e the offer of the exchange.
w h i l e, was b e t t er, b u t , o f
c o u rs e , B l a c k w o u l d s t i l l h a v e 7 Bxf3
a l l t h e p l a y a n d p r es s u r e .
No more h o p e w a s o f f ered by
4 RxfS 7 Qd2 Q b 7 .
5 Rc3
7 R xf 3 ,
To protect points on both
w i n gs . a n d W h i t e res i g n e d . A ft e r B Qd2
t h ere w ou l d be n o reply to
5 RbfB B Qb 7 .

Di agram 1 7 6 W h i t e l o s t b e c a u s e h e l o st
c o n t r o l o f t h e l i g h t -squ ared
h a l f o f t h e b o a r d , i t s e f f e c ts
a p p e a r i n g on b o t h s i d e s of t h e
b o a r d , a n d mu c h o f t h i s w a s du e
t o p l a c i n g too great a burden
o n t h e Ki n g ' s B i s h o p .

F i n a l l y a s h ort, s h arp
f i n i s h w h i c h e mp h a s i s e s t h e
i d ea s of t h i s c h a p t e r i n a
s t a rt l i n g m a n n er.

A r a p i d t ra n s f orma t i o n h as
t a k e n p l a c e . B l a ck ' s p i e c e s a r e
i d ea l ly s i t u a t e d a n d t h e Qu e e n
h a s t h e c h o i c e o f t r e b l i n g w i th
the Rook s o n t h e f - f i l e or
j o i n i n g t h e B i s h o p i n a b a t t e ry
1 50
Di agram 1 7 7 Now i t w i l l b e mate w i t h t h e
K n i g h t a t f 6 i f B l a c k ' s Qu e e n
H o r s ema n l ea v e s t h e l o n g d i ag o n a l .

7 d5

F a t a l . Th e s l e nd er gri p h e
'
h e l d o n d a rk s q u ares , c 5 a n d
p a rt i cu l a r l y e 5 , s l i p s a w a y .
7 • • Qe5 would have been

b et t er.

B Qb4 !

V i o l e n t ly expos i n g the
weak nesses a t f 6 a n d f B .

B Q a 1 ch

H e c a n n o t t a k e t h e Qu e e n
b e cau s e o f 9 N f 6 m a t e , n or can
he g o to d 4 or e 5 b e c au s e o f 9
Wa 1 1 i s Q f B c h a n d ma t e n e xt move .

N o t t i n gh am , 1 9 54 9 Bd1 R es i gn s

Black goes i n f o r e x c h a n g e s After 9 Qxd 1 ch 1 0 Kh2,


hich net h i m mat eri a l a n d B l a ck h a s c o mp l e t e l y lost h i s
onderfu l pawns on the h o l d o n t h e d ark s q u ar e s .
ueens i de, but leave him
oefu l ly weak o n t h e dark Th i s shou l d h e l p you t o
quares . t h i n k a bo u t c o l our. Remember
that each colour is half the
1 Nxb3 b o ard a s y o u a t t e mp t t o s o l v e
2 exf6 Nxa1 t h e f o l l ow i n g p ro b l ems .
3 fxg7 Bxc4
4 Qxa 1 R x e 1 ch
5 Qxe1 Qxb2

Black has four pawns to one


n t h e q u e e n s i d e p l u s R o ok f o r
1 i gh t a n d B i s h o p , a w i n n i n g
j va nt a g e w h e n o t h er t h i n gs a r e
� u a l , bu t h i s f a t e is s ea l e d
n t h e d a rk s q u a r e s a ro u n d h i s
Lng.

6 Bh6 Be6

Sh u t t i n g d ow n t h e e - f i l e .

7 Ne4
D i a gram 1 7 8 3 e5 Bf5 4 Bd3 Bxd3 5 Oxd3
e 6 w h e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f d i agrarr
T a i ma n o v 1 7 9 arises. W h i ch s i d e would
y o u p r e f e r t o b e p l ay i n g , B l a ck
o r Wh i t e , a n d wh y ?

D i a gr am 1 8 0

P e tros i a n

M o s c ow , 1 9 5 5

T h i s w a s t h e f i n a l p os i t i o n
a f t e r 2 4 moves. I t i s B l a ck t o I f W h i t e p l ay s 1 N x d 7 , how
p l ay . W h y d i d h e r e s i g n ? s h ou l d B l a ck r e p l y t o p re v e n t a
w e a k e n i n g o f h i s l i gh t s q u ar e s ?
D i a gr a m 1 7 9

S O LU T I O N S

D i a gr a m 1 7 8 T h e p o s i t i o n i s
materi a l ly equ a l a n d those
p i eces w h i ch B l a ck h as
developed stand wel l. His
c o n t r o l o f t h e d a rk s q u a res ,
you w i l l n o t i c e , i s good, but
w h e n y o u e xa m i n e t h e l i g h t o n es
the key t o the pos i t i on is
reve a l ed. Du e ma i n ly to his
u n d e v e l o p e d q u e e ns i de,
p a rt i cu l a r ly t h e B i s h op , h e h as
a c h ro n i c w e a k n e s s o n t h e l i ght
s q u ares : t h e b 1 h 7 di agonal
and other v i t a l p o i nts s u ch as
d5, e6, f7 and g8. White
th reat ens t o retreat h i s Bishop
a t g6 a n d u s e t h a t s q u are f or a
T h e f i r s t f i ve mo ves o f a t r i p l e Kn i g h t f o r k . A l l B l a ck
v a r i a t i o n i n t h e C a r o - Ka n n c a n d o i s m o ve h i s Q u e e n . After
D e f e n c e a re 1 e 4 c6 2 d4 d5 1 . . . 0d8 2 Be4 W h i t e would
1 52
h a ve B d S a n d N g 6 t o f o l l o w t h e Kn i gh t and preserve th e
aga i n s t w h i c h t h e r e w o u l d b e n o Bi shop .
def e n c e .
A r e ce n t a n d e xt re m e e x a mp l e
D i agr��� Y o u h a v e n o d o u b t o f t h e co l o u r prob l e m i s s e e n
disco vered on l y t o o o f t e n t h e i n d i a g ram 1 6 1 .
pr o b l e ms i n v o l v e d i n t h e
deve l o p m e n t o f t h e Qu e e n ' s D i a gram 1 6 1
B i s h o p i n m a ny B l a ck d e f e n c e s .
Here B l a ck h a s res o l ved t h e Mes t e l
ma t t e r q u i ck l y and, in
es t a b l i s h i n g t h e t r i a n g l e o f
p a w n s o n l i gh t s q u a r e s a t c 6 ,
d 5 a n d e 6 , w ou l d o t h e rw i s e h a v e
1 o ck e d i n t h e B i s h o p.

Now cons ider the dark ­


s quared B i s h ops o n b o t h s i d e s .
Th e d i s p o s i t i o n o f B l a c k ' s
pa w n s g i v e s f r e e d o m t o h i s
Ki n g ' s B i s h o p w h i l s t W h i t e ' s
pawns a t d4 a n d e S w i l l i nh i b i t
t h e a c t i v i t y o f h i s Qu e e n 's
B i s h op . O t h er m a t t ers s t a n d i n g
eq u a l . B l a c k ' s p o s i t i o n i s t o
b e pre f e rr e d . F o r t h i s r e a s o n
White se ldom p lays this
vari a t i o n a ga i n s t t h e C a r o - K a n n
thes e d ay s . It is i n t eres t i n g
t o s e a t h a t t h e p ro b l e m o f T u kma k o v
colour a r i s e s i n t h e v e ry
ope n i n g a n d t h e ch o i c e o f England v. USSR T e l e x M a t ch ,
open i n g v a r i a t i o n s t o d a y t a k e s 1 9 62
t h i s f a c t o r i n t o a c c ou n t .
M e s t e l was two p awns u p i n
D i agra m 1 60 I n t h i s m i d d l e g a m e t h i s p os i t i o n w i t h W h i t e t o
pos i t i o n W h i t e h as g r e a t e r play. It was left to the
contro l o f s p a c e, a d v a n t a g e i n deci s i o n o f the adjudi cators.
d eve l o pm e n t a n d t h e b eg i n n i n gs W h at a w a rd d i d t h ey m a k e ? N o
of a q u e e n s i d e a t t a c k w e l l e xt e n s i ve a n a l ys i s i s r e q u i re d .
support e d by t h e B i s h o p o n t h e
long d i a g o n a l . I n t h e comi n g D i agr a m 1 8 1 B l a ck i s t wo p a w n s
s t rug g l e B l a ck w i l l n e e d h i s u p a n d u n d e r n o rma l c o n d i t i o n s
Bi s h o p t o o p p os e t h e t h re a t h e would expect to w i n
agai n s t t h e l i gh t s q u a r e s . c o mf o r t a b l y . B u t t h e B i s h o p s
Aft e r 1 N x d 7 s u p p o s i n g B l a c k are o f o p p os i t e c o l our w h i ch
re p l i e d w i t h 1 Bxd7. Th ere
• • • means that Black is a l l­
wou l d f o l l ow 2 N c S Qe7 3 Nxd7 p ow e r f u l o n t h e l i gh t s q u ar e s
(not 3 N x b 7 b e c a u s e of 3 • • • and W h i t e i n vi n c i b l e on t h e
Bg4 ) N x d 7 4 bSI and the d a rk o n e s . T h i s e xt re m e c a s e o f
pre s s u r e o n t h e l i g h t s q u a r e s t h e co l ou r prob l e m p reve n t s
wre ck s B l a ck 's q u e e n s i d e p a w n s . B l a ck m a k i n g a ny p r o g r e s s w i t h
O n m o v e o n e h e mu s t r e t a k e w i t h h i s pawns at c4 and dS, passed
1 53
a n d s u pported t h ough t h ey may A l l t h r o u g h t h e g a m e , from
b e . Af t e r 1 Kc3 W h i t e n e ed s t h e o p e n i n g t o t h e e h d ga m e , t h e
o n ly t o s t ay t h ere w i t h h i s c o l ou r q u es t i o n i s f r eq u e n t ly a
Ki ng and move h i s Bishop s o a s vital, a lw ays a re l evant,
t o k ee p a n eye on the other issue.
b l o ck a d e s q u a r e , d 4 , a n d t h e r e
i s n o t h i n g B l a ck c a n do t o
break t hr o u g h . Th e a d j u d i cators
d e c l a r e d t h e p o s i t i o n d r aw n .
CHAPTER 1 5

Activity on two. fronts

n gener a l a s ma l l w e a k n e s s i n F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e p os i t i o n
po s i t i o n c a n b e d e f e n d e d . A s o f d i agram 1 82, W h i t e h a s made
h e a t t a ck er i n creas es h i s a grave m i s ca l cu la t i on and
ress u r e against it the B l a ck can t a k e i m med i a t e
efender can respond by advan tage o f t h e s i tuation t o
efe n d i n g o r e l i m i n a t i n g i t . s p o i l Wh i t e ' s p awn s .
rovi d e d t h a t a b a l a n c e i s
c h i e v e d a n d w ea k n es s e s d o n o t 1 Bxc3
ppear e l s e w h er e a m i n i m a l 2 b xc 3
ea k n e s s o f i t s e 1 f n e e d n o t
ead i n evi t a b ly t o d i s as t er. O f W h i t e n ow h as doub led and
ours e, if a gros s error i s i s o l a t e d p awn s .
ade or a gross weakness
ris e s , t h i s w i 1 1 u s u a l l y l e a d 2 Rac8
o a 1 ost game. 3 BeS NdS

D i agram 1 8 2 a n d B l a c k w i n s a p aw n w h i ch
s h o u l d b e s u f f i ci e n t t o wi n .

W e a k n es s es are n o t u s u a l ly
as blatant as this and i t i s
n e c e s s a ry , o n c e o n e w e a k n e s s
h a s appeared, t o con centrat e o n
t h a t p o i n t a n d t o p r o vok e o t h e r
weakness es .
I n d i agram 1 83 th ere i s a p a w n . Th i s w o u l d i n v o l v e h i m i n
c l ear w e a k n e s s i n t h e B l a ck s uch moves as ... Bf8, ... Re6
pos i t i on , t h e i s o la t ed pawn at and . • . Ne8. C l early h e has
d6. s u f f i c i e n t f orce i n t h e r i ght
p l a c e s f o r t h e t a s k , b u t it
D i agram 1 8 3 w o u l d m e a n t h a t t h o s e p i e c es
wou ld be t i ed down to the
S my s l o v p r o t e c t i o n o f a m e r e p aw n w h e n
t h e y c o u l d b e d o i n g b e t t e r w o rk
e l s ew h ere .

I n s t ead h e c o u l d r e capture
w i t h t h e Qu e e n , l e t t i n g t h e d ­
p aw n g o i n r e t u r n f o r W h i t e 's
e - p a w n . Th i s w o u l d r i d h i m o f
w h a t w o u l d o t h e rw i s e b e c o m e a
p e r ma n e n t w e a k n e s s , a l t h o u gh i t
w o u l d e n a b l e W h i t e t o f i n d m o re
a ct i ve s q u a res f o r h i s major
p i eces .

I n t h i s d i l e m m a B l a ck c h o s e
t h e l a t t e r c o u rs e .

1 Oxc8
2 Qxd6 Nxe4
3 Bxe4
K o r c h n oy
E x c h a n g i n g t w o p a i rs of
U S S R C h a mp i o n s h i p , 1 9 7 3 mi n or p i eces i s a mos t i m­
p o r t a n t p art o f h i s s ch e m e for
K o r c h n o y i d e n t i f i es a n o t h e r w i t h t h e d i s a p p e a ra n c e of h i s
weakness, the pawn at a6, which w h i t e - s q u a r e B i s h o p B l a ck ' s a ­
i s f a r f r o m o b vi o u s at t h e pawn becomes weak.
mome n t . I t i s n o t t e ch n i ca l ly
b a ck w a r d u n t i 1 W h i t e p l a y s b 4 , 3 Bxe4
but i t i s i n a back ward 4 Rc1
p o s i t i o n , b e i n g u n s u p p or t e d by
another pawn, and there are S l i p p i n g i n a n extra move
p o s s i b l e f u t u re r o u t es in to a n d t ak i n g o ve r t h e c - f i l e w i t h
a t t a ck , p e r h a p s a l o n g t h e c ­ t e m p o . M o ve s s u c h a s t h i s can
f i l e . T h es e a r e vagu e n o t i ons be t u rn i n g p o i n t s i n a g a m e a n d
at t h e m o m e n t , b u t , W h i t e h er e t h e Z w i s c h e n z u g - a s i t is
a r gu e s , t h e p r e s s u r e o n t h e d ­ cal led g i v e s i mp e t u s t o
pawn may force Black t o make W h i t e ' s i n i t i a t i ve .
c o n c es s i ons s o t h a t a s er i o u s
attack on the a-pawn can later 4 Qa8
b e mou n t e d . 5 Nxe4 Rxe4

1 Rxc8

B l a ck h a s a c h o i c e o f p l a n s .
He c ou l d r e c a p t u r e w i t h h i s
Bi shop and hold on to the d-
1 56
Di a g r a m 1 8 4 the text White not only
t h r e a t e n s t o w i n t h e Qu e e n w i t h
a c h e c k o n t h e b a ck r a n k , bu t
7 Re?, w h i ch has the dual
threat of Qxf 7ch and Ra?
w i nning the pawn, bra n ch i n g
out, as i t were, on both s i des,
"
a n d a p p l y i n g p r es s u re a t w i d e l y
s epara t e d p o i n t s so t h a t t h e
d e f e ns i v e f or ces a r e h ard p u t
t o i t t o co ver b o t h vu l n e ra b l e
areas .

6 Rea
7 Re? Rf8

B l a ck ' s R o ok a n d Q u e e n h av e
b e e n b a n i s h e d to mis erab l e
c o r n e rs i n a m o s t i gn o m i n i o u s
ma n n e r .

I t i s r e m a rk a b l e h ow q u i ck l y 8 Ra?
pos i t i o n s c a n c h a n g e , bu t a p a r t
from o n e p a i r of p a w ns N o w t h e p a w n i s a t t a ck e d
d i s a p p e a r i n g t h e e x c h a n ge s h a v e from beh i n d a n d there i s n o way
been of p i e c e s a n d m o s t of t h e to s a v e i t. W h i t e mu s t be
or i g i n a l p a w n s t r u c t u r e h a s caref u l f o r there i s s t i l l s ome
been pres erved. N o w t h a t t h e s p i t e i n t h e B l a ck p o s i t i o n .
batt l e f i e l d h a s b e e n c l ea r e d a F o r e x a mp l e , h e r e 8 B c 5 s e e ms
little those s a l i ent features t o w i n t h e e xchange but then
stand o u t , and i t i s q u i t e wou l d come 8 Qe4 and after
• • •

obvi o u s n ow , a s i t w a s n o t 9 B xf 8 ? Qe 1 ch 10 Kh2 Be5ch


bef o r e , t h a t t h e a - p a w n i s w e a k 1 1 g3 Qxf2ch 1 2 Kh 1 Qf3 +
and t h a t W h i t e ' s c o n t r o l o f 1 3 Kg1 Q x g 3 + a n d B l a ck c o m e s
centra l l i n e s w i l l h e l p h i m t o o u t a t l ea s t t w o pawns u p.
u n d ermi n e i t .
8 Qe4
H e mu s t n o t a t t a ck d i re c t ly
by R c 6 b e c a u s e o f Re6. B l a c k w i s e ly k e e p s h i s Qu e e n
I n s t e a d h e t ak e s c o n t r o l o f t h e a s a ct i v e as p os s i b l e, s ee k i n g
s e ve n t h r a n k a n d w o rk s h i s w a y c o mp e n s a t i o n f o r t h e p aw n .
b e h i n d t h e t ar g e t p aw n .
9 Rxa6 Be5
6 Qd 7
T h r e a t e n i n g mat e o n t h e b a ck
T h e d6 w ea k n e s s h as g o n e a n d rank .
the a-pawn exposed as the new
targe t, but it is s t i l l a 1 0 Rc6 Q b 1 ch
single o n e. W h i t e n ow teases 1 1 Rc1 Qxa2
o u t a n ew w ea k n es s s o t h a t h e 1 2 Q xb 5
wi l l a ga i n h a v e t w o p o i n t s t o
p l ay o n a n d s o d i v i d e t h e B l a c k
force b e t w e e n t h e m. Th e n e w
spot i s t h e p a w n a t f 7. W i th
157
D i a g ram 1 8 5 r u n free for a w h i l e .
15 b4 Qa4
1 6 b5 Bd4

A n y h o p e o f B l a ck g e t t i n g i n
a n a t t a ck a g a i n s t W h i t e ' s K i ng
i s p r e v e n t e d by t h e w e l l p l a ced
B i s h o p a t e 3 a n d s o h e o f f ers
an exch a n g e .

1 7 Bxd4 Qxd4
1 8 b6

And White gains a n other


square .

18 Rb8
1 9 Rc6 Rb7
20 Qb3 J

V e r y g o o d . T h e Q u e e n o n ce
With a passed pawn on the more puts pressure o n f 7 and
queens ide White now has a t h r e a t e n s R c 7 w i t h m a t e to
c o n s i d e r a b l e a d va n t a g e . I t i s f o l l ow .
i n t er e s t i n g t o s e e h ow t h e w i n
is a c c o mp l i sh ed for th e 20 Kg7
q u e e n i n g s q u are, b 8 , i s w e l l
c o v e r e d , a n d Korch n o y a ga i n h a s L o ok i n g f o r a f l i g h t - s q u a r e
t o m a k e u s e of t h e i d e a o f a h6.
s u b s i d i a r y t h re a t s , p r ob i n g f o r
o t h e r w ea k n es s es , i n order t o 2 1 g3
f o r c e t h e p awn t h r o u g h .
So t h a t i f B l ack t r i es . . .
12 Qb2 Re7 and ... R e 1 c h , t h e Ki n g can
1 3 Qd3 g o t o g2, p r ot e ct i n g f2 and
keepi n g out t h e e n e my Qu e e n .
B l a ck h a s t a k e n u p s t a t i o n
beh i n d the pawn and so the 21 Re7
q u e e n mu s t b e d i s l o d ge d . 22 Qf3

13 Ra8 N o t o n ly s e cu r i n g t h e K i n g ' s
14 Qb1 p os i t i on b u t i n di rect ly
c o v er i n g b 7 f or t h e n e x t p a wn
So that a ft er the e xc h a n g e ad van c e .
the Rook would be behind t h e
p a s s e d p a w n , w h i ch i s w h ere 22 R e 1 ch
R o o k s s h o u l d b e i n a n e n d g ame . 23 Kg2 Res
24 Qf6ch Kh 6
14 Qa3 25 b7 Qd5ch
26 Qf3
Pr e s e r v i n g h i s c h a n c e s by
k e ep i n g m a t e r i a l o n t h e b o a r d , N o t 2 6 Kh 2 b e c a u s e of 2 6 . . .
a l t h o u g h i t a l l ow s t h e p a w n t o Re1 et c.

1 58
26 Qb5 K n i gh t w i t h B d 2 , but chooses
2 7 Q f4ch Kg7 i ns t e a d ,
28 Rb6 1
7 Ne2 a4
N e a t ly r o u n d i n g o f f t h e 8 Qd 1 a3
game. 2 8 • • • Qxb6 29 Qxe5ch
f6 30 Qe7ch and then, "T: h e p o i n t o f B l a c k ' s a t t a c k
accord i n g t o w h e r e t h e Ki n g i s t' o w e a k e n t h e q u e e n s i d e . I f
m o v e s , W h i t e c h e ck s a t e 8 o r f 8 n ow 9 b x a 3 , t h e a - p a w n b e c o m e s
ready f o r q u e e n i n g. I n f a c e o f i s o l a t e d . Even s o. Wh i t e w o u l d
t h i s p r o s p e c t S my s l o v r es i g n ed . h ave b e e n better off acce p t i n g
that a n d c o n c e n t rat i n g o n t h e
I n the n e xt game w e s e e a c e n t r e w h er e p r o s p e ct s a r e m o r e
q u i t e r e m a rk a b l e d i v i s i o n o f promi s i n g f o r h i m. I n s t e a d h e
Black 's forces to creat e p l ay e d ,
activi ty o n both s i des of t h e
board . 9 b3 ,

D i a gr am 1 8 6 a n d a f t er B l a ck t u rn e d h i s
attent i on t o t h e centre w i t h ,
N i mz ow i t s c h
9 d5,

h e has achi eved effect i ve


restra i n t on t h e q u ee n s i d e
w i t h o u t mak i n g c o n c es s i o n s
e l s e w h er e . B o t h s i d es n ow m o v e
t owards c o mp l e t i n g t h e i r
d ev e l o pme n t .

10 0 D b6
1 1 Bd2 Bb7
12 Rc1 Qe7
13 Nb5

W h i t e goes h u n t i ng a long a
f i l e w h i ch h e c a n h a l f o p e n by
c xd5 a n d a f t er ,

13 Bxd2
S t a h l berg 1 4 Qxd2 Nb4,

GOteborg, 1 934 w e h av e t h e pos i t i on of d i agram


1 87.
T h e m o ves 1 d4 e6 2 c4
Nf6 3 Nc3 Bb4 4 Qb3 Nc6
5 e3 0 0 6 Bd3 a s , gave
ri s e t o t h e p os i t i o n o f d i a g r a m
1 86.

White can prevent the


advan ce o n the a -fi le by
b re a k i n g t h e p i n o n h i s Qu e e n ' s

159
D i ag ram 1 8 7 N o w h e i s t h re a t e n i n g t h e c ­
p a w n b e c a u s e o f t h e. p i n o n t h e
K n i gh t .

16 c6
17 Bxd5 exd5

An i mp o r t a n t c a p t u r e f or i n
t h i s w a y B l a ck o p e n s u p the
s e c o n d a r m o f h i s d u a l a t t a ck ,
the e-fi l e .

1 8 N b c3 Ba6
1 9 Na4 Bxe2 1

T h e e xchange o f a p erfectly
g o o d B i s h o p f o r t h e Kn i g h t mu s t
h ave c o m e as a s u rpr i s e for
White. Th e move i s o n ly
u n ders t a n d a b l e i n t h e c o n t e x t
o f B l a c k ' s w i d e r s t r a t e gy .
Both Kn i gh t s o n t h e B l a c k ' s r e a s o n i n g i s v e ry
q u eens i de are offensively s u b t l e 1 by t h e e x c h a n g e h e
placed i n correspond i n g r edu c es W h i t e ' s f orces o n the
p os i t i on s , bu t t h ere i s a w o r l d k i n gs i d e a n d s o m a k e s B l a ck 's
of d i ffere n c e i n t h e s e c o n d f r o n t i n t h a t r e g i on
i mp l i c a t i o n s o f t h o s e p o s t i n g s . more effect ive. To gi ve up a
W h i t e ' s Kn i gh t , t h o u gh e x e r t i n g g o od B i s h o p i n t h i s w a y , w h i ch
s o me pressure on c 7 , can b e m o s t c h e s s p l a y e r s w o u l d h a ve
driven away with c6. b e e n v e ry r e l u c t a n t t o d o ,
B l a ck ' s K n i g h t , o n t h e o t h e r d i s p l ays a remark a b l e
hand, is unassai lable, and c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s o w n s t ra t egi c
c o n s eq u e n t l y a pp l i e s p e rma n e n t p l an n i n g .
p res s u r e a t a2 1 t h e c l os e r t h e
e n d ga m e c o me s , the thorn i er 2 0 Qxe2 Qa7
becomes t h e prob l e m of t h a t
w e ak n es s i n W h i t e ' s q u ee n s i d e. Th i s a n d t h e n e xt move
d i s c l o s e t h e p u r p o s e d i s cu s s ed
15 cxd5 Nfxd5 i n t h e previous n ot e .

P r o t e c t i n g c 7 as w e l l as t h e 2 1 Rfd 1 RaeB
o t h e r Kn i gh t . B u t w h y c a n n o t
White drive i t off with 1 6 e4
a n d t h e n co l l e c t t h e c - p aw n ?
B e ca u s e t h ere w o u l d f o l l ow
16 • • Nxd3
• 1 7 Qxd3 Nb4
(rep l a c i ng the outpos t ) 1 B Qd2
(h e mu s t p ro t e c t t h e a - p a w n ) c 6
a nd W h i t e h as made n o progress
on the c-fi l e and succeeded
o n ly i n w e a k e n i n g h i s c e n t re .

1 6 Be4

1 60
D i agram 1 8 8 Cross i n g W h i te's plans by
s a c r i f i c i n g a p aw n .

2 7 e xf 4

I f h e conti n u es w i t h t h e
Kn i gh t 's j ou r n e y , 2 7 N f 3 , t h e n
'
27 ... fxe3 2 8 fxe3 Ref8 and
t h e Kn i gh t i s d e n i e d i t s f i n a l
m o ve b e c a u s e of t h e t hreat of
i nvas i on of t h e s event h rank
a l ong the f-fi l e .

27 Re4

A good o u t p o s t for t h e R o ok
s i n ce i t app l i es latera l
p r es s u re a ga i n s t t w o w e a k
p awn s .

2 8 g3
A fas c i n a t i n g i nt erch a n ge,
; w i t ch i n g t h e Qu e e n f r o m t h e e H o p i n g t h at t h e e x t ra p a w n
to t h e a - f i l e a nd t h e R ook from w i l l s h o r e u p h i s k i n gs i d e .
the a to the e -fi l e , but t h i s
i s w h a t N i m z o w i t s ch s a w a s t h e 28 QbS
pro p e r d i v i s i o n o f h i s f o r c e s :
the Qu e e n and K n i gh t a r e to Th i s n e a t l y p r e v e n t s W h i t e
w ork t o g e t h e r o n t h e q u e e n s i d e , from c h a l l e n g i n g t h e e - f i l e for
a pair t h a t is often good at if he p laces a Rook t h ere B l a ck
cooperat i o n, w h i l s t the two repl i es Nd3
R o ok s a re t o j o i n f or c e s a n d
opera t e o n t h e e a n d f -f i l e s . 2 9 Rc3 cS

2 2 Qd2 QaS F r o m B l a ck ' s p aw n m a s s a


23 Nc3 p as s e d p a w n i s des t i ned t o
eme rge. W h i t e h a s b e e n p i n n ed
Des t i ned t o rep lace t h e d ow n t o h i s l ef t a n d h i s r i gh t
K n i gh t t h a t w a s e x c h a n g e d b u t a n d w i l l n ow b e c ru s h e d b y a n
m e a nw h i l e B l a c k ' s p l a n s a d va n c e a d va n c e i n t h e c e n t r e .
s e ver a l m o v e s .
3 0 d xc 5 bxc5
23 fS
24 Ne2 Rf6
2 5 Kh 1

T h e i d ea i s t o i n t ro d u c e t h e
Kn i gh t i n t o t h e h o l e a t e S b y
N g1 f3 eS, a nd so h o l d
u p B l a ck ' s k i n gs i d e a d v a n c e .

25 h6
26 Ng1 f4 1

161
D i a gr a m 1 8 9 33 Rxe4
34 f3 R e,8
35 Re1 Rxe1
36 Qxe1 Qd 7

Th e i r o n y i s t h at t h e e -f i l e
i s n o l o n g e r i mp o r t a n t a t t h e
very t i me t h a t W h i t e h a s won
c o n t ro l , f or B l a ck ' s f i n e Qu een
m o v e c o v e r s a l l W h i t e ' s e n t ry
p o i n t s i n t h a t f i l e a s w e l l as
t ak i n g u p s t a t i o n b eh i n d what
i s germa ne a p as s e d p awn
r e a dy t o e xp a n d .

3 7 Qc1 d4
38 N e 2

If W h i t e t akes e i t h e r the a
o r c - p a w n , B l a ck 's d - p a w n runs
th rough .

T h e f i n a l W h i t e o bs t ru c t i o n 38 Qb5
i n the centre having been 3 9 Qe1
r e m o v e d , t h e t w o s e p a r a t e B l a ck
f o r c e s a r e n o w i n c o mp l e t e S n e a k i n g b a ck t o t h e e - f i l e .
c o mmu n i ca t i o n w i t h easy
moveme n t a cross t h e board : a 39 Qd3
r e m a r k a b l e s t r a t e g i c
a c c o mp l i s hm e n t . I t i s rea l ly o n ly a matter
n o w o f c h o os i n g h o w W h i t e i s
3 1 Rdc1 Rc6 going to lose.

Proof t h a t t h e t w o w i n gs 40 Nc1 Qxf3ch


h av e n ow j o i n ed f or c e s . 4 1 Kg 1 Kf7 I

32 Re3 T a k e care w h e n you are


winning! White h a d been
W h i t e has p l ayed w e l l t o p l ot t i ng a l i t t le s w i nd l e on
e n gi n e e r t h i s c h a l l e n g e o n t h e t h e e - f i l e . N i mz ow i t s ch co vers
e -f i le b u t , s trange ly , i t i s t h e e n t ry p o i n t s a ga i n .
t o o l a t e , n o l o n g e r r e l e va n t ,
as c a n be s e e n i n B l a ck 4 2 Qf2 Qe4
a l l ow i n g a l l t h e Rooks t o b e 43 Q f 1 d3
e x ch a n g e d .
C l os i n g t h e d i a g o n a l , among
32 Rce6 o t h er t h i n gs .
3 3 Rxe4 44 Qd 1 Qe3ch
45 Kg2
W h i t e cannot p l ay for rep­
et i t i o n w i t h 3 3 R e c 3 b e c a u s e o f A n d W h i t e res i g n ed w i thout
33 . • •Rd 4 1 t ra p p i n g t h e Qu een w a i t i n g f o r t h e r e p l y . I t would
a n d i f t h e n 3 4 R x c 5 , s i mp l y p r o b a b ly h a v e b e e n 45 . . . d2
34 Q x c5 w i ns , 46 N e 2 ( 4 6 Q h 5 c h g6 and W h i t e
1 62
has n o more c h e ck s ) N d 3 , w i t h exd4
t h e u n a n s w e ra b l e t h r e a t o f
c o n t ro l l i n g t h e q u e e n i n g s q u a r e Instead of recapturing
by Nb2. i mm ed i a t e l y S p a s s k y , s a t i s f i e d
that t h e p i n w i l l g i ve h i m a
F i n d i n g the resou rces t o l as t i n g a d va n t a g e on t h e
combat two w i dely s eparated k i n gs i d e , g i v e s u p B i s h o p f o r
attacks put s u ch a s trai n on Kn i gh t t o c r e a t e w e a k n es s e s i n
t h e W h i t e f o r c e s t h a t s o me t h i n g B l ack 's qu eens ide pawn
was b o u n d t o c r a c k i n t h e e n d . s t ru c t u r e .

D i a g ram 1 9 0 2 Bxc6 ! b xc 6
3 N xd 4
Z u i d ema
N o w B l a ck 's c - p a w n s a r e
doubled, the front one weak ,
a n d h i s a - p aw n i s i s o l a t ed . B u t
to a ch i e ve t h i s W h i t e has h a d
t o concede t h e h a l f open b-fi le
and h i s ow n p a w n a t b 2 has been
c o n s e q u e n t ly w e a k e n e d .

3 ReB
4 Nd2

Th ere w o u l d be no p o i nt i n
4 Nxc6 because o f 4 1J d 7 a n d
• • •

t h en i f 5 Bxf 6 n o t 5 g xf 6 ?
. . •

but 5 • • • 1J x c 6 ! a n d B l a c k h a s
r e l e a s e d h i ms e l f f r o m t h e p i n
a n d a ct i va t e d h i s p i e c e s for
t h e c o s t o f a w e a k p aw n .

Spassky 4 g5

Be l gra d e , 1 9 6 4 A d mi t t i n g t h a t h ow e v e r l o n g
h e w a i t s h e c a n n o t r i d h i ms e l f
I t i s B l a ck t o m o v e a n d b o t h o f t h e p i n i n a ny o t h er w a y . H e
s i d e s h a ve a l mo s t c o mp l e t e d takes the risks that a l l such
t h e i r d ev e l o pme n t . moves i n front of t h e Ki ng
i mp l y b u t n o t t o d o s o w o u l d b e
W h i t e h as a p ow e r f u l p i n o n to a cc e p t t h a t n e i t h e r h i s
t h e Kn i gh t a t f 6 , o n e f r o m Kn i gh t n o r Qu e e n w o u l d b e o f
w h i ch B l a ck c a n n o t e s c a p e a ny a c t i v e u s e t o h im .
since h e can not p lay a Bishop
to e7 u n less h e weakens h i s 5 Bg3
k i n gs i d e p a w n s w i t h • • •g5. I n
addi t i o n W h i t e h a s pres s u re
aga i ns t e 5 w h i ch can be
i n cre a s e d by N - a 3 c 4 . B l a ck
de c i d es t o r e d u c e t h e c e n t ra l
t e n s i o n a n d e x ch a n g e p aw n s .

1 63
D i agram 1 9 1 p a w n b u t , a s i mp o r t a n t ly . g i ves
h i s B i s h op t h e opport u n i t y to
take an interest i n the
q u e e n s i d e , v i a f 2 , i n a d d i t i on
t o i t s k i ngs i d e ro l e .

7 Be6
8 b3 Rb4

G a i n i n g a t emp o w i th an
a t t a ck on the d -p a w n as he
p r e p a r e s t o d ou b l e h i s R o ok s .
9 Bf2 QaB

A n o t h e r g o o d m o ve . T h e Q u e e n
n o t on l y prot e c t s t h e a and c­
p a w n s b u t c l e a rs t h e w a y for
the other Rook .

1 0 Rc1
N o w th ere are t h r e e R e m i n d i n g B l a ck t h a t the
weaknesses i n the B l ack d o u b l e d p a w n i s s t i l l t h ere a n d
p os i t i o n a t a 5 , c 6 a n d g 5 a n d vu l n e ra b l e .
one in W h i t e's at b2 w h i ch
turns i n t o a b a ck w a r d p a w n a t 10 RebB
b 3 a l i t t l e l a t er. I t w i l l b e 1 1 Rc3
i nt erest i ng to s e e whether
B l a ck ' s s i n g l e , or White's Th i s Rook h a s a defens ive
mu l t i p l e advantage has r o l e a s w e l l a s a n a t t a ck i n g
t h e b e t t e r c h a n c e o f s u c c es s . one.

5 Bxd4 11 Qb7

A g o o d m o ve r e m o vi n g a p i e c e Di agram 1 9 2
w h i c h w a s n o t on l y w e l l p l a c e d
i n t h e c e n t re b u t a t t a ck i n g c 6 .
5 • . . c 5 w o u l d o n l y l o ck i n h i s
d a rk - s q u a r e d B i s h o p a n d c a u s e
c o n g es t i o n o n t h e b - f i l e w h e r e
h e h o p e s t o m o u n t a n a t t a ck .
B x d 4 a l s o a l l ow s h i m t o d e ve l o p
h i s Q u e e n ' s B i s h o p e f f e c t i v e ly
at e 6 , rather than pas s ive ly
d ef e nd i ng t h e c - p aw n from d 7 .
6 cxd4 RbB
7 f3 !

A fine move. If B la ck
c a p t u r e s t h e b - p a w n t h e n 8 '- N c 4
and 9 Nxa5 and W h i t e ' s a - pawn
is passed. The text so lidifies
t h e c e n t re by s u p p o r t i n g t h e e -
1 64
Tri p l i ng smoothly on the b­ D i a g ram 1 9 3
f i l e B l a ck h a s r a p i d l y m ou n t e d
h i s a t t a ck on t h e b a c k w ar d
pawn. W h i t e s e ems t o h a v e �-�
---
a c c o mp l i s h e d l i t t l e f o r t h e
last few moves apart from
pro t e ct i n g the pawn and
bri n gi n g o n e p i e c e , t h e R o o k a t
c3, t o b e a r on o n e of h i s
targe t s , c 6 .

White cou ld go on i n the


same way a n d provi de furt h e r
c o v e r f o r t h e b - p aw n w i t h R e e 3 ,
bu t t h e u l t i m a t e d e f e n c e o f
that p o i n t w as n ever a p art o f
h i s p u r p o s e.

12 Qc1 1

Th i s s eemi ngly i n nocu ous


litt l e s i d e s t e p i s rea l ly f u l l St r i k i n g a t t h e g 5 t a r g e t
of m e n a c e . I t h i gh l i gh t s t w o and the pawn beyond should
weak n e s s e s , a t c 6 a n d g 5 , a n d B l a ck c h o o s e t o c a p t u r e .
though t h e Q u e e n i s mas k ed i n
bot h d i r e c t i o n s by o t h e r W h i t e I t i s a c ri t i ca l s i t u at i on .
pi eces, t h e move d i s p l ays h ere I f B l a ck t a k e s t h e p a w n at h 4
mu l t i p l e , l o n g - ra n g e p ow e r . h i s h 6 - p aw n b e co m e s w e a k 1 i f h e
does not, then White wi l l
12 B xb 3 e xc h a n g e p aw n s a n d g5 w i l l b e
u n s u p p o rt e d .
B l a ck 's p l a n s u cceeds a n d
n ow t h a t t h e b - p aw n h a s g o n e To g i ve you s ome i dea
the a-paw n 's pos i t i o n i s bad ly o f W h i t e 's h i d d e n res ource s ,
erod e d . h ere a r e t w o p o s s i b i l i t i es. I n
one Black attends to the
1 3 h4 1 k i n gs i d e , i n t h e o t h e r h e t u r n s
t o t h e Qu e e n ' s .

B l a ck t a k e s t h e h - p a w n :
13 gxh4 1 4 e5 Nd5
1 5 Ne4! N xc3 7 1 6 Qxh6 Nd5
1 7 Bxh 4 a n d B l a ck i s c l e a r l y
h e lp l e s s .

2 B l a ck g o e s o n w i t h h i s o w n
plans o n the queens i d e : 1 3 • • •

Bxa4 1 4 h x g 5 h x g5 1 5 e5 Nd5
1 6 Ne4 (aga i n u nmask i ng the
Qu e e n a nd t h i s t im e t h reaten i n g
t o c a p t u r e t h e p a w n w i t h ch e ck )
Nxc3 1 7 Qxg5ch Kf8 1 8 Qh 6 c h
Kee 1 9 Nf6ch K e 7 (1 9 • • •Kd8
20 Qf8 mate) 2 0 exd6 doub l e ch
1 65
Kxd6 2 1 Qh 2 ! a v e ry p l e as i n g W h i t e t h rea t e n s Q x g S ch and
ma t e . N x a S f o rk i n g Qu e e n a n d p awn .

I n b o t h t h e s e l i n es B l a ck 15 Nh7
wou l d h a ve d o n e better t o
r e t re a t h i s K n i g h t t o h 7 r a t h e r H e mu s t a t t e n d t o t h e Ki n g
t h a n g o f o r ma t e r i a l , bu t i t i s f i r� t , o f c o u rs e .
c l ear t h a t W h i t e 's c h a n ces o f a
k i n gs i d e a t t a ck a r e e x c e l l e n t . 1 6 NxaS Qb6
1 7 Nxc6
T h e l i n e chosen i n t h e game,
h ow e v e r , r e ve a l s t h e q u e e n s i d e And so both t h e q ueens ide
r e s ou r c e s t h a t a r e a l s o l a t e n t weak poi nts fal l. W h i t e 's
i n Wh i t e ' s p o s i t i o n . s t r a t egy h as s u c c e e d ed a n d t h e
game i s over. B l a ck had one
13 Be6 t arget t h e b a c k w a rd b - p a wn
a n d a l t h o ugh h e h i t i t , i t did
Acknow ledgi n g that t h e n o t p r o ve to b e a f a t a l b l ow .
k i n gs i d e g i v e s h i m s o me c o n c e r n W h i t e h a d t h r e e , l o c a t e d i n two
a n d c l e a r i n g t h e b -f i l e s o t h a t w i d e ly s e p a r a t e d a re a s , and s o
w h e n t h e W h i t e K n i gh t u n m a s k s a g a i n i t w a s t h e c a p a c i t y for
t h e Qu e e n h e w i l l b e a b l e t o e n g a g e m e n t o n t w o f r o n t s t h at
p l ay • • • Rb 1 , s eeking t o reduce won t h e day.
t h e forces agai n s t h i m .
Bu t t h e game is n ot quite
14 hxgS h xgS over . • . •

1 5 Nc4 l
1 7 Rb1
D i agram 1 9 4
By th i s method B l a ck gets
o u t o f t h e f o rk .

T h e r e a r e n o w a l l k i n d s of
ways f o r W h i t e t o w i n . He has a
f i n e c e n t r e , a p a s s e d p a w n on
t h e a -fi l e and i s a pawn up.
S p a s s k y f i n ds an o r i g i n a l and
p l eas i n g way t o f i n i s h .

1B dS l Rxc1
19 Rexc1 Qb2
2 0 N xb B BxdS
21 exdS Qxb B

White has an easy w i n with


t w o R o o k s f o r t h e Qu e e n ,
e s p e c i a l ly a s B l a ck ' s K n i gh t i s
r e m o t e f r o m t h e s c e n e of
action.
A beaut ifu l move because,
w i t h e l eg a n t s i mp l i c i t y , it 22 as IJ a B
s t r e s s e s t h o s e t h r e e 23 Ra1 Nf6
weaknesses, aS, c6 and gS
men t i o n e d a t m o v e S .
1 66
Unf ortunately h e c a n n o t In t h i s comp l e x t h ough
lockade the pawn with Qa6 apparently even looking
ecau s e o f R c 6 . p o s i t i o n A l ek h i n e f o u n d a m o v e
wh i ch i s rea l ly a sort of
24 a6 Nxd5 t r i p l e f o rk .
2 5 Rb3 R e s i gn s ,
1 Qd2 1 I
or t h e pawn is not to be
topped . T h e Q u e e n i s s o p ow e rf u l a
p i ece that she does n 't need t o
I t i s r e ma rk a b l e t h a t W h i t e m o ve f ar t o c h a n ge t ot a l ly h e r
as a b l e not o n ly t o crea t e th e l i n e s o f a t t a ck . Th i s move
ri p l e w e a k n e s s b u t t o a p p l y p i n p o i n ts t h ree w e ak n es s es i n
q u a l a n d a l m o s t s i mu l t a n e o u s the Black pos ition in a
res s u r e t o t h os e p o i n t s . s t a rt l i n g m a n n e r , n o n e o f w h i ch
was i n the least obvious
T h e key move, s u bt l e a n d b e fore: t h e h - p aw n o n t h e f ar
i f f i cu l t t o f i n d b e caus e i t r i g h t , t h e a - p aw n o n t h e f a r
as j u s t a s i d eways s h u f f l e by l e f t a n d t h e p a w n a t e 5 , r i gh t
he Queen, remi nds one of i n the middl e.
n o t h e r famous s h o r t s t ep by
he Q u e e n w h i ch o n c e d e c i de d A f ew s i mp l e v a r i a t i o n s w i l l
he des t i n y of the Wor l d s h ow t h e s e weaknesses c l ea r l y .
h amp i o n s h i p . I n t h e f i rs t t w o B l a ck t ri e s t o
redu c e t h e forces a ga i n s t h i m
D i a g ram 1 9 5 by e x c h a n g e s .

Capab l a n c a 1 Rxc1
2 Rxc1 RcB
3 RxcB BxcB
4 QaSI

f o rk i n g t h e a a n d e - p a w n s a n d
s o w i n n i n g m a t eri a l .
2 Rxc1
2 Rxc1 RcB
3 R xcB NcxB
4 Qc3 I

a n d t h e a - p a w n i s a t t a ck e d
tw i c e a n d mu s t f a l l f o r B l a ck
cannot bring up another
d e f e n d e r . Th o u g h n o t a l o n g o n e
t h i s w ou l d have been a h ard
vari a t i o n for e i th er s i d e t o
s ee from t h e i n i t i a l p os i t i on.
A l ek h i n e
3 Bc6
Fi na 1 match game for t h e M o re a ggres s i v e t h i s t i m e,
W o r l d C h a mp i o n s h i p B l a c k c o u n t e r a t t a ck s a g a i n s t
B u e n o s A i r es , 1 92 7 t h e e - p aw n .

167
2 Nh4 B x e4 E a ch o f t h e f o l l ow i n g four
3Qe3 I d i a g r a ms c o u l d r e p � e s e n t t h e
l i n es o f s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g for
wi nning the Bi shop for i f the o n e of t h e g a m e s d i s c u s s e d i n
B i s h o p moves off the b 1 h7 t h i s c h a p t e r. C a n y o u a s s i gn
l i n e , W h i t e f ork s t w i c e w i t h a each t o i t s appropri at e gam e ?
Kn i gh t at f5, winning the
Q u e en . A B

v
4 1 Bc6
2 Nh4 N xe4

Try i n g i t t h e o t h e r w ay a n d
a t t a ck i n g t h e Qu e e n .

3 NhfSch gxf 5 ... 0

v
4 N xf S c h

I f the Ki ng retreats to t h e
h -f i l e i t i s ma t e i n t w o a n d i f
h e g o e s t o g B h i s Qu e e n i s
t a k e n w i t h c h e ck .

4 Kg6 or f6
5 Qxh 6ch KxfS S O LUT I O N S
6 g 4 ma t e !
A S t a h l berg N i mz ow i t s ch
In the e ve n t Capab l a n ca B A l e k h i n e - Ca p a b l a n c a
ch o s e : c K o r c h n oy S my s l o v
0 Spas s k y Z u i d ema
80 6 ,

and after,

2 Bxe6 Qxe6
3 QaS,

W h i t e won a pawn. Ca pab l ance


f o u gh t o n h er o i ca l ly , a s o n e
w o u l d e xp e c t f ro m a m a n w h o s e
title depended on i t , but i n
t h e e n d h e r es i g n ed o n t h e B 2 n d
mo v e .
The probl ems for this
chapter are of a d i f fere n t
k i nd .

168
CHAPTER 1 6

The minority attack

D i a gram 1 9 6 p a w n e xc h a n g es d e s i r ed by B l a ck
w h o w o u l d t h e n emerge w i t h t h e
p a s s e d p aw n h e h a d h o p e d f o r.
But t h i s is n o t n e c e s s ari ly s o.
I f B l a ck t o ok t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n
a d va n c i n g h i s p a w n s h e w o u l d
m a k e p r o p e r p r e p a ra t i o n s b e f o r e
h e started, i n order t o ensure
that the resu lting pawn
s i t u at i o n was t o h i s ad van t ag e .
W h i t e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w i t h
h i s p r e - e m p t i v e a t t a ck , w o u l d
contrive matters so that
e xch an ges t ook p l a ce i n
conditi ons f a voura b l e t o
h i ms e l f and, if he was
s u ccess ful, d i s turb the
s t r u c t u r e o f t h e o p p os i n g f o r c e
and spoi 1 the maj ority's
chances of produ c i n g a h ea lthy
passed pawn. It i s a pre­
Th e p a w n c o n f i g u r a t i o n i n e mp t i v e s t r i k e , i nt e n d e d t o
diagram 1 9 6 o ccurs q u i t e c o n f o u n d t h e e n e my a n d t e m p t ,
freq u e n t l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n pro mp t , press h i m i nt o mak i n g
open i ngs s u ch a s t h e Qu e e n 's p aw n m o ves b ef o re h e i s r e a dy .
Gamb i t , a n d i t i s w o r t h w h i l e C o m m o n f or ms o f t h e a t t a ck
devot i n g a s h ort c h a p t er t o t h e w i l l n ot i nfrequ e n t ly produ ce
subj e c t , pos i t i ons ak i n to t h a t i n
d i a gr a m 1 9 7 w h e r e B l a ck h a s
B l a ck h a s a q u e e n s i d e p a w n su pported his d -pawn with . . .
ma j o r i t y a n d f r o m i t h o p e s t o c 6 a nd W h i t e h as advan ced h i s
produ c e a p a s s ed p aw n . H o w e v e r , b-pawn, perhaps w i t h the
Wh i t e can s o m e t i mes t a k e t h e s u pport o f a p a w n a t a 4 , o r , i f
i n i t i at i v e i n s p i t e o f h i s p aw n not, that of a piece.
inferi ori t y . Th e f a c t t h a t h e
h as a m i n or i ty i mp l i e s t h a t h e B l a ck i s i n s o met h i ng o f a
als o h a s a h a l f o p e n f i l e f o r d i l em m a , H e h a s t h e ch o i c e
· b etween capturing t h e b - pawn
h is use. Hi s obj ect i s t o
adv a n c e h i s p a w n s a n d c r e a t e a n d so l ea v i n g h i s d -p a w n
weak n es s es a m o n g t h e B l a ck p a w n i s o l a t e d , u n l e s s h e i s l u ck y
ma s s a n d t h e n t o p r e y u p o n enough to have a pawn sti l l o n
t h e m . I t c o u l d b e a r gu e d t h a t t h e e - f i l e , o r a l l ow i n g W h i t e
t o d o s o w o u l d on ly l e a d t o t h e to exchange bxc6 when,
1 69
a f t er • • • b xc6 h e i s left w i th If you l o ok at t h e p os i t i o n
a n i s o l a t e d a - p a w n , a b a ck w a r d o n t h e q u e e n s i d e y o u w i l l s ee
c - p aw n a n d a h o l e a t c 5 . th a t B l a c k h a s a p a w n maj o r i t y
a n d t h e W h i t e f o r c es a re
Di agram 1 9 7 d i s p o s e d i n a t y p i c a l a rr a y for
a m i n or i t y a t t a ck . I t i s
s i g n a l l e d b y W h i t e ' s f i rs t
mo ve .

1 Rab1

T h e o t h er R o ok i s f o r u s e on
t h e h a l f o p e n c -f i l e .

B l a ck a i ms f o r a r e d u c t i o n
o f forces by e xch a n g e s , w h i ch
e xp l a i n s h i s n e x t f e w m o v e s ,
a n d t h e n t o s e ek c o mp e n s a t i o n
o n t h e k i ngs i d e w h ere h e h as
t h e h a lf open e -f i l e .

1 Nh5
2 Bh2

I n e i t h er case White has T h i s B i s h op c o n t ro l s a f i n e


s u c c e e d e d i n cre at i n g d i agon a l reach i n g i n t o the
w eak nes s es i n the pawn q u e e n s i d e w h e r e h e i s p re p a r i ng
s t r u c t u r e a n d g i v e n h i ms e l f a n a t t a ck i s o h e does n o t w i s h
t a rge t s f o r a t t a ck . t o e xchange i t , a n d cert a i n ly
n o t f o r a Kn i gh t .
Di agram 1 9 8
G o l ombek 2 g6
3 Ne5 Ng7

N o w h e i s r e a dy t o e x c h a n g e
t h e l i gh t -s q u a r e d B i s h o p s .

4 b4 Bf5
5 Na4

C r a ck s a l r e a dy a p p e a r i n t h e
B l a ck p o s i t i o n . W h i t e t h r e a t ens
Nc5 at a s u itable moment and if
B l a ck t r i es to prevent this
with • • • b6 (after defending
t h e c-paw n ) th e c - p a w n wi l l i n
e ff e c t b e c ome b a ck wa rd .

5 Bxd 3
6 Qxd3 Nd7

Ca p a b l a n c a Cont inuing h i s p o l i cy of
e xchangi n g .
M a rga t e , 1 939
1 7D
7 Rfc1 1 0 bS

Capablanca l ea ves h i s N o w B l ack faces the


oppon e n t t o ma k e t h e e xc h a n g e s u n p l e a s a n t ch o i c e d i s cu s s e d i n
wi ls t h e s t r e n g t h e n s h i s h o l d d i a g r a m 1 9 7 . B l a ck r e g a rd s t h e
o n the qu eens i d e f i l e s . less e r evi l as t h e i s o l a t i o n o f
h i s d - p aw n .
7 NxeS
8 BxeS 8d6 10 cxbS
1 1 QxbS
T h e W h i t e B i s h o p e nj oys t oo
good a d i a g o n a l t o b e l e f t D i agram 2 0 0
unch a l lenged and White
e x ch a n g e s t h i s t i m e b e c au s e .h e
d o es n o t w a n t h i s c e n t r e p aw n s
brok e n .

9 8xd6 Qxd6

D i a gr a m 1 9 9

B l a ck 's q u e ens i d e maj ori ty


s t i l l exi sts and so what has
W h i t e a c c o mp l i s h ed for h i s
·

p a i ns ?

He has created a n i s o lated


p aw n a t d S .

Black has succeeded in The c-fi le is n ow fu l ly


a ch i e v i n g w h o l e s a l e e xc h a n g e s ope n .
bu t h a s n o t e a s ed h i s p o s i t i o n .
A s Go l o m b e k h i m s e l f r e m a r k e d , T h e b - f i l e h as been half
i n his fine co l lection o p e n e d a n d B l a ck 's b -pawn i s
"Capab l a n c a ' s 1 0 0 B e s t G a m e s o f s u b j e c t t o f r o n t a l p r e s s u re. I n
C h e s s " , C a p a b l a n c a h as b r o u g h t fact the dual weakness at dS
h i s m i n ori ty a t t a ck t o a rap i d a n d b 7 f or c e s B l a ck t o g i v e u p
c l i ma x. W h i t e i s p o i s ed f o r a a p aw n .
pawn t h r u s t a n d t h e
s i mp l i f i e d n a t u r e o f t h e S u p p os i n g h e t r i es t o h o l d
pos i t i o n p ro v i d es a g o o d both paw n s : 1 1 Rel
• • • 1 2 RcS
i l lustrat i o n o f a minority ( t h ere i s n o t h i n g a R o ok l i k e s
a t t a ck a t w o rk . b et t er t h a n l u rk i n g o n a n open
1 71
fi le, a d va n c i n g i n i t w h e n t h e 1 4 Nxd5 Qxa2
t i me is ri p e a n d a p p ly i n g 15 Nb4 Qa4
l a t e r a l mu s c l e a s t h e W h i t e 16 Nc6 R es i g n s ,
Rook d o es n o w aga i ns t t h e d ­
pawn ) R d 8 13 Nc3 and the d­ b e c a u s e W h i t e t h r e a t e n s b oth
p aw n mu s t f a l l . the Rook and Ra 1 , w i nning the
Qu e e n .
O r aga i n : 1 1 b 6 ( a hole
at c6 appears and i s i m­ D i a g r am 2 0 1
me d i a t e ly f i l l e d ) 1 2 R c 6 Qd 7
1 3 Rxb6! winning the paw n V o e l l my
b e ca u s e o f t h e d i s c o very o n t h e
Qu e e n , o r , i n t h i s , i f 1 2 . • •

Q d B ( t h e o n ly o t h er s q u are for
t h e Q u e e n w h i c h a l s o gu a r d s t h e
d-pawn) then 1 3 Nc3 w i ns the d­
p a w n b e c au s e B l a c k c a n n o t p l a y
a Rook to d B .
B l a ck , t h er e f o r e , a b a n d o n s
h i s a t t e mp t t o h o l d b o t h p a w n s
a n d a c t i va t es h i s K n i gh t .

11 Ne6
12 Nc3

W h e n you are w i n n i n g d o n ' t


s n a t c h h e e d l es s l y a t p a w n s . Th e
t e xt g i v es W h i t e a c h o i c e o f
pawns and his tas k would have
b e en h arder h ad h e t a k e n t h e b ­ N i mz ow i t s c h
pawn immed i at e l y : 1 2 Qxb7 R e b 8
1 3 Qc6 Qxc6 1 4 R xb 8 ch Rxb8 B er n , 1931
15 Rxc6 R b 1 ch a n d , a lt h ough
W h i t e w i l l s t i l l w i n , B l a ck h a s Th i s e xa mp l e b eg i n s w i t h a
g a i n e d s ome f r e e d o m . s i mi l a r p a w n format i o n t h ough
w i t h W h i t e ' s d - p a w n s t i l l at
12 Red8 d2.
13 Qxb7
1 Na4
N o w it is d i f f e r e n t f o r i f
t h e Queen i s cha l lenged o n t h e
W i t h t h e o b j e ct of p l a n t i ng
f i le White w i l l win the a or
t h e K n i g h t a t c 5 , s u p p o r t e d by
t h e d - p a w n a c c o rd i n g t o wh i c h
t h e R o ok w h i ch h a s j u s t b een
R o ok B l a ck u s es .
u n ma s k e d o n the h a l f open c­
13 Qa3 fi le. If • • •b 6 at a ny t i me t o
prevent t h i s the c-pawn i s
weakened .
Seeking counter attack
rather than watch i n g h i s
Rfe8
i s o l a t e d p aw n s d i s a p p e a r .
B l a ck s e e k s c o mp e n s a t i o n o n
t h e k i ng s i d e •

1 72
2 Qd4 p o s i t i o n s to h a ra s s t h e e n emy
pawns and o ccupy any h o l es
A p ow e r f u l c e n t r a l i s a t i o n. wh i c h o c cu r .
Th e Qu e e n n o t o n l y t h r o w s i n
her w e i gh t a t c 5 b u t p i n s d ow n 7 Nd6
Black's Qu e e n 's Rook t o t h e
defen c e o f t h e a - p a w n . To cover t h e a s s a u l t poi n t ,
b5.
2 Qe5
B Ra1
B l a ck d e c i d e s t o c h a s e o f f
o r e x ch a n g e t h e p ow e rf u l Qu e e n . W h i t e regroups his Rooks
It res u l ts i n a redu c t i o n of before advanci n g .
force ag a i n s t h i s q u e e n s i d e
pawn s , b u t d o es n ' t h e l p h i m B RaeB
with h i s own a ct i vi ty o n t h e 9 Rfc1 Ne5
o t h e r w i n g. I n f a c t i t r a p i d ly
c omes t o a h a l t . I f W h i t e n ow p l a y s d 2 d4
B l a c k w i l l b e a b l e t o es t a b l i s h
3 Qxe5 Rxe5 a n o u t po s t at c4 a n d p a r t ly
4 Nc5 Re7 c l os e t h e q u e e n s i d e .
5 b4
1 0 b5 !
T h e mi n o r i t y a t t a ck b e gi n s .
D i a g ram 2 0 2
5 a6

B 1 a c k r e s i s t e d t h e
tempt a t i o n t o d r i v e a w a y t h e
Kn i g h t w i t h b 6. He t r i es t o
• • •

h a l t t h e a d van c e o f t h e b -p a w n
bu t a n y m o v e m e n t o f h i s o w n
pa w n s on that side i s
we aken i n g .
6 a4

To s upport t h e comi ng
assa u l t i n t h e a d j a c e n t f i l e .

6 Ne4

It is c lear ly a good idea t o


offer a n e x c h a n g e o f Kn i gh t s ,
but N i m z ow i t s c h w i l l h av e n on e
of it. W h i t e has o n ly two p i eces
gu a rd i n g t h i s s q u are aga i ns t
7 Nb3 B l a ck 's t h r e e b u t i f t h e
s acri f i c e is accepted such
Wh i t e w a s h ap p y w i t h e a r l i er h a v o c w i l l h a ve b e e n crea t e d
exch a n g e s , f o r s i mp l i f i c a t i o n a m o n g t h e r e ma i n i n g p aw n s t h a t
often a c cen t u a t es s t ru c t u r a l s ome mu s t f a l 1 .
w eak n e s s e s b u t s o m e m i n o r
p i eces mu s t b e r e t a i n e d i n s u c h 10 axb5
1 73
H e mu s t g o i n f o r t h e f i r s t T h e q u e e n s i d e p a w n s h av e a l l
e x c h a n ge a t l e a s t f o r W h i t e w a s d i s appea r e d . T h e mi n o r i t y
t h r e a t e n i n g t o wi n t h e a - p aw n . a t t a ck i s o ve r. W h i t e i s a p aw n
u p a n d B l a ck s �i l l h as a
1 1 a xbS w e a k n es s a t d 5 .

O p en i n g u p t h e a - f i l e w h i ch T h e game c o n t i n u ed fo�
g i ve s h i m a c c e s s t o t h e s e ve n t h a n o t h e r t h i rt y m o ve s b e f ore
r a nk a s w e l l a s mak i n g B l a ck B l a ck res i g n ed b u t w e h a v e s e e n
a n x i ou s a b o u t t h e b a ck r a n k . s� f f i c i e n t o f i t t o s e e a g a i n
h ow f o r m i d a b l e t h i s k i n d of
B l a ck does n o t h a ve t o a t t a ck c a n b e .
c a p t u r e a ga i n o n b S bu t h e i s
r e l u c t a n t t o a l l ow h i s R o o k s t o W i t h t h e s e i d eas in mi nd
become t i ed down t o t h e defen c e cons i d e r t h e next t w o pos i t i ons
o f h i s p aw n s . f r om mas t e r g ame s .

11 N xb S D i a gr a m 2 0 3
12 Bxb5 cxb5
K e res
T h e B l a ck p a w n s are n o w
shat tered. Not i ce how the d ­
p awn h a s b e co m e i s o l a t e d a n d
s h o u l d t h i s f a l l W h i t e 's d - p a w n
wi l l b e p a s s e d .

13 Rc5 Rd7

H e mu s t d e f e n d t h e d - p a w n
and the other Rook cannot do
so: 1 3 Rd8
• • • 1 4 Rxd 5 ! There
i s a ma t e t h r e a t o n t h e b a c k
rank .

14 RxbS
R e ga i n i n g t h e p aw n a n d e ve n
i f th i s w a s a l l t h e b o o t y t o
f a l l t o W h i t e, h i s mi nori t y
a t t ack cou l d s t i l l b e Smy s l o v
c o n s i d e red a s u c c e s s f o r B l a ck
i s l e f t w i t h t w o i s o l at e d p a w n s M o s c ow , 1 9 4 8
i n h i s p os i t i o n .
Wh i t e t o p l ay and creat e
14 Nc6 q u e e n s i d e w e a k n es s es .

The o t her b - pawn c o u l d n o t


be saved : 1 4 Rb8
. • • 1 5 NcS
Rc7 1 6 Rxb7, and again the
b a ck r a n k i s B l a ck ' s u n d o i n g .

1 5 NcS Rc7
1 6 Nxb7 Rb8
1 7 Nd6

1 74
Di agram 2 0 4 b xc6 t h e a - pawn i s i s o l at ed,
t h e c - p a w n b a ckw ard a n d a h o l e
P e t ros i a n a p p ears a t c 5 .

D i agram 2 0 4

b4

I f W h i t e l eaves h i s
q u e e n s i d e p aw n s u n t o u c h ed 2 . . .
bxc3 w i l l iso late both the
r e ma i n i n g p a w n s . T h e r e f o r e , h e
mu s t c a p t u r e . If 2 axb4 then
2 . . . a xb4 3 cxb4 Qxb4 and
t h e b - p aw n i s o n i t s own .

2 cxb4 axb4
3 a4

T h e o n l y o t h e r s y s t em. B l a ck
cou l d isolate both a and b­
p aw n s n ow w i th 3 . . . b3 1 I t i s
A ve r b a k h worth w h i l e n ot i n g th i s n e w way
of isolating pawns. The
T i f l i s , 1 9 59 i ntervention of the b-pawn
between them effecti vely
lack to p l a y a n d i s o l a t e a t i s o lates even pawns o n adjacent
east o n e W h i t e q u e e n s i d e p awn . f i l e s . B l a ck d o e s not n e ed t o
d o t h i s i mmed i a t e l y s i n c e W h i t e
i s u n a b l e t o p l a y b3 a t
OLU T I ON S pres e n t . Had h e b e e n a b l e t o,
h e w o u l d h av e t h e p ros p e ct of a
i agram 2 0 3 s t r o n g s u p port e d p a s s e d p a w n a t
a 4 . B u t t h e n , o f c o u r s e , B l a ck
b5 wou l d n o t have a l l owed i t t o
h a p pe n .
B l a ck c a n e i t h e r i g n o r e t h e
awn o r c a p t u r e . I n s t e a d B l a ck b e g i n s h i s
a t t a ck o n t h e a - p a w n , t reat i n g
Af t e r 1 . . . c x b 5 h i s p a w n a t i t as i f i t was a l ready
5 becomes n o t o n l y i s o lated iso lated .
ut very d i ff i cu l t t o d e f e n d
gai ns t 2 B x b 5 a n d a l a t e r Q b 3 . 3 Qa7
hould you exami ne this 4 Red 1
os i t i o n f u r t h e r t a k e c a r e i n
i n es w h ere W h i t e capt ures o n A t t a ck i n g t h e b a c k w a r d d ­
5 becaus e Black has a p a w n f o r B l a ck 's p a w n s t r u c t u r e
i s c o very w i t h c h e ck : B xh 2 . h a s n o t c ome o u t u n s ca t h ed .

I n t h e g a m e h e i gn ored t h e 4 Ra6
awn a nd p l ayed 1 Bd7. 5 Rd3
fter 2 b x c 6 h e h a s t w o methods
f ret a k i ng. I f 2 . . . B x c 6 , h i s
-paw n i s i s o l a t e d a n d i f 2 . . .
1 75
N e a t ly t h r e a t e n i n g b o t h b 3
and the doub ling of his Rooks
on the d-fi le.

5 b3 !

Now the pawns are tru ly


i s o lated a n d we s h a l l t a k e i t
n o furth e r .
CHAPTER 1 7

Isolated and hanging pawns

D i a gram 2 0 5 grou p s as o p p o s e d to W h i t e 's


t h re e . B u t t h ere a r e s p e c i a l
f a c t o r s w h i c h i n c e rt a i n
c i rcums t ances c o n trad i ct t h e
g e n er a 1 pri n c i p l e .

T h i s k i n d of i s o l a t ed p a w n
ari s es through pawn exchanges
i n many, part i cu l arly
qu eens ide, o p e n i n gs a n d
u s u a l l y , as i n t h i s case, i t i s
the d-pawn wh i ch becomes
i s o l a t ed * .

To begi n w i th, t h e pawn i s a


centra l one and s o has
i n f l u e n c e o v er, a n d i n s o me
c a s e s c o n t r o l o f , e5 a n d c 5 .
T h o s e are s q u ares t h a t can
b e c o me m o s t va l u a b l e o u t p os t s
for pi eces. Then, s i nce the
Paw n s , t h e i r p a t t e r n , s t r u c t u r e pawn is iso lated, adjacent
and d i s t r i b u t i o n a c ro s s t h e f i les a r e a t l east half open
board c h a n g e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a n d a t l ea s t o n e l i k e ly t o be
t erra i n , d e t ermi n e t a ct i cs a n d fu l ly ope n . E i t h e r cou l d be
s t ra t e g i e s a n d c o n s t a n t l y u s e f u l l y e xp l o i t e d t h ou g h care
influ e n ce t h e course of t h e m u s t be t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t
game . t h ey d o n o t f a l l i n t o e n emy
h a n d s . Th i rd l y t h e p a w n may
We h ave b e e n i n c l i ned s o f a r w i t h s u p p o r t a n d p re p a ra t i o n ,
to regard i s o l at e d pawns as b e c o m e t h e s p ea r h e a d of a
e s s en t i a l ly w e a k b u t t h e r e a r e c en t r a l a s s a u l t a s i t p u s h es
c a s e s t h a t a r e t o o c o mp l e x o r f o r w a r d , a s s u m i n g a dy n a m i c
too s pe c i a l to f i t i n t o s o r o l e. T h e s e p o i n t s a re a l l i n
s i mp l e a t h e o ry . T h e i s o l a t e d t h e p a w n 's favour and s o t h e
pawn i n t h e c e n t re o f t h e b o a r d d i s a d v a n t a g e s mu s t n o w be
i s a n e x a mp l e a n d a t yp i ca l c o n s i d e re d .
pawn s t ru c t u r e c a n b e s e e n i n
diagram 2 0 5 .

F r o m g e n e r a l c o n s i d e ra t i o n s • s u c h a p a w n i s s o me t i me s k n o w n
Black 's c o n f i gura t i o n is as an 'i solani ' , after
superi o r s i n c e h e h a s t w o p a w n N i mzowi t s c h .
1 77
I t i s vu l n e ra b l e t o a t t a ck Di a g r a m 2 0 6
f ro m t h e f ro n t .

T h e s q u a re i mm ed i a t e ly i n
front of i t is obvi ou s ly a
s t rong s q u are for t h e
oppos i t i on who can post a
b 1 o c k a d e r t h e r e v e ry
effect ively .

T h e n e arer t h e e n d game c o m e s
t h e l e s s u s ef u l w i l l be t h e
o u t p o s t s f or w h i ch t h e p a w n i s
gu a r d i a n , a n d t h e m o r e i t s
i so l a t i on i s shown t o be a
fundamental and stat i c
w e ak n es s . I n o t h e r w o rds , w h a t
stren gth it may a cqu i re in t h e
m i d d l e game mu s t g i v e r i s e t o
o t h e r a d vant ages t o i t s o w n e r
a n d i f t h i s c o n vers i on p roves
i mp os s i b l e , t h e p a w n
d eg e n er a t e s i n t o a l i a b i l i t y .
T h i s i s a c o mm o n p os i t ion
To s u m u p , t h e centra l from w h i ch i s o l at e d p a w ns can
i s o lated pawn has dynami c aris e .
s t rength a n d s t a t i c w eak n e s s i
more prosp ects i n t h e m i d d l e B cxd4
g ame a n d l e s s i n t h e e n d i n g . 9 exd4 dxc4
1 0 B x c4
B o twi n n i k V i dma r
N o t t i n gh a m , 1 9 3 6 T h e i s o l a t e d p a w n a p p e a rs
a n d a ga i n i t i s a d - p awn .
To use an examp le by
Bo t w i n n i k i s a p p r o pr i a t e i n B l a ck s h o u l d n o w k e e p t w o
treat i n g t h i s amb igu o u s i d e a s f i rm l y i n mi n d :
pos i t i o n a l i d e a . From h i m w e
s h ou l d o b t a i n s o m e o b j e ct i v i t y
for h e s e e ms as happy t o h a v e B l o c k a d e o f t h e d - p awn to
s u ch a p a w n a s t o p l a y a ga i n s t p r e ve n t i t e xp a n d i n g .
i t . Here h e makes u s e of t h e
p aw n ' s d y n ami c. 2 S i mp l i c a t i o n .

A f t e r t h e m o v e s : 1 c4 e6 The f i rs t objective,
2 Nf3 dS 3 d4 Nf6 4 Nc3 b l o ck a d e, i s t o r e n d e r t h e pawn
Be7 5 BgS 0 0 6 e3 Nbd7 s t a t i c for i t s s t re n gt h l i e s i n
7 Bd3 cS B 0 0 , w e a rr i v e i ts dynamism. The s e cond,
a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f d i ag r a m 2 0 6. s i mp l i f i ca t i o n , w i l l r e d u c e t h e
e n e r gy g e n e r a t e d i n t h e W h i t e
forces as s o ci a t e d w i t h the
p a w n , a n d m o ve t h e g a m e a l ong
t ow a r d s t h e e n d i n g w h e r e t h e
s t at i c w e a k n es s o f the pawn
wi l l become evi den t.
1 78
Wh i t e mu s t : K n i gh t c o u l d b e d r i v e n off
later with . • • f6, but White
1 D e f e n d t h e p aw n . wou l d be quite content w i th
2 M a k e u s e o f a ny o u t posts t h a t f o r t h e B l a ck e -p a w n w o u l d
w h i c h t h e p a w n p r o vi d e s . b e weakened and t h e K i ng's pawn
3 U s e t h e o u t p os t ( s ) as f r o n t c o mpromi s e d .
p i v o t s f o r a t t a ck . F o r e x a m p l e ,
a Kn i gh t at e5 as a p i v o t f o r 13 Bc6
a t t a c k o n t h e k i n gs i d e .
4 Prepare for t h e a d v a n ce W e now s e e h ow ri gh t
of t h e p a w n b y u s i n g t h e m a j o r B o t w i n n i k was, for the B i shop
pi eces b eh i n d i t a n d is a w k w a rd ly p l aced here,
undermi ning a n d fina l ly d e p r i vi n g B l a ck o f t h e p r o p e r
des t r o y i n g a n y b l o ck a d e r t h a t use o f the c -f i l e i n wh i ch h e
lodges i t s e l f o n d 5 . cou ld have de ve loped a
queens ide off ens i ve to
T h e c l a s h of B l a ck ' s a n d c o mp e n s a t e f o r W h i t e ' s a t t a ck
W h i t e 's s t ra t e g i c a l o b j e c t i v e s o n the other w i n g .
s h ou l d p ro d u c e a n i n t e r e s t i n g
stru g g l e . 14 Rad1

10 Nb6 T o protect the pawn and t o


s u p p o rt i t w h e n i t i s r e a dy t o
I t s e e ms c a r p i n g t o o b j e c t m o v e f o rw a rd . T h e r e a r e t w o
t o a m o v e w h i ch s o o b vi o u s ly d i s t i n ct e l ements i n t h i s Rook
fits t h e b l o ck a d i n g p l a n s o m o ve w h i ch r e f l e c t t h e d u a l i t y
exped i t i ou s ly . Botw innik i n t h e nature of the i s o lated
s u gges t e d t h a t i t w a s b e t t e r t o p awn .
play b6 and Bb7, not
• • •

on l y s u p p o r t i n g a b l o c k a d e r T o e xchange h is outpost
when i t a rr i ves a t d 5 , b u t Kn i g h t f o r t h e B i s h o p w o u l d
keep i n g t h e c - f i l e c l e a r f o r i s o l a t e a B l a ck p a w n b u t , i t
Rook a ct i v i t y . It is not a wou l d a l s o rei nforce B l a ck 's
gr o s s e r r o r a t a l l b u t i t i s b l o ck ader w i t h o u t mak i n g
the b e g i n n i n g o f a s er i es o f p r o g e s s w i t h h i s own p l a n s .
litt l e errors w h i ch mak e
B l a ck ' s p r o b l e ms i n c r e a s i n g l y 14 Nb4
dif f i c u l t .
Try i n g to m a k e a m e n d s f o r
1 1 Bb3 Bd 7 t h e p r e vi o u s error b u t t h e
12 Qd3 Nbd5 ? ma n o e u vr e i s t i me c o n s umi n g .

Th e w r o n g Kn i gh t . 1 2 1 5 Qh3
Nfd5 i s t h e c o rr e c t w ay , w i t h
the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x ch a n g i n g T h a nk s t o h i s f ores i gh t w i t h
off a p a i r of Bish ops and Rd 1 t h e Qu e e n c a n s w i t c h to a i m
perh a p s e v e n a p a i r o f K n i gh t s . a t h 7 a n d s u p p ort t h e B i s h o p i n
B l a ck s e e ms t o h a v e f or g o t t e n a n a t t a c k o n e 6 . W a t ch t h e a2
idea 2 : s i mp l i f i ca t i o n . g B d i a g o n a l . A n o t h e r s e ns i t i v e
p o i n t on i t i s f 7 , a t t a ck e d by
13 Ne5 t h e K n i gh t .

T h e o u t pos t p i ec e a n d p i vot 15 Bd5


f o r t h e k i n g s i d e a t t a ck . T h e 1 6 Nxd5
1 79
P r e s ervi n g h i s B i s h o p . He cou l d p r o t e c t t h e e -pawn
w i th 1 8 Qd 6 b u t t h e n 1 9
• • •

16 Nbxd 5 7 fxe6 f x e 6 a n d th e p a w n i s
s t i l l weak , or i f 19 Qxe6 • • •

R e p e a t i n g h i s error. C a p t u r e t h e n 2 0 Qf3 a nd B l ack 's


w i t h t h e o t h e r K n i gh t w a s a ga i n b l ockader i s w i t h ou t pawn
b e t t e r , s e ek i n g s imp l i f i ca t i o n . s u pport .

17 f4 1 1 9 RxfS Qd6

D i agram 2 0 7 Di a g r a m 2 0 8

Nearly th irty years later, T h i s l e a v e s t h e Q u e e n ' s Ro ok


i n a m a t ch b e t w e e n M o s cow a n d vu l n e rab l e t o a d i s c o vered
Len i n grad i n 1 9 6 5 , Bot w i n n i k a t t a ck f r o m W h i t e ' s Q u e e n and
r e c a l l e d t h i s m o ve w h e n p l a y i n g a l l o w s a d e c i s i v e c o mb i n a t i o n .
i n a s i mi l a r p os i t i o n a ga i n s t B e t t e r was 1 9 R c 7 2 0 Rd f 1 ,
• • •

Tolush: T h i s m e t h od o f d e v ­ a l th o u gh W h i t e s t i l l h as a
e l op i n g Whi t e 's i n i t i at i ve was p o w e r f u l a n d w i n n i ng
a d o p t e d b y me a s e a r l y a s initiative.
1 936 ' .
2 0 N xf 7 1 Rxf7
W h i t e i s n ow s t r i k i n g a t t h e
base o f the b l o ck a d e r e6 If 20 • • • Kxf 7, then s i mp ly
a nd i ntendi ng t o open u p a l i n e 2 1 BxdS c h .
f o r h i s Ki n g ' s Rook .
21 B x f 6 Bxf6
17 Rc8
21 • • •N x f 6 i s m e t by 22
Here 1 7 g6, t o preve n t R x f 6 w i t h a d i s c o v e r ed a t t ack
1 8 f S , w o u l d l o s e t h e e x ch a n g e o n t h e R o ok a t c B .
to Bh6 and Ba4.
2 2 R xd S
1 6 fS exfS

1 80
T h e b l o ck ader h as b e e n D i a g ram 2 0 9
under m i n e d a n d d e m o l i s h e d . N o w
t h e i s o l a t ed p aw n i s p as s e d a n d Stah l berg
i t s w a y o p e n t o a d va n c e . I n t h e
event t h e p a w n d o e s n ' t n e e d t o
use a n y o f i ts n e w -fou n d
energ i e s , f or B l a ck ' s p os i t i o n
is a l r e a d y i n c o l l a p s e .
22 Qc6
Dr 22 Qc7 2 3 Rd 7
23 R d 6

And not 23 Rc5 b ec au s e of


23 B x d 4c h .
23 QeB

At l e a s t w e c a n s e e t h e p a w n
ful f i l l i n g i t s d es t i ny i n o n e
vari a t i o n : 23 Qxd6 24
Q x c B c h Q f B 2 5 Q e 6 a n d B l a ck N i mzow i t s c h
can on ly w a t c h w h i l s t t h e p a w n
s trides h ome. G Ot e b o r g , 1 9 3 4
2 4 Rd 7 R e s i gns H a d he w i s h ed , B l a ck c ou l d
h a v e a vo i d e d t h e i s o l a t e d p a w n
There is n o point, of by 9 d x c4 .
cours e , i n f u r t h e r res i s t a n c e .
1 0 cxd5 exd5
T h e o t h e r a s p e c t of t h e
iso l a t ed c e n t ra l pawn i s N o w B l a c k mu s t a c c e p t a l l
d i s p l ay e d i n t h e n e x t e x a mp l e . t h e h opes and a n x i e t i es w h i ch
Here i t i s B l a ck w h o h a s t h e come to the owner of the
is o l a t e d Qu e e n ' s p a w n s o t h e isolani .
o bj e c t i v es f or e a ch p l a y e r
ment i o n e d on p ages 1 7 6 a n d 1 7 9 1 1 Bg5
shou l d b e r e v e rs e d .
I mmed i a t e ly stating h i s
Af t e r t h e o p e n i n g m o v es : o b j e c t i v e o f a t t a ck a ga i n s t t h e
1 d4 d 5 2 c 4 e 6 3 N c 3 N f 6 d - p a w n . I n f a ct 1 1 Bxf6 gxf6
4 Nf3 Be7 5 Bf4 c5 (The is t h re a t e n e d a n d , as if t h a t
ty p i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n f r o m w a s n o t bad enough, 1 2 Nxd5
w h i ch t h i s s pe c i a l p aw n a r i s es . s i nce the Queen cannot
Stah l b e r g , w h o w a s B l a ck i n r e ca p t u r � b e ca u s e o f 1 3 B x h 7 c h .
this g a m e , h a d n o f ears a b o u t
be i n g t h e p o s s e s s o r o f a n 11 Be6
isolated d - p awn, l i k e Spassky 1 2 Ne2
today w h o freq u e n t l y i n v i t e s
it.) 6 d xc5 Bxc5 7 e3 Nc6 Even t h ough t h i s w i thdraws
B Bd3 0 0 9 0 0 a6, we t h e Kn i gh t from i t s attack
arr i v e at the fol l ow i ng against d5 it is a fine
di a g r a m . m o v e . Th e i d e a i s t o g i v e t h e
1 B1
K n i gh t t h e c h o i c e o f b l o ck a d i n g a n d n ow White t ak e s off the
o n d4 or a t t a ck i n g d S a ga i n other.
f rom f 4 .
18 Bxf6
12 h6 19 Be4
1 3 Bh4 Bg4
D i a gram 2 1 0
Try i n g t o cros s W h i t e's
plans b u t i t wou ld have been
much b e t t e r t o l e ave t h e Bi s h o p
to defend t h e d-pawn where i t
is most needed a n d to get on
w i t h h i s o t h e r d e v e l o pme n t .

14 Rc1 Be7

U n p i n n i n g h i s Kn i gh t .

1 5 Qb3

E conomi cal. He br i n gs
pre s s u r e t o bear o n dS w i t h a
t empo g a i n f rom h i s threat t o
b7.

15 B xf 3 ?

Gen era l l y i t i s a g o o d i d e a Sudd e n ly th ere are three


t o break u p t h e pawns around W h i t e p i eces o n t h e d - pawn and
the opposing King i f the o n l y o n e p r o t e ct o r . T h e r a c e is
opport u n i ty pres ents i t s e l f . n e a r ly r u n .
White left t h e poss i b i l i ty o n
because he jud ged that t h e 19 Ne7
B l a ck force w a s u nready f o r 20 RxcB Rxc8
a t t a ck a n d h i s c e n t re s t i l l t o o
i n s e c u r e f o r a n a d ve n t u r e o n U n o b t r u s i ve l y W h i t e
t h a t w i ng. W h i t e ' s mot i v e was s i mp l i f i e s t h r o u g h e x c h a n g e s ,
t o e n c o u ra ge h i s o p p o n e n t t o e a c h t i m e c h o o s i n g t h e r i gh t
e x ch a n g e o f f t h e l i gh t - s q u a r e d m o m e n t w h e n i t w o u l d i n creas e
B i s h o p k n ow i n g t h a t B l a ck w o u l d h is pressure agai nst the
f e e l i t s abs e n ce l at er w h e n centra l weak nes s . On e thing
t ry i n g t o f i n d e n o u g h p i e c e s t o t h a t W h i t e h as f a i l ed t o d o is
d e f e n d h i s d - p a w n , w h i ch s t a n d s t o b l o ck a d e t h e d - p a w n . A
o n a l i gh t s q u a r e . c a r e f u l l o o k a t t h e p o s i t i o n,
h ow e ve r , w i l l r e v e a l t h a t h e
1 6 gxf3 Qd 7 has o v e r - p r o t e c t e d t h e d4
1 7 Rfd1 Rac8 s q u a r e , m a k i n g i t i mp o s s i b l e
1 8 B xf 6 ! f or t h e p aw n t o m o v e o n and,
therefore, b l o c k a d i n g as
A w e l l j u d ged exchange f o r e f f e ct i v e ly a s w o u l d a p i ece
a n o t h e r v i t a l p ro t e c t o r o f t h e p l aced there.
i s o l a t e d p aw n d i s ap p ea rs . B l a ck
has i n ca u t i ous l y gi ven u p on e 21 N f 4 1

1 82
He d o es n ' t grab t h e pawn D i a g ram 2 1 1
imme d i a t e ly , p r e f erri n g t o k e e p
his B i s h op for t h e comi n g
endgame .

21 Qb5

B l a ck s e e ms t o b e b r e a k i n g
all t h e ru l es. H e h a s i n du l ged
in exchanges when he s h o u l d
h ave b e e n k e e p i n g p i e c es o n , h e
has fa i l e d t o f i n d o u t p o s t s a n d
h e h a s n ' t r e t a i n ed t h o s e p i e ce s
requ i r e d f o r t h e p aw n ' s
prot e c t i o n . N o w h e c o m m i t s
anoth e r s i n by o f f e r i n g a Qu e e n
e xc h a n g e . T h e r e i s , h ow e v e r,
some e x c u s e f o r t h i s off er.
Af t e r a l l , h e i s s o o n t o b e a
paw n d o w n w i t h l i t t l e h o p e o f
attack i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d s o ,
seei n g the poss i b i l i t y o f a n By s i d e -st epp i ng to the
e ndgame w i t h o p p o s i t e c o l ou r e d a d j a c e n t o p e n f i l e t h e R o ok h a s
Bi s h o p s , h e e a g e r l y s t e e r s f o r a c c e s s t o t h e e i gh t h r a n k w h i c h
it. i t d i d n o t h ave before becau s e
o f t h e B i s h o p gu a r d i n g d B . I t
2 2 Qxb5 a xb 5 d i s c l o s e s a n a t t a ck f r o m t h e
23 Nxd5 Bishop on the pawn at b7 and i t
va cates d 5 s o t h at t h e Bi s h op
Wh i t e c o l l e c t s h i s r ew a r d . can take i ts p lace and in s o
d o i n g d efend a 2 a n d att ack f 7 .
23 Nxd5 A m o v e o f m o s t d e l i gh t f u l
24 Rxd5 RaB s u b t lety i n a s i tu a t i on w h i ch
m o s t p l ay e rs w o u l d regard as
He w o u l d l o s e b ot h b -p a w n s r a t h er d u l l .
if he p l ayed 24 • • • Bxb2, but
the t e xt g i ve s c h a n c e s a ga i ns t 25 Kf 8
an opponent w h o i s n o t a l ert.
If now 25 Rxb5 t h e n 25 . . . Rxa2 Not bein g able to win the a­
26 b3 (it is i mp ortant n o t to p aw n b e c a u s e o f mat e , h e r e n e w s
exchange o f f a l l t h e q ueens i d e t h e t h re a t .
pawns : p erh a p s t h e l a rges t
single factor i n winning 26 Bd5
e ndgames i s r et a i n i n g p a w n s o n
both s i d e s of t h e b o a r d ) Bh 4 ! F i n e c e n t ra l i s a t i on
w i t h g o o d c ou n t er p l a y . eliminating all hope of
cou n terplay and s harpen ing
25 Rc5 ! Wh i t e ' s own t h r e a t s .

V e ry n e a t . I t i s t h e k i n d o f 26 b4
move whose qua 1 it i es become
more a t t ra c t i v e t h e m o r e y o u T ry i n g t o s a l va g e s o m e t h i n g.
thi n k a b o u t i t . T h e r e w a s l i t t l e e l s e to d o .

1 83
2 7 Rc7 D i a g r am 2 1 2

A n embarra s sm e n t o f r i c h es .

27 Bxb2
2 8 R x f 7 ch Ke8
2 9 Rxb7

T h r e a t e n i n g a d i s c o v e ry o n
the Rook .

29 Bc3
30 Rxg7 Bxg7
31 Bxa8 R e s i gns .

A g a m e o f vi c i ou s d e mo l i t i o n
b r o u g h t o n b y B l a ck b r e a k i n g
the rules .

Court i ng or avoi d i n g the


i s o l a t e d centre p a w n i n your
pos i t ion i s a matter o f taste, T o b egi n w i t h w e w i l l look
but i t wi l l i n evitably appear a t a s imp l i f i ed p o s i t i o n .
from t i me to t i me and so it is
we l l t o u n d e rs t a n d t h e gu i d i n g I n di agra m 2 1 2 t h e White
i d eas on h ow to t r e a t t h e p aw n s a t c3 a n d d 4 a r e h a n gi ng.
s ituation. Somet imes weak , Th ey are, if it is not a
s ome t i m e s s t r o n g , a c c o rd i n g t o contradiction, a p a i r of
pos i t i o n , t h e pro b l e m o f th e i s o l a t e d p aw n s wh i ch h ave a l l
i s o l a t e d p aw n i s t h e e s s e n c e o f the dynami c strength of
ch e s s . isolanis as wel l as their
s t a t i c w e a k n es s .

H a n g i ng Pawns W h a t h as b e e n s a i d of
i s o l a n i s i s t r u e , i n t h e ma i n ,
A d e f i n i t i o n of h a n g i n g p a w n s o f h a n g i n g p a w n s , a l t h o u g h , of
was g i v en on page 7 6 1 h ow t h ey cours e, there a r e s o me
ari s e i s bes t seen from an a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s . W h i l st
e xamp l e . r e ma i n i n g i n t h e s a m e f orma t i o n
a s t h e d i a g r a m t h e f or w a rd o n e,
u n l i k e the i s o l a n i , has pawn
s u p p or t , a n d s o t h e s p ea rh e a d
i t s e l f i s a l i t t l e s t r o n g er.
W h e n t h e b a c k w a r d o n e m o v es
f orward t h e y contro l a broad
front of s quares w h i ch can be
res t r i c t i n g t o t h e o p p o n e n t a n d
i n t h a t n e w p os i t i o n t h ey
a cq u i r e p a w n r o l l i n g p o t e n t i a l
w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i ty o f mak i n g
b r e a k s t o t h e l e f t or r i gh t
i n t o t h e e n e my p o s i t i on,
provided proper prepara t i o n of
s upport and thrust h ave been
1 84
mad e . T h e i s o l a n i h a s t h i s D i ag ram 2 1 3
pot e n t i a l f or e x p a n s i o n , i n
h a n g i n g p a w n s t h e p a r t n e rs h i p Stei n i t z
enhances t h i s q ua l i ty for after
c4 (in th i s part i cu l ar
po s i t i o n ) a t a s u i t a b l e m o me n t
can c o m e d5 or cS a n d t h e n ,
after t h e pawn e xchange, a n ew
iso l a t e d p a w n i s crea t e d s o
that i nstead of a piece
ap p e a r i n g i n o r n e a r t h e
centre, a passed pawn i s born
w i t h a l l t h a t t h a t i mp l i e s .

But h a ngi n g pawns h ave t h e


c o mp o n e n t o f w e a k n e s s a s w e l l
as s trengt h . I n t h e forma t i o n
of t h e d i a g r a m t h e c - p a w n i s
b a ck w a r d a n d c a n b e a t t a c k e d
from t h e f r o n t . T h e t w o s q u a r e s
in f r o n t of t h e p aw n s , c 4 a n d
d5, are s trong squ ares for the
e n emy a n d s h ou l d b l o ck a d ers b e Z u k e r t ort
estab l i s h e d t h ere t h e nascent
e n e r gy o f t h e h a n g i n g p a w n s N e w Or l e a n s
wi l l b e d ra i n e d a w a y , a n d a s
the endgame l o o ms their T h e s i tu a t i o n is one w i t h
weak n e s s w i 1 1 b e co m e more a n d w h i c h y o u mus t n ow b e f a mi l i a r .
more p r o n o u n c e d . W h i t e h as t h e i s o l a t e d p a w n a n d
B l a ck h a s p l a n t e d a K n i gh t i n
T h e f o l l ow i n g p o s i t i o n a r o s e front of i t a t d S . I t s oon
as long ago as 1 88 6 . becomes c l ear t h a t Stei n i t z
k n ew w h a t h e w a s d o i n g a n d t h at
Zukertort , f i n e comb i nat i o n
p l ay e r t h ou g h h e w a s , d i d n ot .

1 Rac1 Bd7
2 NeS

I n t ak i n g up t h i s o u t p o s t
p os i t i o n h e i n t e n d s a k i n gs i d e
a t t a ck .

2 Rfd8
3 Qf3

W i t h t h e p o i n t f7 i n mi n d ,
b u t s i n c e t h e Qu e e n c a n h a r d l y
l e a d i n s u c h a b r e a k t h ro u gh 3
f4 wou l d have been more l i k e
t h e e n e r g et i c a p p r o a c h n e ed e d
by t h e p o s s e s s o r of the
i s o l a t e d p aw n .

1 85
BeB Now h e r e - e s t a b l i s h es his
b l o ck a d e a t d S , t h ou g h n o t s o
Cl eari n g t h e d -f i l e a n d s ecu r e ly a s b e f q r e s i n c e the
d ef en d i n g f 7 . I t i s c l ear t h a t K n i g h t c a n b e d r i v e n away .
by p l a y i n g a R o o k t o t h e d -f i l e
B l a ck w a s w e l l a w a r e o f t h e 8 Bxe7 (J x e 7
needs of the pos i t i o n . The � BxdS ?
whole point of White's play
shou ld revolve about the Th i s m o v e i s c o m p l etely
i s o l a t e d pawn a n d i t s h ou l d, w r o n g . W h i t e s h o u l d b e a vo i d i n g
therefore. be very wel l e x c h a n g e s a n d h i s h a n g i n g pawns
d e f e n d ed w h e r e a s a t p r e s e n t i t w i l l n o w b e s u bj e c t to p re s s ure
i s n o t pro tected a t a l l . f rom t h e Rook s . This will
c o n s u m e s o much o f h i s pi eces'
4 Rfe1 R a c8 e n e r gy i n t h e i r d e f e n c e t h a t
5 Bh4 Nxc3 t h e r e w i l l be i n s u f f i c i e n t
6 b xc3 me a n s f o r a t t a ck .

D i a g r am 2 1 4 9 Rxd S
1 0 c4 Rdd8
1 1 Re3

At l a s t he c o n t i n u es w i th
h i s k i n gs i d e a m b i t i o n s bu t i t
i s i n t eres t i n g to s ee t h a t so
mu c h m a t e r i a l h a s t o be
c o m m i t t e d t o h i s w e a k c e n tre
t h a t t h i s o n e R o ok h a s to carry
o u t t h e s or t i e more o r l es s on
i t s own .

11 Qd 6
1 2 Rd1 f6

Th ough e6 is w eakened the


B i s h o p w i l l b e a b l e t o l o ok
a f t e r t h e p a w n t h e r e as w e l l a s
t h e o t h e r l i gh t s q u a r e s a r o u n d
t h e K i n g. T h e i n i t i a t i v e i s n ow
Th e s a m e p a w n c o n f i gu ra t i o n f i rm l y i n B l a c k ' s h a n d s .
emerges if W h i t e exchanges
p i e ces on c3 f i rs t , in t h a t 1 3 Rh3 h6
c a s e h e p l ays i n t o B l a ck ' s
hands for Bl ack i s h a p py t o Th e s i n g l e - h a n d e d s k i rm i s h
head for the endgame; i t i s i s e as i ly r e p u l s ed .
W h i t e w h o mu s t k e e p t h e p i e c e s
o n t h e b o a rd . 1 4 N g4 (J f 4
1 5 Ne3 Ba4 1
N o w t h e h a n g i n g p aw n s a p p e a r
i n a m a n n e r t y p i ca l of t h e w a y
i n w h i ch t h ey c o m mo n l y a r i s e . To f or c e t h e a t t a ck e d Rook
o n t o t h e s e c o n d r a nk , a l l ow i n g
6 !J c ? u np l eas a n t s u rpri s e s o n t h e
7 Qd3 NdS b a ck r a n k .
1 6 Rf3 Qd6 R o u n d i n g off t h e game w i t h
17 Rd2 Bc6 a n at tract i ve comb i n at i o n. I f
1 8 Rg3 fS 26 Qa5 then simply 26 b61 • • .

or 26 Qe3 Qxe3 and 2 7 Rcc1 • • •

It i s Black who is n ow w i ns o r 2 6 Q x cB Qxd2 f i n i s h i n g


a t t a ck i n g . q u i c k ly .

19 Rg6 2 6 R x e4 Qxe4,

And W h i t e s t i l l t h i nks h e a n d Wh i t e r e s i g n e d .
is. His prob lem is that h e
needs t hree p i eces t o h o l d t h e W e r e t u r n t o t h e pres e n t era
hangi n g paw n s , l e avi n g n o th i n g a n d Robert F i s ch er for a
t o a s s i s t t h e R o ok . c o mp a ra t i v e e xamp l e i n w h i ch h e
demons trates that at leas t i n
19 Be4 t h i s game a pair o f hangi ng
20 Q b 3 p a wn s i s worth a p i e c e .
How d i ff erent it m i g h t h ave D i a g ram 2 1 5
been i f W h i t e h a d kept h i s
Bishop to work on t h i s F i s ch e r
diagon a l .

20 Kh7 !

The Rook has n o move for a


pawn f ork f o l l ow s R g 3 . A l l h e
ca n d o i s m a k e a w i l d s t r i k e a t
e 6 , f o r w h i ch B l a ck h as a l re a dy
prepare d .

21 cS

This l ooks nasty but is


rea l ly q u i t e h a rm l e s s .

21 RxcS

T h e d - p a w n i s p i n n e d a n d n ow
the b a ck r a nk i s e xp o s ed .
B e rt ok
22 R x e 6
St o ck h o l m , 1 9 6 2
S t ra n g e l y e n ou gh a n i s o l a t e d
p as s e d p a w n h a s n o w e me r g e d a t
d 4 , bu t n o t u n d e r c i r cu ms t a n c e s The p os i t i on o f d i agram 2 1 5
of Wh i t e ' s mak i n g. Th e p a w n i s a r o s e a f t e r t h e m o ve s : 1 d 4 d 5
a w e ak l i n g w i t h o u t a ny f u t u r e . 2 c4 e6 3 Nc3 Be 7 4 Nf3
Th e r e s t i s e a s y . Nf6 5 Bg5 0 0 6 e3 h6
7 Bh 4 b 6 B c xd 5 N x d 5 9 B x e 7
22 R c 1 ch Qxe7 1 0 Nxd5 exd5 1 1 Be2
23 Nd 1 Qf4 Be6 12 0 0 c5.
24 Q b 2 Rb1
25 Qc3 Rc8 1 P l a y n ow c o n t i n u e d :
1 87
13 dxc5 f orce t h e Qu een exch ange. ThE
Kn i g h t is i n d i ffi c u l t i es,
F i s ch er c r i t i c i s e d t h i s m o v e h a vi n g l i t t l e c h o i c e o f moves.
and consi dered Ne5 a better To r e t u r n t o e 1 w o u l d s h u t i n
i dea for Whi t e. The te xt h i s R o ok .
cre a t e s h a n g i n g p a w n s f o r B l a ck
a t c5 a n d d 5 . 1 8 Nf4 Rfb8
1 9 Rab 1 7
13 bxc5
D i a g ram 2 1 6
It is c l e a r a l r e a dy t h a t t h e
h a ngi n g p a w n s a re a r e s t ra i n i n g
i n fluence on W h i t e 's game, the
s q uares a cross a broad front
from b4 t o e 4 bei ng deni ed to
h is p i eces. N o r i s t h e p o i nt e 5
any l o n ger avai l a b l e . W h i t e
mus t n ow find means of
h a ra s s i n g t h e p a w n s i n o rd e r t o
i n du c e a w e a k n es s .

1 4 Qa4 Qb 7 !

B l a ck h a s t w o h a l f o p e n
fi les which h e c a n u s e , t h e e
and b - f i les. He choos es to
o p e ra t e o n t h e b - f i l e c o mb i n e d
w i t h a k i n d o f m i n or i ty a t t a ck .

1 5 Qa3
I f W h i t e i s t o ma i n t a i n a
A t t a ck a n d d e f e n c e . b a l a n c e i n a s i t u a t i o n w h i ch
c a n s o eas i ly s l i p away from
15 Nd7 h i m h e mu s t r e s p o n d v i g or o u s l y .
16 Ne1 Th a t common A c h i l l e s ' h e e l i n
B l a ck ' s p o s i t i o n , e 6 , i s a
W i t h t h e i d e a o f a t t a ck i n g s u i t a b l e t a r g e t . F i s ch e r g i ve s :
t h e c - p aw n a ga i n by N d 3 . 1 9 Nxe6 f x e6 2 0 Bg4 ( i f 20
Qe7 straight away then 20 • • •

16 a5 N f B f or c e s h i m t o e xc h a n ge or
r e t re a t ) R a 6 2 1 b 3 ! ( e x c h a n ges
Bla ck 's centre i s q u i t e on t h i s s q u a re w i l l d e f l e c t the
magni f i cent t h anks t o t h e B l a ck Qu e e n ) c x b 3 22 axb3
hangi n g p a w n s . He t h r e a t e n s Q x b3 2 3 Q e 7 N f B 2 4 R a 3 , w i t h
Qb4 a n d s h o u l d W h i t e e xc h a n g e g o o d d r a w i n g ch a n c e s .
Qu e e n s h e w i l l r e c a p t u r e w i t h
t h e a - p a w n g i v i n g h i m a t h re e ­ A f t e r t h e t e xt , h ow e ver,
pawn ro l ler a n d tremendous W h i t e ' s a t t e mp t s t o r e t a i n th e
p r es s u re o n t h e q u e e n s i d e . precari ous bal ance q u i ckly
di sappear.
1 7 Nd3 c4

C h o os i n g t h e r i gh t m o me n t t o 19 Bf 5
a d va n c e . N o w 1 8 N c 5 Q b 4 w o u l d 20 Rbd 1 Nf6

1 88
Th e t i m e l os s w i th t h e R o ok w h i ch has forced h i m t o u s e
has e n a b l e d B l a ck t o regro u p a w k w a r d s q u a res f o r h i s p i e c e s ,
h i s m i n o r p i e c e s c o mp l e t e ly . p a rt i cu l a r l y t h e K n i gh t , i s n ow
Now t h e d - p a w n i s s o u n d l y h e l d h i s r u i n . Th e Kn i gh t h a s
without the prospect of any n ow h er e t o g o . I f 2 2 N h 5 , B l a ck
weak n e s s a p p e a r i n g a t e 6 . d o e s n o t exchange b u t l e aves
the W h i te Knight offside whi lst
I f o n ly W h i t e ' s R o ok w e r e bri n g i n g his own t o t h e centre,
a lr e a d y at d2 h e co u l d g o 22 • • • Ne4, w i t h d evastat ing
21 Bf3 a n d dou b l e h i s Rook s , effect: 2 3 Rc2 Qb4, and W h i t e
givi n g h i m f o u r p i e c e s b e a r i n g i s q u i t e h e l p l ess .
down o n t h e b a ck w a rd m e m b e r o f
the h a n g i n g p a w n s . As it i s Des p erate s i tuations
t h e r e n e v e r s e e ms t o b e q u i t e req u i r i n g d e s p e r a t e m e t h o d s
e n o u g h t i m e t o e xp l o i t t h e p romp t W h i t e t o g i ve u p t h e
s t a t i c w e a k n es s o f t h o s e p awn s . Kn i gh t f o r w h a t b o o t y h e c a n
a cq u i re .
If now 2 1 Bf3, then 2 1 • . •

O x b2 2 2 Q x b 2 R x b2 ( t h e c - p aw n 2 2 Nxd5 Nxd5
is n ow p as s e d ) 2 3 N x d 5 (th e 23 Bxc4
b a ck w a r d p a w n f a l l s , b u t t o o
lat e ) N x d 5 2 4 B x d 5 Rc8 2 5 e 4 And s o the hanging pawns
( s h u t t i n g o u t t h e B i s h o p w h i ch d i s a p p e a r , b u t a t wh a t a cos t .
wo u l d o t h e rw i s e h e l p t o e s c o r t
the passed pawn t hrough ) Be6 As u s u a l i n s uch s i tu at i ons,
26 Bxe6 fxe6 2 7 a4 c3 28 B l a c k 's a t t a ck n o w l os es i t s
Rc1 c 2 a n d B l a ck i s w i n n i n g . i mp e t u s a n d W h i t e a cq u i res s o me
( F i s c h e r ' s a n a ly s i s . ) energy from the changed
c i rcums tan ces. B u t h e has n ot
2 1 Rd2 g5 1 o bt a i n e d e n o u gh i n return f o r
h is p i e ce and B l ack soon
Di agram 2 1 7 c o n t a i n s h i s t h r ea t s .

23 Be6
24 Rfd 1

A b lu nder but 2 4 Bxd5 Bxd5


2 5 f 3 i s s t i l l n o t good en ough .

24 Nxe3 1
25 Qxe3 Bxc4
26 h 4 Re8

B l a c k h a s on ly to s ea l t h e
w e a k s p o t s i n t h e k i ngs i d e • • •

27 Qg3 Qe7
28 b3 Be6
29 f4 g4

H i s contrived offens i v e
ag a i n s t t h e h a n g i n g p a w n s ,
1 89
• . . and then t h e rest i s easy. D i a g ram 2 1 9
Af t e r ,

30 h S Q c S ch
3 1 Rf2 BfS,

Wh i t e r e s i g n e d .

H e r e a r e s o me p os i t i o n s f o r
you t o cons i d e r .

D i agram 2 1 8

Black to play. How does h e


create h angi ng pawns i n W h i te's
po s i t i o n ?

D i a gram 2 2 D

White to play. 1 How can h e


create a n i s o l a t ed pawn i n
B l a c k 's pos i t i o n ? 2 Is t h e r e
a ny w ay t h a t B l a ck c a n a v o i d
th i s ?

W h i t e t o p l a y . W h a t s e q u e n c e of
m o v e s f o rc e s t h e a p p e a r a n c e of
hangi n g pawns i n Black 's
pos i t i on ?
SOLU T I ONS

D i agram 2 1 8
1 A f t e r 1 c xd 5 e x d 5 , B l a ck h as
a n i s o lated d -p a w n .
2 A n e a t Z w i s ch e n z u g e n a b l es
B l a ck t o a vo i d t h i s :

1 c xd 5 N b 4 2 Q m o ve s N x d 5 . I n
t h i s W h i t e ca n n o t w i n a p a w n
with 2 Qa4 Nxd5 3 Qxa7 becaus e
of 3 R a B , w i n n i n g t h e Qu e e n .

Q..!_�.&.!:.� �-�_lg By Nd5


fo l l ow e d by e x ch a n g i n g p i e c e s o n
c3 .
D i agram 2 2 0

1 Bxf6 B xf 6
2 cxdS exdS

2 c xd4 wou l d l ead to the


loss of a piece.

3 d xc S bxcS ,

a n d B l a ck h a s h a n g i n g pawns at
cS and dS.
T h e c r i t eri a for t h e s e l e c t i o n s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g ,
o f g a m e s i n t h i s s e ct i o n h a v e d e l i b e ra t e ly a vo i d i n g c o mp l e x
been ma i n ly d id a ct i c. Some and mu l t i p l e vari ations.
appear b e c a u s e t h ey c on t a i n S o m e t i m e s i t i s n e c e s s a ry t o
e lements of p os i t i on a l p l ay ca l cu l a t e preci s e ly before
w h i c h c o n s o l i da t e or e xt e n d t h e e m b a rk i n g o n a p l a n a n d w h e n
i d ea s t re a t ed s o f ar a n d o t h ers t h i s i s s o i t i s i n d i c a t e d 1 bu t
because they i ntrodu ce new t h e p r i n c i p a l a i m o f t h e n o t es
concepts . i s t o h e i gh t e n t h e r e a d e r ' s
a w a r e n e s s of t h e p os i t i onal
At the begi n n i ng of each pers p e ct i ve , t h a t a b i l i ty t o
game i s a short l i s t of t h e s ens e t h e n at u r e o f w h a t i s
p o s i t i o n a l e l em e n t s i t d i s p l ay s l i k e ly t o b e f avoura b l e i n a
and s o the reader's mind i s f e w , or s evera l , or even many
d i re c t ed t ow a r ds t h em f r o m t h e mo v e s .
s tart, as a n a i d i n recogn i t i o n
and an t i ci p at i on of t h e i r F i n a l ly i t i s h op ed t h a t t h e
a p p e a ra n c e . I n t h i s w a y t h e games w i l l g i ve p l ea s u r e as
r e a d e r b e co m e s m o r e i n v o l ve d i n w e l l a s i n s t r u c t i on for,
t h e g a m e , p a rt i c i p a t i n g i n t h e a lthough not a l l may be
t h i nk i n g o f t h e p l ay e r s . m a s t e rp i e c e s , m a n y a r e , a n d
s o m e mu s t r a n k a s p o s i t i o n a l
Th e a n n o t a t i o n s c o n c e n t r a t e i mmo r t a l s .
on p os i t i o n a l p l ay a n d g e n e r a l

1 94
GAME 1

Reshevsky - Tylor

R es h e vs k y Ty l o r 6 cxd S
H a s t i n gs 1 9 3 7 / 3 8
T h e E x ch a n g e V a r i a t i o n o f t e n
Strug g l e for d S f a v o u r e d b y R e s h e vs k y . Aft e r
B a ck wa r d p awn t h e norma l , and best, 6 • • •

L i gh t s q u a r e we a k n es s exdS, you w i l l notice that t h e


P l ay o n t h e s emi - o p e n f i l e p aw n c on f i gu ra t i on on the
R e s t r i ct i o n qu eens i d e i s t h e typi c a l one
f o r a m i n o r i t y a t t a ck . B l a ck
Q u e e n ' s Gam b i t D e c l i n e d t r i e s t o a vo i d t h i s by ,

1 d4 dS 6 N xd S ,
2 c4
b u t i n d oi n g so m i s s es t h e
W i t h h i s f i rs t move W h i t e b e n e f i t t h a t B l a ck d er i v e s f r o m
a i ms a t t h e c o n t ro l o f e s a n d the E x c h a n g e Vari a t i o n of easy
w i th h i s s econd c h a l l enges t h e d eve lopment for h i s Queen's
poi n t d S . B i s h o p wi t h 6 e xd S .

2 e6 7 Bxe7 Qxe7
8 Rc1
Black cannot concede two
centr a l s q u ares in his own T h e Rook moves natura l ly t o
half. This and his next three t h e h a l f open f i l e putti n g
mo ves are d es i gn e d t o i mmed i a t e pres s u re o n t h e c ­
strengthen d S . pawn and even threatening t o
w i n i t w i t h 9 N xd S .
3 Nc3
8 N 7f 6
d S i s a ga i n t h e t a rget .
A n a t u r a l l ook i n g move but
3 Nf6 i t s u ffers from t h e defect of
4 BgS removi n g c o ver from es. W h i t e
is left in contro l of that
P i n n i ng the d efender of d S . s q u a r e a n d B l a ck h a s very
l i t t l e pros p e ct o f p l a y i n g . . .
4 Be7 eS, with the inevitable
S e3 Nbd7 cons equence that h e wi l l find
i t difficult to develop his
T o re p l a c e t h e Kn i gh t a t f 6 B i s h o p s a t i s f a c t o r i ly .
s h ou l d Wh i t e e x c h a n g e .
9 Nf3

1 9S
R e �u m i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a n d 10 b6 ?
e mp h a s i s i n g h i s c o n t r o l o v e r 11 NxdS NxdS
eS .

��
The s econd c h a n c e of
9 0 0 recapturi n g w i t h t h e e -pawn
1 0 a3 1 an i llusion: 1 1 e �dS
• • •

Qc2 NeB 1 3 Q c 6 , f o rk i n g t h e
R o ok a n d d - p awn .
D i a g ram 2 2 1
1 2 BbS I

T h e l i gh t - c o l o u r e d s q u a res
are weak • A l ert l y , R es h e vs k y
t a k e s i mmed i a t e a d va n t a g e .

12 Bbl
13 Bc6

D i a gram 2 2 2

A p r e v e n t i. v e m o v e Such •

m e a s u r e s a r e v e ry i mp o r t a n t a n d
w e s h a l l s e e t h e m u s e d t i· m 8 a n d
a g a i· n i n t h e g a m e s w h i' c h
f o l l o w . He r e t h e m o d e s t p a w n
m o ve p r e v e n t s a ny e x c u r s i o n s by
B l a c k ' s Qu e e n o r K n i g h t i n t o
.

W h i t e ' s q u e e n s i. d e .

T h e t r o u b l e w i' t h B l a c k ' s
p o s i t i o n n o w i s t h a t i. t i. s
·
B l o ck a d e . Th e c -p a w n •. now
feature less a n d there i s l i t t l e ·
f' d i s made effecti vely
chance of h im break i n g o u t from b� �: w�rd. Wh i t e cou � d h� e �
h i s c r a mp e d q u a r t e r s . 85 i s d pt e d a type o f mi n ori y
: �
• • •
. r ble but not real ly on
��:� ;
t ack with the aim of
: n e cons i d ers t h e amou t � establ i s h i ng a pawn at b5 o
o f prepara t i on i t w ou l d n e e � der the c-pawn tru y
T h e Qu e e n ' s B i s h o p h a s t o b ? �=� k w a r d , b u t t h i s w o u l d � ave
brought out ' but wh ere . m e a n t l e n gt h y prepara t i o n .
P r o b a b l y b e s t i. s Bd 7 More Us i n g t h e B i s h op a n d Ro ok he

• • • •

a d v e n t u r o u s � y B l a ck g o e for h a s a c h i e v e d t h e s a me o b j. e c t i. v e
the long di agona l . on y to mu c h more q u i ck l y .
w e ak e n s e r i ou s l y h i s q u e en s i' d e
p awn s . A t m o v e 1 2 B l a ck h a d h i s
l a s t c h a n c e t o r i d h i ms e l f o f
1 96
t h e c - p awn problem by 1 2 cS • • •
ma l a i s e i s that h e has fai led
1 3 d x c S b x c S 1 4 Qc2 R b 8 . t o c o n t e s t cen tra l s q u ares a n d
Th i s w o u l d h av e i s o l a t ed h i s c o m b a t W h i t e i n c u rs i o n s w i t h
pawns at cS and a7, but it s u f f i c i e n t a c cu racy and v i g our.
wou l d h ave gi ven h i m more In a word, he has set White no
fr e e d o m a n d a l i n e t o o p e r a t e probl ems. F o r i ns t an ce, W h i t e
on t h e b - f i l e. has o n l y j u s t cast led. He
d i d n ' t h ave t o 'castle when
13 Bxc6 y o u mu s t , n o t w h e n y o u c a n '
14 Rxc6 w h i ch w a s worth a t empo, a n d
f i n d i n g h i ms e l f u n der s o l i t t l e
The b l o c k a d er i s r e p l a c e d b y p r e s s u r e h e w a s a b l e t o h u rry
a Rook and s o the c -pawn comes a l o n g w i t h h i s own p l a n s . It i s
u n der d i rect a t t a ck . a g o o d i d e a f r o m t h e v e ry
begi n n i n g t o s e t your oppon e n t
14 Rfc8 ? prob l ems f or h e may n o t a lways
be able to solve them
T h i s s qu are w i l l b e n e eded adequat e ly and from these
for the other R o ok . Better was i n a c c u r a c i e s o f res p o n s e y o u
1 4 ... Rfd8 w i th 1 S Rd6 to
• • •
c a n a c cu mu l at e a d va n t ages.
fo l l ow , mak i n g s o me a t t e mp t t o
d r i v e o f f t h e b l o ck ad er.
Di agram 2 2 3
1S 0 0 Nf 6
W h i t e can t r i p l e on the c­
fi l e , d i s l o d g e t h e Kn i gh t w i t h
e4 and then w i n the c-pawn.
Bef ore t h i s h a p p e n s B l a ck h a s
t i me, thanks to t h e c-pawn
bei n g over - p ro t e c t e d , t o remove
t h e K n i gh t f r o m i t s e xp o s e d
p o s i t i o n a n d gu a r d t h e p a w n
aga i n from t h e s afety o f e 8 .
16 NeS
T h e e a s e w i t h w h i ch W h i t e
a cq u i re s contro l o f s q u ares a n d
l i n es t es t i f i es t o the barren
n a t u r e of t h e B l a ck p os i t i o n .
The K n i gh t goes t o t h e
n e g l e cted es square, pro t e c t s
t h e b l o ck ad e r a n d c l ears f 3 f o r
t h e Qu e e n t o t a k e p o s t o n t h e
l o n g l i gh t d i a g o n a l . B l a ck ' s 16 Ne8
l i gh t s q u a r e w e a k n e s s i s n o w 1 7 Qf3
o b vi o u s a f t e r t h e e x c h a n g e o f
B i s h o p s , f o r t h e W h i t e Qu e e n Pu t t i n g pres s u re o n t h e l ong
can domi nate those squ ares d i ago n a l and o n the file
whereas the B l a ck one ca n n o t aga i ns t f7.
reach t h em .
17 Qf 6
T h e reas on for B l a ck 's

197
Black wou l d be h appy w i t h a t h a n o n e w e a k p o i n t i n B 1 a ck 's
Queen exchange and W h i t e' s g am e .
Qu e e n ' s p o s i t i o n i s t o o s t r o n g
t o l e ave u n c h a l l e n g ed . 22 R6c3
1 8 Q e2 D i agram 2 2 4
Threat e n i ng 1 9 Qa6 w h i ch
B l ack preve n t s w i t h ,
18 as,
but at t h e cos t of another
d ef e c t i n t h e q u e e n s i d e p a w n
s t ructure f o r t h e b -p a w n i s n ow
o n ly s u p p o r t e d o n c e a n d b y a
paw n w h i ch c o u l d b e c o m e p i n n e d
w h en W h i t e h as d ou b l ed o n t h e
c-fi l e .
19 f4
A i m i n g t o bri n g h i s Qu e e n
back to f3, he shuts off the
oppos i n g Qu een. T h ere i s o t h e r
me n a c e i n t h e m o v e . T h e r e i s
n ow a u s e f u l l a t e r a l p i n o n W i t h t h i s r e t r e a t h e retai ns
B l a ck 's e - p a w n f r o m t h e Rook a t a l l h i s t h reat s , m a i n t a i n s the
c6 s o t h at W h i t e th reat ens f S , t e n s i o n a n d l e aves B l a ck 's Rook
pri s i n g o p e n y e t a n o t h e r l i n e , a w k w a r d l y p l a c e d at d 6 . T h e
t h e f - f i l e. enfee b l ed state of the b-pawn
i s s h ow n i n o n e p os s i b i l i ty : 2 3
19 Rd8 Nc4 R moves 2 4 Nxb6 becau s e of
t h e p i n o n t h e c - p awn .
P a r ry i n g t h e t h r e a t , f o r 2 0
f S wou l d be met b y 20 • • • Rd6 If 22 . • •R c d 8 (tak i n g t h e
2 1 f x e 6 Q x e 6 , d r i vi n g off t h e p i n o f f t h e c - p awn ) t h e n 2 3 N c 6
b l o ck ad e r a n d s omew h at f re e i n g RcB (not i ce the effect of the
h i s game . Queen on the long d i agonal
preventi n g RaB) 24 Na7
20 Qf 3 f o l l ow e d by 2 S N b S , w i n n i n g t h e
c - p aw n .
Now 20 • • •Rd6 wou l d lose a
p i e c e t o t h e d i s covery 2 1 Rx d 6 . B l a ck c o u l d m o v e h i s o t h e r
Rook 22 Rdd8 23 Nc6
20 Rac8 ( W h i t e h as c h a n ged b l o ck ad ers )
21 R f c 1 Rd 6 R d 7. I n s u c h p os i t i o n s W h i t e
n eed not go i n for t h e d i rect
At l a s t B l a c k i s a b l e t o w i n of materia l . He cou ld play
cha l l enge the b lockade. f o r f ur t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n w i t h 2 4
U n f o rt u n a t e ly i t h a s t a k e n s o e 4 ! w h e n t h e r e i s n ot h i n g t o
long that Whit e's pi eces h ave s t op 2 S e s , creat i n g a t o t a l
been able to find their best b i n d o n t h e pos i t i o n . Th e B l a ck
p l a c e s a n d n ow s t ri k e a t more R o o k s w o u l d h av e h ard ly
1 98
anywhere t o move, nor wou l d t h e 26 f6
K n i gh t . W h i t e w o u l d t h e n b e 27 Nc4 Rd 1 ch
able at leis ure to prepare a 28 Kh2 Rc1
g e n era l a d va nc e o n t h e k i n gs i d e
w h e n e v e n t h e B l a ck Qu e e n w o u l d Pi n n i n g t h e Kn i gh t b u t there
b e i n d a nger o f b e i n g t rapped. is no v e n om i n t h e ma noeuvre.
Ins tead of t h i s death by 2 9 Qc6
s l ow s t r a n gu l at i o n B l a c k
d e c i d ed t o g i ve u p t h e s i ck ly U n p i n n i n g t h e Kn i gh t and
c - p awn i n a b i d f or f reedom. e mp h a s i s i n g h i s d o m i n a t i o n o f
t h e l i gh t s q u a r e s . N o w e i t h e r
22 cs t h e a - p a w n or t h e e-pawn f a l l s ,
23 d xcS bxcS f or 2 9 Kf7 l os es to 30
24 Rx cS Rxc5 NeSch .
2 5 Rx c S Qd B
29 gS
Pr o t e c t i n g t h e a - p a w n a n d
taking control of t h e d - f i le. D e s p erat i o n .
Black gai ns s ome breat h i n g
space but not enough to 3 0 Q x e 6 ch Kg7
c o mp e n s a t e f o r t h e p a w n a n d 3 1 RdS Q bB
o t h e r w e a k n e s s es . 3 2 Rd 7 ch R e s i gns ,
26 h3 s ince his cas e is clearly
h op e l es s .
A f l i gh t - s q u are for t h e
Ki n g .

1 99
GAME 2

Botwinnik - Donner

Botwi n n i k Don n e r Di agram 225


Ams t erdam, 1 9 63
Contro l and occupat i o n of a
s trongp o i n t , c 6 .
P l a y i n t h e open f i l e .
Th e s ev e n t h rank .
Restr i ct i o n .
Reti Opening
Look a ga i n a t Ch a p t e r
Twelve, page 1 25, t o remi nd
y o u rs e l f o f t h e i d e a s b e h i n d
t h i s o p e n i n g. I n t h e p r e s e n t
game s ome moves have been
t ranspos e d .
1 c4 Nf6
2 Nf3 e6
3 g3 dS
4 Bg2 Be7 It is i n t eres t i n g t o s ee
5 0 - 0 0 0 what has been h appen i n g on the
6 b3 b6 centra l s q uares. As u s u a l i n
7 Bb2 Bb7 t h i s open i n g, W h i t e, w i t h Nf3
a nd the fi anchetto of the
Qu e e n 's B i s h o p , h a s t a k e n
control of eS. Black 's
pro s p e c t s w i t h regard t o t h e
c orres p o n d i n g s q u are, e 4 , are
rat h er d i ffere n t , f o r Wh i t e h a s
h e l d b a ck w i t h h i s d - p a w n . T h e
on ly s q u a re o c cu p i ed i s d S b y
B l a ck a n d t h i s b e comes a t arget
for W h i t e 's a t t e n t i o n a l t h o u gh
it is, of course, well
pro t e c t e d by a p a w n a n d three
p i eces .
B cxdS NxdS
The alternative was to
r e c a p t u re w i t h t h e pawn a n d
200
th e n t o c o n t i n u e d e ve l o p i n g h i s d i rectly on the centre, their
p i eces b eh i n d h i s p aw n s w h i ch l i n es o f force cros s i n g t h ere.
wou l d l ea d t o q u i t e a d i ffere n t Pawn moves have opened thos e
game with a variety of d iagonals and now pawn
pros p e c t s f o r b o t h s i d e s . Th e exchanges have opened fi l e s .
t e xt i s m o r e l i k e l y t o r e s u l t B o t h p l ay e rs w i l l wo rk o n t h os e
i n e a r l y e x c h a n ges a n d draw i s h f i l e s , c l eari n g t h e m of pi eces
t e n d e n c i es w h i ch probably s o that the Rooks can
accorded we l l with Black 's p e n e t rat e .
i ntenti ons .
F i l e s a r e h i gh w a y s i n t o t h e
9 d4 c5 e n e my p o s i t i o n a n d R o o k s w i l l
t ry t o p r o b e a s d e e p l y a s t h e y
Th i s t i m e a W h i t e pawn can i nto the opposing
app ears i n t h e c e ntre a n d i s t e rr i t o r y . B o t w i n n i k h as
immed i at e l y c h a l l e n g e d . a l re a dy d e c i d e d o n t h e s po t h e
w ou l d l i k e t o o cc u p y : i t i s c6
10 d xc5 i n t h e o p e n c - f i l e and it s o o n
b e comes c l ear t h a t h i s last
B o tw i n n i k c h o s e t o e xc h a n g e move w a s far from b e i n g a
i n order t o gai n a valuab l e rou t i n e e xchange, i t was a
t emp o a f ew mo ves l a t er . f i rs t s t e p i n t h e c o n q u e s t o f
t h at p o i nt .
10 Bxc5
W h y choose c6 ? Th i s , on the
D i agram 2 2 6 s urfa ce, i s one of those
my s t e r i o u s d e c i s i o ns w h i ch
mast ers mak e a n d s o i t i s
w o rth w h i l e l o ok i ng i n to t h e
l o g i c o f t h a t ch o i c e .
B o t w i n n i k was l ook i n g for a
s t r o n g p o i n t s o mewh ere c l o s e t o
t h e c e n t r e and p r e f e ra b l y i n
oppos i n g t erri tory, u n ­
a s s a i l a b l e by e nemy pawns but
o n e t h a t c o u l d b e s u p p ort e d b y
f ri e n d ly p a w n s , a cc es s i b le t o
p i e c e s b o t h f o r oc cupat i o n a n d
s u pport. T h o s e provi s i ons p o i nt
i mmed i at e ly t o t w o s q u are s : d6
and c6. e5 cou ld also be
c o n s i d e red be cau s e, a l t h ou gh i t
d oe s n o t f i t o n e c o n d i t i o n - i t
i s vu l n erab l e t o B l a ck p a w n
a t t a ck none the less, if
Th e o n l y s e n s i b l e way t o White did occupy e5, f6
retake f or o t h erw i s e t h e w o u l d b a d l y w e a k e n t h e s q u a re
queenside pawns become e 6 . However, d6 a n d c6 are t h e
i solated. t o p c a n d i d a t es a t t h e moment.
d 7 a n d c 7 a r e t o o f a r adva n ce d ,
P l ay s o f a r h as c o n ce n trated f o r n o W h i t e p aw n s cou l d cover
on placing pi eces on the t h o s e s q u ares a n d o t h e r p l aces
d i ago n a l r ou t e s i Bi s h op s b e a r o n t h e two o p e n f i l es are
201
e i ther too c l os e t o home or too 12 N 5f 6 ,
vu l n e r a b l e t o B l a ck ' s b a n d e ­
pawn s . w h en h e s h ou l d h av e preven ted
Wh i t e 's n e xt move w i t h 12
c6 cou l d be s u pported by a5.
a d va n c i n g t h e b -p a w n t o b 5 1 d 6
b y t h e e - p awn g o i n g t o e S . I n 13 b4
the latter cas e th i s wou l d
b l ock t h e l i n e o f t h e B i s h o p a t H e r e is t h e g a i n o f t e mpo
b 2 a n d o c cu p y a c e n t r e s q u a r e me n t i o n e d previ ous ly a n d w i t h
(e5 ) w i th a pawn w h i ch wou l d i t W h i t e c r e a t es more s pa c e for
perh a p s b e b e t t e r o c cu p i e d by a m a n o e u v r e a s w e l 1 as m o v i n g
Kn i gh t . A pawn at b5, t owa rds h i s t arget s q uare .
s u pport i n g t h e c 6 ca n d i d a t e,
h ow e v e r , w o u l d n o t i n t e r f e r e 13 Be7
w i t h t h e movement of any of h i s 14 Nd4
own p i e c e s . T h e n a ga i n , i f t h e
p a w n o n e 5 w a s a t t a ck e d i t O p en i n g t h e Kn i gh t and
wou l d h ave t o b e s u pported by Bishop on t o c6. The Bi shop
the f -pawn goi n g to f4, e x c h a n g e i s f or c e d .
p o s s i b l y e xp o s i n g t h e W h i t e
Ki n g ' s f l a n k , w h ereas t h e b ­ 14 Bxg2
pawn on b 5 cou l d b e propped u p 1 5 Kxg2 Qc7
w i th a pawn at a4 w i thout a n y
a d vers e s i d e - e f f e c t s . O n e l a s t The Qu e e n moves a cr o s s to
poi nt : c6 is on t h e l i n e of t h e t a k e o ve r t h e r o l e o f t h e
l i gh t - s q u ared B i s h op w h i ch w i l l B i s h o p o n t h e l i gh t s q u ar e s .
add power f u l , d i s t a n t s up p or t .
1 6 Qb3
S o me r e a d e r s may s e e a l l
t h i s at a g l a n c e bu t oth ers may D i agram 2 2 7
f i nd t h i s d et a i l i l lu m i nat i n g
and be encouraged t o b e l i eve
t h a t t h i s k i n d of f orward
planning i s w i th i n every
p l ayer's a b i l i ty o n ce h e h as a
f i r m gra s p o f po s i t i o n a l i d e a s
s o t h a t h e k n ow s w h a t h e i s
look i n g for i n a g i ve n
s i tuat i on .

To r e t urn t o t h e game :
1 1 Nbd2 Nd7
12 a3

U n f ort u n a t e ly f or D o n n er h e
read t h i s m o v e a s a prepara t i o n
for e4, eli mi nating the
res p o n s e Nb4, w h i ch wou l d
give Bl ack access to the If you wondered why W h i t e
sp 1 en d i d s q u are d 3 p l ay e d N d 2 i n s t e a d o f N c 3 o n
C o ns equ en t ly h e d e f e n d e d wi t h , move 1 1 , the complete answer is
202
n ow reve a led. A p a rt from 19 N5f6
avoi d i n g t h e exch a n g e w i t h 20 b5
B l a ck ' s K n i gh t o n d 5 , a s i t w a s
a t t h e t i m e , t h e K n i gh t on d2 M i s s i o n a l mos t a c c o mp l i s h e d :
d oes n ot i n t erf ere with t h e f ou n d a t i o n s o f t h e o u t pos t
movement on the third rank. are s ecured .
Wh i t e, h avi n g e x c h a nged off t h e
l i gh t -s q u a r e d B i s h o p s , r e d u c i n g D i a g ram 2 2 8
B l a ck ' s d e f e n c e o f c 6 , i s n o w
ab l e, w i t h t h e t e xt a n d a c l ear
t h i rd ra n k , t o s w i tch t o f3
wh e n e ver B l a ck goes Qb 7ch ,
• • .

1 e a vi n g B 1ack w i th th e
d i ff i cu l t cho i c e of whether t o
s i mp l i fy in t h e h o pe of a draw
but a t the cos t of weake n i n g
c6, or t o keep the Qu eens on in
the h ope o f better middl e-game
pros pect s .

16 RfcB
17 Rfc1 Qb7ch
1 8 Qf3

N o w , a f t er 1 B Q xf 3 c h
• • . 19
N2xf3, t h ere i s n o way t o s t o p
a Kn i gh t l a n d i n g o n c 6 n or a ny
meth o d of dri v i n g i t away, 20 a6
s h ort o f s a cri f i ce. Th i s wou l d
res u l t i n a n en ormou s ga i n i n H i s a t t e m p t t o u n d ermi n e t h e
s pace f o r W h i t e and a l oss of fou n d a t i o n s o n l y o p e n s more
mo b i l i t y a m o n g t h e B l a c k l i n e s i n t o h i s p os i t i o n .
p i eces, a s i tu at i o n s imi lar t o
t h a t i n G ame O n e . 2 1 Nc6
18 Nd5 E n t er i n g t h e l o n g - p r e p a r e d
o u t p os t w i t h t emp o .
Not only avoiding th e
exch a n ge but threat e n i n g a 21 BfB
s h a r p c o u n t e r a t t a c k d ow n t h e 2 2 a4 axb5
very d i ago n a l t h a t is i n 2 3 a xb5 Rxa1
dispu t e : 1 9 • • • N e5 20 Qe4 24 R x a 1 RaB
f5 ! (forcing t h e Queen off t h e
long d i a gona l ) 21 Qxe5 Nf4 Hoping for relief from
d ou b l e c h w i t h ma t e t o f o l l ow . f u r t h e r e x ch a n g es bu t W h i t e ' s
r e p l y e mp h a s i s e s h i s easy
1 9 e4 c o mma n d o f s p a c e .

U n f ort u n a t e ly f o r B l a ck , 2 5 Rd 1
Wh i t e i s n o w r e a dy f o r t h i s
a d va n c e i n t h e c e n t r e a n d B l a ck This occupat i on of the
has n oth i n g better than t o a l t er n a t i v e f i l e q u i c k l y p r o v e s
r e t r e a t t h e K n i gh t . d e c i s i v e. Th e o u t p o s t K n i gh t
203
c o m ma n d s e n t ry s q u a r e s t o t h e or 2 7 Qc7 2 8 N e 7 ch . I n
e i gh t h rank at d B a n d t o t h e other words t h e Queen's
s event h r a n k at a 7 and B l a ck mo bi l i ty i s zero.
w i l l f i n d i t i mposs i b l e t o
defend both. His pres ent R o o k : It h a s c6 on t h e r a n k a n d
contro l o f t h e a - f i le i s of a4 a n d a 2 on t h e f i l e and
little use to him s ince any n e i t h e r of t h e f i l e s q u ares
a d va n c e i n t o t h e W h i t e p o s i t i o n i mp r o v e s t h e R o ok ' s p r o s p e cts
along that l i ne would be gre a t ly .
q u i ck l y r e p u l s e d .
B i s h o p : e 7 i s t h e o n l y s q u a re
25 Ne6 i t can move t o and even then
26 Nc4 W h i t e cou l d reply w i t h Nxb6
et c .
N e a t ly s t oppi n g both • • • Nc7
and • • • N d 6 . Bo t w i n n i k ' s p o l i c y K n i g h t ( e 6 ) : I t s o n ly p o s s i b l e
o f r e s t ra i n t work s l i k e ma g i c . move i s 2 7 N c 7 wh i ch would
• • •

b e fatal after 28 Rd 7 !
26 NcS threaten i n g 2 9 Qxf7ch, and if
27 eS 26 • • • N x d 7 t h e n 2 9 N e 7 c h w i ns
t h e Qu e e n .
D i agram 2 2 9
K n i gh t ( c S ) : P r o b a b l y B l a ck 's
b e s t p i e c e . It i s w e l l p l a c ed
a n d c a n n o t be d r i v e n o f f but
even s o i t s on ly s af e move is
t o t h e e d ge o f t h e b o a rd a t a 4 .

Compare t h i s w i t h t h e f i e l d
of comm a n d and t h e p o s s i ble
ma n o e uvres o f a l l t h e W h i t e
f o r c e . I t i s n o t a s i f B l a ck
was cramped beh i n d h i s own
p awn s , i t i s W h i t e w h o has
a ct i v e l y e mp l oy e d p a w n s a n d
p i e c es t o c o n t r o l s p a c e .

27 Rc6

A s g o o d a s a ny o t h e r move .

28 Ra1
W i t h t h i s Wh i t e opens t h e
long d i agonal for h i s Queen and W h i t e c h ooses t h e o t h e r f i le
f u rt h e r res t ri c t s e n e my p i e c e s . a n d i n vas i o n a t a 7 .
I f y o u e x a m i n e e a c h B l a ck p i e c e
i n turn you wi l l qui ckly 26 Rc7
u n ders t a n d w h a t i s m e a n t by
lack o f mobi l i ty. Dr 2 B RaB 2 9 RxaB QxaB
30 Ne7ch .
Q u e e n : She h as o n ly two s a f e
squares to go t o, c 6 and c 7 a n d 29 Ra7
a m o v e t o e i t h er w o u l d l o s e
materi a l : 2 7 QcB, 28 Nxb6
• • . B l a ck is d e s t r oy e d on the
204
seventh rank , If 29 1J c 8
. . .

t h en 3 0 N x b 6 wi ns t h e Qu een .

29 1J x a 7
30 Nxa7 Rxa7
3 1 Nxb6

W i t h n o p ro s p e c t s a n d b eh i n d
i n ma t e r i a l , B l a ck r e s i g n e d .
GAME 3

Botwinnik - Chekhover

Here B o t w i n n i k s a d d l e s h i ms e l f 4 Nf3 0 0
w i t h doub l ed a n d i s o l at ed 5 Bg5 d6
p a w n s , j u d g i n g t h a t t h e ga i n o f 6 e3
a n open f i l e, an o u t po s t in i t
a n d the pro s p e c t of good D i a g ram 2 3 0
centra l i s a t i on for h i s p i eces
w i l l be worth i t.

B o twi n n i k Chekh over


L e n i n gr a d , 1 9 3 8

O c cu p a t i o n o f e 4 by a p i e c e .
Ce n t r a l i s a t i o n .
Open f i l e a n d out pos t .
L i gh t s q u a r e w e a k n e s s .
D o u b l e d p awn s .

N i mz o - I n d i a n De f e n c e

1 d4 Nf 6
2 c4 e6
3 Nc3 Bb4

T h e move w h i ch charact eri ses


t h e defence. The object, Black 's ideas fol low the
t h r o u gh t h e p i n o n t h e K n i gh t , h y permodern p a t t ern o f a modest
is to res trai n White's centre. W h i t e takes a s i mi lar
act i vities i n t h e centre and v i e w a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n of
d i s courage an early e4. where to pu t h i s e-pawn. 6 e4
Accord i n g t o vari a t i o n B l a ck s tra i gh t a w ay commi ts the
m a y c h o o s e o r b e c o mp e l l e d t o c e n t r e t o o ear ly f o r h i s tas t e,
capture • • • Bxc3, giving u p f o r B l a ck c o u l d r e s p o n d w i t h
B i shop for Knigh t b u t g a i n i n g 6 . . . h 6 w h e n W h i t e w o u l d h a ve
i n co mp e n s a t i o n a f u t u r e t a r g e t t o e x c h a n g e B i s h o p f or K n i gh t
i n t h e d ou b l e d p a w n c o mp l e x i n at f 6 since 7 Bh4 would a l low
Wh i t e's q u e e n s i d e . B l a ck t o p l ay g5, N xe4,
and f 5 , g i vi n g h i m a pawn
Of t h e many fourt h move a n d a p ro m i s i n g a t t a ck .
rep l i e s f o r W h i t e Botwi n n i k
c h o o s e s t h e l e a s t w e l l k n ow n B o t w i n n i k t h e r e f o r e
and so avo i d s we l l -trodde n preferred e 3 , preservi ng t h e
paths . square e 4 for a piece.
206
6 Qe7 D i a g ram 2 3 1
7 Be2 e5
B Qc2 ReB
9 0 0 Bxc3

Now that the pin has


d i s appeared W h i t e threatens N e 4
or N d 5 .

10 b x c3

T h e d ou b l e d p a w n c a n n o t b e
avo i d e d . Af t e r 1 0 Qxc3 Ne4
11 Bxe7 Nxc3 12 bxc3, the
pawns are st i l l doubled,
e xchanges h ave t ak e n p l ace a n d
the endgame, i n whi ch thos e
p a w n s w i l l b e c o m e a n i n cr e a s i n g
l i a b i l i t y , comes nearer.

10 h6
1 1 Bh4 c5 Just enough force has been
e x c h a n g e d to make t h i s early
The i dea of this is to s o r t i e w i t h t h e Qu e e n p o s s i b l e .
provok e d 5 w h e n Wh i t e 's d ou b l e d The Qu een, beautifu l ly
p a w n s b e co m e b o t h b a ck w a r d a n d c e n t r a l i s e d a n d i m mu n e f r o m
f i xe d , b u t s i n c e W h i t e d o e s n o t a t t a ck , s u d d e n ly rad iates
n eed to o b l i g e he wou l d h ave enormous power both i n her
b e e n b e t t e r d e ve l o p i n g w i t h vi c i n i ty and at l ong range
Bg4 . a long the a-fi l e and along
t h e l i gh t d i a gon a l s o n w h i ch
1 2 Rfe1 s h e s t a n d s . T h e w e a k n e s s of t h e
l i gh t s q u ares i s i mm e d i a t e ly
W h i t e p l a n s N - d 2 - e 4 b u t mu s t apparen t .
pro t e c t h i s B i s h o p f i rs t f o r
o t h e rw i s e 1 2 N d 2 e xd 4 1 3 c x d 4 B l a ck 's b - p aw n a n d B i s h op
cxd4 and he cannot recapt u re . a r e f o rk e d a n d s o h e m u s t t a k e
t h e B i s h o p h o me o r e x c h a n g e o n
12 Bg4 f3.

So t h a t a f t e r 1 3 Nd2 Bxe2 14 B xf 3
1 4 Rxe2 a ga i n t h e a - p aw n w i l l 1 5 Bxf3
b e p i n n e d w h e n B l a ck s t arts
exch a n g i n g on d 4 . However, Th e Bishop j oi ns i n the
W h i t e h a s a n a l t ernat i ve p l a n domination of the l i gh t
f o r t h a t i n t er es t i n g s q u ar e , s q u ares .
e4.
15 Nc6
13 Bxf6
W h i t e now needs a plan t o
R emo vi n g a wa t ch d o g . f u r t h e r t h e a d va n t a g es h e h as
ga i n e d . Th e d i a g o n a l p i e c e s a r e
13 Qxf 6 w e l l e n ough p l a c e d , but the
1 4 Qe4 ! f i l e p i eces have not yet fou n d
207
their maximum effect i veness. exch a n g e d , leavi n g W h i t e l i tt l e
There is the half open b-fi le for h i s p a i n s , a part from his
t h ey c o u l d o p e r a t e o n b u t t h e e xe c r a b l e p a w n s ?
b-pawn is eas i ly defended
w i t h o u t B l a ck h a v i n g t o m a k e T h i s i s w h ere a n o u t p o s t i n
weakeni n g p a w n moves. a f i l e a ga i n b e comes of
s ervi c e . . . .
Some o t h er l i ne i s n e eded
for the Rook s , perh a p s a l i n e 1 7 Rad8
yet t o be o pen ed. T h e obvi ous 1 8 RdS I
cand i d a t e is the d -f i l e , bu t
t h at w o u l d mean exchangi ng f or i f 1 8 RxdS then 1 9
pawns on cS wh i ch would leave a cxdS, and a passed pawn
h orri fy i n g p a w n c o n f i gu ra t i o n a ppears. N o t o n ly t h a t b u t the
o n t h e queens i d e : i s o lated p a w n t w o w e a k l i n g s b e c o m e very
o n a2, doub l ed , i s o l a t ed a n d s trong as a s u pported passed
f i xed pawns on c 3 a n d c4. p a w n p a r t n e rs h i p . W h i t e , t h e n ,
t ru l y h as c o n t r o l of t h e open
B o t w i n n i k w e i gh e d t h e p r o s f i l e a n d threatens t o doub l e in
and cons and came to th e it.
conc l u s i on t h a t t h e i n creas ed
m o b i l i t y of h i s p i e c e s w a s 1B b6?
w o rth t h e r a g g e d p a w n s .
W i t h s o mu c h l i gh t -s q u ared
16 dxcS ! dxcS w e a k n e s s i n h i s p o s i t i o n B l a ck
17 Rad 1 shou l d not p l ace yet another
p aw n on a d a rk s q u a re a n d
D i a g ram 2 3 2 weaken t h e pos i t i on of his
K n i gh t a t t h e s a me t i m e . H i s c ­
p a w n n ee d e d s u p p o r t bu t t h i s
wou l d h ave been better done
by • • • Qe 7, wh i ch wou 1 d h ave
a l s o p r e p a r e d a n a d va n c e o n t h e
k i n gs i d e .
19 Red1 N a S•t

A s u b t l e p l a n . Hi s i d e a i s
t o c r e a t e a p a s s e d p a w n for
W h i t e a n d t h e n b l o ck a d e i t at
d 6 : 20 R xdS
• • • 2 1 c xdS Nb7,
f o l l ow e d by N d 6. Th i s wou ld
• • •

g i v e t h e p o s i t i o n o f d i a gram
2 3 3 , a p a r t from t h e m i s s i n g
W h i t e move, w h i ch w o u l d n ot
a l t e r t h e ess ent i a l s tructure.

The f i l e o p e n s a n d a R o o k
a p pears o n i t, b u t s ur e l y , w i t h
the bas e of t h e fi l e - from
B l a ck ' s p o i n t o f v i ew so wel l
covered, h i s own Rook s can
chal lenge and both p a i rs be
208
D i ag ram 2 3 3 d i a g r a m 2 3 2 a n d p l ay i n g 1 7 . • •

RadB 1 8 R d 5 b 6 1 9 Re d 1 N a 5 .

20 h3

S e e i n g t h ro u g h B l a ck ' s p l a n ,
Botwinnik plays a usefu l
prophy l a ct i c move, preve n t i n g
b a ck r a n k s u rp r i s es , as h e
w a i t s f o r B l a ck t o p r o c e e d .

20 Rxd5
21 Rxd5 1
W h i t e k eeps h i s mo bi l i t y
r a t h e r t h a n s t ra i gh t e n i n g o u t
his pawns and avoids the
consequences detai led in a
p r e v i o u s n o t e . H e n ow t h r e a t e n s
a n i n va s i o n o f t h e s e v e n t h r a n k
w h i c h B l a ck mu s t a t t e n d t o.
Bl ack h as i n duced a passed 21 Qe7
p awn at d 5 , w h i ch cou l d i n s ome
circumstances have been B l a ck c o u l d c h a l l e n ge t h e d ­
favoura b l e t o W h i t e, b u t n o t fi l e aga i n w i t h . . . RdB but
here. T h e p a w n at d5 b l o ck s W h i t e s i m p l y r e p l a c e s t h e R o ok
both o f W h i te's main l i nes of w i th the Queen by the
m o v e me n t a n d a t t a ck , t h e ct - f i l e ma noeuvre: 22 Qd3 Rxd5 23
and the aB h1 d i agonal. The Qxd5, maintai n i n g his contro l
pri n c i p a l virt u e of a p a s s e d o v e r t h e l i gh t s q u ares , t h e
pawn l i es in its abi l i ty to c e n t r e a n d t h e ct -f i l e .
move freely t owards the
q u e e n i n g s q u a re, b u t h ere t h e 2 2 Bg4
Kn i gh t , t h a t b l o c k a d e r p a r
exce l l en ce, permanent ly R e n ew i n g t h e t h r e a t o f R d 7 .
immob i l i s es the pass ed paw n ,
a n d , s t a n d i n g o n a d a rk s q u ar e , 22 Qb 7
is u n a s s a i l a b l e . A l l W h i t e ' s
a b u n d a n t mo b i l i t y has M e e t i n g t h e threat w i th a
d i s a p p e a r e d i n a f l a s h . Th i s i s pi n .
a most fas ci nat ing and
instruct i v e pos i t i o n for i n i t 2 3 BfS I
w e s e e h ow e s s e n t i a l i t i s t o
cr e a t e p a s s e d p a w n s i n s et t i n gs
i n w h i ch t h ey w i l l t h r i v e a n d
h ow e f f e c t i v e t h e b l o ck a d e r c a n
b e n o t o n ly i n i t s o bs t ru c t i o n
of t h e passed p a w n but i n
p l u g gi n g h o l e s i n t h e p os i t i o n .

Ret u rn i n g to t h e game, t h e
current p os i t i on o f w h i ch c a n
b e obta i ned b y goi n g back t o

209
D i a g ram 2 3 4 N e a t ly w i nn i ng a central
pawn for a doub l e d one and
e l i m i n a t i n g t o a w o n e n d game.
O f c o u rs e i f 25 Oxes
• • . 26
R x d B c h a n d ma t e n e xt m o v e .

25 Nxc4
26 QxbB RxbB

Di agram 2 3 5

Tak ing off the pin and


i n cr e a s i n g c o n t r o l o ve r l i gh t
squares. 23 g 6 i s p r e ve n t e d
• • •

b e cau s e of t h e r e p l y 2 4 B x g 6 1
fxg6 2 5 Qxg6ch KfB (t o
p r o t e ct t h e R o ok ) 2 6 R d 6 a n d
B l a ck c a n r e s i g n .

W h i t e t h reatens 2 4 R d ? aga i n
and if 24 • • .Qxe4 then 2 5 Bxe4 2 7 Be4 !
f o l l ow e d by B d S , crea t i n g a
s i tuat ion s i mi lar t o the game T w o m o ve s a g o B o t w i n n i k m a d e
i n w h i ch t h e e n d i n g i s l o s t . a Qu e e n o f f e r, n o w h e p l ays
t h i s b e a u t i f u l ly d e l i c a t e m o v e ,
23 QbB B e 4 , a d e c i s i v e c e n t ra l i s a t i o n
of t h e B i s h o p t h r e a t e n i n g BdS.
He avoi ds t h e e n dgame a n d It is i n t eres t i n g to l o o k over
k e e p s h i s Qu e e n , bu t f o r t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s f ew m o ve s a ga i n t o
h e h as t o a bandon his s econd s e e w h i c h g i v e s t h e gre a t e r
rank . p l easure, 2 5 QxeS or 2 7 Be4.
Perh a p s i t is i n v i d i o u s t o
24 Rd? c o mp a r e m o v e s s o d i f f e r e n t i n
character but one t h i n g i s
Now t h e t h re a t of 25 Bh 7 c h cert a i n : 2 7 Be4 h as a t l e ast
K f B 2 6 Q d S ( i f B l a ck s t o p s t h e t h e m e r i t o f t h e Qu e e n o f f e r .
ma t e by i n t er p o s i n g t h e R o ok h e M o r e t o t h e p o i n t p r o b a b l y , as
l o s e s t h e Qu e e n o n t h e b a c k i s soon revea led, thos e two
ra n k ) f o r c e s B l a ck t o c h a l l e n g e m o ve s c o m b i n e t o t h e s a m e e n d ,
t h e Rook . the creat i on of a potential
passed pawn.
24 RdB
25 QxeS ! W h y d i d W h i t e i g n ore t h e a­
pa w n ? He cou l d h a ve won i t but
210
B l a ck h a s a m a j o r i t y o f p a w n s P r e ve n t i n g t h e i mmed i a t e f 5 .
on t h e q u e e n s i d e a n d i t s
c a p t u r e w o u l d o n ly m a k e ma t t ers 3 4 Kf2
e q u a l t h er e . T h e e n d g a m e i s t h e
t i me t o con s i der ( a l t h ough N e 2 c h w a s t h re a t e n e d .
Botwi n n i k had obvi ous ly
c o n s i d e r e d i t s o me t i m e b e f o r e ) 34 gS
where a passed pawn i s goi ng t o 35 g3 gxf 4
come from, for it is the 3 6 gxf 4
pri ncipal means o f w i nn i n g at
t h i s s tage o f t h e game. W h i t e's D i ag ram 2 3 6
pawn maj ori ty is on the
k i n gs i d e , t h e c a n d i d a t e i s t h e
e-pawn and so this is the
r e g i o n u p on wh i ch h e
c o n c e n t ra t e s .

27 Na3
2 8 BdS Rf8

B l a ck ' s K i n g and R o ok are


n ow t i e d d ow n to t h e d e f e n c e of
t h e f - pawn. Furth ermore, t h e
pawn i s p i n ned on the d i agon a l
a n d e v e n i f B l a ck p l ay e d . . . g 6
and • • • Kg7, it wou ld sti l l be
p i n n ed, this t i me on t h e rank.
Th i s s h ow s t h e re a l va l u e o f
B e 4 : t w o - t h i rd s o f t h e B l a ck
force i s i mmobi l i s ed and a l l h e
i s l e f t w i th i s a w a nd eri n g
K n i gh t . Even if B l a ck cou l d ach i e ve
c o mp l e t e c o n t ro l o f f S a n d s et
29 e4 u p a b l o c k a d e w i t h h i s Kn i g h t
s u pported by his Ki ng t h ere
It s e e ms a long time ago wou l d be little poi nt, for
that White decided to delay Wh ite c o u l d t h e n m a r ch h i s Ki ng
t h i s m o v e . H e w i l l n ow a d v a n ce to the other wing and col lect
the e and f-pawns together t h e p aw n s t h er e .
u n t i l a w i n n i n g p a s s ed pawn
emerg e s . 36 Ne6
37 Ke3 c4
29 as 3 8 fS Nc5
30 c4 39 Rel Nd3
B l a ck s o l d i e rs on. He c o u l d
E n s u r i n g t h a t w h e n B l a ck h a v e r e s i g n e d s ome moves a g o .
d o e s pro d u c e a pas s e d p a w n i t
wi l l b e a f ee b l e o n e . 40 e6 fxe6
4 1 fxe6 R e s i g ns ,
30 bS
3 1 c xb S N xbS beca u s e t h e passed pawn wi l l b e
32 e s a4 w o r t h a R o ok a f t e r : 4 1 Re8
• • •

33 f4 Nd4 42 e7 d i s ch a n d 43 Bc6. If
4 1 . . . N f 4 t h e n s i mp ly 42 B x c4.
21 1
GAME 4

Smyslov - Rudakovsky

Smy s l o v R u d ak o vs k y Its disadvantage is that with


i t s i n i t i a l a ct i o n r e m o t e f r o m
Mos c ow , 1 9 4 5 t h e k i n gs i d e W h i t e c a n a t t a ck
w i th a rush of pawns i n the
How t o o c c u p y d S . c e n t r e a n d o n t h e k i n gs i d e , a n
The outpost as p i vot for a t t a ck t h a t c a n b e b o t h s u d d e n
wi n g a t t a ck . a n d v i o l e n t . However, B l a ck 's
Co l o u r we a k n e s s . p awn s tru cture general ly
r e ma i n s s ou n d e r t h a n W h i t e ' s i n
S i ci li an Defence s u ch s i tu a t i o n s , and so the
l onger t h e game goes on the
e4 cS m o r e f a v o u r a b l e t o B l a ck i t
b e c ome s .
T h e S i c i l i a n Defen ce. I t s
f i rs t o b v i o u s i n t e n t i o n i s t o 2 Nf3 e6
b e r e a dy t o e x c h a n g e p a w n s a s
s o o n as W h i t e moves into t h e T h e Scheven i n g e n Vari a t i o n
c e n t re w i t h d 4 , g i v i n g h i m t w o i n w h i c h B l a ck a i ms f o r a
pawns to one i n the midd l e. mod e s t c e n t r e a n d d e ve l o p me n t ,
S u ch a d e s cri p t i o n suggests h o p i n g t o re l e a s e h i s
t h a t it is hypermodern i n accumulated power later.
f l avour b u t t h e s t range t h i n g
i s t h a t t h e S i c i l i a n i s v e ry T h e r e a r e m a ny v a r i a t i o n s i n
o l d. I t a cq u i red t h e n a me f r o m the S i ci l i a n. Even at t h i s
Gre co i n t h e seve n t e e n t h e a r l y s t a g e B l a ck h a s many
c e n t u ry a n d h a s s i n c e b e e n o n e ch o i c e s o f m o v e a n d i t i s t h e
of the most popu lar of t h e f l e xi b i l i t y a n d r i ch c o mp l e x i t y
asymmetri ca 1 repl i es t o e4, of 1 • • • cS w h i cb has k e p t t h e
o n ly o ccas i on a l ly f a l l i n g ou t d ef e n c e a l i v e f or s u ch a l o n g
of f a s h i o n . t i me .

T h e e a r ly a cq u i s i t i o n o f t h e 3 d4 cxd4
h a l f open c-f i l e after t h e 4 Nxd4 Nf6
e x ch a n g e o f p a w n s a n d a n o p e n 5 Nc3 d6
l i n e f o r t h e Qu e e n g i v e s B l a c k 6 Be2 Be7
a ct i ve p l ay o n t h e q u e e n s i de. 7 0 0 0 0

212
Di agram 2 3 7 s i mp l e s h i f t opens up new
prospects a l ong d i agonals. But
c 2 mu s t b e w a t c h e d . B l a c k i s
t a k i n g o ver t h e c - f i le a n d t h e
W h i t e p a w n t h ere c o u l d b e come
vu l n er a b l e .

10 Nxd4

B la ck 's pro b l e m i s w h a t t o
d o with t h e Qu een's B i s h op.
Un l e s s i t i s f i a n ch et t o e d i t
w i l l n e ed o n e of t h e s q u ares e6
or c6 w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t l y
c o vered b y t h e W h i t e K n i g h t .
Th i s e x change i s , th erefor e, a
good o n e s i n ce t h e K n i g h t w a s
a l s o keep i n g an eye on f5, a
c o mm o n s q u a re f o r k i n gs i d e
o p era t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n
t h i s o p e n i ng. W h i t e 's p a w n s are
B l a ck h as a c h i e v e d w h a t i s a l s o be g i n n i n g to look o m i n o u s
s o met i mes ca l l ed t h e l i t t l e a n d B l a ck p l a n s a c h a l l e n ge
centre. H i s pawns at d6 a n d e 6 with e 5 , even though i t
prevent, at pres ent, any would leave h i s d -pawn
i n c u rs i o n o f e n e my p i e c e s b a ckwa r d .
across t h e front c5 t o f 5 , o r
the establishment of White 1 1 B xd 4 e5
outposts there. H e has t o pay 12 Be3 Be6
for t h i s , h ow e ver, with a
c r a mp e d p o s i t i o n . T ry i n g t o d e ve l o p t h e B i s h o p
i n o n e move a n d a i mi n g a t c4,
Wh i t e 's p i eces are p o i n t i n g bu t i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r
g e n e r a l l y t ow a r d s t h e k i n gs i d e t o u s e two moves with • • •Bd7
a n d h e w i l l a i m f or s omet h i n g and • • • Bc6, retaining the
like f4, Q e 1 and Qg3. Th e Bi s h o p t h e r e a ga i n s t a p o s s i b l e
n a t u r a l l i n e o f f l ow , a f t er • • • W h i t e o u t po s t a t d 5 .
B d 7 , for B l a c k 's forces wi 1 1 be
t ow a rd s t h e o t h er w i n g . H e n c e a 1 3 fS
balance of opportun i ty i s
s truck b e t w e e n t h e o p p os i n g A n d n ow W h i t e a d v a n ces w i t h
sides . t emp o .

8 Be3 Nc6 13 Bc4


9 f4 Qc7
10 Qe1 Continuing his defect i ve
plan .
T h e Qu e e n l o o k s a l o n g t h e
n a r r o w c o rr i d o r o f i t s o w n f i l e 1 4 Bxc4 Qxc4
a n d n eeds more room a n d t h i s

213
Di agram 2 3 8 O t h e rw i s e W h i t e c a n break u p
t h e k i n gs i d e p awn s .
18 c3

T i me t o take preventive
meas ures .
18 bS
Di agram 2 3 9

d S n ow looms large i n
White's m i n d a s a mos t
a t t r a c t i v e p os t f or a n o u t po s t
Knight
. • Black has a lready
h e l p ed h i m b y e xchangi n g t h e·

l i gh t -s q u a r e d B i s h o p s . T h e o n l y
B l a ck p i e c e rema i n i n g t o t h w a rt
the ambi t i o n i s t h e B l a ck
K n i gh t a n d s o W h i t e a d o p t s a
typi ca l manoe uvre i n s u c h
s i tu a t i ons . T h e p os i t i o n i s a s i mp l e one
a n d d i s p l ay s t h e v i rt u e s o : � h e
15 BgS I centra l outpost w i t h s tr i k i �g
c l ari t y . T h e Kn i gh t i t s e l f i s
B e ca u s e t h e K n i g h t i s p i n n e d p a r t o f a f i x e d c e n t r e w h i. c h
Black cannot avoid the w i l l e n a b l e W h i t e t o e m b a rk on
e x ch ange . w i n g a c t i vi ty i n s af e t y . T h e
K n i gh t a i ms a t t h e s q u a r e s e 7
15 Rfe8 a n d f 6 o n t h e k i n gs i d e b � t h a s
1 6 B xf 6 Bxf6 i n f lu e n ce o n the other w i n g at
1 7 NdS 7 a n d b 6 a s w e l l a s d e f e n d i. n g
�i t a l poi nts in his own pawn
Nor does W h i t e h ave t o s t ru c ture. T h e o u t po s t b e c o mes
prepare the occupat i on by a k i n d of p i v o t or f u l c� u m of
d ef e n di n g h i s c - p a w n : . 1 7 a ct i o n on t h e w i n g s. N o t i c e t oo
Qxc2 1 8 Rf2 a n d n o w , i f t h e t h a t t h e K n i g h t ? o v e r s d a �k
Q u e e n l eaves t h e c - f i l e , 1 9 N c 7 s q u ares , mak i n g h i s o p p o n e n t s
f o r k s t h e Ro o k s , a n d i f B l a c k Bishop a bad o n e .
s tays on the c-f i l e 1 9 R c 1 and
t h e s ame th i n g h a p p e n s . B l a ck ' s o n ly p ro s p e c � n ow i s
t o t r y t o h o l d t h e k i . n g s i. d e
17 Bd8 w h i' l s t h e c o n d u c t s a m i n o r i. t y
a t t a ck o n t h e q u een s i. d e .
214
1 9 b3 t erri b l e i n s p i t e of h i s
pos s e s s i o n of a dark B i s h o p .
Re l e a s i n g t h e Q u e e n ' s R o ok T h ere w o u l d f o l l ow Q e 1 d2
from t h e defen ce of t h e a -p a w n h 6 and Rf3 h3 with a mate
a n d t h e K n i g h t w i l l l o ok a f t e r t h at i s n ot t o b e avoided.
the bas e of t h e c-fi l e at c3 .
On 22 • . •Bxf6 there would
19 Q c 5 ch f o l l ow 2 3 N x f 6 g xf 6 24 Qh4
20 Kh 1 RcB R g B (n o t 2 4 . . . R e 6 b e ca u s e o f
2 1 Rf3 2 5 R h 3 , e t c. ) 2 5 Qxf6ch Rg7
2 6 R d 1 , w i t h v a r i a t i o n s s i mi l a r
S i m p l e and effect i ve. Th e t o t h o s e i n t h e g ame .
Rook , operat i n g now on t h e
t h i rd r a n k , covers p o i n t s i n 22 g x f6
the queens ide as wel l as 23 Qh4 RgB
prepari ng t o s w i t ch i nt o a
d i r e c t Ki n g a t t a ck . To s t o p t h e mate at h 7 w h i c h
w o u l d f o l l ow a f t er R h 3 .
21 Kh B
2 4 N xf 6 Rg7
B l a c k w a s n a t ura l l y 25 Rg3
reluctant to restrict his
B i s h o p f u rt h e r w i t h • • • f6, T h e t h r e a t of 2 6 Q x h 7 c h !
w h i ch w ou l d a ls o a l low Qh4 R x h 7 2 7 R g B m a t e forces B l a ck
s u p p o r t e d by R h 3 . t o c l e a r t h e b a ck r a n k a n d s o
h e t a k e s o f f t h e Kn i gh t .
2 2 f6
25 Bxf6
D i a g r am 2 4 0 26 Qxf6 RgB
27 Rd 1

B l a ck c a n n o t s t o p t h e d - f i l e
open i n g and letting i n the
o t h e r R o ok t o c l i n ch t h e g ame .
27 d5

H o p i n g t o g e t t h e Q u e e n b a ck
t o f B i n order t o recapture
w i t h t h e Q u e e n w h en W h i t e g o e s
R xg 7 , b u t W h i t e s t i f l es eve n
t h i s b l e a k h op e .

2 6 Rxg7 I R e s i gns

Af t e r 2 8 Rxg7
• • • 29 Rxd5
B l a ck c a n o n ly d ef e n d t h e b a ck
r a n k by g i v i n g u p Qu e e n f o r
R o ok .
A t y p i ca l met h o d of break i n g
u p t ti e K i n g ' s p a w n c o v e r . I f T h er e c o u l d b e n o s i mp l er
B l a c k l e av e s t h e p a w n w h e r e i t d e mo n s t ra t i o n o f t h e o u·t p o s t 's
i s a nd p l ay s , s ay , g6, the
• • • p o w e r t h a n W h i t e ' s e l e g a n t p l ay
dark square weakness i s i n t h i s game .
21 5
GAME 5

Bogoljubow - Nimzowitsch

T h e n e x t g a m e i s r e m a rk a b l e D o u b l e d p awn s .
for i ts s i n g l e - m i n d ed purs u i t P r o p h y l a x i s ( p reve n t i ve
of a strategi ca l idea. me a s u r e s ) .
N i m z o w i t s c h w r i t es o f h i s g a m e s C e n t ra l i s a t i o n .
as i f t h e y w e r e m o r e h e r o i c P l ay i n t h e f i l e .
a d ve n t u r e s t h a n g a m e s . H e w r o t e
a book c a l l e d ' M y Sys t e m ' i n N i mz o - I n d i a n D e f e n c e
t h e s ame man ner wh i ch you may
b e f o rt u n a t e e n o u gh n o t t o h a v e 1 d4 N f6
read, for i t is a great 2 c4 e6
p l ea s u r e t o l o ok f o rward t o . 3 Nc3 Bb4

T h e game t u rn s u p o n t h e S e e Game four f or comments


s i mp l e i d e a o f p a w n w e a k n e s s . o n t h e s e mov e s .
N i mzow i t s ch doub les his
opponent 's pawns on t h e c-f i l e 4 Nf3 B x c 3 ch
i n t h e open i n g and then bends
a l l h i s e n e r g i e s t o t w o t h i n gs : Black does not w a i t t o be
e xp l o i t i n g t h a t w e a k n e s s a n d ch a l l e nged n or for W h i t e to
e l i m i n a t i n g a l l e n e my c o u n t e r f u r t h e r p ro t e c t h i s Kn i gh t , s o
ch ances. T h i s l at t er e l ement, t h a t a f t er ,
p r e ve n t i o n , w h i c h N i m z ow i t s c h
c a l l ed p r o p h y l a x i s , h e r e g a r d e d 5 bxc3,
as a corner stone of his
s y s t em . t h e c-pawns are i rr e v o c a b l y
d o ub l e d .
It was p l ayed i n a f amous
tournamen t , Carlsbad, 1 929, 5 b6
w h i ch N i mzow i t s ch w o n a bove
Capab lan c a , S p i e l ma n n , Th e f i a n ch e t t o o f t h e B i s h o p
R u b i n s t e i n a n d a g a l a xy o f i s i nt ended t o bri ng a p i ece to
other names. H i s opponent was b e a r on e 4 , n o r w i l l W h i t e ,
B o go l j u b ow , who p l a y e d t w o w i t h h i s c o m p r o m i s ed p aw n s , be
ma t c h e s a g a i n s t A l e k h i n e f o r a b l e t o b l o ck t h e d i ago n a l , a s
t h e W o r l d Champ i ons h i p duri n g w e s h a l l s ee.
that peri o d , and s o in n o way
w a s t h i s a v i ct ory a g a i n s t w e a k 6 g3 Bb7
oppos i t i o n . 7 Bg2 0 0
B 0 - 0
B o g o l j u b ow N i mz ow i t s c h
B o t h s i d es h ave moved a l o ng
Ca r l s b a d , 1 9 2 9 q u i ck l y w i t h d e ve l o pm e n t and
n oth i n g h as been d i s turbed in
21 6
the centre, a lthough thei r Provok i n g B l ack 's n e xt move
w a t ch f u l eyes h ave b e e n o n i t so t h a t o n c e B l a c k 's B i s h o p i s
a l l t h e t i m e. A n i n d i ca t i o n of o n e 4 h e p l ans t o d r i ve i t off
w h a t l i es b e l ow t h e s u r f a c e i s w i t h s o me s e q u e n c e s u c h a s B h 3 ,
s e e n i n B l a ck 's n e xt move. Nd2, f3 and e4, so estab l i s h i ng
a powerf u l centre. Even t u a l l y
B ReB h e s u cceeds i n d r i v i ng off t h e
Bishop but not before the pawn
Di agram 2 4 1 s tructure h as changed i n
B l a ck ' s f a v o u r .

10 Be4
1 1 Qb3 Nc6

P i n p o i n t i n g t h e n a t u r e of
W h i t e 's problem with the
d o u b l e d p a w n s . T h e K n i gh t c a n ,
n ow or later, go t o a s a n d t h e n
W h i t e' s Q u e e n w i l l be n eeded t o
p r o t e c t t h e p aw n a t c 4 .

12 Bf1

W h ite, c o n s c i o u s of t h e
point of t h e previ ous note,
l o ok s f or a n ot h e r p r o t e c t or o f
t h e c - p aw n .

12 eS
N i mz o w i t s ch g i v e s t h i s R o ok
m o v e t w o e x c l a ma t i o n m a rk s a n d Diagram 242
g o e s o n , ' B l a ck o p e r a t e s h e r e ,
a n d i n t h e f o l l ow i n g p l ay , w i t h
p ro p h y l a x i s and centra l ­
isation • • • T h e mys teri o u s

R o ok m o ve h e l p s t o f o r e s t a l l
t h e poss ibi lity o f Nd2 a n d e4,
t h u s : 9 N d 2 B x g2 1 0 Kxg2 eS !
1 1 e4 exd4 and • •Nxe4

f o l l o w s ' . I n s u c h w ay s B l a ck
frustrates W h i t e 's natura l
l i n e s o f p l ay .

9 Re1 d6

T h i s restrained centre
supports a n eventu a l eS,
g i ves o p t i o n s for t h e
d e ve l o pm e n t o f t h e Qu e e n ' s
Kn ight and watches the
i mp o r t a n t s q u a r e c S .
10 Qc2 Th e critical m o v e of t h e
game .

21 7
Doub l i ng a n opponent's pawns 15 ReB
i s comparat i ve ly s i mp l e ; 16 f3 Bb7
manoeuvring aga i nst them i s 1 7 Rad1
q u i t e a n o t h e r m a t t e r . Th e t h r e e
Wh i t e p a w n s at c3, c4 a n d d 4 A very good move. H e
a r e q u i t e a s o l i d forma t i o n a s develops i nto the centre with
they stand, t h e i r weak n ess the threat of 1 B c5 ! ridding
incipient. W e cou ld say that h i ms e l f o f t h e d o u b l e d p a w n
d oub led pawns are l a t e n t ly b ecaus e of the p i ns on the b
weak1 doubl ed and isolated and d-pawns. It i s as if,
pawns, a n d d ou b l ed , f i xed a n d h avi n g come t o t erms w i t h h i s
b a c k w a r d p aw n s a r e re a l l y w e a k queens i d e h a n d i c a p , t h e res t of
o r, a s N i mz o w i t s c h w o u l d p u t h i s g a m e s pr i n gs i n t o l i f e .
i t more dramat i ca l ly ,
' o rga n i ca l ly d i s ea s e d ' . T h i s i s 17 Nd7
the whole point of e5. 1 8 e4
Wh i t e i s g i v e n t h r e e o p t i o n s :
D i a gr am 2 4 3
dxe5, when the c-pawns
b e c o me i s o l a t ed a n d , t h er e ­
f o r e , r e a l l y 'd i s e a s e d ' .

2 d5, when the pawns become


i m m o b i l i s ed a n d t h e c - p a w n s
b a ck wa r d : a ga i n d i s ea s e d .
3 Ret a i n i n g the pawn at d 4 .
T h e o n ly w a y o f d o i n g t h i s
i s by 1 3 R d 1 w h e n B l a c k w i l l
n o t s t ra i g h t e n o u t h i s p aw n s
for h i m but regroup h i s
p i eces t o s tart pres s i n g o n
t h e k i n gs i d e , l e a v i n g W h i t e
t i ed d ow n t o h i s q u e e n s i d e
prob l e m s . I n o t h e r wor d s ,
the matter of what to do
w i t h t h e prob l e m p a w n s i s
l eft h a ngi ng over h i m.

Ra t h e r t h a n h a v i n g t h i s In a f e w , s w i f t s t r o k e s
c o n s t a n t i rr i t a n t B o go l j u b ow W h i t e s e ems , o n t h e s u r f a c e , t o
d e c i d e d t o re s o l v e t h e m a t t e r have devel oped h i s pos i ti on,
i m med i at e ly for h e wo u l d t h e n centra l i s ed h i s Rooks,
h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e xp a n d e l i m i n a t e d t h reats a n d d r i ve n
in the cen tre a n d ch a s e away b a ck t h e e n e m y , f o r B l a ck ' s
s ome e n emy p i e c e s . p i e c e s a r e n ow n o m o r e f o rw a r d
than h i s s econd rank n or h i s
1 3 dxe5 Nxe5 pawns beyond t h e th i rd . Wh i t e
1 4 Nxe5 Rxe5 h as a pair of Bishops and a
1 5 Bf4 s o l i d pawn at e4, just as h e
h a d i n t e n d e d f r o m t h e
b e g i n n i n g B u t , i n
W h i t e n ow gai ns t i me to N i mzow i t s ch ' s w o rds , ' W h i t e 's
bri ng h i s p i eces o u t of t h e i r pos i t i on s u ffers from a
cramp ed q u a r t e r s . profound i nner decay. The
21 8
doub l e d pawns are i s o l ated. . . . D i agram 2 4 4
On t op of t h i s W h i t e does not
have a shred of counter p lay
a ny w h e r e ' . A n d , s t r a n g e l y , t h i s
i s tru e. Th e essent i a l
s o u n d n e s s o f B l a ck ' s p o s i t i o n ,
parti cu larly i n i ts pawn
s t ructure, off ers W h i t e n o
targets , s o s u ccessfu l h a s
N i mz o w i t s c h ' s p o l i cy of
proph y l a x i s b e e n . B l a ck h a s a
s trong s q u are i n front of t h e
d ou b l e d pawns a t c 5 a n d anoth er
g o o d p o s t f o r t h e K n i gh t a t e 5 .
S i n c e W h i t e h a s n o t h i n g on a t
pres e n t , a b l e o n ly t o l o ok o u t
f o r op portu n i t i e s , B l a ck h a s
a mp l e t i m e to r e gr o u p h i s
p i e c e s r e a dy f o r o p er a t i o n s o n
t h e e - f i l e a n d k i n gs i d e.

18 Qf6 A f ew f i n i s h i n g t ou c h e s h av e
1 9 Bg2 Ne5 to be made and then Black is
r e a dy f o r . • . f 5 . I t i s proof
H e t i es d ow n a W h i t e p i e c e , of t h e s t e r i l i t y of W h i t e ' s
at pres ent t h e Queen, to the p os i t ion, the product of
d e f e n c e o f t h e c - p aw n . p r e ve n t i v e m e a s u r e s , t h a t B l a ck
has s o much t i me t o p u t h i s
20 R d 2 Re7 who l e h o u s e i n order before
2 1 Red 1 Bc6 proceeding w i th t h e f i n a l
p h as e .
P r e v e n t i o n a g a i n ,
e l i mi n a t i n g a l l s u r p r i s e s f r o m This move prevents Bg5,
c 5 1 a t a ny t ime . s u p p o r t e d by t h e Qu e e n a t c 1 o r
d2, at any ti me. It also
22 R f 2 contai ns t h e t a c t i c a l threat of
24 N xf 3 1 25 Rxf3 g5,
Now that t h ere are n o t h ough B l a ck may not have
p r os p e c t s o f o p e n i n g t h e d - f i l e f o l l ow e d t h at c o u r s e e v e n i f h e
w i t h c 5 h e p ro t e c t s t h e f - p aw n h a d b e e n g i v e n t h e o p p o rt u n i t y .
with h i s Rook s o that the B l a ck n o w o n l y n e e d s t o t a k e
Bi shop can g o t o f 1 a n d r e l i eve h i s King off t h e a2 g8
t h e Queen from h er pawn diagonal (t o prevent any
p r o t e c t i o n d u t i es . s u rp r i s e s , d i s c o v e r e d ch e ck s o r
p i n s o c c u rr i n g on t h a t l i n e )
22 Rae8 a n d t o t r i p l e o n t h e e -f i l e a n d
23 Bf 1 h6 h e is r eady .

24 Be2 Kh 8
25 Qa3

N o t t h reat e n i n g 26 Qxa7 ? ?
becau s e of 26 Ra8, bu t

219
s i mp l y t o b r i n g t h e Qu een i n t o D i ag ram 2 4 5
a mo r e a c t i v e p o s i t i o n .

25 Qe6
26 Qc1

B l a ck t h r e a t e n s t h e c - p a w n
t w i c e , a n d , a l t h o u gh t h i s i s
h i s l eg i t i ma t e b o o t y i t h as
been the object of h i s
a t t ent i on from t h e o u t s et
s u c h t reas ure s h o u l d on ly b e
c o l l e cted at t h e m o s t
f a v o u ra b l e t i m e . F e e l i n g d e f e a t
l oomi ng, W h i t e w i l l n a t u ra l ly
l o ok f o r m e a n s o f wr i g g l i n g o u t
o f h i s d i f f i cu l t i es a n d 2 6 • • •

Nxc4 wou ld be a b a d mistake.


T h ere w o u l d f o l l o w : 2 7 B x c 4
Qxc4 2B Bxh 6 ! a n d i f 2 B
g xh 6 t h e n 2 9 Q x h 6 c h KgB 30
QgSch and White has a draw by
p erp e t u a l c h e ck . t h e K i n g . H e r e 2 9 . . . N xf 3 c h i s
t e mpt i n g b u t W h i t e c a n d e f e n d
26 f5 h ims e l f : 3 0 B x f 3 Bxf3 3 1 Rxf3
Re2 32 Qd31 Qh3 33 Rf2
T h e break t h rough at last Re 1 ch 34 Rxe1 (not 34 Rf 1
b e gi n s . because of 34 R Be2 ! )
R x e 1 c h 3 5 R f 1 , a n d W h i t e h o lds
27 exf5 the piece.

B e s t . I f , f or e xa mp l e , 2 7 28 Qf7
Bd3, then 2 7 ... Nxd3 2 B Rxd3 29 Qd4
fxe4 2 9 f x e4 Q x e4 i s deva s -
t at i n g . T h e c - p a w n n ow n e e d s s u p p ort
s i nce t h e W h i t e res ource at h6
Of course, i n t h e long run, i s n o l o n ger o n , but
t h e ope n i n g of t h e e -f i l e a n d e l i m i n a t i n g t h e Kn i g h t wo u l d
W h i t e ' s i n a b i l i t y t o ch a l l e n g e h a ve b e e n b e t t e r .
t h e B l a ck s t r e n g t h u p o n i t ma k e
t h e e n d a l mo s t i n ev i t a b l e . 29 Ng6 1

27 Qxf5 T h e d i s c o v e r e d a t t a ck o n t h e
2 8 Qd2 f i l e means that White soon
a cq u i r e s a n o t h e r s e t o f d o u b l e d
H o p i n g t o s t em t h e t i d e w i t h p awn s .
B d 3 , h e n c e t h e r e p ly .
30 Bd3 Nxf4
With the e-pawn gone the 3 1 Q xf 4 Qxf4
h i g h w a y i s o p e n b u t B l a ck mu s t 3 2 gxf 4
n o t b e t o o e a g e r i n a t t a ck i n g

220
D i a g r am 2 4 6 32 Rf8
33 f5 Bd7
34 Rdd2 Bxf5

Black at last begins to


c o l l e c t h i s t r i bu t e .

35 Rfe2 Rxe2
3 6 B x e2 Re8
37 Kf2 Re5

A i m i n g at c 5 , t h a t l o n g ­
es t a b l i s h e d s t r o n g s q u a r e .

38 Rd5 g5
39 Rxe5 dxe5
40 c5 1

T o u c h �. B u t i t i s t o o l a t e
and it i s no more than s p i t e
t h a t p r omp t s h i m t o i n f l i c t h i s
There i s a sad irony in this oppon e n t w i t h a pai r of doubled
new a f f l i ct i on. A l l W h i t e's pawns, or p e r h a p s h e w a s
concerns over t h e d ou b l e d pawns e n t eri n g i n t o t h e s p i r i t o f t h e
i n t h e c - f i l e h ave o n ly l e d t o t h i n g. W h i t e p l ay e d o n t e n more
t h i s m i rr o r r e f l e c t i o n i n t h e moves before res i gn i n g , wh i ch ,
k i n gs i d e. T h e v e ry s y m m e t ry o f f o r t h e r e cord, w e r e : 4 0 • • •

W h i t e 's pawn s tructure a n d s i x bxc5 4 1 Ba6 e4 42 a4 Kg7


i s o l a t e d p a w n s mu s t h av e s e e m e d 43 a5 e xf 3 44 Kxf3 Kf6 45
t o Bogo l jubow t h e devi l i s h Ke3 Ke5 4 6 Bc4 Bg4 4 7 Ba6
p r o d u c t o f b l a ck h umou r . h 5 48 Bc4 h4 49 Ba6 Bd1 50
Bb7 g4.
Th e g a m e is o v e r n o w a n d
t h ere is l i t t l e n e ed for Th i s w as awarded the Best
c omme n t a ry o n t h e r e s t . G ame p r i z e .
GAME 6

Keres - Smyslov

Ke r e s Smy s l o v D i a gram 2 4 7

Zurich, 1 953

W i n g attack and centra l


c ou n t e r
Prop h y l a x i s .

Q u e e n ' s Pawn O p e n i n g

1 c4 Nf6
2 Nc3 e6
3 Nf3 c5

Wh i t e's approach to t h e
o p e n i n g , d e l ay i n g d 4, a l l ow s
B l a ck t o m a k e t h i s f r ee i n g m o v e

�§··�
a n d t u r n a w a t ch f u l eye on d 4
w i thou t t h e n eed to cons i der :r. ,,
t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of p a w n �. . . . . . . �

e x c h a n g e s i n t h e c e n t r e.

4 e3 Be7 Th e p a w n e x c h a n g e gave B l a ck
5 b3 0 0 t w o p a w n s t o o n e i n t h e c e n t re.
6 Bb2 b6 Th i s t h r u s t h o l d s over W h i t e 's
h ead t h e c o n s t a n t t h reat of ...
A l t h ough W h i t e's ope n i n g d x c4 bxc4, creat i n g hanging
sys t e m i s perfect ly s ou n d h e p a w n s w h i c h h e c o u l d o n ly a v o i d
h a s p o s ed n o p r o b l e ms f o r B l a ck b y a c c e p t i n g an i s o l a t e d p a w n
w h o n ow has a c l ear method of b y e x c h a n g i n g h i ms e l f o n d 5 .
d e ve l o p i n g t h e r e s t of h i s T h o s e h a n g i n g p a w n s or t h e
force a n d , i n part i c u l a r, t h e i s o l a n i may b e weak or s trong
Queen's B i s h op, the p i ece that a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t u r n of
genera l ly gi ves him the event s , but the fact that the
g r e a t e s t t r ou b l e. d e c i s i o n l i es i n B l a ck 's h a n d s
i mp arts , at t h e very l ea s t , a
7 d4 p s y ch o l o g i c a l a d v a n t a g e t o h i m .

C o m mi t t i n g h i ms e l f in the 9 Bd3 Nc6


centre at l as t . 10 0 0 Bb7
11 Rc1 RcB
7 cxd4 12 Re1
B exd4 d5
222
D i ag ram 2 4 8 aggre s s i v e e y e on h 7 a n d t o d o
s o before t h e B i s h o p i s ab l e t o
retreat t o b 1 .

1 3 Bf1

T h i s method of retreat i s
made necess ary becau s e t h e
B i s h o p mu s t s t i l l p r o t e c t t h e
c - p a w n w h o s e s i t u a t i o n r e ma i n s
u n re s o l ve d .

13 Ne4
Invi t i n g W h i t e t o capture on
e4 s o t h at w h e n B l ack retakes
t h e p a w n w i l l b e s u p p ort e d by
t h e Queen's B i s hop and an
eventu a l . • . f5 a n d become a
p o w e r f u l i n t ru s i o n w h i c h w o u l d
c u t W h i t e off fro m t h e e 5
As deve l opment nears s q uare
c o mp l e t i o n a g r e a t d e a l o f
t e n s i o n bu i l d s u p i n t h e c e n t r e 1 4 a3
s i n c e n e i t h er p l ay e r has
ventured t o e xchange pawn s . H e p r e f e r s t o l e t B l a ck d o
Such a n exchange, b y e i t h er t h e e xc h a n g i n g a n d d r i ves a w a y
s i d e, wou l d mod i f y t h e p a w n t h e k n i gh t a t t h e c o s t of
s t ru c t u r e a n d c o n s eq u e n t ly t h e weaken i n g h i s q u e e ns i d e p awns a
s trat e g i c p l an n i n g. They h av e l i tt le .
aimed for f lexible piece
d e ve l o pm e n t s o t h a t t h e y c a n 14 N xc 3
q u i ck l y a d a p t t o a n y c h a n g e i n
c i r c u ms t a n c e s . N e c e s s a ry s i n c e h e w i s h e s t o
r e t r e a t t h e o t h er K n i gh t t o c 6 .
W h i t e ' s B i s h ops are
m o b i l i s e d a ga i n s t t h e k i n gs i d e 1 5 Rxc3 Nc6
and h is Rook has come to e1 to
s u p p o r t a n i n v as i o n o f e 5 , bu t , B l a ck ' s e x c u r s i o n h a s d o n e
w h i ls t u n c e rt a i n t y r e m a i ns i n s o meth i n g to q u e l l W h i t e 's
the centre, h e cannot, or b e l li gerence, but has h e not
s h o u l d n o t , l a u n c h a n a t t a ck invited a queenside pawn
t h er e . rol ler? 1 6 c 5 bxc5 1 7 d xc5
Bf6 1 8 Rc2 Bxb2 1 9 Rxb2
B l a ck w o u l d l i k e t o r e d u c e Q a 5 , f o r k i n g t w o p a w n s , s h o'w s
s o m e o f t h e k i n gs i d e p o t e n t i a l t h a t W h i t e i s l i t t l e prepared
w h i c h i s g r ow i n g i n W h i t e ' s for s u c h a v e n t u re and t h a t 1 4
p os i t i o n a n d he now t a k e s a 3 , r a t h e r t h a n g i v i n g mome n t u m
p r e v e n t i v e me a s u r es . to t h e r o l ler, s i m p l y w eakens
his pawns.
12 Nb4
W h i t e , h ow e v e r , s t i l l h a s
T h e o b j e c t of t h i s i s t o amb i t i o n s o n t h e k i n gs i d e .
drive away a Bishop that has an
223
1 Ii N e 5 Nxe5 · W h i t e offers a w h o l e Rook
1 7 Rxe5 f or t h e a t t a ck a n d i t i s
w o rt h w h i l e c h e ck i n g i f i t i s
By capturing t h i s way h e possible o r n e c e s s a ry to
c o m m i t s h i ms e l f t o k i n g s i d e accept i t. Th e mot i ve for
op erat i o n s . a c c e p t i n g s a cr i f i c e s a r ou n d t h e
Ki n g ' s p o s i t i o n i s n o t avari c e ;
17 B f li i t i s s i m p l y t h a t by d o i n g so
S t ri k i n g t h r o u gh t h e R o o k a t t h e d efender reduces the s i ze
t h e c e n t re, p art i cu l arly t h e o f t h e a t t a ck i n g f o r c e .
poi nt d4. White's pawn on that
F o r e x a mp l e , a f t e r 1 9
s q u are, as we s a w i n t h e
open i n g, w a s p o t e n t i a l ly a n g xh5 2D Qxh5, B l a ck is
compe l l ed t o m a k e a f l i gh t ­
i s o l a t ed o n e o r a member o f a
s q u ar e f or h i s K i n g b y 2 0
p a i r o f h a n g i n g p a w n s . As Wh i t e
ReB, wh i ch wou l d give ri s e t o
g o e s f o r h i s a t t a ck B l a c k p u t s
d i a g ram 2 5 0 .
his f i nger on the weakness of
t h e operat i o n : t h e i n s ecure D i a gram 2 5 0
cen t r e .

18 Rh5
Havi ng c leared h i s t h i rd
r a n k , t h e Qu e e n ' s R o o k w i l l
m o v e q u i ck l y t o s u p p o r t t h e
o t h e r i n a p o w e rf u l d o u b l i n g o n
t h e h - f i l e . T h e a t t a ck l o o k s
dangero u s , as i ndeed i t i s ,
e s p e c i a l ly i n t h e h a n d s o f s u c h
an a g g r e s s i v e a n d t a c t i c a l l y
r e s ou r c e f u l p l ay e r a s K e r e s .
18 g li
1 9 Rch3
D i agram 2 4 9

Th i s i s t h e p os i t i o n fro m
w h i ch b o t h p l ay e rs w o u l d h a ve
made t h e i r ca l cu l a t i o n s duri ng
t h e game.

B l a ck ' s B i s h o p at f6 i s a
f i n e defen s i ve pi ece cover i n g
t h e vi t a l s q u ares g7 a n d h B as
w e l l a s c o m b i n i n g w i t h Qu e e n
s u pport to i n t erpo s e on t h e
open g-fi l e a t g5 .

I t can be eas i ly s een that


there is noth i n g for W h i t e i n
Qxh7ch, for the K i n g w i l l
224
es cape v i a f B a n d e 7 . Such a has been given to show that
s y s t e m w o u l d w o rk i f W h i t e w a s B l a ck w a s w i s e t o a v o i d t h e
a b l e t o o p e n t h e c e n t r e a n d cu t murky waters w h i ch h e wou l d
off the Ki ng's retreat w i t h a h ave s t i rred u p b y a c cept i n g
Rook , say, on an open e-fi l e, t h e Rook .
but i n this game it is not
p o s s i b l e a n d B l a ck 's centra l T o return t o t h e game and
p a w n s p ro vi d e a s h i e l d f o r t h e d i agram 2 4 9 .
p a s s a g e o f t h e Ki n g .
B l a ck f e l l b a ck on t h e
T ry 2 1 Q h 6 , c u t t i n g t h e K i n g t r u s t y p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e bes t
off from t h e escape rou t e . w a y t o m e e t a w i n g a t t a c k i s by
Th ere w o u l d f o l l ow : 2 1 Bg5 !
• • .
a c o u n t e r i n t h e c e n t r e . Th i s
22 Rg3 f6 2 3 h4, and White i s p art i cu l ar l y t ru e h ere s i n c e
r e ga i n s s o me o f h i s m a t e r i a l B l a ck 's centre i s strong where
w i t h a c o n t i n u i n g a t t a ck . Th i s Wh i t e's h as been n e g lected. The
i s c e rt a i n ly n o t a l i n e t h a t ma i n w e a k n e s s l i es a t d4 and i t
B l a ck w o u l d c h o o s e . w i l l b e s e e n t h a t t h e r e s t of
the game turns about this
B u t W h i t e h as o t h e r i d eas point .
t o o . Fro m d i a g r a m 2 5 0 h e c o u l d
p l ay 2 1 a 4 ! o p e n i n g u p t h e a 3
f B d i a go n a l o n w h i ch l i e t w o 19 dxc4
s q u ares o f t h e i n t en d e d e s c a p e
rou t e for t h e Ki ng. I f n ow I f th ere are a n y readers
21 • • •d xc4 (in order to s t i l l with doubts about the
play • • B e 4 for k i n gs i d e

e f f i c a cy o f a g o o d c e n t r e t h e y
p r o t e ct i o n ) t h e n 2 2 Q xh 7 c h K f B w i l l s u r e l y b e c o n v i n c e d by
23 B a 3 c h Re7 (23 Be7? ?
• • •
t h i s move and i t s i mp l i ca t i o n s .
2 4 Q h B ma t e ) 2 4 R g 3 a n d B l a ck F i rs t l y , i t c l e a rs t h e d i a g o n a l
mu s t g i v e u p h i s Q u e e n t o a v o i d aB h 1 and enables a Bishop
ma t e . w h i ch i s d e eply e n t renched on
the queens i d e and pat i ent ly
C l e a r l y B l a ck m u s t t ry t o waiting to s u p p ort s o me
c l o s e t h e a 3 - f B d i agona l . • • • i n vas i o n o f W h i t e ' s k i n gs i d e t o
B e 7 o bs t ru c t s t h e e s c a p e r ou t e b e g r a n t ed a n i mp o rt a n t r o l e i n
a n d s o h e mu s t u s e t h e Qu e e n . t h e d efence of B la ck 's own
F r om d i agram 2 5 0 aga i n : 2 1 a4 k i n gs i d e . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
Q d 6 2 2 c 5 . F l i gh t -s q u ares a r e p lay i n g Be4 and then
b l o ck e d i f t h e Q u e e n g o e s t o e 7 d a s h i n g b a ck a l o n g a n o t h er l i n e
or fB and s o : 2 2 • • • bxc5 23 t o d e f e n d s u ch p o i n t s a s g6 a n d
Qh 6 1 White leaves the pawn h7 s ud d e n ly a p p ears , a n d the
recapture i n t h e a i r becaus e h e centre is s ee n as , among other
wants to open the a 1 hB line t h i n gs , a t u rn i n g p o i n t for
a t t h e r i g h t mome n t . 2 3 Bg7• • • s w i t ch i n g p i e c e s between t h e
24 Qxh 7ch Kf B 25 d xc5 Qxc5 w i n gs .
26 Qxg7ch Ke7 27 Qf6ch and
W h i t e h a s r e c o ve r e d m o s t o f h i s S e co n d l y , t h e p a w n e xc h a n g e
mater i a l a n d t h e a t t a c k goes half opens the d-fi le, pin­
on. p o i n t i n g t h e w eakness at d4,
twi ce a t t a ck e d and twice
Th ere are many other d e f e n d e d i t i s t ru e, b u t o n e o f
fasci nat i n g pos s i b i l i t i es i n t h e W h i t e d ef e n d e r s , t h e Qu e e n ,
t h i s p os i t i on but suff i c i ent w i l l be n e e d e d for a t t a ck a n d
225
w h a t i s a Qu e e n d o i n g · a n y w a y , D i ag ram 2 5 1
d e f e n d i n g l ow l y p awn s ?

Th i r d ly but the point i s


• • •

b e t t e r u n d e rs t o o d a f t er t h e
n e x t mo v e .

I f W h i t e c o n t i n u es t o o f f e r
the Rook the d e l i cate balance
o f t h e p o s i t i o n s l i p s g e n t ly
into B l ack 's favour. Suppos i n g
W h i t e s i m p l y r e capt ures w i t h 2 0
b x c4. B l a c k wo u l d be a b l e
just t o t ak e t h e R o ok : 2 0
gxh5 2 1 B d 3 (Wh i t e mus t n ow
m a rs h a l t h e r e s e r ve s , f o r 2 1
Qxh5 Be4 with Bg6 to
f o l l ow w o u l d p ro v i d e B l a ck w i t h
a n i mp r e g n a b l e d e f e n c e ) R c S I
B l a ck c a n w o r k o n a n e w s c a l e
of p i eces va l u es f o r h e i s a
whole Rook up. In such Th r e e s h ar p m o v e s i n t h e
s i t u a t i o n s s u r p l u s materi a l c a n c e nt re a ga i n s t t h e pawn a t d4
be r e t u r n e d t o f e n d o f f t h e and W h i t e 's att ack c o l l ap s e s .
marauders . 2 2 d x cS Bxb2 T h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r e by
especi a l ly when s ome o f t h e t h e Qu e e n a n d B i s h o p s re l e g a t e s
booty i s ret a i n e d . W h i t e h a s W h i t e ' s f o r c e to t h e p e r i p h ery
n ow i n s u f f i c i e n t f or c e t o c a rry i n c o m p l e t e d i s a r r a y . C o mp a r e
on. t h i s pos i t i on w i t h the
Botwi nnik game i n Chapter
2 0 Rxh 7 c3 ! E l e ve n , p a g e 1 1 5 .

Cu t t i n g off t h e W h i t e B i s h o p 22 Q h 6
from the centre and the
prote ct i on of d4. I f 2 1 B x c 3 T h re a t e n i n g m a t e i n t w o , f o r
then 2 1 R x c3 22 R x c 3 t h e l a s t t i me .
Kxh 7 .
22 R fd B
21 Qc1
M ak i n g a f l i gh t -s q u a r e a s h e
A n ew r o u t e i nt o t h e K i n g 's c e n t ra l i s es t h e R o ok .
pos i t i o n w h i ch works we l l i f
B l a ck t a k e s t h e n ew o f f e r : 23 Bc1 Bg7
21 • . •cxb2 ? ? 2 2 Q h 6 w h e n mat e
c a n n o t b e p re v e n t e d . The W h i t e pi eces are
i g n o mi n i o u s l y s e n t away .
21 Q xd 4 !
2 4 QgS Qf6
2 5 Qg4 c2

As s o often h appens w h e n an
a t t a c k i s re p u l s e d , a s u d d e n
s ur g e o f i n i t i a t i v e i s i m p ar t e d
to the defen d e r .
226
26 Be2 Rd4 his whole team offs ide,
res i g n e d .

Th a t turning point, d4 I t i s s urpr i s i n g t o reca l l


agai n . t h a t i t i s on ly e i g h t moves ago
t h a t B l a ck b e g a n h i s c o u n t e r
a t t a ck w i t h 1 9 d xc4.
2 7 f4 R d 1 ch l
2 8 Bxd 1 Qd4ch ! The final pos i tion with
B l a c k ' s magn i f i ce n t centre a n d
Th e Z w i s ch enzug p u t s t h e W h i t e ' s p i e c e s s c a t t e r e d a r ou n d
final touch to the counter t h e edge of t h e board makes a
a t t a ck , s upport ing t h e f i t t i n g c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e t h eme
recapture on d 1 . White, with of t h e g ame .

227
GAME 7

Tseshkovsky - Hort

T s e s h k o vs k y Hort More f l e xib l e, because it


leaves an other option for t h e
Mani la, 1 9 76 Q u e e n ' s Kn i gh t as w e l l as
f r e e i n g t h e Ki n g 's B i s h o p , i s
Ho l e s . 5 e6.
P r o b i n g f o r we a k n es s es .
Act i vi ty i n t h e centre a n d 6 Ng5
b o t h w i n gs .
Break i ng the ru l e of
A l ek h i n e ' s Def e n c e d e ve l o pment a b ou t n o t movi n g
one pi ece t w i ce before t h e
oth ers have b e e n p l ayed o u t
T h e v a r i o u s w e a k n e s s e s w h i ch i nt o t h e g a m e 1 b u t , a part from
arise i n this game are t h e f a c t t h a t r u l e s mu s t
curious ly l i nked i n a ch a i n s o m e t i m e s b e b r ok e n , W h i t e h ere
r e a ct i o n . O n e s ma l l b l e mi s h i n does not fal l behind in
t h e w h o l e p a w n c o n f i gu ra t i o n d ev e l op m e n t b e c a u s e B l ack h as
m a y b e n o t t o o mu c h t o w o r r y a l s o had two moves with h i s
a bou t, b u t w h e n t h e i n f e ct i on K n i gh t .
b egi ns t o spread • • • •

6 Bxe2
1 e4 Nf6 7 Qxe2
2 e5
T h e e x c h a n g e of t h e l i gh t ­
S e e Ch a pt e r T w e l v e , p ag e 1 2 4 s qu ared B i s h o p s crea t e s , f o r
for comments o n t h i s open i n g. t h e moment, a w ea k n es s i n t h e
I n i t i a l ly W h i t e p i ck s u p t h e l i ght s q u ares aro u n d B l a ck 's
gau n t l e t , ch as e s t h e Kn i gh t a n d K i n g , p ar t i cu l a r l y a t e 6 . 8 e 6
e s t a b l i s h es a n advan ced pawn i s n o w a m o s t u n c o mf o rt a b l e
centre . t h reat and, s h o u l d B l a ck 's
Qu e e n l e a v e t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f
2 Nd5 t h e p aw n a t d 6 , W h i t e h a s e xd 6 ,
3 d4 d6 becau s e of t h e p i n on t h e e ­
4 Nf3 f i l e , w h i ch i s w h y B l a ck d o e s
not play 7 Qa5ch .
Now he c o n t i n u e s w i t h more
res t ra i n t , a vo i d i n g c4 w h i c h 7 dxe5
t ends t o o ver e x t e n d t h e pawn 8 dxe5
cen tre .
T h e e x c h a n g e r e l i e v e s B l a ck
4 Bg4 o f o n e p o t e n t i a l d a n ge r bu t e 6
5 Be2 c6 i s s t i l l threatened and so h i s
r e p l y i s pract i ca l ly forced.
228
B e6 T u ck i ng h i s K i ng away and
mak i n g way for a Rook to come
D i a gr a m 2 5 2 to d1 as rapi d ly a s pos s i b le.
Th e Qu e e n 's Rook wou l d t a k e
mu c h l o n g er a n d t i me i s o f t h e
essence here.

N o t i c e t o o t h a t B l a ck ' s K i n g
is s t i l l in the m i d d l e and not
yet ready t o cas t l e .

9 Qc7

W i t h pressure on t h e e-pawn.
9 Nd7 wou ld a l s o have
s erved t h at purpos e but t h e
t e xt r em o ves t h e Qu e e n f r o m t h e
open f i le.

1 0 Rd 1 Nd7

W h i t e n o w h a s to m a k e a n
i mp ortant d e ci s i on about t h e
p r o t e c t i o n of t h e e - p a w n
T h e s t at e of t h e c e n t re h a s c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e o c cu p a t i o n o f
matured very q u i c k l y i n t h i s d 6 . H e wou l d n a t ura l ly l i k e t o
g a m e . B l a ck h a s a h o l e a t d 6 , a p l ay Ng5 e4 d6 and to this
pro d u c t o f h i s concern a b o u t end f2 f4 s e ems o b vi o u s .
t h e w eakness on t h e w h i t e H o w e v e r, t h i s w o u l d g i v e B l a ck
squares which has now been a va l u a b l e t e mpo for
e limi nated. The d - f i l e i s open d ev e l opment w i t h 1 1 . . Bc5ch,
.
and W h i t e w i 11 be abl e to get a a n d s o , s u rp r i s i n g ly , White
R o ok o n t o i t m o r e q u i ck l y t h a n gu ards the e-pawn w i th the
B l a ck , a n d i n t h a t f i l e i s t h e Kn i g h t a t g 5 w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n
h o l e , d 6 , r ea dy f or a n o u t po s t o f b r i n g i n g t h e o t h er K n i gh t t o
p i e c e , s u p p o r t e d by t h e e - p a w n . d6.
B u t t h e e - p awn i s advan ced a n d
has yet t o prove itself weak or 11 Nf3 1 Ne7
s t ron g .
B l a ck goes f o r the e - p awn
B l a ck h a s p l a n s t o d e s t r o y t oo q u i ck l y . The t h reat . . . Ng6
t h a t p a w n i W h i t e to occupy t h e l o o k s g o o d bu t t h e s ch eme d o e s
h o l e . W h i t e h as t h e i n i t i a t i v e . n o t work a n d t h e moves are
Black conceded this on his was t e d .
f i rs t m o v e q u i t e d e l i b e ra t e ly .
He pro vok e d W h i t e t o r u s h o n 1 2 N d b2 1
eagerly in the hope that h e
w o u l d o v e r r e a c h h i ms e l f i n t h e P e r h a p s B l a ck a n t i c i p a t e d
mi d d l e . I n s u c h s i t u at i o n s b o t h o n l y 1 2 N c 3 . F r o m d 2 t h e Kn i gh t
p l ayers are oft e n w a lk i n g a h a s t w o m e t h o d s o f e n t er i n g t h e
t i gh t - r o p e . h o l e, vi a e4 or c4. I f B l a ck
c o ve r s c 4 w i t h 1 2 . . . b5 t h e n
9 0 D 1 3 Ne4 ! becaus e 1 3 . . . Nxe5
wou l d l o s e t o 1 4 N x e 5 Qxe5 ? ?
229
1 5 Nd6ch. B l a ck , th erefore, t h ru s t s a t t h e e xt r eme edges of
c a rri es o n w i t h h i s p l a n o f the board, probing for
a t t a ck i n g e5 f o r t h e t h i r d we a k n e s s e s .
t i me .
16 h4 1
12 Ng6
1 3 Nc4 b5 A v e ry s h a r p m o v e s h o w i n g
W h i t e 's a l ertness over t h e
F o r c i n g W h i t e to o cc u py d 6 w h o l e board. T h e p o i nt i s that
o t h e rw i s e t h e e -p a w n f a l l s , b u t i f Black rep l i es with the
i n doing s o h e d i s arranges h i s s tan d ard m e t h o d o f preven t i n g
qu eens ide pawns , produ ci n g f u r t h e r a d va n c e o n t h e h -f i l e -
o t h er w e a k n e s s e s . 16 • • • h5 W h i t e ' s K n i gh t w i l l
b e c ome f i r m l y p l a n t e d o n g 5 .
1 4 N d 6 ch Bxd 6
1 5 exd6 Qb7 16 h6
17 a4 !
D i a gr a m 2 5 3
P o o r B l a ck ! H i s m i n d i s
rea l ly f o cu s e d o n t h e centre,
and con cerned w i th what to do
w i t h t h e p as s e d p a w n t h e r e , a n d
t h es e k e e n t h ru s t s o n t h e w i n gs
are a mos t u n w e l come
d i s tract i o n .

W i t h t h e t e xt W h i t e s h o w s u p
the weakness of the queens ide
p awn s . He a ls o threatens to
o p e n l i n e s f o r t h e Qu e e n 's R o o k
n o t o n ly on t h e a - f i l e b u t o n
t h e t h i r d r a n k vi a a 3 .

17 Nf6

R e mo v i n g t h e b l o ck a d e r m a y
s e em i l l o g i ca l a t f i rs t b u t
B l a ck rea l i s e s t h a t the o t h e r
O f c o u r s e B l a ck h a d t o t a k e Knight w i l l be driven off i ts
o f f t h e i ntruder a n d , s i n c e t h e s q u a r e by h 5 w i t h on l y f B t o g o
p a s s ed p a w n w h i ch emerges i s t o. He, t h erefore, d e c i d es t o
s u i t a b l y b l o ck a d e d , h e h o p e s u s e t h i s Kn i gh t as the
t h a t t h e p a w n w i l l b e d i f f i cu l t b l o ck a d e r a n d t h e o n e p r e s e n t ly
to defend so far from its own at f6 to close th e d-fi le
l i n es. However, the pawn with Nd5 .
cre a t e s n e w o u t p o s t s q u a r e s a t
c 7 a n d e 7 a n d p r o ve s r e m a rk a b l y 1 B h5
res i l i e n t , inhibiting and
c ramp i n g t h e m o ve m e n t o f B l a ck F i rs t o n e w i n g , t h e n t h e
pi eces . other and back aga i n . W h i t e 's
moves , and their order, are
A f t er a l l t h i s a c t i vi ty i n p r o mp t e d by s o u n d c h e s s l o g i c ,
t h e centre t h e game enters a bu t o n e cannot h e lp t h i nk i ng
new phas e as W h i t e makes t h a t psych o l o gi c a l warfare w a s
230
h i s main motive i n this phase A g a i n B l a ck c a n n o t a f f ord t o
o f t h e g ame . e x c h a n g e Qu e e n s : 2 1 Qxf3
22 gxf3 a n d t h e K n i gh t is i n to
1B NfB the qu eens i d e and a lready
t h re a t e n i n g 2 3 N x b 5 aga i nst
Prud e n t ly refu s i n g t h e p a w n . wh i c h t h e r e i s n o re a l a n s we r .
16 • . . N xh 5 1 9 d7ch Ke7 20
Nd4 wou l d l eave his Ki n g W i t h t h e t e xt he o b t a i n s
p erma n e n t ly caught i n t h e s o me re l i ef from b l o ck i n g t h e
mi d d l e a n d h i s q u e e n s i d e u n d e r f i l e a n d d i ago n a l w h i ch W h i t e
great s trai n . opene d .

1 9 axb5 c xb 5 22 Nf5 0 0 0

Di a g r a m 2 5 4 Now that a l l h ope of


c a s t l i n g o n t h e k i n gs i d e h a s
gone h e rushes t h e other way
w h i ch i s o n ly s l i gh t ly b e t t er
t h a n k e ep i n g t h e Ki n g i n t h e
m i d d l e. 22 e xf 5
• • • 23 Rxd5
would h ave left h i m wide ope n .
B u t B l a ck s e ems to h a v e
succeeded i n d ea l i n g with the
problem of t h e passed pawn.
H a v i n g cu t o f f R o o k p r o t e c t i o n
w i th h i s b l ockader a t d 5 he is
r e a d y to w i n i t a s s o o n as
White moves his Kn i gh t .
Unfort u n a t e l y f o r B l a c k t h e
p aw n f i nds a n ew p l a c e of
s afety .

2 3 N e 7 ch Nxe7
24 dxe7 Rxd 1 ch

By no means a cas u a l T h e pawn i s untouch a b l e


exchange for t h i s opens t h e 24 • • • Qxd7 2 5 QaBch Kc7 26
l o n g l i gh t d i a g o n a l a n d h a l f Q a 7 c h , wi n n i n g t h e Q u e e n .
o p e n s t h e a -f i l e. Th e w e a k n e s s
a t b 5 i s c l ea r n o w , a p ro b l em 2 5 Qxd 1
wh i ch B l a ck n ever a d e q u a t e ly
s o l ves. B e c a u s e of i t h e cou l d
n o t s e e k a Qu e e n e x ch a n g e :
19 • • • Qxb5 2 0 Qxb5 cxb5 21
N d 4 b 4 (th e a - p a w n c a n n o t h o l d
i t s i nce t here is a p i n on t h e
a -f i l e ) 22 N b 5 , and Wh i t e 's
p r ob i n g h as res u l t ed i n t h i s
f i n e p en etrat i o n.

20 N d 4 a6
2 1 Qf3I Nd5

231
D i agram 2 5 5 T h e Rook s e e ms t o h a ve
c a u g h t t h e s p i r i t of
psych o l ogi c a l w arfare t oo,
s w i t ch i n g t o t h e o t h e r w i n g a n d
a i m i n g t o p e n e t ra t e t h e s ev e n t h
rank .

T h e r e i s r e a l ly l i t t l e B l a ck
c a n d o n ow . He h a s l o s t t h e
batt le i n t h e centre a n d the
s k i rmi s h e s o n e i th e r w i n g a n d
h i s p a w n s w i l l n ow b e p l u n d e r e d
on o n e s i d e or t h e o t h e r .

27 N f6

Th e g -p a w n c o u l d n o t b e
d ef e n d e d s i n c e t h e R o ok c o u l d
n o t l e a v e t h e b a ck rank a n d
R g 8 i s m e t by R x g 7 .

And now i f 2 5 • • • Qxe7 then 2 8 Qe2


26 Rxa6 Qb7 2 7 Qd6 with Rc6ch
to fo l l ow 1 or, in t h i s , 2 6 Rather t h an e xchange t h e e­
Kb7 27 Be3 ! ! wou ld be pawn for the g-pawn h e t i es
murderou s w i t h i t s threat o f B l a ck d o w n t o t h e d e f e n c e o f
Ra 7ch. Th e R o ok c a n n o t be a 6 . B l a ck w o u l d be h e l p l e s s
taken: 2 7 • • • Kxa6 2 8 Qa 1 c h ! a f t er 2 8 Qxe7
• • • 29 Qxa6ch
Kb7 2 9 Qa7ch. T h e s e a re Qb7 30 Qxb7ch Kxb7 31 Rxg7,
r e m a rk a b l e v a r i a t i o n s w h e n y o u etc.
cons i der t h a t i n d i agram 2 5 5
a l l Whit e 's pi eces are o n t h e 28 Nd 7
f i rs t r a n k 1 a n d p ro o f o f h ow
i ngen ious ly h e has gai ned Th e p as s e d p a w n h a s a
c ontrol o f t h e board, n o t by r e m a rk a b l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e
o c c u p a t i o n o f t e r r i t o ry , b u t b y game a n d n ew features o c c u r t o
opening l i nes and using his o n e f ro m t i m e t o t i m e . I t n ow
p i eces from a d i s t a n c e . m a k e s i t d i f f i c u l t f o r B l a ck t o
a ct i va t e h i s R o ok s o t h a t i n
25 Nd7 a n y p l a y a w a y f r o m t h e k i n gs i d e
h e i s , i n e f f e c t , a p i e c e d ow n •

B o t h promot i o n a n d mate w e r e
t h reat e n e d . 2 9 Be3

26 Ra3 T h e r e i s n o h u r ry t o c o n ve r t
h i s spat i a l advantage i nt o
T h e R o o k s e e k s e xp a n s i o n o n ma t er i a l a n d s o h e d ev e l o p s t h e
t h e t h i r d r a n k a n d t h re a t e n s 2 7 B i s h o p to d e n y B l a c k d a r k
Rc3ch Kb8 2 8 Qd6ch etc. Hence s quares o n t h e q u eens i d e .
B l a ck ' s r e p ly .
29 Qb5
26 b4
2 7 Rg3 ! Th e p rodu c t of d e s p a i r i n a
pos i t i o n w i th ou t prospects.
232
N o t h i n g e l s e w o rk s e i t h er. F o r 31 b3
e xampl e : 2 9 • • • ReB 3 0 Qc4ch
KbB 3 1 Bf4ch KaB (31 e5 I n s t e a d o f r es i g n i n g .
3 2 Qxf 7 , et c . ) 3 2 Bd6 w i t h
R x g 7 , e t c. , t o f o l l ow . 3 2 R xf 7 Ne5
30 Qxb5 A m e r c i f u l b l u n d e r . Af t e r
32 bxc2 33 Rh7 ReB 34
T h e s i mp l e s t me t h o d . B x h 6 i t wou l d be absurd to
carry o n . F o r e x a mp l e : 3 4 • • •

30 axb5 Nf6 35 Rf7 Nxh5 3 6 g 4 w i ns


31 Rxg7 t h e Kn i gh t , or 3 4 Nc5
• • • 35
Be3 Nd3 36 h6 c1 Qch 3 7
B l a ck has managed to B x c 1 N x c 1 3 8 R g 7 f o l l ow e d by
preserve h i s q u eens i d e pawns , h 7 , etc.
i n a fash ion, but th ere i s
n oth i n g t o s t o p those o n t h e 33 RfBch R e s i gn s
o t h er w i n g d i s a p p e a r i n g .
GAME 8

Colle - Nimzowitsch

Colle N i mzow i t s c h D i a g ram 2 5 6

Frankfurt , 1 83 0

P o i s o n e d p awn .
I n a c c es s i b l e w e a k n e s s e s .
Bad Bishop.
Ou t p o s t .

Q u e e n ' s Pawn O p e n i n g

1 d4 Nf6
2 Nf3 d5
3 e3 B f5

Taking the opportunity


w h i l s t h e can t o d e ve l o p h i s
Queen's Bi shop outs ide h i s
p awn s .

4 c4 e6 At t a ck i n g t h e b - p a w n w h i c h
5 Qb3 s eems a w k ward t o d e f e n d
b 6 b e i n g i n a p pr o p r i a t e s i n c e h e
n o l o n g e r w i s h es t o f i a n c h e t t o
th e Qu e e n ' s B i s h o p u nt i l you
rea l i s e t h at i t does not need
defend i n g .
5 Nc6 !

Th e p a w n i s p o i s o n e d , wh i c h
i s n ot u n common w i t h a b - p awn
o n e i t h e r s i d e . For e x a mp l e : 6
Qxb7 ? Nb4 ! 7 N a 3 (t o s t op t h e
Kn i gh t f o rk o n c 2 ) a 6 ! ( d e n y i n g
the Qu een a n e x i t via b5) B Bd2
( t h e r e d o e s n ' t s e e m to b e
a ny t h i n g e l s e w o r t h t ry i n g ) R b B
9 Qa7 QcB and the threat of
R a B i s u n a n s w e ra b l e.

6 c5
234
I t i s n o t e a s y t o u n d e rs t a n d Kn i gh t at c 6 , was a b o u t t o
t h e reas o n for t h i s move a n d i t i nvade e 5 w i t h h i s Knight. The
c e rt a i n ly t u r n s o u t v ery b a d ly t ext parri es the threat,
for h i m. Perh aps i t was t o i n t erpos es i n t h e p i n , a n d f i t s
r e n ew t h e t h reat o f Q x b 7 , f or i n with a c lear plan of
this is now on, but h e shou l d deve l opmen t : t o p l a y NdB
. • •

h a ve r e a l i s ed t wo t h i ngs w h e n and ... c6 and then aim for a


m a k i n g t h e m o v e . F i rs t l y , h e break i n the centre with
w a s r e d u c i n g , e ve n e l i m i n a t i n g , eS .
a l l tens ion i n the centre,
w h i ch i s rat h er early i n t h e B Bxc6
game t o a d m i t t h a t B l a ck has
a ch i eved equality there. H e mu s t do t h i s n ow o r n o t
Second l y , b y e s t a b l i s h i n g a at a l l. T h e m o v e cro s s es
d a rk - s q u a r e d p a w n c h a i n f r o m f 2 B l a ck 's p l an a n d i n f l i cts
to c 5 , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s doubled pawns on h i m at the
Qu een's Bi shop wou l d s h ortly e xp e n s e o f w e a k e n i n g h i s o w n
g i v e h i m p ro b l e ms . I n t h e e n d contro l o f t h e l i ght squares .
i t i s t h e n eg l e c t o f t h i s p i e c e D o u b l e d p aw n s , a s N i mz o w i t s ch
w h i c h l e a d s t o h i s d ow n f a l l s o often went t o great pai ns t o
more than any other s i ngle d em o n s t ra t e, a r e p ot e n t i a l ly
factor. weak . T h e y a r e freq u e n t l y
a ccomp a n i ed by a f u rth er
6 QcB w e a k n es s , a n i s o l a t e d p a w n , a s
7 BbS Nd? i n t h i s c a s e w i th t h e a - p awn.
Th e q u es t i o n rema i n s w h et h e r
D i a g ram 2 5 7 s u c h w e a k n es s es a r e a c c e s s i b l e
a n d it i s this q u es t i o n w h i ch
is t h e ch aracteri s t i c feat ure
o f this game.
B bxc6
9 0 0 g6

Aiming at eS a ga i n
with Bg7.

1 0 Nbd2 Bg7
11 Nh4

I f W h i t e goes i n for a
q u e e n s i d e a t t a ck s t ra i gh t away
by , f o r e xamp l e , 1 1 Q a 4 , B l a ck
h a s p l e n t y of r e s o u r c e s t o
d efend t h ere. He cou l d even
t r a n s f e r h i s Qu e e n ' s B i s h o p t o
t h at s i d e v i a d 3 .
T w o o f t h e c e ntra l s q u ares ,
d 4 a n d d S , a r e b l o ck e d by p a w n s T h e t e xt a i ms t o e x c h a n g e on
wh i ch are u n l i k e ly t o b e f 5 s o that h e can res ume
d i s turbed f or a l o n g t i me, a n d control over s ome l i ght
s o the other two, e4 and eS, squares .
a re e ve n more i mp or t a n t t h a n
u s u a l . W h i t e , h a vi n g p i n n e d t h e 11 Qa6 !
235
Ensuri n g t h a t another p i e c e s cope for u s e f u l a ct i vi t y a n d
t akes over the d u t i es o f t h e t h e u nfort u n a t e p l a c i n g of t h e
Bi s h o p wh e n i t d i s a p p e a r s . pawn cha i n i s large ly t h e
cu lprit. Th ere are n o open
12 NxfS e xf 5 fi les f o r h i m t o work i n and
t h e h a l f o p e n o n es are n ot h i s .
Di agram 2 5 8 Nor has he deve loped the
Qu een's Bishop, probab ly
because i t rea l ly has n 't
a ny w h e r e t o g o .

1 3 Qc3 Nf6

It is i n t eres t i ng to n o t i ce
t h a t B l a ck f e e l s n o c o mp u l s i o n
to c a s t l e ( 'Cas t l e when you
mu s t , n o t w h e n y o u c a n ' ) . Th e
K i n g i s n o t i n a ny d a n g e r i n
t h e mi d d l e i i n f a c t , f l a n k e d by
t wo s ets of doub led pawns
i n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e e n e my , t h e
m i d d l e m a k e s a f i n e f ortress.
I n a n y cas e, the Ki n g m i gh t be
n e e d e d h er e .

14 Nb3

U n f or t u n a t e ly for W h i t e W i th t h i s and h i s previ ous


t h ere h as b e e n more l os s t h a n m o v e W h i t e s t ar t s s o m e p os i t i v e
gain i n severa l of his a ct i o n o n t h e q u e e n s i d e.
decis ions. If we look at thos e
t wo c e n t ra l s q u ar e s m e n t i o n e d 14 Ne4
ear l i e r , e 4 a n d e S , i t i s c l e a r 15 QaS QxaS I
t h a t h e h as d e f i n i t e ly l o s t 1 6 NxaS Kd7
contro l o f e S a n d effect ive ly
t h at of e4. Any a t t emp t t o I f B l a ck h a d n o t k e p t h i s
rega i n i n f lu e n ce there by King in the middl e he would not
e i ther f3 or f 4 w o u l d l eave h i m h ave been able to exchange
w i t h a p e r ma n e n t p a w n w e a k n e s s Qu e e n s , f o r t h i s i s t h e o n l y
a t e3 i n a f i l e h a lf o p e n i n m e t h o d o f gu a rd i n g t h e p aw n .
Black's favour. He has
s u c ceeded i n d ou b l i n g a n ot h er 1 7 Rd1
p a i r of Black 's pawns but n o t
i n i s o l a t i n g a ny t h i s t i m e . A n d T h e l a ck of an o p e n f i l e
t h e d o u b l e d p a w n o n f S m i gh t means that h e w i 1 1 have t o u s e
w e l l become an advantage t o t h e t h i rd rank t o a c t i va t e h i s
B l a ck a s a sp earhead o f a t t a c k Rook s . I t i s often, a s we have
a g a i n s t t h e K i n g. s e en i n o t h er games , a u s ef u l
h i ghway , b u t h ere t h e pro ces s
I n s p i t e o f t h e t h eore t i c a l i s s l ow a n d c u m b ers o m e .
weaknesses h e h a s crea t e d i n
B l a ck ' s p o s i t i o n , t h e t ro u b l e 17 Rh e B
with White's is that it is
s teri le. I t con t a i ns l i t t l e Th anks t o the d oub led pawns
236
B l a c k ' s R o o k s e n j oy g o o d l i n e s . t h e K i n g. B l a ck , t h eref ore,
a d va n c e s o n t h e h -f i l e i n t h e
1 8 g3 RabB great est confidence.
1 9 Rd3 h5
20 Ra3 h4
2 1 Nb3
D i agram 2 5 9
Typical of t h e i nf e l i ci t y of
W h i t e 's p i e ces , n ot h i n g is i n
t h e r i gh t p l a ce a t t h e r i gh t
t i me .

21 hxg3
22 hxg3 Rh8

H e s w i t ch es to t h e h - f i l e
w i th ou t trou b l i n g t o prot ect
t h e a - p awn .

2 3 Rxa 7

H e m i gh t as we l l t a k e
s o me t h i n g f o r h i s p a i n s f o r t h e
R o ok wo u l d n o t h av e t h e t i me t o
r e t u r n t o t h e o t h e r wi n g .

23 Rh3
Black's pi eces bein g i n 24 Nd2 Rbh B
i deal p os i t i ons h e begins a
b r e a k t h r o u g h o n t h e k i n gs i d e . Mating threats appear
T h i s i s p e r f e c t l y j u s t i f i ed a l r e a dy . I m m e d i a t e ly t h ere i s
w h e n y o u cons i d er t h e 25 Rh1ch 2 6 Kg2 R8h 2ch
d i s p os i t i ons o f t h e W h i t e a n d ma t e n e x t mo v e .
f o r c e s . T h e y a r e a l l l o ck e d o n
t h e q u e en s i d e b e h i n d t h a t pawn 25 Nf1 g5
ch a i n a n d , t h o u g h t h ey s h o u l d
e n j oy s o m e s p a c e t h e r e , i t i s N o w t h e t h r e a t is g4
i n f a c t very l i mi t e d , part ly w h e n t h e K n i gh t w i l l go to f3
b e ca u s e o f the p l a c i n g o f s ome vi a g S .
B l a ck p i eces - t h e outpos t
K n i gh t , t h e R o ok o n t h e b - f i l e, 26 f3
the d5 pawn and part ly
b e c a u s e W h i t e ' s p i e c es g e t i n T ry i n g t o m a k e s o me r o o m f o r
each o t h e r 's w a y . Th e t h e K i n g b u t t h e r e is n o w n o
d i ff i cu l ty o f d ev e l o p i n g t h e way ou t .
Qu e e n ' s B i s h o p a l s o p u t s t h e
Q u e e n ' s R o ok o u t o f o p er a t i o n
a n d W h i t e 's o n ly target i s t h e
w eak pawn at a7. Th is p o i n t
cou l d not b e further from t h e
k i n gs i d e a n d s h o u l d W h i t e
c o m m i t h i s R o o k a n d Kn i gh t t o
i ts capture t h ere wou l d b e
n ot h i n g remote ly near t o defend
237
D i a g r am 260
28 Rxf1

N o t o n l y d o es t h e l a s t
gu a rd i a n of the Ki ng d isappear
bu t the queens i d e pi eces are
l o ck e d in by the pin.

29 a4

H o p e s p r i n gs e t e r n a l .

29 f4ch
3 0 e xf 4

T h ere i s n o e s c a p e by t ak i n g
h i s Ki n g u p t h e b o a r d : 3 0 K g 4
Ke6 31 KxgS R g 1 ch a n d mate
n e x t mo v e .

30 R g 1 ch
26 Rh 1 ch 31 Kf2 Bxd4ch
2 7 Kg2 N xg 3 ! 3 2 Ke2 R h 2 ch ,
2 8 Kxg3
a n d Wh i t e res i gned just i n
If 28 N x g 3 t h e n 2 8 R 8h2 t ime: 3 3 Kd3 Rd 1 ch and mate
mat e . next move.

238
GAME 9

Kasparov - Pribyl

Ka s p a r o v Pr i by l D i ag ram 2 6 1
S k ara, 1 9 80
The Centr e .
P o s i t i on a l s a cri f i c e .
I s o l a t e d p a s s e d p aw n .
Seventh rank .
G r O n f e l d Def e n c e

1 d4 Nf6
2 c4 g6
3 Nc3 d5
Th i s d e f e n c e w a s i n t r o d u c e d
b y G r cr n f e l d i n 1 9 2 2 . I t i s
i n t eres t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e
defence appeared a l i t t l e
b e f o r e t h e R e t i O p e n i n g (s e e
C h a p t e r Tw e l v e ) w h i c h w as
p l a y e d by R e t i a ga i n s t G r On f e l d
f or t h e f i rs t t i m e i n 1 9 2 2 . B l a ck , i f h e i s t o a c h i e v e h i s
Incidenta l ly Reti los t, not o b j e c t i v e , mu s t e n s u r e t h a t t h e
b e ca u s e o f a ny d ef e ct i n t h e c e n t r a l p aw n m a s s d o e s n o t t u rn
o p e n i n g , m o r e f r o m o v e rp l ay i n g i nto an unstoppable pawn
h i s h and i n t h e mi d d l e game. roller.

We s h a l l s e e t h e p o i n t o f 6 Bg7
t h e G r On f e l d i f w e p l ay o n a
d 4 i s the first target. To
f ew m o ve s .
t h i s end c5 i s also
4 cxd5 N xd 5 pos s i b l e b u t B l a ck s o met imes
5 e4 Nxc3 d efers t h i s move so t h a t he
6 bxc3 d o e s n o t h a ve to exchange
c e n t r a l p aw n s t o o e a r ly .
Black 's defence i s c l ear ly
h y p er m o d e r n . H e h as e n c ou r ag e d 7 Nf3 b6
W h i t e t o crea t e a c l as s i ca l Prepari ng t o att ack the
c e n t re w i th p a w n s a t d 4 a n d e4 o t h e r t a rg e t , e 4 .
s o t h a t h e obt a i n s centra l
t arget s and can proceed t o B Bb5ch
d e m o l i s h i t . I n t h i s g a m e Wh i t e
a ccepts t he ch a l l enge. The T h i s a ppears t o be a w a s t e
centre looks formi dab l e and of t i me but the t e mporary
239
c l os i n g o f t h e a8 h 1 d i agona l a l t h o u gh i t m a y h a v e h a d a more
means t h a t h i s e-pawn w i l l n o t u s ef u l f u t u r e by d o i n g s o. At
b e a t t a ck e d i m m e d i a t e l y b y a a 6 t h e Kn i gh t t a k e s l i t t l e p a r t
Bishop at b 7 and s o W h i t e w i l l i n t h e r e s t o f t h e g ame .
be able to defend his pawn
n a t u ra l l y by 0 0 and Re1 . 1 3 BgS

8 c6 A good p o s t for t h e B i s h op
9 Bc4 0 0 f r o m w h i c h i t i n d i re c t l y c o v e r s
10 0 0 Ba6? d 8 , a s q u ar e w h o s e i mp o r t a n c e
w i l l s o o n b e c o m e a p p a re n t .
B l a ck c erta i n ly s h o u l d b e W h i t e i s n ot threaten i n g t o
concerned about the a2 g8 t a k e t h e e -p a w n i mm ed i at e ly
line with the White Bishop because after . • •Re8 his own
a l ready o n i t w h i ch c a n b e e - p aw n wo u l d f a l l .
q u i c k l y j o i n e d b y t h e Qu e e n ,
but this a ttempt t o exchange 13 Qb7
B i s h ops a l lows Wh i t e t o mak e 1 4 Rfe1 e6
u s e of t h e r es u l t i n g l i gh t ­
square weakness on t h e T h e p a w n w a s n ow a t t a ck e d
q u e e n s i d e a n d g a i n a p ow e r f u l becau s e of t h e o v e r b u rd e n e d
and unre l e n t i n g i n i t i at i ve . Qu e e n .

1 1 Bxa6 Nxa6 1 5 Rab1


12 Qa4
T a k i n g t h e R o ok o f f t h e l o n g
D i ag ram 2 6 2 d i a g o n a l on w h i c h s t a n d s a
f i a n ch et t oed B i s h op, con­
s e q u e n t ly m o b i l i s i n g t h e c - a n d
d - p aw n s .

15 cS

A t l a s t bu t f a r t o o l a t e .

1 6 dS !

B l a ck ' s o f fs i d e K n i gh t , a n d
Qu e e n p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h i t s
defence, a l low W h i t e's centre
to spri n g to l i f e a n d g i ve
b i rt h t o a p a s s e d p a w n .

16 Bxc3
1 7 Red1 exdS
1 8 exdS

Wh i t e c l ears d1 for a R o o k A t t h e c o s t of t h e c - p a w n a
a nd s ets u p d i s t urb i ng press ure c e n t r a l p a s s e d p aw n a p p e a rs . I t
o n t h e l i gh t s q u a r e s . i s isolated and should i t
become static i t w i l l a lso
12 Qc8 become weak , and un less i t s
d y n am i c q u a l i t i e s a r e e xp l o i t e d
O t h e rw i s e h e w i l l h a v e t o i n the mi dd l e game, Black 's
retreat t h e Kn i gh t to b8 q u eens i d e prepond era nce of
240
D i a g r am 2 6 3 N e c es s a ry b e c a u s e o t h erw i s e
the Bishop w i l l be shut out of
t h e K i n gs i d e .

1 9 d6

A n e x t r e m e l y l u s t y
N i m z o w i ts c h i a n p a w n . No t i c e h o w
w e l l p l aced Wh i t e 's Bi shop has
t u r n e d out to b e , w a t ch i n g t h e
q u eeni ng s q uare, d B .

19 f6
20 d 7 I

I t i s r e m a rk a b l e h ow r a p i d ly
t h e p a s s e d p a w n h a s emerged a n d
s e t o u t f o r h ome .

D i a g r am 2 6 4
pawns w i l l w i n the end i ng for
h im .

Bu t Kas parov p l ays w i t h t h e


u tmo s t v i g o u r .

B l a ck n ow n e e d s t o b l o ck a d e
the pawn as qu i ck ly as
poss i b le. A Knight on d6 would
be useful but there i s
o b vi ous ly n o t i me f or t h a t . • • •

N b B, N d 7 m i gh t b e p o s s i b l e .
• • •

W e w i l l l o ok a t w h a t h a p p e n s i f
B l a ck a t t e mp t s s u c h a b l o ck a d e :
18 • • • NbB 1 9 d6 Nd7 20 Be7.
W h i t e o c cu p i es a n o u t p o s t w i t h
a p i e ce w h i c h g i v e s a d d i t i o n a l
s upport to the passed pawn a n d
h e s ev e r e ly r e s t r i c t s t h e B l a ck
f o r c e , mu c h o f i t b e i n g s h u t W h i t e d o es n o t h ave to w a i t
o u t o n t h e q u e ens i d e, g i vi n g even t o look after h i s Bis h o p .
W h i t e a p o w e rf u l k i n gs i d e
a t t a ck . 2 0 RfeB
• • • 21 Qf4! T h e p as s ed p a w n is most
Th i s s u d d e n s w i t c h s h ows h ow effect i ve on the seventh rank
p o or ly d e f e n d e d t h e k i n gs i d e f o r i t c u t s c o m mu n i c a t i o n s
rea l l y i s . There i s n o d efen c e b e t w e e n t h e two w i ngs t o a th i n
aga i ns t the t hreat of NgS. The l i n e o f B l a ck ' s f i rs t r a n k . A n d
f-pawn cannot b e moved becaus e s ud d e n l y t h e p o s i t i o n b r i s t l e s
o f a Qu een f ork a t c 4 . I f w i th s h arp t a ct i cs com­
21 • • • Bg7 then 2 2 NgS f6 or b i nat i o n s d e v e l o p n a tura l ly
f S 23 Q c 4 c h , e t c. f r o m s ou n d p o s i t i o n a l p l ay .
18 Bg7 20 fxgS
24 1
S i n c e t h i s b a d ly e xp o s es h i s a n d B l a ck w i l l h ave t o gi ve u p
Ki n g i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r h i s B i s h o p b e c a u s e o "f t h e m a t e
to s et up a b l o ck ad e at d B threat at fB. White's Rook
with • • •Rad B bu t th e co n - wo u l d t h en j o i n t h e Queen o n
s tr a i n t s t h at t h i s wou l d h ave t h e e xp o s e d s e v e n t h a n d e i gh t h
i mp o s e d w e r e h ard l y a t t r a c t i v e . r a nk s .

2 1 Q c 4 ch Kh B 26 BxdB
22 Nxg5 Bf6 2 7 Qc3ch KgB
2B R d ?
M a k i n g room f or h i s K i n g as
we l l a s g u a r d i n g d B . D o mi n a t i n g t h e s ev e n t h r a n k ,
p i n n i n g the Kn i gh t and
23 Ne6 Ne? t hreatening mate. B l a ck ' s
pieces are now s evere ly
Th e Rook on ly h a d t h e c h o i c e res tri cted even i n t h i s open
b et w e e n b B and gB. I n e i t h er pos i t i o n and h i s rep ly i s
cas e W h i t e wou l d p l ay 2 4 Q f 4 f o rced .
w h e n t h e B i s h o p mu s t l e a v e o n e
d i ago n a l to a l l ow Q e 5ch or t h e 2B Bf6
o t h er t o l e t t h e p a s s e d p aw n 2 9 Qc4ch KhB
in. 30 Q f 4 1
2 4 NxfB RxfB T h e Q u e e n ' s man oeuvres are a
25 Rd6 d e l i gh t t o w a t ch , s w i t ch i n g
n e a t ly a n d d e c i s i v e ly b e t w e e n
Threaten i n g Rxf6. T h e B i s hop
t h e d a rk a n d l i gh t d i agona l s .
mu s t m o v e b u t s t a y on t h e dB -
W h i t e c arri es o u t h i s a t t a ck
h 4 d i ag o n a l .
w i t h a t t ra ct i ve e c o n o m y 1 h e h a s
25 Be? just enough of the ri ght
26 dB QI materi a l to apply power at
cru c i a l p o i nts t o pri s e o p e n
D i agram 2 6 5 the li nes i n t o the Ki n g 's
pos i t ion.
W h i t e n ow t hreatens both
w i n gs f r o m t h i s f i n e s q u ar e f 4 :
h6 and the p i nned Knight w h i ch
cannot be defended .
30 Qa6
I n s t e a d of res i g n i n g ,
3 1 Qh 6 ,
a n d B l a ck c h a n g e d h i s m i n d a n d
res i g n e d .

W h i t e p l ay e d w i t h i mp r e s s i v e
vigour. Kas parov i s a you n g
Russian who combi nes a fine
pos i t i o n a l s ens e with a gift
f or s h arp a t t ack. I n deed h e
If 26 ... RxdB t h ere wou ld d i s plays a l l the qua l i t i es of a
f o l l ow 27 RxdBch BxdB 2B Qf7! future World C h amp i o n .

242