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WHITE TO

PLAY AND MATE


IN TWO
WHITE TO
PLAY AND MATE
IN TWO

Compiled by
B.P.BARNES

lYJ
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CONTENTS
Page
�. .

"!:

C Ih troduction 7
2. Explanation of Algebraic Notation 10
3. Hints for Solving Two-Move Problems 12
4. 148 Selected Problems 15
5: Solutions and Commentaries 53
Composer Index by Problem Numbers 152
Index to Problem Ideas and Strategies 154
1

INTRODUCTION
"' .;
,'W..hite to Piay and Mate in Two' is very much a companion
volume to 'Pick of the Best Chess Problems', but is a quite
separate 'read' . As before , the selected chess problems can
be enjoyed by anyone who knows the moves of the pieces.
Chess problems obey the rules of chess. Solving problems
can be fun , sometimes difficult , but always rewarding for the
depth and variety of ideas, many of which you have never
seen and never will see in over-the-board play !
'White to Play and Mate in Two' is the solving stipulation
for all the problems - two-movers. This means that White
plays first, and, having made the correct first move (the key),
White is able to mate Black on his second move whatever
Black plays. For example , in the following diagram :
B. Harley
The Observer 1947

=1=2
8 White To Play And Mate In Two

- the only move which solves the problem is the sacrificial


key l . Sg3 ! to threaten 2.SfS mate. As defences, Black can
capture the Knight three times.The first capture 1 . . . Kxg3
brings a surprise mate 2.KhS! - a Royal battery openi ng:
1 . . . Bxg3 most satisfactorily gives a second use to the
white Rook at gB by 2 . RhB mate; 1 . . . Sxg3 brings into play
the white Rook at f1 which helped contain the black King -
2 . Rf4 mate ! The black King move is a flight-capture, and the
black Bishop and Knight captures become self-blocks. The
solution to this neat problem is written:

Key l . Sg3 ! (threat 2.SfS mate)


1 . . . Kxg3 2.Kh5 mate
1 . . . Bxg3 2.RhB mate
1 . . . Sxg3 2 . Rf4 mate

A move which almost solves the problem (a try) is l .Sg7?


This threatens the same 2.SfS mate, but the black King
escapes 1 . . . Kg3 ! with 2.KhS? no longer mate because the
white Rook check line from g8 is blocked. A try is an
important element of problem chess since it can disguise the
composer's intended solution� mislead the solver, and even
add to his enjoyment.
2.Rf4 is a set mate after the interesting interference 1 . :'.
Sg3 before the key is made in the diagrammed position . The
solver might see the key l . Sg3 ! as the means of precipitating
2. Rf4 after the blocking capture 1 . ..Sxg3 . More about set
play in 'Hints for Solving' .
The Observer 1947 above the diagram tells readers where
and when the problem was first published, and it Is
important that this publication source detail is perpetuated
- as readers will see from problem 45 in this book. White to
Play and Mate in Two Moves is the solving stipulation for
Harley's problem and all the others, but the modern method
is to economise , and =1:2 alongside the diagram suffices.
White always plays up the board.
Intro du ctio n 9

In case you are not familiar with the algebraic notation of


recording piece names, squares and moves on the chess
board, this is explained in a separate section .
In the book, there are several problems not diagrammed,
but given in notation - Forsyth notation . Reading across the
top rank downwards , Harley's problem converts to 6R1I8/
5 SKlI7SI7k17pl7b/5R1s �2 l . Sg3 ! Very convenient !
Apart from one problem - find it ! - all the problems in
this book are Merediths by British composers. Merediths
have not more than 12 pieces and. not fewer than 8 - a
. traditionally popular type of two-move problem which gets
<' its name ,from an American composer, William Meredith ,
whose reputation lives on for many such lightweight prob­
lems he made at the end of the last century. There is no
special magic about the limitations of 12 and 8, but 'not
more than 12 pieces' imposes on problem composers an
extra special discipline to show their ideas within that
maximum, and not to settle easily for, say, 13 pieces. It
works ! Economy of expression is as important in probl�m
chess as it is in other art forms.
To some chess players , many of the problem positions will
be seen as implausible , but it is a J.iequirement of problemists
that their compositions are legal positions. ffowever improb­
able the grouping of the pieces or the material odds , each
problem position can be reached by imaginary play from the
initial game array . Strong links are preserved with the game.
In fact , most of the problemists represented in this anthology
of the best British Merediths were/are players - and strong
ones! .
The light-hearted captions to the problems (the puns are
getting worse) might or might not help you solve the
problems which are arranged in meaningful pairs. Whatever
your approach , there are full solutions and explanatory
notes .
So , enj oy your introduction to problem chess. You might
even succumb to its magic !
2

EXPLANATION OF
ALGEBRAIC NOTATION

1 P-K4 P-K4 2 N-KB3 N-QB3 3 B-lJ4 B-B4 is the'


descriptive notation familiar to older players , but the six
moves' conversion to 1 Pe4 Pe5 2 Sf3 Sc6 3 Bc4 Bc5 is the
'i algebraic notation of chess problemists universally . Unlike

descriptive , algebraic notation sees all squares and moves


from White's point of view. As will be seen from the
accompanying diagram , the ranks (horizontal rows of
squares) are numbered 1 to 8, starting with the rank where
White's pieces begin the game . The files (vertical rows of
squares) are lettered a to h, from left to right . The pieces are
given letters : K=King, Q=Queen , R=Rook , B=Bishop,
S=Knight and P=Pawn . The 'S' used for Knight is derived
from the German 'Springer' .
When a capture is made , algebraic notation shows on
which square the capture takes place , rather than what piece
is taken . Thus if Black has Rooks on al and a8 which can
capture a white Bishop on a5 , the capture by the BRa8 ts
written 8Rxa5 . The symbol + is used for check . Castling is
written 0-() (King's, Rook) or 0-0-0 (Queen's Rook) .

10
Explanatio n OfAlgebraic Notatio n 11
3

HINTS FOR SOLVING


TWO-MOVE PROBLEMS

B} convention , chess problems are diagrammed so that


White plays up the board . White plays first, and the move
order for mate in two problems is 1. White Black 2. White
mates . The correct and .first White move is the key; Black
moves are defences; and the White second moves are mates.
The black defences and the white mates are variations in the
whole of the play which is the solution . If the problem
cannot be solved in the stipulated two moves, it is said to
have No Solution . If, by an oversight of the composer, more
than one first move solves the problem , there is a cook, and
the problem is spoilt..
In chess problems, as in the game , White can impose a
check-mate on Black either by finding an irrefutable move
to threaten mate, or a move to put· Black in Zugzwang i . e .
threatening n o immediate mate , but putting Black i n such a
position that Black must move and incur a fatal weakness .
Therefore , you need to find key-moves which either""
threaten immediate mate or wait. Threat problems are
usually easier to recognise. For example , in 67, there are
many moves by the black Rook and Bishop which may be
made with impunity. A threat is necessary to force Black's
hand . Any move by the white King (what is the white Bishop
doing at c8?) threatens mate 2.Se any - the solver has to
decide where to play t he white King. A study of 54 shows

12
Hints Fo r So lving Two -MovePro blems 13 I

that every Black move in the diagrammed position is


answered. by mate . Is there a simple waiting move to
maintain this state of affairs? Yes. The only move - the key­
is a simple waiting retreat of the Bishop into the top corner,
and Black moves to his destruction in a Zugzwang position .
Solving chess problems requires a positive frame of mind .
Tell yourself that the two-move problem is the final stage of
a game , and a Championship is at stake if you miss a check­
mate ! So , marshal your thoughts, and solve the problem no
matter what defences Black makes to a key-move which is
there. Of course , some keys and the means of mating Black
.' will not be obvious , but tell yourself that check-mate is only
two moves away - and find it!
In your search for the key, first of all study the position of
the black King . Can the black King move? By definition , a
mated King is one that cannot move out of check - so the
mating move or moves must close down the black King's
possible escapes, flight-squares . In 7, the King can play to
a5 , a4 and a3, and these must clearly be provided for in the
mate. ·Only l . Qa8 ! is powerful enough - when 2 . Sc6 will
mate after black King moves to the a-file . Be prepared , as in
7, for a key-move to give more flight-squares . Keys to
problems are supposed to be subtle and not what the over­
the-board player would expect - so be further prepared to
sacrifice when you see a concentration of black pieces on
one square such as d6 in 11. Can Black destroy white guards
on squares round the black King? 1 . . . Sd7 would enable
2 . . Kxa7 in 113. It's a good bet that a move of the white
.

Bishop to deny the opportunity is right - but where do you


move it? Is there need for White to release Black from a
stalemate, as in 26? As there is supposed to be nothing
superfluous on the board, is there any \Vhite piece so placed
that it must move or be brought into play by the move of
another White piece if it is to play its part in a check-mate?
The out-of-play white Rook at d6 in 112 looks' suspicious.
How else can the white Bishop at a8 in 108 come into play
unless one or other of the white Rooks moves?
Another rewarding method of solving is to look out for
\
14 White To Play And Mate In Two

what might bt! interesting - perhaps you can guess the


composer's intention? - and then try to make it happen with
yOU! key-move . What happens if the black Rooks in 29 pin
themselves at c6 , and what will make them do it? How will
you induce the black Rook in 41 to unpin the white B i sh op?
You need to find a key-move to threaten a second move
mate which will bring the black Rook off the rank.
Set play - prominent (ideally) black defences and the
ensuing white mates (set mates) designed to be seen by the
solver in the diagrammed position before the key-move is
made - adds a dimension to problem chess . The set play
1 . . . Qxc5 2. Qc4 mate and 1 . . . Qxe5 2 . Qxdl mate in 68
is unmissable , and only adds to the solver's enjoyment when
1. Kxe7 ! leads to enhanced and changed mate"s 2.Bd6 an<i
2 . Se6 when the BQ captures of white pieces become checks.
In 54, set play - the mates after all the black defences/moves
- is simply maintained unchanged by a waiting key. Pure
deceit IS the intention in 3: 1 . . . Pd4 2. Bc6 is a prominent
set mate which cannot be maintained , and is changed to
2 . Sg5 mate"only after It struggle by the solver. Set play in 121
extends the solution to three phases - set play , try play , and
actual/post-key play - and is the comparatively modern
means of extracting the maximum from the pieces . In short ,
solvers should looK out for set play - which might or might
not be maintained , added to , or changed after a try and/or
key-move .
Undeniably , many or tne problems in this book will test
you to the full, but nothing improves being able to solve
chess problems than gettmg down seriously to solving them !
In the head , from the diagram , is a good discipline, but jt is "­
far better and more instructive to solve problems by setting
t h e m up on a chess board . In this way , you m�ss little, and
th e compos�r's art will be revealed . In the process , the
limitless possibilities will set your own mind racing - and you
might be mspired to compose your own devilish p ro b le m s
for other ... to solve!
4

148 SELECTED PROBLEMS

;W�ite to play and mate in two moves is the solvjng stipulation


for all these problems .
The solutions and commentaries start on page 53 .
16 White To Play And Mate In Two

I OPENING MOVES 2 LIPTON'S TEASE


A.R. Gooderson M. Lipton
The Problemist 1944 The Problemist 1966

42

(a) ulagram
(b) BBd6 to dl
(c) BBd6 to g2

3 GUILE OF LEWIS 4 HUME AN' ERROR


R.T. Lewis G. Hume
'(after P.H. Williams) 1st Pr. Youth 1883
Evening Standard 1964
Selected Problems 17

5 HORSE TRADING 6 JAVA JIVE


P.H . Williams M. Lipton
Reading Observer 19 11 (after G. Latzel )
Die Schwalbe 1957

-=1=2 -=1=2

7 UP, UP AND AWAY 8 MODEL EXAMPLE


C .S. Kipping A. C. Challenger
Falkirk Herald 1927 Hampstead Express 1896

-=1=2 -=1=2
18 White To Play And Ma te In Two

9 FRANKENSTEIN'S 10 MUTATEMAN
CREATION R.T. Lewis
E. N. Frankenstein The Problemist 1978
Chess Bouquet 1897

=1:-2 =1:-2

11 LAWS OF PROBLEM 12 UNDER THE


CHESS INFLUENCE
B.G. Laws T. H. Billington
1st Pr. Northern Figaro (after J. B. Fisher)
1888 1st Pr. Birmingham
Mercury 1900

=102
Selected Problems 19

13 WINDMILLS OF THE 14 . . OF A GENIUS


.

MIND ... T.R. Dawson


T.R. Dawson British Chess Magazine
Chemnitzer Allgemeine 19 13
Zeitung 1925

=1=2

(a) Diagram (a) Diagram


(b) 90° turn clockwise (b) 90° turn clockwise
(c) 90° turn clockwise (c) 90° turn clockwise
(d) 90° turn clockwise (d) 90° turn clockwise

15 MEN OF SUSSEX 16 ALARM IN ACADEME


F.B. Feast D. J. Shire
Brighton Society 1902 The Problemist 1987
20 White To Play And Mate In Two

17 CASTLING 18 RETR OGRADE


CONVENTION ANALYSIS
H.R. Neale C. Vaughan & B.P. Barnes
The Problemist 1942 The Problemist 1991

(a) Diagram (a) Diagram


(b) 1800 turn (b) WPc2 to g5

19 WHITE KING IN 20 BOOKED FOR


DOUBLE CHECK OBSTRUCTION
N. A. Macleod R.T Lewis
.

(Ded. to Alain White) The Problemist 1991


Christian Science Monitor
1947

-:1=2
Selected Problems 21

21 LITTLE GREY CELLS 22 MAXIMUM ROOK


C. R. B. Sumner BLOCKS
Chess Amateur 1927 D. P. Andrews
The Problemist 1953

'4=2

23 BRITAIN TODAY­ 24 ALLEN KEYS


TOMORROW THE F. B. Alien
WORLD v. The Problemist 193 1
J.M. Rice Fairy Chess Supplement
The Problemist 1981

'4=2 '4=2

(a) Diagram
(b) BPc5 replaces WPb3
22 White To Play And Mate In Two

25 ZAfJORUJKO 26 SCOTCH MISSED


B.P. Barnes N.A. Mac1eod
The Problemist 1990 The Problemist 1976

42

(a) Diagram (a) Diagram


(l?) WBg2 to d3 (b) WRd4 to e4
(c) WBg2 to f3 (c) Further, WKe5 to el
(d) Further, WRe4 to f4

27 BAD LUCK OF THE 28 LECTURE TURNING


IRISH POINT
M. McDowell M. Lipton
The Problemist 198 1 Commended Magyar
1st HM BCPS Under 21 Sakkelet 1965
Tourney

42 42
Selected Problems 23

29 GREATS 30 GAMAGE UNPINS


M. McDowell A.J. Fenner
The Problemist 1990 (after F. Gamage)
The Problemist 1967

=1=2 =1=2

31 QUACK MAGIC 32 SOLVERS' CHOICE


G.c. Quack D.J. Shire
The Problemist 1987 1st Pr. Problem Observer
1988

=1=2
24 White To Play And Mate In Two

33 NOWOTNY 34 DEFERRED NOWOTNY


J .M. Rice T. Tavemer
Kolnische Rundschau 1971 Source?

42 42

35 DISAPPEARING 36 NOWOT IT SEEMS


NOWOTNY C.P. Sydenham
R.A. Batchelor Norsk Sjakblad 1980
The Problemist 1985
Selected Problems 25

37 FAULTY TOW ER S (I) 38 FAULTY TOWERS (II)


T.R. Dawson T. R. Dawson
Eskilstuna Kuriren 1916 Falkirk Herald 1915

39 SHIRE HORSES 40 PA(I)R EXCELLENCE


D;J. Shire F.B. Feast
Problem Observer 1988 Schuld Memorial Tourney
1921
26 White To Play And Mate In Two

41 BISHOPRIC(K) 42 HIS BROTHER'S


H.R. Neale KEEPER
v. The Problemist 1940 D.J. Shire
The Problemist 1985

#2 #2

\
43 CORRECTION UNPINS 44 IN AND OUT OF
J.M. Rice TROUBLE
The Problemist 1959 J.M. Rice
Die Schwalbe 1956

#2
Selected Problems 27

45 GUEST WORK 46 HP SOURCE


F.H. Guest F. Libby
Chess Bouquet 1897 Birmingham Post 23.2.04
-v.
1904

47 JUST WILLIAMS 48 WGGRACE


P.H. Williams W. Gleave
Birmingham Post 1902 1st Pr. Bristol Mercury 1889

=1=2 =1=2
28 White To Play And Mate In Two

49 BRITON WAWES THE 50 TAKING LIBERTIES


RULES J.M. Rice
W.H. Thompson 4th PI. 3rd wccr (AI )
Chess Amateur 1922 1986

51 CYCLIC PLAY 52 MULTI-SOLUTIONS


Sir Jeremy Morse C.P. Sydenham
British Chess Magazine 3rd HM The Problemist
1964 198711
\

3 Solutions
Selected Pro blems 29

53 VAUGHAN OF PLENTY 54 BLACK GRIMSHAW


C.J. Vaughan H. White
The Problemist 1990 (version by D.J. Shire)
British Chess Magazine
1990

(a) D"iagram 2 Solutions


-

(b) WKf5 to el- 2 Solutions

55 AKIN TO WHITE 56 ENJOY YOUR TRIp


GRIMSHAW B.P. Barnes
C.J. Lytton • HM American Chess
The Tablet 1958 Bulletin 1960

=1=2 =1=2
30 White To Play And Mate In Two

57 TASKS AND RECORDS 58 RECORD


Sir Jeremy Morse OPPORTUNITY
The Problemist 1989 M. Lipton
4th HM Israel Ring
Tourney 1957

=1=2 =1=2

59 YELLOW CARD 60 RED CARD


B.P. Barnes ) Sir Jeremy Morse
The Independent 1990 The Problemist 1974

=1=2
Selected Problems 31

61 TERTIARY BLACK 62 TERTIARY BLACK


CORRE CTION CORRECTION -
B.N. Lewis RECORD
The Problemist 1952 J.M. Rice
The Problemist 1972

63 MATE-TRANSFERENCE 64 DEJA VU
M. Lipton D.J. Shire
2nd Pr. American Chess Problem Observer 1986
Bulletin 1961

=1:2 =1:2
32 White To Play And Mate In Two

65 STAR SIGN 66 STAR CROSSED


E.J. Winter-Wood 1.1. Gill
Illustrated London News (after G. Latzel)
1900 1st HM The Problemist
1967

=1=2

( a) Diagram
(b ) WSe7 to f5
)
67 KINGS CROSS 68 ONE-OFF
J.M. Rice B.P. Barnes
7th HM Argiielles Jubilee 2nd Pr. Problemas 1973
Tourney - Problem as 1963

-#2
Selected Problems 33

69 TUCK TICKLE 70 KNIGHT MANOEUVRE


MANOEUVRE R .T. Lewis
R.T. Lewis The Problemist 1990
The Problemist 1985

=1:2 =1:2

71 UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT 72 SUNDAY OBSERVANCE


N .A. Macleod B. Harley
Mat 1982 The Observer 1944

=1:2
34 White To Play And Mate In Two

73 FLIGHTS ON MATE 74 MATES ON FLIGHT


SQUARES SQUARES
C. Mansfield B. P. Bames
2nd HM US Problem (after P. Bakker)
Bulletin 1964 The Problemist 1981

75 CHANGED MATE ON 76 CHANGED MATES ON


FLIGHT SQUARE SAME SQUARES
'
B.P. Bames C. P. Sydenham
4th HM C. Mansfield The Problemist 1991
Memorial Tourney­
The Problemist 1987
Selected Problems 35

77 OP ENGATES 78 S LIDING DOORS


Sir Jeremy Morse D.J. Shire
British Chess Magazine Problem Observer 1989
1968

#2

79 SIDE-STEP 80 UPLIFTING
J. Bunting EXPERIENCE
(after C. Mansfield) D. J. Shire
The Problemist 1958 Sachsische Zeitung 1984
36 White To Play And Mate In Two

81 SEQUENCE 82 PSEUDO SEQUENCE


REVERSALSISALAZAR REVERSALlSALAZAR
M. Lipton B.P. Bames
4th HM Die Schwalbe 1961 Diagrammes 1991

(a) Diagram
(b) BKa4 to b4

83 LE GRAND 84 LE GRAND (DOUBLED)


(RECIPROCAL) c.P. Sydenham
M. McDowell Die Schwalbe 1979
Probleemblad 1990

(a) Diagram
(b) BSa8 to hI
Selected Problems 37

85 PSEUDO LE GRAND (I) 86 PSEUDO LE GRAND (l/)


D.A. Srnedley D.J. Shire
The Problernist 1991 . The Problernist 1990

=1=2

87 DOMBROVSKIS 88 HANNELIUS
B.P. Barnes & D.J. Shire
M. McDowell The Problernist 1991
The Problernist 1991

=1=2
38 White To Play A nd Mate In Two

89 BANNY 90 VLADIMIROV - S MART


D.J. Shire LAD WANTED
The Independent 1990 M. Banaszek
. HM Die Schwalbe 1987

=1=2 =1=2

91 HANCOCK'S HALF 92 SOLVING FEAST


TOUR F.B. Feast
R. Hancock London Times 1898
British Chess Magazine
1988
Selected Problems 39

9.1 ABLE BEAL 94 LEWIS WILES


E.W. Beal R.T. Lewis
The Problemist 1982 The Problemist 1986

=1=2 =1=2

95 BROKEN FOCUS 96 ZAGORUJKO


F. B. Feast FRAMEWORK
( after W.T. Pierce ) N.A. Macleod
Birmingh.am Daily Post (after H . Musante )
1923 3rd HM BCPS Ring
Tourney Sunday Times 1961

=1=2 =1=2
40 White To Play And Mate In Two

97 DETECTWE CHIEF 98 POLICE RECORD


INSPECTOR MORSE R.T. Lewis&
Sir Jeremy Morse Sir J eremy Morse
The Problemist 1964 The Problemist 1990

99 AKA CYRIL STANLEY 100 NORMAN EVASION


C.S. Kipping N.A. MacIeod
Chess Amateur 1925 Commended Deutsche
Schachzeitung 1983

=1=2
Selected Problems 41

101 SIMULTANEOUS 102 PINNING WA,YS


UNPINS C. F. Way
W . Langstaff The Problemist 1972
The Problemist 1926

103 LOOSE WOMAN 104 WICKED LADY


G. Heathcote P. H. Williams
English Mechanic 1892 Chess Amateur 1922

=1=2
42 White To Play And Mate In Two

105 PAWN RUSH 106 B2 OR NOT B2


G. Heathcote N.A. Macleod
More White Rooks 1911 Spectator 1979

107 HALF-BATTERY + 108 HALF-BATTERY


lvOWOTNY M. Lipton
M. Lipton The Problemist 1979
2ndPr. Twin Tourney
The Problemist 1965

(a ) Diagram
(b ) BBh8 to a7
Selected Problems 43

109 OPENAND SH UT CASE 110 HERPAIS


A.R. Gooderson M. Lipton
The Problemist 1952 AI Hamishmar 1955

111 CHECK S TUBBS 112 P ROS AND CONS


A.G. Stubbs N .A.Macleod
Hampstead & Highgate Die Schwalbe 1976
Express 1913
44 White To Play And Mate In Two

113 APPELLATION FOR 114 KEPT IN LINE


THE TEACHER B.J. de C. Andrade
C .S. Kipping v. The Problemist 1941
Chess Amateur 1929

115 RECIPROCAL 116 RECIPROCAL


CHANGE CHANGE RECORD
M. Lipton R.T. Lewis
2nd HM British Chess The Problemist 1988
Magazine 1960
Selected Problems 45

117 RECIPROCAL BLACK 118 THE THIRD MAN


CORRECTION C.P. Sydenham
D. H. Shire Europe Echecs 1977
The Independent 1990

119 READERS Of 120 OUT OF TIME


LEBANON J.P. Lea .
G.J. Slater 1st Pr. Brighton Guardian
1st Pr. Lebanon Herald 1882
1882
46 White To Play And Mate In Two

121 WORLD CHESS 122 WHO DARES PINS


COMPOSING B. P. Barnes
TOURNAMENT E. Petite Jubilee Tourney
R.T. Lewis& 1991
D. A. Smedley
WCCf1988

42

123 GEOMETRY 124 RWAL CLASSIC


N. A. Macleod M. McDowell
The Problemist 1980 The Problemist 1986
Selected Problems 47

125 CONSTR,UCTION 126 GRACE NOTE­


WORKf:R A. Bolus
F.B. Feast Hampshire Post 1912
v. Hampstead Express
1914

127 SOLVERS' DESPAIR 128 SHAPE OF THINGS TO


J. Warton COME?
Chess Amateur 1918 R.T. Lewis
The Problemist 1987
48 White To Play And Mate In Two

129 PASO DOBLE 130 MASKED MEN


c.P. Sydenharn C.P. Sydenharn
Problernas 1984 Cornrnended Portuguese
Chess Federation
Meredith Tourney 1990

_..lUiIiIIL-....a
=1=2

131 KNIGHTS OF THE 132 CAVALRY CHARGES


SQUARE TABLE D.J. Shire
N.A. MacIeod The Proble:mist 1980
Phoenix 1989

=1=2
Selected Problems 49

133 PLAYING TO THE 134 DUEL


GALLERY Sir Jeremy Morse
B. Harley 2nd Commend BCPS Ring
Chess Amateur 1910 Tourney Busmen's Chess
Review 1967

135 DETERMINED BY 136 DETERMINED BY


BLACK WHITE
N .A. Macleod C.P. Sydenham
The Problemist 1978 The Independent 1991
50 White To Play A nd Mate In Two

137 BY STEALTH 138 ZEROPOSITION


B.P. Barnes D.J. Shire
US Problem Bulletin 1983 Problem Observer 1987

(a ) WRe3 to a3
(b) WBb1 to a2

139 CHWALRY CHARGE 140 ROYAL ENCLOS,URE


D.J. Shire N.A. Macleod
The Problemist 1990 American Chess Bulletin
1961

=1=2
Selected Problems 51

141 Al KEY-MOVE 142 BRISTOLS


C.P. Sydenham c.P. Sydenham
The Independent 1986 1st HM The Problemist
1978

#2

(a ) Diagram
(b ) WRg8 to g4

143 Y-THEME 144 CHAMELEON ECHO


J.F. Moon W.A. Clark
Hampstead Express 1898 British Chess Magazine
1901
52 White To Play And Mate In Two

145 Y FRONT-RUNNER 146 THE REASON Y


J. Pierce R.T. Lewis·
Illustrated London News The Problemist 1983
1880

=/:,2 =1=2

147 THE STORY OF O 148 MAN OF LETTERS


J. Keeble G. Hume
Source? 1894 (after J. Bunting)
Western Morning News &
Mercury 1924

:'
5
�. ;

SOLUTIONS AND
COMMENT ARIES

1 OPENING MOVES
Key l . Pe4 ! ( l . P-K4!) (threat 2 . QfS mate)
1 . . . S random 2. Bxd4 mate
1 .
. . Sb6 ! ? 2. Bb8 mate
1 . . . . Sc5 ! ? 2. Rd5 mate
1 . . . Pxe4 en passant 2 . Pd4 (l . P-Q4 ! ) mate

What more appropriate start to a chess book than l . Pe4 !


( l . P-K4 ! ) ? Yet a heavy j oke by a heavy German World
Champion , Wilhelm Steinitz, was 'After l . P-K4! , White is
in his last agonies ! ' . Rib-tickling or rib-crushing as this
weighty witticism might be , it is more cautious' to venture
that l . P-K4 ! - possibly the most popular opening move -
maintains equality for White .
In problem 1, l . P-K4 ! (l .Pe4 !) achieves much more - a
mate in two! After 1 . Pxe4 en passant, White plays the
. .

second most popular opening move 2 . P-Q4 (2 . Pd4) . What


games begin and end so smartly with l . P-K4 ! 2 . P-Q4
mate ! ?
54 White To Play And Mate In Two

2 LIPTON'S TEASE

Position (a) Try l . Pcxd7? (threat 2.Pd8=Q mate)


1 . . . Pc6/cS! 2 . ?
Try l . Pexf7? (threat 2 . Pf8=Q mate)
1 . . . Pe6/eS 2. ?
Key l . Pexd7 ! (any) (threat 2 . Pd8=Q mate)
Position (b) Try 1 . Pexd7?
1 . . . .Bg4! 2 . ?
Try 1 . Pext7?
1 . . . BhS! 2 . ?
Key l . Pcxd7 ! (any) (threat 2. Pd8=Q mate)
Position (c) Try 1 . Pcxd7?
1 . . . Bb7 + ! 2 . ?
Try 1. Pexd7?
1 . . . Bh3! 2 . ?
Key l . Pexf7 ! (any) (threat 2 . Pf8=Q mate)

Clearly , it's a matter of Queening and mating on the 8th


rank - but which Pawn goes fOI)Vard and where? The answer
is that all three possible advances are made to work in turn
by the twinning device of the BBd6 on different squares .
Michael Lipton's eye-catching inspiration pre-dates a
more widely known non-Meredith setting by the late Grand­
master, Comins Mansfield, from 'The Problemist' 1972 -
skSKl1Pppppp11B1PPPPPPIlS61l6/r7/3bb3 #l. l . Pexf7 ! (cf.
Introduction re . Forsyth notation . )

3 G UILE O F LEWIS

Key l . Bf7 ! Waiting


1 . - . . Pd4 2 . SgS (set 2 . Bc6) mate
1 . . . Pf4 2 . Bg6 mate
1 . . . Sa any 2 . SdcS mate
1 . . . Sg any 2 . Sf2 mate
Solutions and Commen taries 55

This is a story of 'what might have happened otherwise? ' . In


1946 , schoolboy Tony Lewis had been introduced to
problem chess by a well-known composer , Edward Boswell ,
and Boswell had said No Solution of 3. He was wrong. The
great (and kindly) man had overlooked the cunning of the
changed mate after 1 . . . Pd4, there being no simple
waiting key-move for White to maintain all the prepared
(set) mates in the diagrammed position . Inspired , the
young RTL went on to become the leading composer he is
today . Would it have been otherwise if Boswell had got it
wrong?
, &TL waited 18( !) years before publishing 3 because a
·
problem editor refused it on the grounds that the idea was
anticipated i . e . done before by somebody else - and the
problem editor was later proved largely right. A 16-piece
setting (not the 10 pieces of RTL's) by P . H . Williams in 1908
accounts for the shared credit .

4 HUME AN' ERROR

Key 1 . QhS ! Waiting


1 . . . Kc8 2. Qxe8 mate
1 . . . Kc6/d6/xe6 2 . QdS mate
1 . . . S any (including Sg7) 2 . Pe8=Q mate)

This is a not so dissimilar story about an earlier' rise to pre­


eminence . In 1881 , a young George Hume had caught out
with one of his problems no less an authority than the Chess
Editor of Boys Own Newspaper who claimed as a solution
the very move George had designed to catch the unwary .
The gleeful wiles of another inspired schoolboy are evident
in 4 which has a key-move. to grant three flight-squares to the
BK, with the pin-mate (after 1 . . . Sg7) being a real
surprise .
56 White To Play And Mate In Two

As the last problem in this book shows , George Hume


went on to become a man of letters !

5 HORSE TRADING

Key l . Sd2 ! Waiting


I . .. S any 2 . Qal mate
I . . . B any 2 . Qg8 mate
I . . . Pxd2/e2 2. Pb7 mate
I . . . P12 2. Qxg2 mate

A problem convention relating to economy is that a piece


should not be used where a Pawn will do - yet both the white
Knights in 5 could be white Pawns, and the problem would
be solved by l . Pb4 ! Waiting. Why did the composer 'trade
up' for white Knights?
Arguably, the apparent choice of WSe6 moves (all
defeated by I . . . Bh3 ! 2 . Qg8? Bc8 ! ) is _better than the
single option l . Pe7? Bh3 ! Indisputably, it is a WS at b3
rather than a WP which brings the problem to life . The key­
move becomes positively startling, and there are blocking
tries which must be avoided: I . . . SaS/aI/cl? S any! and
l . SbcS/d4? Pe2 ! Much more interesting than literally
straightforward Pawn moves !

6 JA VA JWE

Try l . Se6?(threats 2 . Sf4 , 2 . SgS mate)


a I . . . Sc7 2 . Sf4 (2 . SgS? Kg3 ! ) mate
b I . . . Bg4 2. SgS (2. Sf4? Kg3 !) mate
c l . . . Be2 ! 2 . ? (2. Sf4? Kxh2 !12. SgS? Kg2 !)
Try l . Sd3? (threats 2 . S12, 2. Sf4 mate)
Solutions and Commentaries 57

c 1 . . . Be2 2 . Sf2 (2 . Sf4? Kxh2 ! ) mate


a 1 . . . Sc7 2 . Sf4 (2. Sf2? Kxh2 ! ) mate
b 1 . . . Bg4 ! 2. ? (2. Sf2? Kg2 !12 . Sf4? Kg3 !)
Try 1 . Se4? (threats 2 . Sg5 , 2 . Sf2 mate)
b 1 . . . Bg4 2. Sg5 (2. Sf2? Kg2 !) mate
c 1 . . . Be2 2 . Sf2 (2. Sg5? Kg2 !) mate
a 1 . . . Sc7 ! 2. ? (2 . Sg5? Kg3 !12 . Sf2? Kxh2 !)
Key 1 . Sf3 ! (threats 2.Sg1 , 2 . Rh2 mate)

'After Latzel' is acknowledgement of G. Latzel 4HM Dt.


Scltachzeitung 1956 � B5R1I24/2S4K17p/5slklR7 #2 1 . Se5?
SdI ! 1. Se3? Se4 ! Key 1 . Sd2 ! Its Java theme has Black closing
one W line of guard so that White may not close another.
ML's achievement is a cyclic Java all in the try play, with the
exceptional indulgence of the post-key play being. irrelevant .
An unwanted 'camouflage' horse is the feature of ML's
controversial problem: sadly and ironically , it was an
unwanted horse on the road which caused Gerhard Latzel's
death in a car crash .

7 UP, UP AND AWAY


Key 1 . Qa8 ! Waiting
1 . . . Ka5/a4/a3 2. Sc6 mate
1 . . . Kc5/c4/c3 2. Sa6 mate

The caption is an accurate clue to the key - up to b7 , up to


a8 , and always away !

There is a sameness about the mates after the 6( ! ) black


King flights, but finding the spectacular and generous (3
flights given) corner key-move brings a moment of pleasure .
Who thought the white Rook at c8 was suspiciously out-a/­
play and tried 1 . Ra8? - only to find that the Queen blocks c6
for any intended mate 2 . Sc6?
58 White To Play And Mate In Two

8 MODEL EXAMPLE

Key l . Qe8 ! (threat 2. Sxd5 mate)


1 . . . Ke5 2. Sg6 mate
1 .
. . Kxe4 2. Sg6 mate
1 .
. . PdlPfxe4 2. Qb8 mate
1 . . . Pf6 2. Sg6 mate
1 . . . Bxb6 2. Sxd5 mate

The composers of 7 and 8 had the Presidency of the British


Chess Problem Society in common , but in their approaches
to problem composition they could scarcely have been more
different. For Cyril Kipping, the idea - preferably strategic -
was everything, and he had little time or inclination to polish
his record(?) 7 ,000 + published problems . Alfred Challenger
published only 400+ problems , but he cared deeply about
'finish' .
In 8, another up-and-away key is now the brilliant means
to a refined end - and a model example. After 1 . . . Pfxe4,
the mate 2. Qb8 is one with the squares round the black King
guarded or blocked just the once - a model mate - and after
1 . . Bxb6 (Black obligingly eliminates the guard on e3)
.

some hold that 2. Sxd5 is another model, maintaining that


the WK has to be on the board , and that its second guard of
g5 does not count .

9 FRANKENSTEIN'S CREA TION

Key l . Qa4 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kxe4 2 . Qxc6 (set 2 . Qhl) mate
1 . . . Kc5 2. Qa5 mate
1 . . . Pc5 2 . Qa8 mate
1 . . . Pd3 2 . Qc4 mate
Solutions and Commentaries 59

1 . . . Sf any 2 . Qxd4 mate


1 . . . Sg any 2 . Re5 mate

Frankenstein was British ! Edward Nathan Frankenstein was


born 1840 in Liverpool. Earlier (1818) , Mary Wollstonecraft
Shelley had written the enduring romance in which the
student, Frankenstein , created a soulless monster, yet a
being not without craving for human sympathy.
Our Frankenstein might have needed some of that human
sy�'pathy for the constant 'monster' reminders he probably
endured . We remember his creation 9 which is far from
sdull-ess , and which has a spirited key-move to change the set
mate from 2 . Qh l to 2. Qxc6 after 1 . . . Kxe4.

10 MUTA TEMAN

Key 1 .Rf2! Waiting


1 . . . Ke3 2 . Qe2 mate
1 . . . Pe3 2 . Bxf5 mate
1 . . . Pf4 2 . Rf3 (set 2.Bxe4) mate
1 . . . R any 2 . Qd2 mate •

1 .
. . Sa any 2 . Qb3 (set 2 . Qc2) mate
1 . . . Se any 2 . Qd4 (set 2. Rd4) mate

What 'monster' does this promise? 'Mutateman' suggests a


new species - and this is right in the context . Specialist
composer, Tony Lewis, enj oys the tag given him by an
appreciative solver.
Problem 10 is of a mutate species (L . mutare - change)
transformed from the (complete) Block of the diagrammed
position in which every black move is answered by mate . No
simple tempo move maintains this state of affairs to solve the
problem. Only a search leads to 1 . Rf2 ! Waiting which effects
subtle and rewarding changes . 1 . . . Ke3 2 . Qe2 is added ,
and there are enhanced and changed mates after 1 . . . Pf41
60 White To Play And Mate In Two

sd any/Se any . The pin-mate 2. Rf3 ! ,jolts the new species


into life !

11 LAWS OF PROBLEM CHESS


Key 1. Rd6 ! (threat 2. Qxd5 mate)
1 . . . Kxd6 2. Qc7 mate
1 . . . Kd4 2. Qxd5 mate
1 . ". Rxd6 2. Sg4 mate
1 . . . Rd4 2 . Re6 mate
1 . . . R else 2 . Bh2 mate
1 . . . Bxd6 2. Qg7 mate

Benjamin Glover Laws (born 1861, London) bestrode


problem chess in Britain at the turn of the century , and lived
up to his name by doing more than anybody else to
promulgate the laws of chess problem composition . As
President of the British Chess Problem Society, Problem
Editor of Chess Monthly and British Chess Magazine, and
author of, inter alia , The Two-Move Chess Problem, Chess
Problems and How to Solve Them, and The Artistry of the
Chess Problem, B . G . Laws's credentials were impeccable .
After his death in 193 1, he was honoured by the publication
(Christmas Series 1933) of The English Bohemian. The
Czechs - Bohemians - had perfected a refined style of
composition , and BGL was their match . '
Problem 11 combines elegance and subtlety . If th� key­
move is signalled by the need to provide for 1 . . . Kd4 , it is
to be noted that 1. Rd6 ! is a triple sacrifice , that it gives the
BK a flight-squa;e , and that the complexity of the variations
culminating in mates 2 . Sg4 and 2. Bh2 was very l'Iluch out of
the ordinary in 1888 .
Solutions and Commentaries 61

12 UNDER THE INFL UENCE

Key l . Rf4! (threat 2. Qd4 mate) .


1 . . . Kxf4 2. Qf6 mate
1 . . . Sxf4 �. I�d4 mate
1 . . . Bd6 2. Qg5 mate
1 . . . Bd5 2. Qxb8 mate
1 . . . Sc6IBe4 2. Re4 mate

With B . G. Laws\
so commanding a figure in turn of the
century problem chess (cf. l l) , composers who hoped to
s1Jcc�ed could scarcely fail to be influenced by his words and
deeds . The right '1900 formula' is seen in 12 with a double
sacrifice of a Rook, a different Q mate after the King flight
to that threatened by the key, and the stretch of the WQ to
g5 and b8 following blocking defences by the BBs .

13 WINDMILLS OF THE MIND . . .

Position (a) Key l . Bf3 ! (any) (tht"eat 2. :Bc6 mate)


�l�:V l . Be2? Pd3 !
Try l . Bg4? Pe6! •

Try l . Bh5? Pg6!


Position (b) Key l . Bb4! (any) (threat 2.Be7 mate)
Position (c) Key l . Ba4! (any) (threat 2 . Bd1 mate)
Position (d) Key l . Be7 ! (any) (threat 2. Bb4 mate)

Thomas Rayner Dawson �889-1951 - the great TRD - was


the internationally ackno.vledged genius of problem chess.
New pieces , new forms of chess , new rules , systematic
classification , non-j argon nomenclature , mathematics of the
chess board , retro-analytical reasoning , a prodigious output
- TRD was the Master. His life work stands as a catalogue of
invention .
Put up 13 on a board , and position four friends round the
62 White To Play And Mate In Two

table . How each solves the problem will depend literally on


the point of view ! The rotation through positions (a) to (d)
changes the direction of the black Pawns and the solutions
accordingly.

14 . . . OF A GENIUS
Position (a) Key l . Ke2 ! (any) (threat 2. Ra7 mate)
Tr)d. Kd3/e4? Pb 1 Q +/Pf5 + !
Try l . Kf3? Pg4+ !
Position (b) Key l . Kd4 ! (any) (threat 2. RgS mate)
Position (c) Key l . Ke6! (any) (threat 2 . Rh2 mate)
Position (d) Key l . Kf6! (any) (threat 2 . Rbl mate)

Again , as in 13, the fall of the black Pawns changing with the
rotation of the board determines the white King's only safe
(from checks) move to let through the Bishop to support an
unstoppable Rook mate . Solvers' ,heads spin . Quite a new
twist to turning the tables !

15 MEN OF SUSSEX
Key l . Qg6 ! (threats 2 . Qgl , 2 . Bc moves mate)
1 . . . Kc5 2. Bh7 mate 1-,

1 . . . QaS + 2. BxaS mate


1 . . . QbS + 2. BeS mate
1 . . . Qxc72. Bd4 mate
1 . . . Bb7 2 . Bxb7 mate
1 . . . BcS 2. Bd7 mate
1 . . . Bb5 2 . Bxb5 mate
1 . . . Bc4 2. Bd5 mate
1 . . . Bd3 2. Be4 mate
Solutions and Commentaries 63 .

Frederick Bonner Feast was born in London . He published


15 in Brighton Society . Even in 1902, Brighton was only an
hour's train ride from London . Did FBF have a special
affinity with the South coast? Brighton - Sussex - the Sussex
Chess Problem Fraternity was the direct forerunner of
today's British Chess Problem Society founded in 1918. Was
the talented and prolific FBF at least an honorary member
of those pioneering men of Sussex-by-the-Sea?
Problem 15 is entertaining for the checks 1 . . . Qa8 +lb8+
made possible by the key , the neat shut-off mate 2.Bb7 after
I· . . . Kc5 , and the variety of the eight distinct mates by the
"twp white Bishops . Promising moves 1 . . . Be2 and 1 . . .
Bfl are not defences because they fail to stop the threatened
2. Bc moves .

16 A LARM IN A CADEME

Key l . Be6 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kb5 2.Bd7 mate
1 . . . Bb2 2. Bc3 mate
1 . . . Bc1 2. Bd2 mate
1 . . . Bxb4 2. Qxb4 mate
1 . . .·Pa5 2. Bxa3 mate
1 . . . Pb5 2. Rx a3 mate

The occasion was the British Chess Problem Society


Weekend at Kings College, Cambridge . The slumbering
problemists were not losing sleep over Milton's poetic
licence 'grove of Academe' (Paradise Regained iv. 244)
when, in the small hours , the alarm went . Happily, it was a
false alarm - but for David Shire it was real inspiration.
Unable to get back to sleep readily, he composed 16. Eine
kleine Nachtmusik !
64 White To Play And Mate In Two

17 CASTLING CONVENTION

Position ( a ) Key 1 . 0-0-0! ( threat 2. RdS mate )


1 . . . 0-02 . Rgl"mate
Position ( b ) Key 1 . ReS ! ( any ) ( threat 2 . Rel mate )

White Castles to clear for 2 . Rgl mate after Black Castles .


For a j oke and to show the possibilities inherent in the
position, a half turn of the board for ( b ) makes Castling
impossible for both sides , and there is no need to clear for
the Rook . 1. ReS! to escape the reach of the BS (replacing a
BPa6 in H. R. Neale's original ) is sufficient.

Back to position ( a ) . The convention is that Cast-ling by


either side is permitted unless it can be proved that King or
Rook moved previously in the legal position diagrammed for
solving, a position which can be reached by an imaginary but
legal game however improbable .
Examples of retrograde analysis to disprove Castling by
White and Black are problems 18 and 19.

18 RETROGRA DE ANAL YSIS

Position ( a ) Try 1 . 0-0? ( threat 2. B moves mate ) $,

1 . . . Kb l 2 . B moves mate
1 . . Qa7 + 2 . Be3 mate
.

1 . . . QdS 2 . Bd2 mate


1 . . . QfS 2. Bf4 mate
1 . . . QgS + 2 . Bg5 mate
but Castling is illegal !
Key 1 . Kf2! ( threat 2 . B moves mate )
1 . . . Kb1 2 . B moves mate
Solutions and Commentaries 65

1 . . . Oa7+ 2 . Be3 mate


1 . . . OdS 2 . Bd2 mate
1 . . . OfS + 2.Bf4 mate
1 . . . OgS 2. Bg5 mate
1 . . . OhS 2. Bh6 mate
Position (b) Try 1 . Kf2? OhS ! 2. Bh6?
Key 1 . 0--0 !

A casual solver might claim both 1 . Kf2 ! and 1 . O--O ! solve 18,
apd that the problem is cooked by an unwanted second
solution . But are there two solutions? The sharp solver will
ask"how the BK reached a1 - and use retrograde analysis.
The BK could not have passed the checking barrier of WPs
b2/c2 and if entry were gained via d2 , the WK must have
moved - to make 1 . O--O ? illegal in (a) . In position (b), the
BK reached a1 via c2 without dislodging the WK , and 1 . 0--0 !
solves the problem . 1 . Kf2? makes the mistake of leaving the
WRh1 vulnerable to 1 . . . OhS ! with 2. Bh6? blocked by the
white Pawn repositioned at g5 . .

19 WHITE KING IN DOUBbE CHECK

Key 1 . Kg2 ! (any) (threat 2. RxcS mate)

Yes , the WKh3 is in double check ! No misprint . But how


can this be? Back to basics and 17. We accept that 19 is a
legal position, and we know the solving stipulation is 'White
to play . . . ' . Therefore , Black played last , and , in�redibly,
Black played 1 . . . BPh4 x WPg4 en passant in reply to
White's previous move which must have been WPg2 to g4 to
intercept the check from the BBcS . With b7 blocked by the
WO , the BB could not have come off the cS-h3 diagonal
with a checking move on arrival at cS. Only a discovered
check by BKd7 to eS (the BK itself moving out of check
from a previous WO move to check the BK!) could have
66 White To Play And Mate In Two

taken place - and this BK move rules out Castling!


Thus, retrograde analysis proves absolutely that the BK
moved previously, and Black cannot Castle to avoid the
threatened 2 . Rxc8 mate .

20 BOOKED FOR OBSTR UCTION

Set play 1 . . . Kxh4 2 . 0f2 mate


1 . . . Pf2+/xg2 2 . 0f2 mate
1 . . . Bxh3 2 . Rxh3 mate
1 . . . B random 2 . ?
Try l . 0-0? Waiting
1 . . . Kxh4 2 . 0f2 mate
1 . . . B random (xh3 ) 2. . Rxf3 mate
1 . . . Pf2+ 2 . 0xf2 mate
1 . . . Pxg2 ! 2 . 0f2? Kxh3 !
Try l . Sf6 ! Waiting
1 . . . B random 2. Sxh5 mate
1 . . . Kxh4! 2 . 0f2? Kg5 !
Key l . Bf1 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kxh4 2 . 0f2 mate
1 . . . B random 2 . Rgl mate
1 . . . Bxh3 ! ? 2 . Rxh3 mate
1 . . . Pf2 + 2. 0xf2 mate
6',

After the searing experiences of 18 and 19, the solver is alert


to Castling - or not ! So why not 1 . 0-0 to solve 20? It's
perfectly legal . The difficulty is that it is not the right move -
1 . . . Pxg2 ! This is splendid deception . All black moves
except 1 . . . B random are set with mates in the dia­
grammed position , 'clever' Castling fails, l . Sf6? Kxh4!'
needs to be examined, and a surprising I.Bf1 ! rules out any
hopes of Castling by solvers . The obstruction by the Bishop
brings 20to book !
Solutions and Commentaries 67

21 LITTLE GREY CELLS

Key l . Pe7 ! (threat 2. Qd8 mate)


1 . . . Kxd7 2 . Qxb7 mate
1 . . . Kb6 2 . Qa5 mate
1 . . . Ra7 2. Qxa7 mate
1 . . . Rb8 2 . Qc6 mate
1 . . . Rb6 2 . Qc8 mate

After the hard sleuthing involved in · the preceding four


problems , the little grey cells cope easily with 21 . Pawn on !
The self-blo�ks 1 . . . Rb8 and 1 . . . Rb6 are the feature of
this charming problem with its two BK flights and 6 WQ
mates .

22 MAXIMUM ROOK BLOCKS

Key l . Qe6 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kxf4 2 . Qf5 mate
1 . . . Kh5 2 . Qg6 mate
1 . . . Rh5 2 . Rg4 mate
1 . . . Rxh6 2. Qf5 mate
1 . . . Rg4 2. Rf5 mate
1 . . . Rxf4 2 . Qg6 mate

Following on from 21 , a maximum four self-blocking moves


by a black Rook are very much the feature of 22 . With two
flight-squares for the BK, a give-and-take key to sacrifice a
Rook , and four different mates after the black Rook self­
blocks , this superior Meredith setting of an old task deserves
recognition .
68 White To Play And Mate In Two

23 BRITAIN TODA Y - TOMORROW THE WORLD

Try l . Rh3? (threat 2. 0h2 mate)


1 . . . Rxf3 2 . 0xf3 mate
1 . . . Rxd2 ! 2 . ?
Try l . Oh2? (threat 2 . Rh3 mate)
1 . . . Rxd2 2 . 0xd2 mate
1 . . . Rxf3 ! 2 . ?
Try l. Og l ? Waiting
1 . . . Rxd2 2. 0e3 mate
1 . . . Rxf3 2 . 0d4 mate
1 . . . PdS ! 2 . ?
Try l . Oe l ? (threat 2 . 0e4 mate)
1 . . . Rxf3 2. Ra4 mate
1 . . . PdS ! 2 . ?
Try l . Ob l ? Waiting
1 . . . PdS 2 . 0b8 mate
1 . . . R random 2. Oe4 mate
1 . . . Rxf3 2. 0b4 mate
1 . . . Re3 2. Pxe3 mate
1 . . . Rd4 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Ocl ! Waiting
1 . . . PdS 2 . 0c7 mate
1 . . . RdS 2 . Pd4 mate
1 . . . Rd4 2 . Pd3 mate
1 . . . Rc3 2 . Pxc3 mate
1 . . . Re3 2 . Pxe3 mate
1 . . . Rxf3 2 . 0c4 mate
1 . . . Rxd2 2 . 0xd2 mate

23 was the first round problem in the 1981 competition to


find the champion .British solver (for the Lloyds Bank
Trophy) , and the preliminary to sending a British solving
team (supported by Lloyds Bank) to the World Chess
Solving Championship . As other John Rice traditional 'first
offerings' in the annual Championship round, 23 needed to
have the widest possible appeal to attract thousands of
Solutions and Commen taries 69

Round 1 responses from newspaper readers . Solvers were


suitably bewildered by the 16 (! ) actual and threatened
mates! Concealed was an Albino four mates from a white
-

Pawn starting from its home square .

24 A LLEN KEYS

Position ( a ) Try l . Oh8? Waiting


I . . . Oa2 2 . Raxa2 mate
I . . . Pc4 ! 2 . ?
Try l . Rh2? ( threat 2.Bxa3 mate )
I . . . Oxa8 ! 2 . 0xa8? Kb l !
Key l . Rg2 ! ( threat 2. Bxa3 mate )
I . . . Oa2 2. Bb2 ( 2. Ba3? Obl ! ) mate
Position ( b ) Try I. Rg2? Pb2 !
Key l . Oh8 ! Waiting
I . . . Oa2 2 . Rxb3 mate
I . . . Oa4/a5/a6/a7/xa8
2. Rxa4/2. Rxa5/2 . Rxa6/2. Rxa7/2 . Oxa8
mate

23 reached an international audience , but 24 has languished


unloved for 60 years ! Present day handymen will know the
unlocking L-shaped metal levers that are AlIen keys . F. B.
Alien keys unlock delightful solutions to the twin 24 ! AlIen's
.
keys deserve to be better known .

25 ZA GOR UJKO

Position ( a ) Key l . Rxe3 ! (threats 2.Se5 , 2. Sb8 mate)


I . . . Sxa6 2 . Rd3 mate
70 White To Play And Mate In Two

I . . . Pe5 2. Bh3 mate


Position (b) Key l . Rg4! (threats 2� Sc5 , 2. Sb8 mate)
I . . . Sxa6 2. Rd4 mate
I . . . Pe5 2. Bf5 mate
Position (c) Key l . RgI ! (threats 2.Sc5 , 2. Sb8 mate)
I . . . Sxa6 2.Rdl mate
I . . . Pe5 2. Bg4 mate

25 twins in its three parts by moves of the WBg2, and the


result is very much a problem of our ' times - a pair of mates
after I . . . Sxa6 and I . . . Pe5 changed over three phases
of play. The j argon is a 3x2 Zagorujko to acknowledge the
work of Soviet composer Leonid Zagoruj ko who researched
a pair (at least) of black moves/defences yielding changed
mates over at least three phases of play.
Much ' of the fun in 25 is in understanding why WBg2
moves from positions (a) to (c) effect the changed mates,
and appreciating the mutual obstruction of the white pieces
in the try play (a) l . Rg4? Pe5 ! 2.Bh3 ? ; in (b) l . Rxe3? Sxa6!
2. Rd3? l .RgI? Sxa6! 2.Rdl ? ; and in (c) l . Rg4? Pe5 ! 2.Bg4?

26 SCOTCH MISSED

Position (a) Key l . Sc4! Waiting $,

I . . . B any 2.Sb2 mate


Position (b) Try l . Sc4? Bxc3 + !
Try l .Bd4? Bd6+ !
Key l . Kd4! Waiting
I . . . Bxc5 + 2.Kxc5 mate
I . . . Bxc3 + 2. Kxc3 mate
Position (c) Try l . Sc4? Bxc3 + !
Key l . Bd4! Waiting
I . . . Bc5-fB 2.Bxc5 mate
I . . . Bxc3 2. Bxc3 mate
Solutions and Commentaries 71

Position (d) Try 1 . Sc4? Bxc3 + !


Try 1 . Bd4? Bd6!
Key 1 . Se4 ! Waiting
1 . . . Bxc5 2 . Sxc5 mate
1 . . . Bxc3 + 2. Sxc3 mate

The twinning goes on to 3x2 Zagorujko effect plus in


Glaswegian Norman Macleod's 26, with the opportunity for
a 4x2 Zagorujko narrowly missed only because of the
impossibility of engineering a second Knight mate in (a) .
The progression of the twinning is of a subtlety and
,entertainment value to rival the four unpinning key-moves
all to relieve stalemate .

27 BAD L UCK OF THE IRISH

Set play 1 . . . Pd3 2. Qf6 mate


Try 1 . Qe4? Waiting
1 . . . Pb2 2 . Qc2 mate A
1 . . . Pd3 2 . Qe5 mate B
1 . . . B random 2. Qxd4 m&te ··C
1 . . . Be3 ! 2 . ?
Try? 1 . Qg2? (threat 2 . Qxd2 mate)
1 . . . Kd3 2 . Qf3 mate
1 . . . Pb2 2 . Qxd2 mate D
1 . . . Pd3 2. Qg7 mate E
1 . . . B random 2. Qb2 mate F
1 . . . Bel ! 2 . ?
Key 1 . Qa8 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kd3 2 . Qf3 mate
1 . . . Pb2 2. Qa3 mate G
1 . . . Pd3 2 . Qh8 mate H
1 . . . B random 2 . Qa5 mate I
-
72 White To Play And Mate In Two

Only 9 pieces in 27, and an almost - almost - perfect 3x3


Zagorujko (cf. 25 and 26) . Here there are mates after three
defe�ces 1 . . . Pb2lPd31B random changed through three
phases of play - and without recourse to twinJ1,ing!
The bad luck of Michael McDowell from Co . Down is that
after the try 1 . 0g2? to threaten 2. 0xd2 mate , 1 . . Pb2 as
.

a defence is illusory i . e . it is one of the three thematic black


defences mentioned above , but it does nothing to stop the
threatened mate 2 . 0xd2 . Thus, the 3x3 Zagorujko is just
short of being technically complete . Nonetheless, the
achievement by MMcD , an 'unknown' teenager at the time ,
.
was remarkable .

28 LECTURE TURNING POIN T

Try 1 . 0a 1 ? (threats 2 . 0xg1 , 2.Rg on rank mate)


1 . . . Rxa1IRb1IRcllRd1IRellRfl
2 . Rxa1l2. Oxb1/2 . Oxc112. Oxd112. Oxe112. Oxfl mate
1 . . . Pxg2 ! 2 . ?
Try 1 ; Rag7 ? Wait ing
1 . . . Ra1lRbllRc1lRd1lRe1lRfl
2. Ra2l2. Rb2/2.Rc212. Rd2l2. Re2l2 . Rf2 mate
1 . . . Ph2 2 . Rxg1 mate
1 . . . Pxg2 2. Kg4/g5/g6 mate
1 . . . Rxg2 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Ra1 ! (threats 2. Raxg1 , 2.Rg on rank, except h2,

��
1 . . . Rxa1IRb1IRc1IRdllRe1IRfl
2 . 0xa1IRxb1l2. Rxc1l2.Rxd1l2. Rxe112. Rxfl mate
1 . . . Pxg2 2 . Kg4lg5/g6 mate

Another remarkable teenager was Michael Lipton . His


lecture (he was 19) to the British Chess Problem Society in
March 1957 The Modern German Two-Mover sparked
- -
Solutions and Commentaries

a turning point. He demonstrated that the redoubtable British


School Qf problem composition famed from the turn of the
century for post-key excellence had neglected to its cost
post-War developments. The imaginations of his contem­
poraries were fired - and it was not long before the younger
British composers in particular re-established Britain's
leading role with powerful try-play problems which linked
traditional values with avant-garde ideas . It was fitting that a
leading German authority was able to write about 'a fresh
two-move wind blowing from our island' . ML takes much of
tlte credit for this remarkable turning point .
ML's own 28 is also remarkable ! It is an 8-piece 3x6
'Zagorujko with mates after six black moves 1 . . . Rxal/
Rb11Rc1lRd1lRe1lRfl changed over three phases of play .
The try l . Rag7? to cut off the WO from a1 and to prevent a
dual mate 2 . Ra2 and 2.0a1? after 1 . . . Ra1 is a small
miracle . 8 pieces ! It would be preferable if 1 . . . Ph2 did not
yield multiple mates 2 . Rgxg1 , 2 . Rg on file , 2 . Rg on rank,
except xh2, but 1 . . . Ph2 is not a total defence against the
threatened 2. Raxg1 and 2 . Rg on rank , except h2; and is not
part of the solution .

29 GREA TS

Key 1 . 0c4! (threat 2 . Pd5 mate)


1 . . . Rhxc6 2. Sd7 (2. Pd5? Rxc4!) mate
1 . . . Rcxc6 2 . Sg6 (2 . Pd5? Rxc4!) mate

Romanian Israel Abramovich Schiffmann (1903-1930) and


Englishman Comins Mansfield (1896-1984) were problem
'greats' , and Schiffmann defences and Mansfield couplets are
among their many enduring contributions. 29 brings them
pointedly together, with great economy. As Schiffmann
defences, the black Rooks self-pin to dare the threat 2.Pd5
which would then become a fatal unpin for 2 . . . RxO ! The
74 White To Play And Mate In Two

Mansfield couplet is the pair of R + S battery openings to shut


off in turn the black Rook not pinned.
This is possibly only the second such combination in
Meredith - A.P. Guliaev BCF 1932 4B2Q/2K5/6PS1R3p2k1
2S4p1B16r1l1b6 =12 l . SxeS ! (threat 2. Sht7 mate) 1 . . . Rxg6
2. Sd3 mate ; 1 . . . Bxg6 2. Seg4 mate . Michael McDowell
gets the better key !

30 GAMA GE UNPINS

Key l . Qc7 ! (threat 2. QeS mate)


1 . . . Qxc7 2. Rc2 mate
1 . . . QcS 2. QxcS (2. QeS? QxQ/Qd4!) mate
1 . . . Qc4 2. Qxc4 (2. Qg3? Qd3 !) mate
1 . . . Pd6 2. Qg7 mate
1 . . . PdS 2. Qg3 (set 2. Qh3) mate

The late Jack Fenner's 30 is undeniably foreshadowed by


American Frederick Gamage's masterpiece 1st Pr. Tidskrift
for Schack 191 1 - 2QS/1P1p3BIKSq4B/sp6/1R1R4/p1kSIP71
1s6 =12 with its thrilling key l . Rh4! Waiting, and Gamage
unpins 1 . . . Pd6 2.QhB ! Qf6? and 1 . . . PdS 2. Qh3 ! Qf3?
With four fewer men in 30, we still see the same Gamage
unpins whereby the WQ is able to unpin the BQ with
impunity. Perhaps a different random unpin of the WRg2
rather than the WSb6 in Gamage's problem is a detail , but
what is quite new is the incorporation of two unu§J.lal
Schiffmann defences (cf. 29) . The BQ takes up different
positions on the pin-line by 1 . . . QcS and 1 . . . Qc4 to
dare unpinning moves by the WQ , and, each time , there is
the correction element of the cutting a WB's guard to stop
the unpinned WRg2 mating 2. Rc2?
Solutions and Commentaries 75

31 Q UA CK MAGIC

Key l . Be2! Waiting


1 . . . Kh6 2. Qg5 mate
1 . . . Kf5 2. Sh4 mate
1 . . . B random 2. Qxg7 mate
1 . . . Bt7 ! ? 2. Qg5 mate
1 . . . S random 2. Sh4 mate
1 . . . Sf5 ! ? 2.Se5 mate

.Th� white Bishop at b5 exercises its spell on solvers because


they so much want to see a pin-mate 2.Bd3 bringing the out­
(; {-play white Rook at a5 into play after 1 . . . Kf5 , and there
is a marked reluctance to move the Bishop. But - surprise ­
(town goes the WB to ambush behind the WS , and White
waits. Both BB and BS correct their primary/random errors
by more carefully considered moves to t7 and f5 respect­
ively, but with fatal self-blocking secondary errors. A pretty
example of Secondary Black Correction by Godfrey Quack -
pronounced Quawk!

32 SOLVERS' CHOICE

Set play 1 . . . Se any 2. Qg3 mate


1 . . . Sf3 2. Qf5 mate
Key l .Sf5 ! (threat 2. Rxh4 mate)
1 . . . Sh random 2.Pf3 mate
1 . . . Sf3 ! ? 2. Se3 mate
1 . . . Sxf5 ! ? 2 . Qxe2 mate
1 . . . Bh5 2. Sh6 mate

Solvers liked this example of Secondary Black Correction


(cf. 31) so much that, being given the rare opportunity to
judge collectively, they voted 32 1st Prize by acclaim ! An
76 White To Play And Mate In Two

excellent choice . Set mates after Knight moves serve to


deceive before the sacrificial key-move is found . The
primary error of un guarding f3 to permit 2 . Pf3 closing the
WQ's line as the WR's opens is corrected twice by
occupation of f3 and capture of WSf5 for prospective
unguard of g3 . Satisfyingly , 1 . . . Bh5 brings off 2 . Sh6 to
match 2 . Sf3 in closing W lines .

33 NOWO TNY

Try l . Bg2? (threats Qf7, 2. Qa2 mate)


1 . . . Rxg2 2 . Qf7 mate
1 . . . Bxg2 2. Qa2 mate
1 . . . Rxh4 2 . Bfl mate
1 . . . Pc2 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Qf3 ! (threats 2 . Bd5 , 2. Bd3 mate)
1 . . . Kxd4 2 . Rb4 mate
1 . . . Rxf3 2 . Bd5 mate
1 . . . Bxf3 2 . Bd3 mate
1 . . . Rxh4 2 . Qd3 mate

In 1854, Dr. Anton Nowotny hit on the disarmingly simple


idea of White playing to the cutting point of a BR and BB to
threaten two mates made possible by the double inter­
ference - the mates being separated by the Rook and Bishop
capturing the interposing W piece . The Nowotny theme is
still being worked successfully nearly 150 years on ! For
example , 33 doubles the theme with a flourish . Which BR!
BB intersection should the solver choose? What really
scores is the flight 1 . . . Kxd4 granted by the correct
Nowotny, and a changed mate after 1 . . . Rxh4.
Solutions and Commentaries 77

34 DEFERRED NOWO TNY

Key l . Sc7 ! Waiting


1 . . . Rxc7 2. Rg6 mate
1 . . . Bxc7 2. Bd7 mate
1 . . . RlBb7 2. Qg6 mate
1 . . . Pd4 2. Bf3 mate
1 . . . Pa5 2. Qb5 mate

The Nowotny (cf. 33) has endured because of itbasic


�simplicity and adaptability . Thomas Taverner's 34 I! the
(now) expected key-move to the BRlBB cutting poiIr but
where is the Nowotny-style double threat? Patienc The
two mates are coming. 2 . Rg6 and 2 . Bd7 appear as E and
BB capture at c7 to block the square . The Nowny is
deferred.

35 DISAPPEARING NOWO TNY

Key l . Bf3 ! (threats 2 . Sb7 , 2.Sfl mate)


1 . . Rxf3 2. Qxb6 (2. Sb7? Kc6 ! ) mate
.

1 . . . Bxf3 2. Qg6 (2. Sfl? Kc6 ! ) mate


1 . . . Bxe5 2. BfS mate

If 34 was a Deferred Nowotny , this is one that nevcwas !


l . Bf3 ! intercepts BR and BB to threaten 2. Sb7 anl .Sfl
mate , but the captures at f3 serve to destroy ther The
WSdS is held to its guard of c6 , but through comes tl WQ
for mates at b6 and g6 . Sleight of band - the Nowo/ has
.
disappeared !
78 White To Play And Mate In Two

36 NOWO T IT SEEMS

Key l . Be5 ! (threats 2. Qd6, 2. Qe6 mate)


1 . . . Kxe5 2. Rf5 mate
1 . . . Rxe5 2. Rd8 (2 . Qd6? Kxd6!) mate
1 . . . Bxe5 2. Be6 (2. Qe6? Kd4!) mate
1 . . . Rxh3 2. Qd6 mate
1 . . . Rxb3 2. Qe6 mate
1 . . . Rc6 2. Qd4 mate
1 . . . Rc5 + 2. Qxc5 mate

It's a Nowotny , it's a Disappearing Nowotny , but it's not


what it seems . The Nowotny comes back ! Sure enough the
thematic double threat 2 . Qd6/2. Qe6 is destroyed after BR!
BB captures at f5 , but 2 . Rd8/2.Be6 emerge as new mates to
exploit the self-blocking Nowotny interference . 1 . . ' . Rxh3
and 1 . . . Rxb3 separate the original double threat. A
problem of surprising variety .

37 FA UL TY TOWERS (I)

Key l . Rel ! (Threat 2. Qc3 mate)


1 . . . Pexf3 2.Re6 mate
1 . . . Pe3 2. Qc6 mate
1 . . . Pgxf3 2. Rg6 mate

The tower-like structure of the pieces in 37 has perfect


symmetry. Why shouldn't there be symmetrical key-mot-es?
Why is there just the one asymmetric solution l .Rel ! The
'fault' is the board edge to rule out l . Rgl? which makes no
threat or indeed any provision for 1 . . . Pg3 ! to correspond
with the threat 2. Qc3 mate after l . Rel ! and the mate 2. Qc6
after 1 . . . Pe3 . Move the position one file to the left , and
then there would be two symmetrical solutions l . Rdl ! and
l . Rf1 ! With the original position moved three files to the
left , again there would be one asymmetric solution l . Rdl !
Solutions and Commentaries 79

with the left-hand side of the board this time confining the
Queen . 37 is a simple example of Asymmetry which has
-

inspired a whole branch of problem chess and the peculiari­


ties of problems set off-centre out of necessity on an 8 x 8
board.

3.8 FA UL TY TOWERS (II)

Key l . Sf5 ! (threat 2. Qxe7 mate)


1 . . . Kd8 2.Qxb8 mate
1 . . . Kf8 2. Qxh8 mate
1 . . . 0-0 2. Qg7 mate

Another tower-like structure . The symmetric 38 solves


asymmetrically by l . Sf5 ! because the BK and BRh8 are on
the right squares for Castling.
An original feature of 38 is that the position (unllike 37)
cannot be moved, say, one file to the left for a unique
alternative asymmetric solution l . Sc5 . Symmetrilcal sol­
utions l . Sc5 ! and l . Se5 ! would work, since the BK is not
known to Castle off the BQ's square !

39 SHIRE HORSES

Key l . Bh8 ! Waiting


1 . . . Sb random 2.Bd3 mate
1 ' . . . Sd5 ! ? 2. Sd6 mate
1 . . Sc random 2 . Rd4 mate
.

1 . Se5 ! ? 2. Sf6 mate


. .

1 . . Pf2 2 .Bg2 mate


.

With its coy, corner-key, the Block 39 scores witln solvers


80 White To Play And Mate In Two

and composers alike for its beautifully matching play. The


black Knights correspond in their unguard random errors,
and both corrections close W lines of guard with what turn
out to be corresponding prospective self-block errors - for
perfectly matched white Knight mates to interfere with
Rook and Bishop lines . Not a step wrong from these Shire
horses !

40 PA (I)R EXCELLENCE

Key l . Kt7 ! (threat 2 . QgS mate)


1 . . . Sc6 2. RbS (2. Rd3? Sd4 ! ) mate
1 . . . Sd3 2. Rxd3 (2 . RbS? PcS/ScS ! ) mate
1 . . . Pc6 2 . ReS mate
1 . . . PcS 2. Rd6 mate

Why is 39 satisfying? Perhaps an immutable law is that


problem chess abhors imbalance . The artistic senses are
rarely satisfied unless there are at least t':\'o 'star' variations
which match or have 'correspondence' , that pieces have
more than one function , and that the play after the key­
move �>nly j ust outweighs the balance of try play. The two
B + R battery pin-mates to counter two BS defences woven
into two BP defences to yield two WRe6 mates make 40 an
enduring favourite .

41 BISHOPRIC(K)

Key l . Sc2 ! (threat 2. Ra2 mate)


1 . . . RxgS + 2 . RxgS mate
1 . . . Rf6 2. Bd2 mate
1 . . ' Rf4/f3 2. Bd8 mate
.
Solutions and Commentaries 81

If the 5th rank line-up of BR, WB and WK is perceived as a


'tail' , there is a sting in it ! The BR has the WBg5 pinned at a
maximum lateral distance from the BK, but is induced to
withdraw from the pin-line with fatal (t6 'Black) unpinning
releases of the Bishop . Not So much a sting, but a
Bishopric(k) !

42 · · -HIS BRO THER 'S KEEPER


,-

Try l . Sf4? (threat 2 . Pc3 mate)


1 . . . Qxe2+ 2. Sxe2 mate
1 . . . Qc1 2 . Re4 mate
1 . . . Qe 1 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Rd2 ! (threat 2. Pc3 mate)
1 . . . Qxd3 + 2 . Rxd3 mate
1 . . . Qc1 2. Sxc1 mate
1 . . . Qg2/xh1 2 . Sc5 mate
1 . . . Qxf2 2 . Bxf2 mate

42 is the modern approach to the classic withdrawal


unpins of the exemplary 41 , and is curious for the WS
and WR being half-pinned by the BQ, a colour reversal
of the black half-pinned pieces in 113. To move the WS
unguardedly is to have the pinned WR captured
1 . . . Qxe2 + - so l . Sf4 ! ? for 2. Sxe2. 1 . . . Qc1 2 . Rd4
is one withdrawal unpin mate . Similarly, the WR must
move carefully 1 . Rd2 ! to prepare for an otherwise fatal
checking capture of its 'brot�er' , 1 . . . Qxd3 + .
1 . . -. Qc1 2 . Sxc1 and 1 . . . Qg2/xh1 2. Sc5 are with­
drawal unpin mates to outweigh satisfactorily the try
play.
82 White To Play And Mate In Two

43 CORRECTION UNPINS

Key 1 . Bc3 ! ( threat 2 . ReS mate )


1 . . . RxdS + 2. QxdS mate "
1 . . . S random 2. Qe8 mate
1 . . . ScS I ? 2 . Rxd6 mate
1 . . . SeS ! ? 2. Rd4 mate

39 has Black Correction resulting in closely matched white


line-closure mates which are memorable in themselves . 43
again uses Black Correction to elevate the status of the W
play - correction unpins to release a Q + R battery held firm
by the BR in the diagrammed position.
To prevent the threatened sliding double-checkmate by
the line-pinned white Rook , the black Knight plays at
random to unblock d3 , but the random error is to unguard
the e-file for 2. Qe8 mate . Corrections to cS and eS stop
2 . Qe8 , but the different secondary errors made are the cS
interference with the black Rook, and a block of eS - each
time unpinning the white Rook for two correction unpin
mates to catch the solver's eye .

44 IN AND O UT OF TRO UBLE

Key 1 . Pd6 ! Waiting


1 . . . Bxb7 + 2. Qxb7
" mate
1 . . . S random 2. QcS mate .<}.,

1 . . . SdS ! ? 2. Rb8 mate


1 . . . Sc6 ! ? 2. Rc7 mate
1 . . . R any 2 . Qxd7 mate

44 is a match for 43 , and is humorous for the way in which


the · WR is in and out of trouble all within two moves. A
splendidly thematic key-move pins the Rook. Black is safe
until he moves - Zugzwang! - but the immediate mistake of
Solutions and Comm en taries 83

even thinking to lift the black Knight from the board is to


admit the random/primary error of making 2. Qc5 mate
possible on the unguarded c-file . Corrections to d5 and c6
stop 2 . Qc5 , but they involve secondary errors of interference
with the B Ba8's line , and two unpins of the white Rook are
separated by dual-avoidance - correction unpins of the Rook
so neatly pinned by the key ! The 19 year old composer
agonised over the use of WPc4, but , still in Meredith limits ,_
he was right to use j ust one more Pawn to prevent a dual
mate 2 . Qc5 and 2 . Qc4 after 1 . . . S random .
.-:;

45 G UEST WORK

Key l . Sd4 ! Waiting


1 . . ' . Kxd4 2. Qd5 mate
1 . . . Rd random 2. Qd5 mate
1 . . . Rxd4 ! ? 2. Qg6 mate
1 . . . Bxd4 2. Sxd6 mate
1 . . . Bg1 2. Qxh4 mate
1 . . . B else 2 . Qe3 mate
1 . . . Rf4 2. Qd5 mate
1 . . . Rh else 2. Qg4 mate
1 . . . Pd5 2 . Qe5 mate

Chess Bouquet (1897) was a collection of problems by


British composers of the day , and provides a valuable source
of biographical information , but its author, Frederick
Gittins , committed the cardinal chess problem sin of not
giving publication source details over diagrams. Conse­
quently, the 'Original source of Guest's work remains guess
work ! With its flight-giving triple sacrifice key , and thought
provoking mates in a Block position , Guest's 45 thoroughly
deserves the airing after some 100 years .
84 White To Play And Mate In Two

46 HP SO URCE

Key l . Kb4! Waiting


1 . . . Rxf4 + 2. Sd4 mate
1 . . . R else 2 . Bd4 mate
1 . . . B any 2. Pd4 mate
1 . . . Pd6 2. Qf6 mate
1 . . ". Pd5 2. Sd7 mate
1 " . . . Pxe6 2. Qc7 mate

What was the composer's intention in the elegant 46? Was it


the three mates on the same square (d4) - a feature later
pushed to five mates record length - or was it the novelty (at
the time) of a scintillating cross-check sequence
1 . . . Rxf4+ 2. Sd4 mate introduced by a first-class key?
Who knows . Curious the same cluster of WB , BR and BP in
this and 45 .
There's a mystery. Exactly the same position has been
quoted in various journals under the name and source of H.
Prideux London Times 1904. Libby's Birmingham Post
problem is dated 23 February 1904. Who takes precedence?
Is the London Times HP source correct or not?

47 JUS T WILLIAMS
,i
$,
Key l . Kc6! Waiting ' l " ,

1 . . . Sa7+ 2. Qxa7 mate � j � :

1 . . . Se7 + 2.Bxe7 mate "

. '
1 . . . Rxa2 2 . Qc5 mate ll,
1 . . . Rxb3 2 . Ra5 mate
1 . . . Rb else 2. Qb2 mate t� ;

1 . . . Sb6 2. Be7 mate


1 . . . Sd6 2. Qa7 mate "
Solutions and Comm en taries 85

It's rare in chess for the white King to walk into checks -
which is reason enough for a problem . l . Kc6 ! clears for the
WQ after 1 . . . Rxa2 , and weathers a short storm of Knight
checks by 2. Qxa7 and 2. Bxe7 mate . The constructional
point is that it is never both mates , their being separated by
the other moves of the BS to b6 and d6. There is an
impishness about 47 - as there was about the man - to make
47 typically j ust Williams .

48 WG GRA CE

Key l . Kdl ! Waiting


1 . . . Pd4 2 . Qel mate
1 . . . Rxc6 2. Sxc6 mate
1 . . . Re6 2. Sd7 mate
1 . . . Rf6 2. Re3 mate
1 . . . Rg6 2 . Sexg6 mate
1 . . . :R else 2. Seg6 mate
1 . . . Pg4 2. Qf4 mate
1 . . . S any 2. Rf5 mate

The white King vacates c5 in 47 for a prospective mate by


the Queen , but the King's square vacation in 48 is craftier
and more forward looking. When the need to provide for
1 . . . Pd4 is seen , only then is it realised that l . Kd2? l . Ke2?
impede the Queen , and that l . Kfl ? l . Kf2? as waiting moves
fail to 1 . . Rf6 ! when the white Rook is pinned - 2 . Re3?
.

Waiter Gleave - our WG - composed some elegant


problems for the period .
86 White To Play And Mate In Two

49 BR ITO N WANES THE R ULES

Key 1 . Qb7 + !
1 . . . Sxb7 2. Rc7 mate
1 . . . Sf7 2. Rg5 mate
1 . . . KxfS 2 . Rc8 mate
1 . . . Kf6 2. Rf5 mate
1 . . . Kh6 2. Rh5 mate

'More point in a problem of this kind with a definite idea


ihan the majority of unoriginal problems now composed
with orthodox keys' - so countered editor Cyril Kipping to
put right solvers who had marked down 49 for its checking
key. WaIter Hood Thompson (b . 1873) was a major com­
poser who knew exactly when to break the 'rules' . Who now
would object to a check - sacrificing the Queen and granting
the BK h6 - which makes possible the record of 5 direct
mates by a white Rook? A brilliant construction !

50 TA KING LIBER TIES

Try 1 . Qg5 + ?
1 . . . Ke4 (a) 2.Bxc6 mate
1 . . . Ke6 (b) 2. Bc4 mate
1 . . . Se5 2. Qxe5 mate
1 . . . Bf5 ! 2 . ?
Try 1 . Qf3 + 1
1 . . . Ke6 (b) 2 . Qf7 mate
1 . . . Kc5 (c) 2 . Qxc6 mate
1 . . . Be4 ! 2 . 1
Key 1 . Qb3 + !
1 . . . Kc5 (c) 2. Qc4 mate
1 . . . Ke4 (a) 2.Qf3 mate

Notwithstanding 49, there still need to be good reasons for


Solutions and Commentaries 87

checking keys, and solvers might consider that John Rice


was taking liberties with three( !) opening checks in 50. He
was taking liberties - BK flight-squares . The conditions of
the 3rd World Chess Composing Tournament (WCCf) were
'In at least one try and in the solution , White gives two
flight-squares to the black King' - and 50 took 4th Place .
The cyclic pattern of the BK flights was adjudged a 'daring
and perfect construction' .

51 CYCLIC PLA Y
Key l . Kxe5 ! (threat 2. Qd4 mate)
1 . . Kxa4 2. Qb3 mate
.

BK (a) clears for BP (b)


1 . .Pxa4 2 . Pa3 mate
.

BP (b) clears for BR (c)


1 . . Rxa4/xa6 2. Qxb5 mate
.

BR (c) clears for BK (a)

Cyclic play '- as glimpsed in 50 is no modern 'fad' , and is


-

central to and even inherent in many chess ,problem:>.


Composers have long exploreCi the cyclic relationships
between men , moves , mates and motives! However, it has to
be said that some cyclic effects are obscure and hard work
for the solver. Mercifully, 51 is a cycle the solver can readily
appreciate - a threefold clearance cycle by black �ing, Pawn
and Rook .

52 . MUL TI-SOL UTIONS


Key 1 - l . Bg3 ! Waiting
1 . . Kd5 2 . Qf7 mate
.
88 White To Play And Mate In Two

WO ( a) mates, WRd3 ( b ) pins


Key 2 - l .Bf6 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kd5 2. Rxd4 mate
WRd3 ( b ) mates, WRb5 ( c) pins
Key 3 - l .Be7 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kd5 2 . Rxc5 mate
WRb5 ( c) mates , WO ( a ) pins
1 . . ". Se any 2 . Rc3 mate
1 . . . Sd random 2. Rbb3 mate
1 . . . Sxb5 ! ? 2. 0xe4 mate

Cyclic effects continue with 52, a cyclic shift of pin/mate


function of st�rtling originality. The ABIBC/CA cycle - as
detailed in the solutions - is made all the clearer by there
being three solutions u�ified by key-moves from the same
WBh4. This perfectly valid multi-solution setting has the
merit of bringing the composer's intention forcibly to the
solver, without the danger of his missing the thematic tries.
2. 0xe4 ! after 1 . . . Sxb5 is clever by-play.

53 VA UGHAN OF PLENTY

Position ( a) Key l - l .Pd3 + !


1 . . . Kxh3/g3 2. Pd4 mate
Key 2 - 1 .Be3 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kxh3/g3 2. Bgl mate
Position ( b) Key l - 1 . Pd4+ !
,..,

1 . . . Kgl 2 . Pd5 mate


Key 2 - 1 . Re3 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kgl 2. Re2 mate

If eyebrows remain raised over the 3 Solutions of 52, what


will be made of the plentiful solutions to Colin Vaughan's
53? Most unusually, there are two pairs of solutions - four
keys! Two checking keys relieve stalemate by shut-offs of
Solutions and Commentaries 89

the Rook and Bishop, and two keys to cause mutual


interference between the Rook and Bishop (White Grim­
shaw) further relieve stalemate . Unorthodox? The balance
is perfect, the problem is stripped to essentials, it would be a
crime to suppress the checking keys, and the problem
succeeds as a whole . The means are j ustified.

"54 BLA CK GRIMSHA W

Key l .Bh8 ! V/aiting


1 . . . Rd2 2. Re3 mate
1 . . . Rd4 2 . Sf6 mate
1 . . . Rxd5 2 .Bxd5 mate
1 . . . R else 2 . Bd3 mate
1 . . . Bd2 2. Bd3 mate
1 . . . Bxf4 2. Rxf4 mate
1 . . . B else 2 . Re3 mate
1 . . . S any 2. Sc3 mate

The White Grimshaw spread Qver the l .Be3 ! and l . Re3 !


solutions to 53 has its more common counterpart in the
Black Grimshaw of 54. Here, an attractive corner key puts
Black in Zugzwang, and it is the black Rook and Bishop
which stumble over each other at d2 to fatal effect -
1 . . . Rd2 interf�res with the Bishop for 2.Re3 mate , and
1 . . . Bd2 interferes with the Rook for 2.Bd3 mate . A
Briton , Waiter Grimshaw ( b . 1832) lends his name to the
mutual interference pair, following his forerunner in 1850.
It is almost too confusing that the Black Grimshaw of 54 is
by White - the composer!
90 White To Play And Mate In Two

55 A KIN TO WHITE GRIMSHA W


Key 1 . Qa6!. (threat 2. Qc6 mate)
1 . . . Pc5 2.Bc4 mate
1 . . . Rc5 2 . Rd3 mate
1 . . . Rb6 2. Qd3 mate
1 . . . Be8 2 .Bf3 mate

With white lines cut voluntarily to relieve stalemate in 53 ,


and black lines closed involuntarily to let in either 2.Re3 or
2. Bd3 mate in 54, the White and Black Grimshaws are self­
weakening in their effect. It's quite the opposite in 55. The
white Rook/white Bishop mutual interference (but on
different squares d3 and c4, and only akin to a White
Grimshaw) could not be more self-enhancing the Rook and
-

Bishop deliver mates ! The line-opening, line-closing, and


blocking effects of 1 . . . Rc5 and 1 . . . Pd5 are the
ingenious means of realising this paradoxical idea.

56 ENJOY YO UR TRIP

Try l . Rdd3? Waiting


1 . . . S any 2. Rf4 mate
1 . . R random 2. Rd4 mate
.

1 . . . Rg8+ 2. Bxg8 mate


1 . . . Rd7 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Rfd3 ! Waiting
1 . . . S any 2 . RCl mate
1 . . R random 2. Rc3 mate
.

1 . . . Rg8+ 2.Bxg8 mate

It's not only unlike pieces that can trip over each other (cf.
53 and 54) . 56 is one way in which like-moving pieces can be
made to obstruct each other: l . Rdd3? R random 2. Rd4
mate and not 2 . Rfc3? l . Rfd3 ! R random 2. Rc3 mate and not
Solutions and Commentaries 91

2. Rld4? The mutual interference between the like-moving


Rooks has served to eliminate the dual mate 2. Rd4 and
2. Rc3 after 1 . . . R random in the diagrammed position.

57 TASKS AND RECORDS

Try l . QgS? Waiting


1 . . . Bc4lBd5IBe61Bt7
.' 2. Qxc4/2. Qxd512. Qxe6/2. Qxt7 mate
1 . . . BxgS 2. BxgS mate
1 . . . Pe3 2 . Bbl mate
1 . . . S random 2. Sc3 mate
1 . . . Sxb2 ! 2 . ?
Key l . BgS ! Waiting
1 . . . Bc4lBdSlBe61Bt7
2 . Bxc4I2.Bxd512.Bxe6/2. Bxt7 mate
1 . . . BxgS 2. QxgS mate
1 . . . Pe3 2. QaS mate
1 . . S random 2. Sc3 mate
.

1 . . . Sxb2! ? 2 .Qxb2 mate

By the definition of Sir Jeremy Nforse , a world authority on


task and record problems - 'record problems exhibit some
numerical maximum or minimum, whereas a task, following
the ordinary meaning of the word, is a definable achieve­
ment, usually difficult and often new which a composer sets
himself or has set for him by others. A task will more often
than not, by the nature of chess, have a numerical
expression to it, and may be a new record, but equally it may
not be so. Thus, all records are tasks but not all tasks are
records. Theoretical maximum is a record which cannot be
exceeded' .
Sir Jeremy's own 57 is a task of 10 different mates forced
by one black Bishop over try and actual play. Can anyone
show or conceive more? 57 is also a record and theoretical
92 White To Play And Mate In Two

maximum . Not to be missed is the elegant changed mate


after 1 . . . Pe3 .

58 RECORD OPPOR TUNITY

Try l . Bg7? Waiting


1 . . . Ocl + 2 . 0xcl mate
1 . . . Odl + 2 . 0xdl mate
.

1 .' . Oel + 2 . 0xel mate


.

1 . . . Ofl 2 . 0xfl mate


1 . . . Oxgl 2 . Rxgl mate
1 . . . Bc3 + 2.Bxc3 mate
1 . . Bd4/BeS/Bf6 2. Bxd4/2.BxeSI2. Bxf6 mate
.

1 . . . Bxg7 2. 0xg7 mate


1 . . . Ph2 ! 2 . ?
Key L Og7 ! (threat 2. 0xb2 mate)
1 . . . O�l + 2 . Rxcl mate
1 . . . Odl + 2.Rxdl mate
1 . . . Oel + 2.Rxel mate
1 . . Bc3 + 2. 0xc3 mate
.

1 . . . Bd4/BeS/Bf6 2. Oxd4/2. OxeS/2. 0xf6 mate


1 . . . Bxg7 2. Bxg7 mate

A study of 58 notable and entertaining for its four changed


-

checks and a further four changed mates stemming froll\,the


WO's switch of pin of the BO to pin of the BB - shows that
the record of 57 is a record shared !
For a heady moment, record hunters will consider the
longer journey of the BBb2 to h8 for a new record six
changes - but how?
Solutions and Commentaries 93

59 YELLOW CARD

Key l . Bf6 ! (tIlfeat 2. Bxe5 mate)


1 . . . Pd6 2. 0a7 mate
1 . . . Sg6 2. 0xd7 mate
1 . . . Sf3 2. 0g4 mate
1 . . . Pe2 2 . 0g1 mate

57 and 58, in spite of their record achievements , get a yellow


card for try and key moves which pin and partially restrict
Black - no longer can the black Bishops move off the long
- 4iagonal . So why doesn't the pinning key of 59 get a 'yellow
card'?
The theme composing conditions set (by Norman Macleod)
in Bournemouth 1990 on the occasion of the FIDE Problem
Commission's meeting seemed to invite a 'red card' -
simply, 'White pins Black' . 59 was an attempt to head off
predictable adverse criticism of a restrictive pinning key.
l .Bf6! pins a black Rook already pinned by the WO ! Can it
be argued otherwise that this is a pinning move when the
WO is released for a quartet of mates which would fail but
for the Bishop's pin of the Rook? No infringement !

60 RED CARD

Key l . Kh6 ! (threats 2 . B any moves mate)


1 . . . Pal= O 2. Ba6 mate
1 . . . PaxbllPcxbl = O 2 .Bb7 mate
1 . . . Pc1 = O 2. 0h7 mate
1 . . . Pdl = 0 2. Bd7 mate
1 . . . Pel = O 2.' B e6 mate
I . . . Pf1 = O 2. Bf5 mate
I . . . PgI = O 2. Bg4 mate
I . . . PhI = 0 + 2. Bh3 mate
94 White To Play And Mate In Two

As far as key-moves go , l . Kh7 ! should be a sending-off


offence -red card! Key-moves to chess problems are
supposed to be subtle in their effect and not obvious - yet
l . Kh7 ! is straightforward and blatant in its taking two black
King flight-squares g7 and h7 . If the key is so awful , why is it
tolerated? The answer is, of course , that there are special
circumstances - a record task of 8( !) promotions to black
Queen - and there simply is no better key-move . Nearly an
own-goal with l . Kg6? - 1 . . . Pcxbl = Q + ! and 1 . . . Pcl =
Q ! 2. Qh7?

61 TER TIARY BLA CK CORRl!;CTION

Key l . Qh2 ! (threat 2. Qd6 mate)


1 . . . S random 2 . Qc7 , 2 . Qe5 mate
1 . . . Sc6 ! ? 2 . Rc4 mate
1 . . . Sd5 ! ! ? 2 . Se6 (2. Rc4?) mate
1 . . . Bxe4+ 2 . Sxe4 mate
1 . . . Sg6 2 . Qc7 mate
1 . . . Sxg8 2. Qe5 mate

. Examples of secondary black correction are numerous in this


book (cf. 31 and others) , but here is a first example of
tertiary black correction . The progression of logic in 61 flows
from Black's prima ry error of permitting both 2. Qc7 and
2. Qe5 mate after 1 . . . Se random to stop the threate.ned
.

2 . Qd6 mate . 1 . . . Sc6 ! ? stops all tne Queen mates , bu(the


secondary error is to unpin the WRe4 for 2. Rc4 mate .
1 . . . Sd5 ! ! ? again corrects the primary error (all Q mates
stopped) , makes the same secondary error of unpinning the
WRe4 , but stops 2. Rc4? by closing the WBg8's line of guard
to c4. The tertiary error is to block d5 , and 2 . Se6 is mate .
Solutions and Commentaries 95

62 TER TIARY BLA CK CORRECTION - RECORD

Key l . Qa1 ! (threat 2. Qa3 mate) .


1 . . . S random 2. Qf6 mate
1 . . . Se4 ! ? 2. Qa6 mate
1 . . . Sd5 ! ! ? 2.Pc5 (2. Qa6?) mate
.
Here surely is the economy record for tertiary black
correction? 1 . . . Sc random makes the primary error of
letting through the Queen for 2. Qf6 mate . 1 . . . Se4 ! ?
corrects the primary error by direct guard of f6, but makes
;, the secondary error of closing the BBg2's line for 2. Qa6
mate . 1 . . . Sd5 ! ! ? again corrects the primary error by
direct guard of f6, and makes the same secondary error of
interference with the BBg2's line , but at d5 the Knight can
stop 2. Qa6 as well . Black's tertiary error is to block d5 , and
the Pawn advances 2. Pc5 mate. Who can beat the economy
record of 1O( !) pieces for tertiary - third degree - black
correction?

63 MA TE- TRANSFERENCE

Try l .Pxc5? Waiting


1 . . . Kxc5 2. Ra5 mate
1 . . . Pe4 2. Qg5 mate
1 . . . Pxc5 2. Qd8 mate
1 . . . S random 2. Qc4 mate
1 . . . Se4! 2 . ?
Key l . Pxe5 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kxe5 2. Qg5 mate
1 . . . Pc4 2. Ra5 mate
1 . . . Pxe5 2. Qd8 mate
1 . . . S any 2. Qe4 m'ate '
, .

Which 'capturing advance by 'the white Pawn d4 in 63? By the


96 White To Play And Mate In Two

time the solver has tried both - one is no more readily


apparent than the other - and has found that 1 . . . Se4!
stops l . PxcS? he will be aware that the mates 2.RaS , 2. 0gS
and 2. 0d8 occur in both try and actual play, but after
different black moves. This is mate-transference.

64 DEJA VU

Try l . Oh3? (threat 2. 0xg4 mate)


1 . . . Sef6/t2 2 . 0g3 mate
1 . . . Sg random 2. Sg6 mate
1 . . . Sgf6 ! ? 2 . 0fS mate
1 . . . SeS ! 2 . ?
Key l . Od3 ! (2. 0xe4 mate)
1 . . . Sgf6/t2 2. 0e3 mate
1 . . . Se random 2 . Sg6 mate
1 . . . Sef6 ! ? 2 . 0fS mate
1 . . . OfS + 2. RxfS mate

Like 63, the essentially symmetric 64 invites the choice


1 . 0d3 or 1 . 0h3 to threaten mate by capture of a black
Knight . With BSg4 threatened , 1 . . . Sg random lets
through the WO's guard to fS for 2.Sg6, but a correction
1 . . . Sgf6 ! ? to unpin the BO is alS(1 an interference with the
Oueen , and 2. 0fS is mate . This happens again after BSe4 is
threatened. This mate-transference (cf. 63) prompts the
feeling of deja vu which, however haunting, beats Joseph
Heller's Catch 22 tantalising'iJresque vu , and the positwely
unrewarding jamais vu !

65 STAR SIGN

Key l . Bb1 ! W aiting


1 . . . KdS 2 . Rd2 mate
Solutions and Commentaries 97

1 . . . Kd3 2. Rb2 mate


1 . . . Kf5 2. Rc5 mate
1 . . . KO 2. Rc3 mate

There are ready examples of star-flights (BK to four


diagonal squares) and cross/plus-flights (BK to four lateral
squares) from as far back as 1849 and 1876 respectively, and
it takes something special to merit publication thes� days . 65
is quoted for its four BK star-flights answered by 'four WR
moves in a mirror setting of a BK with nothing occupying the
squares immediately around it . It also serves to compare
with 66, an amazing star-flight/cross-flight combination
surely undreamed of in 1900?

66 STAR CROSSED

Position (a) Key l . Re3+ !


1 . . . Kd6 2 . Se8 mate
1 . . . Kd4 2. Sf5 mate
1 . . . Kxf6 2. Qxb2 mate
1 . . . Kf4 2. Sfcl5 mate
Position (b) Key l . Sh5 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kd5 2. Re3 mate
1 . . . Ke6 2 . Rb5 mate
1 . . . Ke4 2 . Rc5 mate
1 . . . Kxf5 2 . Re2 mate

66 is indeed an amazing combination (cf. 65) . The inspi­


ration was Gerhard Latzel's 1st Pr. Netherlands v. West
Germany 1954 4KBS1I6P1np/6k1l5S2I3R4/4R3I1Q 1B4 #l.
(a) l . Sg6! Waiting 1 . . . Kxg6IKh5/Kg4/Kf5 2. Rd5IRg21
Re5/Rg3 mate (b) WKe8 to h8 1 . Sxh6! Waiting 1 . . . Kxh61
Kh4lKxf4/Kf6 2. Pg8QlBe7/Qc1lBe7 mate , but GL achieved
only 7 different mates , 2. Be7 being repeated in (b) . Jack
Gill's widely reproduced and very worthwhile 66 gets the all
98 White To Play And Mate In Two

important 8th mate at the small price in these remarkable


circumstances of a checking key in (a) .

67 KINGS CROSS

Try l . Kd6? (thre�t 2.Se any mate)


1 . . . Bb4+ 2. Sc5 mate
1 . . Bg3 + 2. Sef4 mate
.

1 . .Rg6 ! 2 . ?
.

Try l . Ke7? (threat 2 . Se any mate)


1 . . Bb4+ 2. Sc5 mate
.

1 . . . Bh4+ 2. Seg5 mate


1 . . Rg7+ 2. Sxg7 mate
.

1 . . Re2 ! 2 . ?
.

Try l . Kc7? (threat 2 . Se any mate)


1 . . . Bg3 + 2. Sef4 mate
1 . . . Rc2 + 2 . Sc5 mate
1 . . Ba5 + ! 2 . ?
.

Key l . Kd8 ! (threat 2.Se any mate) '


1 . . . Ba5 + 2. Sc7 mate
1 . . . Bh4+ 2. Seg5 mate
1 . . . Rg8 + 2. Sf8 mate
1 . . . Re2/g6 2. S�7 mate

The King's cross pattern of 66 part (b) is put to provO€ative


use in 67. Is it to d6 , e7 , c7 or d8 that the King plays to clear
for a threatened 2.Se any mate? Checks rain in from the
black Rook and Bishop , but the B + S battery counters with
cross-checks . The King with the idea of d8 above his station
at d7 is the right choice !
Solutions and Commentaries 99

68 ONE-OFF

Set play 1 . . . Qxc5 2. Qc4 mate


1 . . . Qxe5 2 . Qxdl mate
Key l . Kxe7 ! (threat 2. Bxd4 mate)
1 . . . Qxc5 + 2. Bd6 mate"
1 . . . Qxe5 + 2. Se6 mate
1 . . . Qh4+ 2 . Bf6 mate
1 . . . Qd3 2. Sxd3 mate
1 . . . Qe3 2. Qc4 mate
1 . . . Re l/f1 2. Qxd4 mate

Prominent BQ captures to create flight-squares 1 . . . Qxc5


2. Qc4 and 1 . . . Qxe5. 2. Qxdl heighten the surprise of the
check provoking 1 . Kxe7 ! to remove the BP's control of the
R + B battery, and to add guards at d6 and e6. The same BQ
captures become checks , with resulting cross checks from
the R + B and R + S batteries covering for each other.
1 . . . Qh4+ is another check out of the blue . There are
duals (unwanted multiple mates) after some BQ moves , but
they are a price paid for what seems a genuine 'one-off two­
mover.

69 TUCK TICKLE MANOEUVRE

Set play 1 . . . Bd6 2. Sd8 mate


1 . . . B else 2 . Re8 mate
Key l . Ra6 ! Waiting
1 . . . Ba7 2. Pxa7 mate
1 . . . Bc7 2 . Pxc7 mate
1 . . . Bd6 2 . Sd8 mate

It's Mutateman again (cf. 10) with a setting which cries out
to be solved . 1 . . . B random 2 . Re8 mate is readily seen ,
.

and 1 . . . Bd6 ! ? 2 . Sd8 which follows. Taboo is l . Rxb8? -


1 00 White To Play And Mate In Two

stalemate ! Many solvers were tickled to find the Rook


tucking itself behind the WPb6 and waiting . . . for
1 . . . Ba7 2. Pxa7 and 1 . . . Bc7 2. Pxc7 mate . A charming
Mutate with 1 mate changed and 2 added .

70 KNIGHT MANOEUVRE

Set play 1 . . . Sf4 2. Qxf4 mate


Key l . Qd3 � Waiting
1 . . . Kf2 2. Qe2 mate
1 . . . Se1 2 . QfS mate
1 . . . Sxe3 2. Qxe3 mate
1 . . . Sf4 2 . Pexf4 mate
'
1 . . . Sh4 2. Pe4 mate

Another Mutate to show 1 mate changed and 3 mates added .


The problem makes a favourable impression for the accurate
forcing of four mates by the four moves of the black Knight
confined only by the natural limits of the chess board.

71 UNDER-A CHIEVEMENT

Set play 1 . . . S random 2 . Sb6 mate


1 . . . Sxa7 ! ? 2.Pg8 = Q mate
Key l . Pg8 = B ! Waiting
1 . . . S random 2. Sb6 mate
1 . . . Sxa7 ! ? 2. Bd5 mate

Under-achievement is not the way to further a career, and


most are on the treadmill of over-achievement . How
welcome then that chess problemists can succeed by under­
achieving - at least, under-promoting! Even though there is
Solutions and Commentaries 1 01

a maximum promotion 2.Pg8= Q mate after the self-pinning


1 . . . Sxa7 in the diagrammed position , l . Pg8=Q? as a
winning move fails - stalemate ! Under-achievers of the
world unite with 1 . Pg8 =B isbop !
.

72 SUNDA Y OBSERVANCE

Key l . Qa6 ! Waiting


1 . . . Qa8 2.Pxa8 = Q mate
1 . . . Qa7 2. Pxa7 (set 2.Pb8 = S) mate
1 . . . Qxb7 2. QbS/2. Qa4 (set 2. Qa4) mate
1 . . . Qxc8 2. Pdxc8= Q (set 2.Pbxc8 = S) mate
1 . . . Qc7 2. Pbxc7 (set 2.Pb8 = S) mate
1 . . . Qxd6 2. Sa7 (set 2 . Pb8 = S/Q) mate

Brian Harley's weekly competition chess problem in the


Observer served to get out of bed on Sunday mornings many
a problemist in his youth on the watch for the paperboy .
Harley's amiable and authoritative approach , and his books
Mate in Twp Moves and Mate in Three Moves (both out of
print) helped launch the careers of many of the problemists
featured in this collection .
72 was typical Sunday m6rning fare , with no ready
solution to hand as here . How quickly would you have
solved 72? Set mates for all BQ moves would be found ,
l . QxQ? stalemate ! would be eliminated , and only with
uncertainty would 1 . Qa6 ! be claimed . The intricacies of the
changed mates would have made the day.

73 FLIGHTS ON MA TE SQ UARES

Try l . Qe4? Waiting


1 . . . Pxc2 2. Qxc2 mate
1 02 White To Play And Mate In Two

.' · 1 . . . Pxe2 2. Sb3 mate


I
"
1 . . . S any 2 . Qxd3 mate
1 . . . Pb5 ! 2 . ? .
11 Try l . Qb5? Waiting
1 . . . Pxc2 2. Sb3 mate
I 1 . . . Pxe2 2 . Qxe2 mate
1 . . . S random 2. Qxd3 mate
1 . . . Sc4! ? 2 . ?
Key 1 . Sb5 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kxc2 2. Qa2 mate
1 . . . Kxe2 2. Qg2 mate
1 . . . S any 2. Qxd3 mate

A solver's favourite for the logical approaches of the white


Queen , 73 was not easy to categorise even for CM himself.
In the try play , there are changed mates after 1 . . . Pxc2 and
1 . . . Pxe2 (complicated by the transference of 2. Sb3 mate) ,
but after the key there is radical change, with the black
defences and the white mates changing to quite different
effect . Isn't it odd that ,after the key, the black King can
move to squares on which he has been mated in the try play?
A player is mightily puzzled when told that a black King is
free to play to a square on which it is mated !

74 MA TES ON FLIGHT SQ UARES

Key l . Qxc5 ! Waiting


1 . . . Ke5 2. Qxd4 mate
1 . . . Kg5 2 . Qcl mate
1 . . . Ke3 2. Qxd4 mate
1 . . . Kg3 2. Qd6 mate
1 . . . Ke4 2. Qxd4 mate
1 . . . B random 2 . Qe5 mate
1 . . . Be4 ! ? 2. Qg5 mate
1 . . . Pd3 2 . Qe3 mate
Solutions and Commentaries 1 03

An apparent absurdity to compare with 73 'White mates


-

the black King on (3) squares to which it is free to move' ! ?


How to do it i s shown in 74 which has the perfect key-move
(the all-important improvement on Peter Bakker's earlier
and very similar setting) to grant the black King thematic
flight squares e3 , e5 and g5 - and e4 additionally. Supported
now by the white Rook and Bishop , the Queen comes
through to e3 , e5 and g5 mates on BK flight squares.
-

"
75 CHANGED MA TE ON FLIGHT SQ UARE

Try l . Pxg4? Waiting


1 . . . Kg5 2 . Kf3 mate
1 . . . Pxh2 2 . Pg5 mate
1 . . . Pg5 2. Qxh5 mate
1 . . . Ph4 2 . Qxh4 mate
1 . . Pg2! 2 . ?
.

Key l . Qxg3 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kg5 2 . Ke4 mate
1 . . . Pxh3 2. Qg5 mate
1 . . . Pg5 2. Qd6 mate
1 . . . Ph4 2. Qxh4 mate

75 extends the paradox of 74 - not only mate on a flight


square, but a changed mate . Whether white Pawt:l or Queen
is supported by the Rook is for the solver to find out . The
late Comins Mansfield (in whose Memorial Tourney 75
competed) wrote 'In composing, bad luck seems to out­
weigh the good' . Only good fortune accounts for the
changed B + K battery mates after 1 . . . Kg5 in 75 !
1 04 White To Play And Mate In Two

76 CHANGED MA TES ON SAME SQ UARES

Try l . Pb3? Waiting


1 . . . Pb4 2 . Bc4 mate
1 . . . Pe3 2. Bg2 mate
1 . . . S any 2. 0e5 mate
1 . . . Pe5 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Pc3 ! Waiting
1 . . . Pb4 2. Pc4 mate
1 . . . Pe3 2. 0g2 mate
1 . . . S any 2. 0e5 mate
1 . . . Pe5 2. 0xfl mate

Colin Sydenham's 76 makes interesting comparison with 75.


The thematic squares c4 and g2 are not flight-squares, but
there is a changed mate on each of them. Unusual ! Note also
the peculiar property of en-passant. If, after 1 . . . Pb4,
2. Pc4 up two squares is not mate - 1 . Pxc4 ep! - but a
. .

careful one step l . Pc3 ! prepares the way for another when
2. Pc4 is mate .

77 OPEN GA TES

Set play 1 . . . Pc6 2. 0xe7 mate


1 . . . Pc5 2. 0d7 mate
Key l . Ob8 ! W�iting
1 . . . Pc6 2. 0d6 mate
1 . . . Pc5 2. 0e5 mate
1 . . . S any 2. 0c8 mate

Open gate - that's what problemists call a black move!


defence which simply opens the way through for a W line­
moving piece to mate . In 77, the BPc7 lets through the WO
for two mates separated by alternate closures of the Bishops'
lines. If that were not a clear enough example , Open Gates
Solutions and Commentaries 1 05

are seen again after the key (in clever Mutate setting) to let
the WQ through again for two changed mates again
separated by closure of the Bishops' lines.

78 SLIDING DOORS

Key l . Qbl ! (threats 2 . Qxb5 , 2 . Qxe4 mate)


1 . . . Bd3 2 . Qb8 mate
1 . . . Bd7 2. Bh5 mate
1 . . . Rb4/c4 2. Qg6 mate
1 . . . Re7 2 . Sf6 mate
1 . . . Sb3 2. Qxe4 mate
1 . . . Sc2 2 . Qxb5 mate

There is an elegance to the stretch of the Queen's reach to


both BR and BB - and the Queen slides through to g6 and
b8 as BR and BB move to protect each other. With BR and
BB still free to make other mutually protective defences
1 . . . Re7 (2. Sf6 mate) and 1 . . . Bd7 (2.Bh5 mate) , and
the moves being more than simple, involuntary Open Gates
(cf. 77) , these might be seen as sliding doors!

79 SIDE-STEP

Set play 1 . . . Re3 2 .Qxe3 mate


1 . . . Bd3 2 . Qb7 mate
1 . . . Rxf3 2 . Qc4 mate
1 . . . Pe5 2 . Qd5 mate
Key l . Be3 ! (threat 2. Rf4 mate)
1 . . Rxe3 2 . Qc4 mate
.

1 . . . Bd3 2. Qxe6 mate


1 . . . Rxf3 2 . Rxe6 mate
1 . . . Pe5 2 . Sg5 mate
1 06 White To Play And Mate In Two

Experienced solvers will quickly guess the classic 'side-step'


key to 79. A WR's line is opened: a WQ's line is closed. Now
the Rook and not the Queen guards 0. Guards switch from
e5 and e3 to f4 and d4. The 'side-step' is a proven recipe for
change - four changed mates. An interesting feature is that
four black defences are all self-blocks after the key .

80 UPLIFTING EXPERIENCE

Key 1 . Sd6 ! (threats 2. Sxc4 and 2 .Sxf5 mate)


1 . . . Rc5 2. Qd4 mate
1 . . . Be6 2 . Qe4 mate ·
1 . . . Bd3 2 . Sdl mate
1 . . . Rf4 2 . Qf2 mate

The four changed mates are central to 79, as are the


interference 'trips' to 80 where BRf5 and BBc4 make
Grimshaw-like interferences at c5 and e6 in their efforts to
guard each other. What lifts both problems are self-blocks.
Four self-blocks after the key in 79 give welcome unity: the
self-blocking defences 1 . . . Bd3 and 1 . . . Rf4 in 80
supply all-important 'balance' and completeness. A pretty
problem to compare with 78.

81 SEQ UENCE REVE�SAL(S)/SALAZAR

Try 1 . Sd3? (A) Waiting


1 . . . Ka3 (a) 2. Bc5 (B) mate
1 . . . Pa5 2 . Bc5 mate
1 . . . Pxb5 2 . Pa8= Q mate
1 . . . Ka5 ! 2 . ?
Try 1 . Bc5? (B) (threat 2 . Sc6 mate)
Solutions and Commentaries 1 07

1 . . . Ka5 2. Sc6 mate


1 . . . Ka3 (a) 2. Sd3 (A) mate
1 . . . Kxb5 ! 2 . ?
Try l . Sd5? (C) Waiting
1 . . . Ka5 (b) 2. Bc3 (D) ,mate
1 . . . Pa5 2. Bc5 mate
1 . . . Ka3 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Bc3 ! (D) (threat 2. Sc2 mate)
1 . . . Ka5 (b) 2. Sd5 (C) mate
1 . . . Kxb5 2. Sd3 mate
1 . . . Ka3 2. Sc2 mate
1 . . . Pa5 2. Sc2 mate
' 1 . . . Pxb5 2 . Pa8= Q mate

Problems 81 to 90 include the six basic REVERSAL '


THEMES which have been the 'building blocks' of
contemporary problem composition . A reversal theme
has interplay of White 2nd move mates with White 1st
moves (as tries or key) or White 2nd move threatened
mates - all in relation to Black defences 1 . . . a and
1 . . . b. Composers have extended the basic reversal
themes to multi-phase presentations, cyclic sequences,
combinations with other themes, and part-realisation
theme mixtures dubb�d 'syntheses' .
81 is a doubling of (1) SEQUENCE REVERSAL seen
from the patterns within the full solution: Try A ?
1 . . . a 2 . B ; Try B? 1 . . . a 2.A ; Try C? 1 . . . b 2 . D ;
Key D ! 1 . . . b 2. C.

For the record, the widespread use of the theme name


Salazar for sequence reversal is wrong. Francisco Salazar's
electrifying 2nd Pr. Die Schwalbe 1968 (well after Lipton
and others) 6B 1I81R3SPP1l3klbQ1I5P2I3P1S2I8/3R2KI #l.
l . Se5? Be4! l . Qg2 ! has the sequence reversal pattern , but it
is primarily about the formation of Q + S batteries by the
firing piece (WS) and the rear piece (WQ) in turn. A major
theme in its own right.
1 08 White To Play And Mate In Two

82 PSEUDO SEQ UENCE REVERSA LISA LA ZAR

Position (a) Key 1 Pa3 ! (A) Waiting


1 . . Kb3 2. Qxb5 mate
.

1 . . . Pg2 (a) 2. Pb3 (B) mate


1 . . . Pb4 2. Qxb4 mate
Position (b) Key l . Pb3 ! (B) Waiting
1 . . Ka3 2. Qa5 mate
.

1 . . . Pg2 (a) 2. Pa3 (A) mate


1 . . . Kc3 2. Qc5 mate

Between ,the twin parts of 82 there is a reversal pattern , as


doubled in 81 . It may be asked if the problems are
comparable , with the black King in 82 being on different
squares in parts (a) and (b)? Perhaps this is best labelled a
pseudo sequence reversal or - if the j argoneers persist - a
pseudo Salazar? Another label could be the Mates on Flight
Squares or even Flights on Mate Squares of 73 and 74.
Whatever, it is a very odd problem , with reversed short stabs
by the Pawns to finish Black .

83 LE GRAND (RECIPROCAL)

Position (a) Try l . Bf7? (threat 2. Qc4 (A) mate)


1 . . . Kc2 (a) 2. Qe2 (B) mate
1 . . . Sb6! 2 . ?
Key LBh5 ! (threat 2. Qe2 (B) mate) �.

1 . . . Kc2 (a) 2. Qc4 (A) mate


Position (b) Try l .Bh5? (threat 2. Qe2 (B) mate)
1 . . . Kc2 (a) 2. Qc4 (A) mate
1 . . . Sg3 ! 2. ?
Key l .Bf7 ! (threat 2. Qc4 (A) mate)
1 . . . Kc2 (a) 2. Qe2 (B) mate
Solutions and Commentaries 1 09

Reversal theme (2) LE GRAND: Try? (2.A) 1 . . . a


2 . B ; Key ! (2 . B) 1 . . a 2.A .

To original effect and with marvellous economy, the


important le Grand reversal pattern is reciprocated between
try and key of both parts (a) and (b) in 83. A comparison
with the sequence reversal pattern of 81 needs to be made .
Here , the reversal is between threats (not White 1st moves
of 81 ) and mates, again the black <!efence 1 . . . a being
constant.
_ .Identical twins , Henk and Piet le Grand from Holland
, share credit for the theme , circa 1958.

84 LE GRAND (DO UBLED)

Try l . Rc7? (threat 2. Qf5 (A) mate)


1 . . . Ke6 (a) 2 . Qe4 (B) mate
1 . . . Re8 ! 2 . ? (set 2. Rxd6 mate)
Try l . Re7? (threat 2. Qb5 (C) mate)
1 . . . Kc6 (b) 2. Qc4 (D) mate
1 . . . Rc8 ! 2 . ? (set 2. Rxd6 mate)
Key l . Sbxd6 ! (threats 2. Qe4 (B) , 2. Qc4 (D) mate)
1 . . . Ke6 (a) 2. Qf5 (A) mate
1 . . . Kc6 (b) 2. Qb5 (C) mate
1 . . . Re8 2. Qc4 mate
1 . ; . Rc8 2. Qe4 mate

A doubling of the le Grand sequence reversal is highly '


.

appropriate - one for Henk, and one for Piet ! The ingenious
touch to 84 is to have a double threat after the k�y separated
by 1 . . . a, 1 . . . b. The tries take flights at c6 and e6, but
does not that make the solver want to try them all the more?
NB l . Sfxd6? Rf8+ !
1 10 White To Play And Mate In Two

85 PSEUDO LE GRAND (J)

Try 1 . Pe3? (threat 2. Qd5 (A) mate)


1 . . . Re4 (a) 2. Qf6 (B) mate
1 . . . Se6 2 . Rd5 mate
1 . . . Rd4 ! 2 . ?
Key 1 . Pd3 ! (threat 2. Qf6 (B) mate)
1 . . . Rf4 (b) 2. Qd5 (A) mate
1 . . . Se6 2 . Rd5 mate
1 . . . Rh6 2 . Qe4 mate

The pattern of 85 is Try? (2.A) 1 . a 2.B; Key ! (2. B)


. .

1 . . . b 2.A . Like the le Grand proper of 83 and 84, threats


and mates are reversed in 85, but the defence changes. At
best it becomes a pseudo le Grand, and is not one ' of the
classic six 'building block' reversal themes (cf. 81 ) . Nonethe­
less , the pattern has played its part in contemporary
composition , and can be made to be interesting and
entertaining. The one , tw� by uppercutting WPs to KO the
King is not lost on solvers !

86 PSEUDO LE GRAND (II)

Try 1 . Bb8? (threat 2. Sg5 (A) mate) :h


1 . . . Rxe5 (a) 2. Sd6 (B) mate
1 . . . Bf4 2 . Qd3 mate
1 . . : Bh4! 2 . Re3? Kf4!
Key 1 . Rh5 ! (threat 2. sd6 (B) mate)
1 . . . Bxe5 (b) 2. Sg5 (A) mate
1 . . . Rd5 2 . Qe3 mate
. 1 . . . Rxc6 2. Qd4 mate

Again , the pseudo le Grand pattern of Try? (2.A) 1 . . . a


Solutions and Commentaries 111

2 . B ; Key! (2. B) 1 . . . b 2.A - with exceptional sparkle . Is it


not remarkable that try and key are not captures of the
unguarded BR and BB , and that they are moves off the
masked lines convergent on the BK? Self-blocks 1 . . . Bf4
and 1 . . . Rd5 for WO mates add to the unity. 1 . . . Rxc6
2 . 0d4 rightly tilts the balance in favour of the post -key play.

87 DOMBROVSKIS

Try 1 . Rd4? (threats 2 . Bd6 (A) , 2 . Rt5 (B) mate)


1 . . . Pxb3 ! 2. ?
Try l . Rd2? (threat 2.Bd6 (A) mate)
1 . . . Oa3 2. Bxc3 mate
1 . . . Sd5 ! (a) 2 . ?
Try 1 .Bc2? (threat 2 . Rf5 (B) mate)
1 . . . Of1 2 . Bxc3 mate
1 . . " Se4! (b) 2 . ?
Key 1 .Be7! (threat 2 . Bffi mate)
1 . . : Sd5 (a) 2 .Bd6 (A) mate
1 . . . Se4 (b) 2 . Rf5 (B) mate

Reversal theme (3) DOMBROVSKIS: Try? (2.A)


1 . . . a ! ; Try? (2. B) 1 . . . b ! ; Key ! 1 . . . a 2 .A ,
1 . . . b 2.B.

The paradox is that the black defences which defeat


threatened mates in the try play give those very same mates
after the key ! The 'miracle ingredient' of 87 is the black
Oueen which, apart from keeping the problem sound and
limiting thematic Rook and Bishop tries to no further than
�he 2nd rank, adds by-play after 1 . . Oa3 and 1 . . . Of1 ,
.

and serves valiantly by l .Bf8? (2. Bg7) Ogl ! 1 . 8a5? (2. Sc6)
Oxa5 ! l . Sd4? (2. Sc6) OhI ! An introductory try l . Rd4? to
threaten both ,2 . Bd6 and 2 . Rf5 is additional to the Dom­
brovskis, and not unimportant thematically.
1 12 White To Play And Mate In Two

The Probiem World owes much to Latvian Alfreds


Dombrovskis: his Dombrovskis (circa. 1958) ranks as one
of the most important post-War themes.

88 HANNELIUS

Try l . Pf4? (threat 2. Se7 (A) mate)


1 . . . Rxe5 ! (a) 2 . ?
Try l . Re7? (threat 2 . Sf4 (B) mate)
1 . . . Re4 2. Pxe4 mate
1 . . . Pxe5 ! (b) 2 . ?
Key l . Rc7 ! (threat 2. Rc5 mate)
1 . . . Rxe5 (a) -2. Sf4 (B) mate
1 . . . Pxe5 (b) 2. Se7 (A) mate

Reversal theme (4) HANNELIUS : Try? (2. A ) 1 . . . a! ;


Try? (2. B) 1 . . . b ! ; Key! 1 . . . a 2 . B , 1 . . . b 2.A .

The paradox element is lacking in this reversal theme, but it


has its own peculiarities . In 88, White threatens mate A, but
destroys (by square occupation) the possibility of mate B -
and vice versa . After defences 1 . . . a and 1 . . . b , the
mates appear in IVA order rather than the NB order of
Dombrovskis .
This fruitful theme is attributed (circa · 1950) to Jan
Hannelius from Finland.

89 BANNY

Try l . Bc4? (A) (threat 2. 0a8 mate)


1 . . . Rh8 2. Rxa2 mate
1 . . . Bg2 ! (a) 2. ?
Solutions and Commentaries 1 13

Try l . Bb3? (B) (threat 2 . 0a8 mate)


1 . . . Bg2 2. Rxa2 mate
1 . . Rh8 ! (b) 2 . ?
.

Key l . Bxa2 ! (threat 2. 0a8 mate)


1 . . . Bg2 (a) 2. Bb3 (B) mate
1 . ; . Rh8 (b) 2 . Bc4 (A) mate

Reversal theme (5) BANNY: Try A? 1 . . . a ! ; Try B?


1 . . . b ! ; Key ! 1 . . . a 2. B , 1 . . . b 2.A .

At this stage , it is worth looking again at the first four basic


rev�rsal themes (cf. 81, 83/84, 87 and 88) to understand that
the reversal element now involves White 1st moves and
mates . David Shire's 89. is an attractive and clear example
embellished by the thematic but non-defeating black
defences in the try play playing 1 . . . Rh8 and 1 . . . Bg2 to
yield 2. Rxa2 mate in turn . A fine touch .
Dimitri Banny from Moscow is accredited with the 'Banny
theme' circa 1968 .

90 VLADIMIROV - SMART LAD WANTED

Try l . Se7? (A) (threat 2. 0g8 mate)


1 . . . Bxe7 ! (a) 2 . ?
Try l . Sh6? (B) (threat 2 . 0g8 mate)
1 . . Bxh6 ! (b) 2 . ?
.

Key l . Od8 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kxg8 2 . 0xfS mate
1 . . . Be7 (a) 2 . Sxe7 (A) mate
1 . . . Bh6 (b) 2. Sxh6 (B) mate
1 . . . Bg7 2 . Pxg7 mate

Reversal theme (6) VLADIMIROV : Try A? 1 . . . a ! ;


Try B ? 1 . . . b ! ; Key ! 1 . . " . a 2 .A , 1 . . . b 2 . B . ,
1 14 White To Play And Mate In Two

Yes , 90 is not British . Not only that, but it's the one
diagrammed problem in the book which is not a Meredith
(cf. Introduction) . That's why a smart (British) lad is
wanted ! And he will need· to be exceedingly smart to
compose this most difficult of the six reversal themes with 12
pieces or fewer. The pattern is deceptively simple , but the
constructional enormity of putting the paradox into effect in
a sound chess problem very soon becomes apparent. All
credit then to the Polish composer, Marcin Banaszek, for his
Miniature( ! ) , a stern er discipline which requires the finished
problem to be made with 7 pieces or fewer. This makes 90 all
the more remarkable .
Soviet Grandmaster composer, J akov Vladimirov from
Moscow is the originator of the Vladimirov theme in 1977 ,
since when scant few examples have been composed .

91 HANCOCK'S HALF TOUR

.Key l . Bh7 ! (threat 2. Bg8 mate)


1 . . . Kxa2 2 . Bg8 mate
1 . . . Rxh1 2. Ra3 mate
1 . . . Rxa2 2. Bc2 mate

With the forbidding reversal themes 81-90 now documented


and there for handy reference, it's high time for something
amusing . Richard . Hancock's half tour of the board by the
Bishop might raise a laugh . Not l . Bd3? or 2tBe4? to
threaten mate on the diagonal . The Bishop must keep going
to the very edge of the board and at the maximum distance
to forestall 1 . . . Rxh1 which otherwise checks ! And back
comes the Bishop after 1 . . . Rxa2 .
Solutions and Commentaries 1 15

92 SOLVING FEAST

Set play 1 . . . Pc3 2. Qd3 mate


1 . . . Bh4 2 . Qe3 mate
Key l . Qc8 ! (threat 2. Rxc4 mate)
1 . . . Kc3 2. Rxc4 mate
1 . . . Ke4 2. Qg4 mate
1 . . Pe4 2. Qh8 mate
.

Not far short of 100 years on , solvers might still search hard
and long for the extraordinary ambush key l . Qc8 ! FBF's
'masterstroke was to have the Queen hold c3 initially,
making the threat 2. Rxc4 a remote possibility indeed .
Solving Feast undoubtedly was one !

93 ABLE BEAL

Set play 1 . . . Sh any 2. Rg3 mate


Key l . Qd2 ! Waiting
1 . . . Ke4 2. Qd5 mate
1 . . . Sh random 2. Qxf4 mate
1 . . . Sg3 ! ? 2. Rxf4 mate
1 . . . Sf any 2 . Qe2 mate

Here is a small Mutate intriguing for the Rook and not the
more powerful Queen being able to mate at f4 after 1 . . . Sg3 ,
a move which gives 2 . Rxg3 · mate in the diagrammed
position . It requires more than a moment's thought to see
why this should be . 1 . . . Ke4 2. Qd5 is another added mate
of quality. Able work from Edward Beal (anag.) !
1 16 White To Play And Mate In Two

94 LEWIS WILES

Try I . Bc5? Waiting


1 . . . Sd any 2. Qxe7 (set 2.Qf6) mate
1 . . . Se random 2 . Rf8 (set 2 . Qe8) mate
1 . . Sg6 ! 2 . ?
.

Key l . Qd6 ! Waiting


1 . . Sd any 2 . Qf6 mate
.

1 . . . Se random 2 . Rf8 mate


1 . . . Sg6 ! ? 2 .Pxg6 mate

Another apt anagram is Lewis - wiles ! These are very


evident as Tony Lewis leads us into a Mutate within a Mutate
with almost the same pieces used in 93. l . Bc5? apparently
solves in Mutate fashion , with both set mates changed , but
1 . . . Sg6! The key l . Qd6! creates another Mutate to change
one of the set mates .

95 BROKEN FOCUS

Key l . Kg7 ! Waiting


1 . . . Ke5 2. Se2 mate
1 . . . Sb3 2. Sxe6 mate
1 . . . Sc2 2 . Se2 mate
1 . . . Qa2-d5 2. Se2 mate
1 . . . Qe2 2 . Sxe2 mate
1 • . . Q else on rank 2. Sxe6 mate
1 . . . Qa6 2 . Se2 mate
1 .
. . Pc2 2 . Se2 mate
1 . . . Pc4 2. Sxe6 mate
1 . . . Sb any 2 . Sc6 mate
1 . . . Pe5 2 . Sf5 mate

95 is a focal play problem in grand style, the black Queen's


'focus' of e6 and e2 being broken or lost repeatedly. Moves
Solutions and Comm en taries 1 17

such as 1 . . . Qb 1 and those on the file ( other than


1 . . . Qa6) let in both 2. Sxe6 and 2 . Se2 mate . All other BQ
moves to try and maintain the focal hold let in one or other
of the mates 2. Sxe6 and 2.Se2. When the BSal moves , and
when the flight-seeking advances of the BPs c5 and c3 are
played , they all result in either 2. Sxe6 or 2 . Se2 with the BQ's
focal hold interrupted . The solver gets the message ! FBF's
skilful construction incorporates a flight-square e5 , and
l . Kt7? Qf2 ! to trap the unwary.

96 ZA GOR UJKO FRA MEWORK

Try l . Se6? Waiting


1 . . . Sc7 2. Sxg7 mate
1 . . . Sb6 2. Sed4 mate
1 . , . Q random 2. Sxg7 and/or 2. Sed4 mate
1 . . . Qal ! 2. ?
Try l . Sd3? Waiting
1 . . . Sc7 2. Se7 mate
1 . . . Sb6 2. Scd4 mate
1 . . . Q random 2. Sc7 and/or 2 . Scd4 mate
1 . . . Qb7 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Sd5 ! Waiting
1 . . . Sc7 2. Sde7 mate
1 . . . Sb6 2. Sxe3 mate
1 . . . Q random 2. Sde7 and/or 2 . Sxe3 mate
1 . . . Se any 2 . Pe4 mate

As 94 leads forward the traditional Mutate , so did the


Zagorujko framework (cf. 25-28) for problem chess in
general . 96 has the classical focal theme of 95 extended over
three phases of play to create not the 2 repeated mates , but 6
different ones stemming from the BQ's loss of focal hold .
l . Se6? ties the BQ to g7 and d4, but 1 . . . Qal ! l . Sd3?
1 18 White To Play And Mate In Two

attempts e7 and d4, but 1 . . . Qb7 ! to pin WSc6. The focal


grip is finally loosened by 1 . Sd5 ! , and White mates 2. Sde7 or
2. Sxe3 accordingly. A 3x2 ZagoFujko .

9 7 DETECTWE CHIEF INSPECTOR MORSE

Key l . Qxg4 ! (2. Bc moves mate)


1 . . . Bb5 2. Bxb5 mate
1 . . . Bc6 2. Bd5 mate
1 . . . Bd7 2. Be6 mate
1 . . BeS + 2.Bt7 mate
.

1 . . . Bb3 2. Bxb3 mate


1 . . . Bc2 2. Bd3 mate
1 . . Bdl 2. Be2 mate
.

In its seemingly modest way, 97 is another record task (cf.


57) . The maximum effect is a duel between Bishops: 7 moves
of the BBa4 are countered by 7 moves of WBc4. A key­
move from c7 to capture a BPg4 is the constructional polish
which prevents 1 . . BeS and 1 . . . Bdl being unprovided
'.

checks in the diagrammed position.


Why the odd caption? Detective Chief Inspector Morse of
detective novel and television series fame gets his name from
Sir Jeremy! Author Colin Dexter, a brilliant competitor in
the Observer crossword competitions (set by Torquemada,
Ximenes and now Aied) gave every character except the
murderer in his first Inspector Morse book Last Bus to
Woodstock the surname of one of his fellow-competitors,
paying Sir Jeremy the compliment of naming his detective
after him. Jack Gill (cf. 66) accounts for Gills the Iron­
mongers in the same book !
Solutions and Commentaries 1 19
,
98 POLICE RECORD

Key l . Sh4! (threat 2.R any mate)


1 . . . Rxh41h51h61h7
2. Rf4/2. Rf5/2. Rf6/2. Rt7 mate
1 . . . Sf any 2. Rf8 mate
1 . . . Rb2/c2/d2/e2
2. Rb3/2 . Rc3/2. Rd3/2 . Re3 mate
1 . . . Sa any 2. Ra3 mate
1 . . . B any 2.Rf2 mate

Devotees of Morse (cf. 97) will know that Detective


Sergeant Lewis is his man . What a coincidence that
composers and not policemen of the same name are paired
for a record 12 shut-off mates by the Rook ! The coincidence
even extends to the fictional Detective Sergeant having the
same initial R. as the joint composer, R.T. Lewis !

99 AKA CYRIL STANLEY

Key l . Kxg7 ! Waiting


1 . . . Bxc3 + 2. Sxc3 mate
1 . . . Pb2 2. Ra3 mate
1 . . . Pd4 2. Rc4 mate
1 . . . Bb2 2. Sxb2 mate

Still with police j argon . Also known as (aka) Cyril Stanley,


S . Mere and other aliases , C . S . Kipping (cf. 8) frequently
resorted to. this min()r deception (no police matter!) to put
names other than his own above the many problems he
composed to fill chess columns in Chess Amateur, Chess and
The Problemist. However, he did not fail to identify himself
with 99, although he dismissed it as a 'makeweight' . As an
example of interference unpins of a white Rook , with a
1 20 White To Play And Mate In Two
\
thematic key to pin the Rook , it is a construction which
cannot be bettered .

100 NORMAN EVASION

Try l . Qg2? ( threat 2. Qh3 mate )


1 . . . Sf4 2. Rg4 mate
1 . . . Sf2 ! 2 . ?
Try l . Sg5? ( threat 2 . Sf3 mCtte )
1 . . . Se5 2. Rh3 mate
1 . . . Sel l 2 . ?
Key l . Sf8 ! ( threat 2. Sg6 mate )
1 . . Bxg3 + 2. Qxg3 mate
.

1 . . . Sf4 2. Rg4 mate


.

1 . . . Se5 2 . Rh3 mate

Norman Macleod's 100 again demonstrates interference


unpins of a white Rook - but not before spirited evasive
action by the black Knight . Careful to avoid the unpin of the
WR by 1 . . . Sf4, only 1 . . . Sf2 ! stops l. Qg2? Similarly,
1 . . . Sel l and not an unpinning 1 . . . Se5 refutes l . Sg5?
The key-move draws the black Knight to e5 and f4 for the
two interference unpins . A beautifully crafted gem !

101 SIMUL TANEOUS UNPINS

Key l . Ba5 ! ( threat 2 . Qc6 mate )


1 . . . Pd5 2. Qb4 mate
1 . . . Sd5 2. Qa6 mate
1 . . . Sa4 2. Rxe4 mate
Solutions and Commentaries 1 21

Interference unpins of Black in 99 and lOO - now interference


unpins of Black and White in 101 as simultaneous unpins.
The Queen threatens to slide down the pin-line for 2. Qc6
mate : 1 . . . Pd5 and 1 . . . Sd5 unpin the BSd6 so that
l . Qc6? Sc5 ! But the error is to unpin the white Queen as
well.

102 PINNING WA YS

Key 1 . Sxf3 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kg2 2 . Sxh4 (2. Sfl ? Qxfl !) mate
1 . . . Bxf3 + 2. Qxf3 mate
1 . . . Bg2 2.Rxh4 mate
1 . . . Q any 2. Se3 mate

102 has a special type of interference unpin (cf. 99-101 ) - a


distinctive .Royal unp�n . A thematic key-move to pin the WS
and to give the flIght-square pav, s the way for the
interference (with the BBh1) unpin 1 . . . Kg2. The thereby
unpinned BQh4 forces an accurate mate 2. Sxh4. A with­
drawal unpin of the WSg4 by the line-pinned BQ completes
an intensive problem . The composer had his pinning,
winning ways !

103 LOOSE WOMAN

Key l . Sf4! Waiting


1 . . . Qe4 2. Qb8 mate
1 . . . Qxf4 2. Qe7 mate
1 . . . Qxc3/Qe3/Qg3/Qh3/Qxg4/Qfl 2 . Rxd5 mate
1 . . . Qd3/Qg2IQhllQf2IQdl 2 . Sd3 mate
1 22 White To Play And Mate In Two

1 . . . Qe2 2 .Rxe2 mate


1 . . . Pd4 2. Qxd4 mate
1 . . . Ph any 2 . Sg6 mate

"
Completely accurate play after many moves by a black
I Queen on the loose gives satisfaction even now 100 years on .
I :
After the waiting key-mov� to 103, the BQ can play to 14
I I
squares . Remove her completely , and there is a triple mate
1 I 2 . Rxd5 , 2 . Sd3 and 2 . Re2. The fascinating thing is that a
single one mate follows each of the BQ's moves , the white
King being used to splendid effect when the WR is pinned
after 1 . . . Qe2lflJg2. Also , the King's placing stops a cook

1 1 l . Rxd5 + ? by 1 . . . Qxd5 + ! when 2 . Qf4 would otherwise


be possible .

104 WICKED LADY

Key l . Rh5 ! Waiting


1 . . . Qc7 2 . Qe4 mate
1 . . . Q else 2 . Qb7 or 2 . Qd7 mate
, !
1 . . . Pd2 2. Qc2 mate
1 . . . Sb5 2 . Bd5 mate

13 squares for another dark lady at large in 104, and a


wicked move 1 . . . Qh3 ! to trap an innocent White . l . Rh5 !
is the key-move to -forestall 1 . . . Qh3 ! which w�uld
otherwise pin the white Queen, and stop 2 . Qb7 . l . Rf5?
might serve , but 1 . . . Pd2 ! 2 . Qc2? With all that foreseen ,
, I and l . Rh5 ! played , the black Queen is free to move to her 13
1 squares , but 2 . Qb7 or 2 . Qd7 follow - never both . Complete ,
i accuracy!

,\
,I
Solutions and Commentaries 1 23

105 PA WN R USH

Key I . Pc4 ! (threat 2. Rd5 mate)


1 . . . Pxc4 en passant 2 . Pd4 mate
1 . . . Pe6 2. Rb5 mate
1 . . . Be4 2 . Pf4 mate
1 . . . Qd4 2 . Rxe7 mate

Here is a problem to compare with 1 in which the en-passant


capture vacated a square to be occupied immediately by the
rush of another WP to mate . 105 shows another property of
e . p . - the BP capture interfering with a black line-moving
piece . I . Pc4 ! incites 1 . . Pxc4 e . p . , with the WPd2 ready
.

to make its double step forward and mate on d4 no longer


guarded by the B Q . Yet another eager white Pawn rushes to
mate at f4 after 1 . . . Be4 .

106 B2 OR NOT B2

Try I. Pd31 (threats 2 . Pb3 , 2 . Pb4 mate )


1 . . . Be6 2 . Pb3 mate
1 . . . Ba5 2 . Pb4 mate
1 . . . Bf6! 2 . 1
Try 1 . Pd41 (threats 2 . Pb3 , 2 . Pb4 mate)
1 . . . BfS ! 2 . 1
Try l . Pb31 (threats 2 . Pd3 , 2 . Pd4 mate)
1 . . . Bf5 2 . Pd3 mate
1 . . . Bf6+ 2 . Pd4 mate
1 . . . Ba5 ! 2 . 1
Key 1 . Pb4 ! (threats 2 . Pd3 , 2 . Pd4 mate )
1 . . . BfS 2 . Pd3 mate
1 . . . Bf6+ 2 . Pd4 mate
1 . . . Be6 2 . Qe3 mate

WPb2 or not b2: that is the question solvers need to decide .


1 24 White To Play And Mate In Two

Why not WPd2? 1 . . . Bf6 ! and 1 . . Bf5 ! are sufficient to


.

stop the WPb2 movi�g with mate . Try l . Pb3? - again there
is a spoiling 1 . . . Ba5 ! to stop the WPd2 moving with mate .
But it is WPb2 , and the eccentric l . Pb4 ! solves . The half­
battery play is complete and clear. Norman Macleod's
master touch is the post-key variation 1 . . . Be6 2 . Qe3
mate !

107 HALF-BA TTER Y + NOWO TNY


'
Position ( a ) Try l . Pd7? ( threats 2.Pg4, 2. RcS mate )
1 . . . Bxd7 2. Pg4 mate
1 . . . Rxd7 2. RcS mate
.1 . . Rg4 2.PdS= Q mate
1 . . . RgS ! 2 . ?
Key l . Pg4! ( threats 2.Pd7, 2.RcS mate )
1 . . . Bxg4 2 . Pd7 mate
1 . . . R random on rank 2. RcS mate
1 . . . Rxg4 2. Sd7 mate
1 . . . Rc7 2 . Pxc7 mate
Position ( b) Try l . Pg4? Bxb6!
Key l . Pd7 !

The lateral half-battery 106 with two WPs is transferred to


the diagonal in 107, and combined with Dr. Anton Nowotny's
brainchild (cf. 33) come very much of age . As ever, B � and
BB captures after l .Pd7? separate the threats ( and don't
miss 1 . . . Rg4! 2. PdSQ mate ) , but that's not quite so after
l .Pg4! ( threats 2. RcS and 2. Pd7 ) when 1 . . . Rxg4 ( again
pins WRc4) 2 . Sd7 ! and 1 . . . Bxg4 2.Pd7 mate . Rather
perplexing. The solver can choose to reverse try and key
move in the diagrammed problem by putting the BBhS on a7
- when l . Pg4? Bxb6! l . Pd7 !
Solutions and Commentaries 1 25

108 HA LF-BA TTERY

Try l . Rb4? (threat 2. Sh4 mate)


1 . . . Qe4 2. Rf6 mate
1 . . . Be4 2 . Rc3 mate
1 . . . Bc4 ! 2 . ?
Try l . Rc4? (threat 2 . Sh4 mate)
1 . . . Bxc4/e4 2.Rb3 mate
1 . . . Qe4 2 . Rt7 mate
1 . . . Qf6! 2 . ?
Try l . Re7? (threat.2. Re3 mate)
1 . . . Qe4 2. Rf6 mate
1 . . . Be4 2 . Rc3 mate
1 . . . Qe6 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Re6! (threat 2 . Re3 mate)
1 . . . Be4 2.Rb3 mate
1 . . . Qe4 2.Rt7 mate
1 . . . Qf4 2. Sh4 mate

The half-battery (cf. 106 and 107) was good for problem
chess. Even inexperienced solvers (and chess players·! ) could
see the need to move one or other of the W pieces in line
with BK, but they could not guess readily the right piece to
move and where . Composers had fun . More obvious moves
l . Rt7/f6/b3/c3? to pin the BQ .or BB in 108 fail for want of a
threat . Should White threaten 2. Sh4 or 2. Re3? The refu­
tation of the tries is not obvious. That 2.Sh4! comes back
after 1 . . . Qf4 following the key is splendid.

109 OPEN AND SHUT CASE

Key l . Sc8 ! (threat 2 . Qe7 mate)


1 . . . Pc5 2. Sxd6 mate
1 . . . Pd5 2. Qxc6 mate
1 . . . Rt7 2. Qxt7 mate
1 26 White To Play And Mate In Two

Arthur (Bob) Gooderson, a mathematics teacher at Steyning


Grammar School in Sussex, bridged a generation gap by
demonstrating that the best 'modem' problems could
embrace all the qualities for which the 'traditional' English
school of chess composition was famous. His work was never
less than exemplary - 109 being a textbook example of
reciprocai line opening and closing: 1 . . . Pc5 opens the line
of the BBhl , but closes the line of the BBa3 ; 1 . . . Pd5
opens the line of the BBa3 , but closes the line of the BBh l .
An open and shut case !

110 HERPAIS

Key l . Qd5 ! (threat 2. Qd7 mate)


1 . . . Sd6 2. Qxc6 (2. Qxe6? Bxe6!) mate
1 . . . Bd6 2. Qxe6 (2. Qxc6? Bc7!) mate
1 . . . Rcd6 2. Qb7 (2. Rc7? Kd8 !) mate
1 . . . Rc7 2. Rxc7 mate
1 . . . Red6 2. Sxe7 mate
1 . . . Se5 2 . Qd8 mate

hungarian Ferenc Herpai's eponymous Herpai theme is a


special exercise in B line opening an·d closing for avoidance
of a dual mate. In 110, BRc6 and BRe6 guard each other.
1 . . . Sd6 cuts the BRs mutual line of guard, but there is no
dual mate 2. Qxc612. Qxe6 because the line of the BBg8 is
opened to e6, forcing 2. Qxc6 only. 1 . . . Bd6 again c�ts the
mutual line of guard, but there is no dual mate because the
BB guards c7 - only 2. Qxe6 mate.. The Herpai would have
been more pronounced if, say, another black Knight arrived
at d6 and opened a B line to c6 to force 2. Qxe6 only.
Solutions and Commentaries ·- 1 27

111 CHECK STUBBS

Key l . Qc7! (threat 2 .Qxc5 mate )


1 . . . Pe3 + 2 . Sb7 mate
1 . . . QdS + 2 .Sc6 mate
1 . . . Kd4 2. QxcS mate
1 . . . QxbS 2. SxbS mate
1 . . . Sf6 2 . SfS mate
1 . . . Sxf4 2 .Bg7 mate

111 is a 'mixed bag' containing only good things, including


two different types of cross-check. 1 . . . Pe3 + 2 . Sb7 mate is
the more usual , with Black's line of check 'crossed' by
interposal of the firing piece of a White battery which opens
with check ( mate ) . 1 . . . Qd5 + 2 . Sc6 involves no battery
play: the interposing WS itself checkmates , immune from
capture because the BQ is pinned.

112 PROS AND CONS

Set play 1 . . . Qc4+ 2 . Rxc4 mate


1 . . . Qg4+ 2.Rxg4 mate
Key l . Rb6! ( threat 2 . Qdl mate)
1 . . . Qc4+ 2 . Qc6 mate
1 . . Qg4 + 2 . Qd7 mate
.

1 . ; . Pa2 2 . Qxa2 mate

A situation almost never seen in over-the-board . play js a


cross-check by interposal ( cf. 111 1 . . . QcS + 2. Sc6 mate ) :
it is doubled in 112 to startling effect. Checks by a line­
pinned black Queen ,are answered by counter checking
interposals 2. Qc6 and 2. Qd7 mate - the white Queen itself
now line-pinned but immune from capture. The solvers will
not have missed the Rook captures of the black Queen
checking at c4 and g4 before the key. The out-of-play WRd6
1 28 White To Play And Mate In Two

and the quadruple (spoiling) mate after the valid defence


1 . . . Qd4 'hurt' , but the clarity and appeal of the 9-piece
setting more than compensate .

113 APPELLA TION FOR THE TEA CHER

Key l . Be3 ! (threat 2. Ra7 mate)


1 . . . Sxc6 2.Rxg8 mate
1 . . . Sd7 2 . Pc7 mate
1 . . . Rg7 2. Qa2 (set 2. Rxb8) mate

Cyril Kipping was long-time Headmaster of Wednesbury


High School , and, believe it or not, chess was part' of the
curriculum . His teaching (chess ! ) , his editorship of numer­
ous journa!s (cf. 99) often resulted in his being called 'The
Problemist' . Indeed� he was proud to report that letters from
abroad addressed simply to 'The Problemist' , Wednesbury,
England reached him . That's fame ! Ever true to teaching,
his 113 is a clear and pointed Black Half-Pin example -
which solvers enjoy all the more for its key-move l .Be3 ! to
forestall a pin of the ' Rook by 1 . . . Re8 ! As the BSb8 and
BRg8 move off the rank in turn , so the other is left for the
resultant pin-mates 2. Pc7 and 2. Qa2. In the diagrammed
position , the BS and BR can be fairly said to be half-pinned.

�c,

114 KEPT IN LINE

Try l . Rd5? Waiting


1 . . . S random 2. Rd2 mate
1 . . . Sf2 ! 2 . Rxf2?
Try l . Rf5? Waiting
1 . . S random 2. Rf2 mate
.
SOlutions and Commentaries 1 29

1 . . . Sd2 ! 2 . Rxd2?
Key l . B a6 ! Waiting
1 . . . Sf2 2 . Rxf2 mate
1 .
. . Sd2 2 . Rxd2 mate
1 . . . Sa any 2 . Bxc4 mate

Waiting tries by the white Rooks to no further than d5 and f5


to avoid obvious captures by the black Knight seem
reasonable , but the hidden effect is to leave the Rook not
moved pinned when the black Knight plays . Try defeating
moves 1 . . . Sd2 ! and 1 . . . Sf2 ! ( both to create f1ight­
squ ares for the B K ) can be played without fear of capture on
those squares . This is a White HallPin to compare with the
Black Half-Pin of 113.
There is a tortuous connection with the Dombrovskis
paradox of 89 . In the try play of 114, 1 . . . Sd2 ! and
1 . . . Sf2 ! defeat what would normally be secondary threats
2 . Rd2 and 2 . Rf2 mate with the release of the Knight's hold
on those squares - but the Rooks are pinned in turn . After
the key , the Knight defences allow the illusory secondary
threats they defeated in the try play !

115 RECIPROCAL CHANGE


Try l . Re4? ( threat 2 . Rc4 mate )
1 . . . Bg6 2 . Rf6 ( 2 . Re6? ) mate
1 . . . Rxh2 2 . Re6 ( 2 . Rf6? ) m ate
1 . . . Bt7 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Rf5 ! (threat 2 . Rc5 mate )
1 . . . Bg6 2 . Re6 (2 . Rf6?) mate
1 . . . Rxh2 2 . Rf6 (2 . Re6?) mate
1 . . . Sb6/c7 2. Qc7 mate

As they are in U4, the white Rooks in 115 are tied to the
rank , but this time for what might be a unique example in
1 30 White To Play And Ma te In Two

Meredith of reciprocal change by reciprocated pinning ! The


unprovided 1 . . . Bg6+ - normally a weakness - actually
lends clarity to the scheme by pulling the Rooks to e4 and f5
as try and key . Black's defences 1 . . . Bf6 and 1 . . . Rxh2
reciprocally change their function by pinning different
Rooks . The Rook not pinned is able to contribute to the AB!
BA pattern of reciprocally changed mates .

116 RECIPROCA L CHANGE RECORD


Set play 1 .. Kd6 2. Qe7 mate
. A
. . . Pf4 2. Qf6 mate
1 B
. . . S any 2. Bc7 mate
1
Key 1 . Bb6 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kd6 2. Qf6 mate B
1 . . Pf4 2 . Qe7 'mate A
1 . . . S any 2 . Bc7 mate

The ABIBA pattern of reciprocal change in 116 might be


record Mutate form . Reciprocal change has been done with
fewer pieces , but not , it seems in the special Mutate form
whereby the 'set' mates cannot be maintained . The only
move to solve 116 is l . Bb6 ! which changes the mates after
1 . . Kd6 and 1 . . . Pf4 in the required ABIBA pattern .
.

11 7 RECIPROCA L BLA CK CORRECTION

Key l . Rb3 ! Waiting


1 . . . S4 random 2.St2 mate A
1 . . . Sg3 ! ? 2 . Sf4 (2. St2? Kxh2 !) mate B
1 . . . S3 random 2. Sf4 mate B
1 . . . Sg2 ! ? 2 . St2 (2. Sf4? Kxh2 !) mate A
Solutions and Commentaries 1 31

David Shire's 11 7 shows clearly the difference between


reciprocal change (cf. 115 and 116) and reciprocal black
correction . l . Rb3 ! Waiting (an obvious need to bring the
WBa8 into play, but not such an obvious arrival at b3) sees
mate A for the random move of BSe4, and mate B for its
correction 1 . . . Sg3 ! ? : mate B recurs after the random
move of BSe3 , as does mate A after its correction
· 1 . . . Sg2 ! ? The intricate W line opening and closing by
Black , and White's need not to close W lines is a study in
itself.

118 THE THIRD MAN

Try l . Bd4? Waiting


1 . . . Sa any 2. Sc3 mate
1 . . . Sc any! 2. ?
Try l . Scd4? Waiting
1 . . . Sc any 2. Ra7 mate
1 . . . Sa any ! 2. ?
Key l . Sbd4 ! Waiting
1 . . . Sc any 2 . Ra7 mate'
1 . . . Sa any 2 . Rb4 mate

Ordinary white correction is the very stuff of chess - the need


to move a piece , the sinking feeling of realising the
consequences , and searching where best to play - but tertiary
white arrival correction takes some explaining. l . Bd4? (to
block the BP) 'arrives' with the error of not providing a mate
for 1 . . . Sc any. A second 'arrival' l . Scd4? corrects by
providing 2 . Ra7 fot 1 . . Sc any, but there is a new error of
. .

no mate for 1 . . . S a any ! The third 'arrival' l . Sbd4! further


corrects by providing for the moves of both black Knights,
and for 1 . . . Sa any in a new way, 2. Rb4.
1 32 White To Play And Mate In Two

1 1 9 REA DERS OF LEBA NON

Key l . Oa6 ! Waiting


1 . . . Ke3 2 . Sc5 (2 . Sf2 ? Kd2 ! ) mate
1 . . . KB 2 . Sf2 (2 . Sc5 ? Kg4 ! ) mate
1 . . . Kd5 2 . 0c6 mate
1 . . . Kf5 2 . 0g6 mate
1 . . . Pf3 2 . 0e6 mate

The venerable 1 st Prizewinner 1 1 9 has the extra merit of


being a million miles from the concepts of black and white
correction ! It is clear and simple . The separation of the
mates after 1 . . . Ke3 and 1 . . . KB has often been
emulated but never bettered - in an exceptionally elegant 8-
piece setting g r aced by a further two BK flights and three
WO mates . The Lebanon Herald! ?

120 O UT O F TIME

Set play 1 . . . Kf4 2. Rxe4 mate


1 . . . Pc2 2. Rxe4 mate
1 . . . Pe3 2. 0d5 mate
1 . . . Pf4 2 . 0/Rxe4 mate
Key l . Oh3 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kf4 2 . Rxf5 mate
1 . . . Ke6 2 . Rxe4 mate
1 . . . Kxd4 2. Oxc3 mate
1 . . . Pc2 2 . 0xf5 mate
1 . . . Pe3 2 . 0xe3 mate
1 . . . Pf4 2. Rd5 mate

A bit nearer home with 120 - of similar vintage to 119. With


its 1882 publication date and its four changed mates plus one
Solutions and Commentaries 1 33

transferred , commentators have read much into this prob­


lem . Certainly , it is untypical of its period . A guess is that
the composer was as pleasantly surprised as anyone else at
the extent of his 9-piece problem's content .

121 WORLD CHESS COMPOSING TO URNAMEN1


Set play 1 . . . R on file 2 . Sxc4 mate
1 . . . R random on rank 2 . Sxd7 mate
Try l . Qa3? (threat 2 . Qe7 mate)
1 . . . Pd6 2 . Sd7 mate
I . . . R on rank 2 . Qd6 mate
I . . . R random on file 2. Qe3 mate
I . . . Rd3 ! 2 . ?
Try l . Sd5 ? (threat 2 . Bf6 mate)
I . . . Rxd5 2 . Qe3 mate
I . . . Rf4 2 . Bxf4 mate
I . . . Re4 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Qa8 ! (threat 2 . Qe8 mate)
I . . . R random on file 2 . Qe4 mate
I . . . R random on rank 2 . Qd5 mate

The 4th World Chess Composing Tournament (WCCT) 1988


laid down the challenge (in the A l section for two-movers) ­
'In the diagram position , there is a (direct or indirect) white
battery . In the set-play or in a try , at least two black
defences lead to different mates by opening this (direct or
indirect) battery . The key destroys this battery , and allows
new (changed) mates after the same black defences' .
Tony Lewis and Don Smedley chose to destroy set
indirect Q + S battery mates 2 . Sxc4 and 2 . Sxd7 by removal of
the (Q) rear piece . Two tries (also to destroy the battery) are
valuable thematic addition s .
1 34 White To Play And Mate In Two

122 WHO DARES PINS

Set play 1 . . . Rc2 + 2. Sc3 mate


1 . . Pd2 2 . Sf2 mate ·
.

Key l . Kd5 ! (threat 2. Qc5 mate)


1 . . Rc2 2. Rxf3 mate
.

1 . . Pd2 2. Qa3 m a te
.

1 . . . BfB/g7 2 . Qg5 mate

Inspired by the WCCT (cf. 121 ) , 122 was composed too late
to ask the Tournament Director if destruction of the Q + S
battery i s thematic. The effect o f the self-pinning key l . Kd5 !
is to set the Knight in concrete . Pinned by a pinned black
Bishop, the Knight is going nowhere in two moves . Surely
destruction enough? Naturally , the WQ is not left idle : it is
used to threaten 2 . Qc5 , it accounts for one of two
thematically changed mates , and it adds by-play 2. Qg5 after
1 . . . Bg7/fB .

123 GEOMETR Y

Key l . Qe8 ! Waiting


1 . . . Ra4 2. Kxa4 mate
1 . . . Rb4+ 2. Kxb4 mate
1 . . . Rc3 + 2 . Kxc3 . mate
1 . . . Rxc2 2. Kxc2 mate
1 . . . Rxd4 2 . Kxa3 mate
1 . . . Rxc5 2. Pxc5 (set 2 . Rxc5) mate

Here's a problem with solver appeal . The WK can take the


black Rook with mate if it moves to a4, b4+ , c3 + and c2 ,
and there is 2 .Rxc5 after 1 . . Rxc5 . But what after
.

1 . . . Rxd4? Some pleasing geometry permits the Queen to


Solutions and Comm en taries 1 35

hold the triangle of guards on c6 , e6 and e4 , but to transfer


her guard from d6 to eS - when 1 . . . Rxd4 gives the
excellent 2.Kxa3 ! , and the set mate after 1 . . . RxcS is
changed to 2.PxcS .

124 RWAL CLASSIC

Set play 1 . . . Rd1 2. SgS mate


1 . . . RaS 2. Sd2 mate
1 . . . RfS 2. Qd4 mate
Key l . Sh4! Waiting
1 . . . Rd3+ 2. Pxd3 mate
1 . . . Rd1 2 . QfS mate
1 . . . RaS 2. Qd4 mate
1 . . . ReS 2 . Qf3 mate

Only 1 . . . Rxd4 was unprovided in the set play of 123. All


moves of the black Rook are provided with mates in 124,
2. Sc2, 2. Qd4 and 2. Pxd3 following the BR's best efforts to
maintain its focal fold. No simple waiting move solves . We
are back in Mutate territory - and. the key l . Sh4! needs to be
well chosen . Now, 2. Qd4, 2. Qf3 , 2. QfS and 2. Pxd3 follow
whatever the BR plays. Note l . Kc2? ReS ! 2. Sd2? Perhaps
this is a present day rival to Comins Mansfield's classic focal
Mutate? CM's Meredith is Morning Post 1923 8/3K1R2I81
.
3p4/3pk3/Q4S2/6rllSS2 =1=2 1 . Qa6!

125 CONSTR UCTION WORKER

Key l . Re2! (threats 2. KeS and 2. Ke4 mate)


1 . . . Pd6 2 . Ke4 mate.
1 36 White To Play And Mate In Two
-
1 . . . Pd5 2 . Ke5 mate
1 . . . Rg5 2. Kxg5 mate
1 . . . Rg4+ 2. Kxg4 mate
1 . . . Rg3 2. Kxg3 mate
1 . . . Rg2 2 . Bxg2 mate
1 . . . Rxg1 2. Ke3 mate

As a professional man , Dr. Bonner Feast was, of course , no


construction worker, but as a problem composer he seems to
have been a construction worker supreme . Many problems
of the period are A . N . Other (version by FBF) or FBF (after
A . N . Other) - even version FBF. 95 and this 125 are cases in
point . 125 was originally B7/5Prp1lQ1p4/5R21lB3K2/S/2S51
5kS1 42 l . Se l ! FBF's version of his own problem is a saving
of two pieces in a more polished setting without WQ or WP .
The task is six openings of a R + K battery - commonplace
enough - but the construction work is exceptional .

126 GRA CE NO TE

Key l . Sb7 ! (threat 2 . SxdS mate)


1 . . . Pe6 2. Qd6 mate
1 . , . Pe5 2. Qc2 mate
1 . . . QfS 2. Qc2 mate
1 . . . QhS 2. Qg2 mate
1 . . . Bc7 2. Qxc7 mate
1 . . . Bb6 2 . SbS mate .:.<,

1 . . . B a5 2 . Sxa5 mate

Grandmaster Comins Mansfield delighted in what lte called


'grace notes', those unexpected and even fortuitous touches
which add to the enj oyment of a problem . 126 is a very
adequate example of valve play by the black Pawn e7 to
open the black Queen's line to stop 2. SxdS, but to close the
black Queen's lines for 2 . Qd6 and 2 . Qc2 mate . But then the
Solutions and Comm en taries 1 37

solver sees 1 . . . Oh8 ! which seems to defeat the com­


poser's intention . When he finds 2 . 0g2 ! (not 2 . 0hl?) it is a
most pleasant surprise - a 'grace
. note' at no extra cost in
material . Delightful !

127 SOLVERS' DESPAIR

Key 1 . Kh2 ! Waiting


1 . . . Rxh l + 2. 0xh l (set 2 . Rxh l) mate
1 . . . Rc1/dllellfl/gl
2. Rxc1l2 . Rxd1l2 . Rxe1l2. Rxfl/2. Rxgl mate
1 . . . Ra3/a4/a5/a6/a7/xa8
2. 0xa3/2. 0xa4/2 . 0xa5/2. 0xa6/2 . 0xa7/2. Rxa8 mate
1 . . . Pc2 2 . Bd4 mate

One changed mate is sometimes enough . Judge for yourself


with Joseph Warton's 127. All black Rook moves are set
with capture mates, including 1 . . . Rxh l 2 : Rxh l mate .
1 . . . Pc2 is an odd unpin of the WB at a distance for a
double pin-mate . 2 .Bd4. Key? 1 . Ka2 ! Waiting . Only
1 . . . Rxhl + 2 . 0xh l changes, but it is a piquant change
which pleases no end . A Mutate worth solving !
Joe Warton and brother Tom will long be remembered
for, in particular, their j ointly composed three-movers of a
length to conceal much trickery - to the extent that chess
d ub secretaries wrote to problem editors to beg solutions
before ' A' teams were driven to distraction !

128 SHA PE .OF THINGS TO COME?

Try 1 . 0a3? Waiting


1 . . . Kb5 2. 0a4 mate
1 38 White To Play A nd Mate In Two

1 . . . R random on file 2. 0cS (set 2 . Sfe5) mate


1 . . . R random on rank 2.Bd3 (set 2.Sd2) mate
1 . . . Pc5 ! (set 2. Sb6) 2 . ?
Try l .Bd1? Waiting
1 . . . Kd3 2. 0c2 mate
1 . . . R random on file 2. SfeS mate
1 . . . R random on rank 2. Be2 (set 2 .Sd2) mate
1 . . . Pc5 ! (set 2. Sb6) 2. ?
Key l . Ba4 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kd3 2. 0c2 mate
1 . . . R random on file 2. Sfe5 mate
1 . . . R random on rank 2. Qd4 mate
1 . . . PcS 2 .Bb5 (set 2. Sb6) mate
1 . . . B any 2. 0b3 mate

127 and 128 are Mutates in common , but 128 is an


extraordinary Mutate of a complexity which would have
made old-timers gasp and which will provide a challenge for
composers in the future . Only a study of the full solution will
reveal the Mutate tries wibhin a Mutate (cf. 94) . l . Kh3? is a
superb try to maintain the mates in the diagrammed
position , but 1 . . . Rd3 l pins the Knight . There follows a
natural progression of tries , 11 mates over 4 phases , and 4
different mates after 1 . . . R on rank. The only blemish is
the repeated refutation · 1 . . . Pes t A wonderful changed
focus, and a masterpiece !

129 PASO DOBLE

Try l . Pd4? (threat 2 . Rh2 mate)


1 . . . Rh2 2. 0h3 (2. 0f6?) mate
1 . Sd2 2. 0c6 (2 . . . Bf6?) mate
. .

1 . . . R,xc3 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Pd3 ! (threat 2. Rh2 mate)
Solutions an d Com menta ries 1 39

1 . . . Rb2 2. 0f6 (2.0h3?) mate


1 . . . Sd2 Z. Oxd2 (2 . . . Re3?) mate

The intricacy of the white Pawn's two-step in 129 merits the


greater dignity of and all the excitement conj ured up by the
paso doble it was to Spanish readers of Problemas! The two­
step l . Pd4? is a double interference on WO and BB : the one
step l . Pd3 ! is a changed double interference on WO and
BR. Ole !

.). . .

130 MASKED MEN

Try l . Bd6? (threats 2. RfS , 2. 0b3 and 2 . 0f2 mate)


1 . . . Pg5/xh5 ! 2. ?
Try l . Bc5? (threat 2. RfS mate)
1 . . . Bd6 2. 0b3 mate
1 . . . Pd6! 2 . 0f2?
Try l . Bb4? (threat 2 . RfS mate)
1 . . . Pd6 2 . 0f2 mate '
1 . . . Bd6! 2. 0b3?
Key l . Ba3 ! (threat 2. RfS mate)
1 . . . Bd6 2. 0b3 mate
1 . . . Pd6 2 . 0f2 mate
1 . . . Rxa3 2. 0f6 mate

Black interference with a black line-moving piece masked by


a white piece - masked men - is a Colin Sydenham speciality
(cf. 129) , and is used in 130 to put sparkle into a Pickabish ,
the problemist's term for mutual interference between BB
and BP.
If it were not for the BRa6 (masked by the WO) , there
would be spoiling cooks l . Ob3 + Pd5 2. 0xd5 mate and
l . Of2+ Bf4 2. 0xf4 mate , with the unmasked man coming
through for 1 . . . Re6 ! and 1 . . . Rf6! Delicious WB tries
down the diagonal obstruct the WO - only the sacrifice
1 40 White To Play And Mate In Two

1 .Ba3 ! solves . Now we see the double interference on WQ


and BR when BB and BP play to d6 - when 2 . Qb3 and
2 . Qf2 mate become possible in turn . Happiness is complete
with 1 . . . Rxa3 2 . Qf6 mate !

131 KNIGHTS OF THE SQ UARE TA BLE

Tries 1 . Sc2? and 1 . Sd3 ? (threat 2 . Rb4 mate)


1 . . . B xc2 ! and 1 . . . Bxd3 ! 2 . ?
Try 1 . Sd5 ? (threat 2 . Rb4 mate)
1 . . . Sd random ! 2 . Bb3?
- Try 1 . Sa6 ! ? (threat 2 . Rb4 mate)
1 . . . Sd random 2 . Bb3 mate
1 . . . Sb5 ! 2 . Bb3? 2 . Ra6?
Try 1 . Sc6 ! ? (threat 2 . �b4 mate)
1. . . Sd random Z . Bb3 mate
1 . . . Se6 ! 2 . Bb3? ,2 . Be8?
Key l . Sa2 ! (threat 2. Rb4)
1 . . . Sd random 2 . Bb3 mate
1 . . . Sb5 ! ? 2 . Ra6 mate
1 . . . Se6 ! ? 2 . Be8 mate

On a chequered field of black and white , the shining White


Knight rides out against the Black Knight . The chain pion 's
thrusting tries are parried skilfully by a thinking opponent .
When White makes no mistake with 1 . Sa2 ! , only then B l ack
cedes . A worthy opponent ! $,

132 CA VA LRY CHARGES

Key 1 . Bc6 ! Waiting


1 . . . Sb random 2 . Sb2 , 2 . Se3 , 2 . Qc3 mate
Solutions an d Commentaries 1 41

1 . . . Sxc2 ! ? 2 . Qc3 mate


1 . . . Sxc6 ! ? 2 . Se3 m ate
1 . . . Sd5 ! ? 2 . Sb2 mate
1 . . . Sf random , 2 . Sd2 , 2 . Se5 , 2 . Qxc5 mate

1 . . . Sxd l ! ? 2 . Q xc5 m ate

1 . . . Se4 ! ? 2 . Se5 mate

1 . . . Sfd3 ! ? 2 . Sd2 mate


1 . . . B any 2 . Qb5 mate

- " If 131 was single combat , 132 is a full-scale battle of


horsemen . 1 . . . Sb random - and the white Knights ride in
2 . Sb2 , 2 . Se3 with the support of the Quee n , 2 . Qc3 .
1 . . . Sxc2 , 1 . . . Sxc6 and 1 . . . Sd5 stop any two of the
mates , but White cannot be contained . Black's counter
attack from the other fl ank fares no better : 1 . . . Sf random
- and the W cavalry sweep in with 2 . Sd2 , 2 . Se5 and further
support from the Queen , 2 . Qxc5 . 1 . . . Sxd l , 1 . . . Se4
and 1 . . . Sfd3 again stop any two of the mates , but Black is
overrun . A beautifully unified and marvellously economical
doubling of partial separation of secondary threats - a so­
called partial secondary Fleck. Hungarian Ferenc Fleck is
associated with all forms of the basic idea of primary or
secondary multiple white threats being separated either
totally or partially by black defences .

133 PLA YING TO THE GA LLERY

Key l . Bb8 ! Waiting


1 . . . Rh5 2 . Pe5 mate
1 . . . Rf5 2. Pxf5 mate
1 . . . Re5 2. Sxe5 mate

1 . . . Rd5 2. Pxd5 mate


1 . . .. Rc5 2 . Sb4 mate

1 . . . Rb5 2 . Rc7 mate


1 42 White To Play And Mate In Two

1 . . . Rxa5 2 . Sxa5 mate


1 . . R on file 2 . Se5 mate
.

1 . . . Bd7 2 . Rb6 mate


1 . . . B else 2 . Rc8 mate

Knowing it will please , the Bishop plays up to the gallery of


the 8th rank - and waits for applause for the clean sweep to
b8 and the 9 mates. There is a little bit of good fortune : with
b8 occupied , only 2 . Sb4 is mate after 1 . . . Rc5 .
Brian Harley published many of his problems under the
anagram Harry Blaine - and that's a good game in itself!
Who are the well-known problemists in this book who might
masquerade as Noel Wisty , Donny Michaels , and Cameron
Dolman ?

134 D UEL

Key l . Rd8 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kxh8 2. Qh6 mate
1 . . . Rxh8 2 . Pf8 = S mate
1 . . . Rg8 2 . Pxg8 = Q mate
1 . . . Re8 2. Pxe8 = Q mate
1 . . . Rxd8 2 . Pf8 = Q mate
1 . . . Rxf7 2 . Rxt7 mate
1 . Ph l = Q + 2 . Qxh l (set 2 . Rxh l ) mate
_
. .

Another sweep to the 8th rank (cf. 1 33) ! And there is the
further similarity of a black Rook containing a lateral rather
than a diagonal Pawn battery in the diagrammed position .
The involuntary release of the R + P battery turns into a
record(?) fourfold duel between the black Rook and the
promoting Pawn - once to Knight , and three times to
Queen . Pleasing is the pre-key use for the WRd l which
mates 2 . Rxhl after 1 . . . Ph l Q + , a mate changed to
2 . Qxh l .
Solutions and Commentaries 1 43 1

135 DETERMINED B Y BLA CK

Key l . Qf4 ! (threat 2 . Scxb l mate)


1 . . . Sxa3 2 . 0-0-0 (2 . Rd l ? Kc2 !12 . Qd2? Kc4 ! ) mate
1 . . . Sxc3 2 . Rd l (2 . 0-0-0?/2 . Qd2? Ke4 ! ) mate .
1 . . . Sd2 2 . Qxd2 mate
1 . . . Se41b5 2 . Qe4 mate

. First lessons in chess are that you do not Castle out of check ,
. t�rough check , and certainly not through a piec� such as the
� BSb l in 135 . When the Knight is induced to move , the effect

is strange : with the Knight safely clear of the bottom rank


1 . . . Sxa3 , the mate needs to be 2 . 0-0-0 to guard c2 ; after
1 . . . Sxc3 there can be no Castling through check , but
2 . Rd l alone mates . So , Castling and WRd l is determined by
Black .

136 DETERMINED BY WHITE

Try l . Rb l ? Waiting
1 . . . Kd3 2 . Qf5 mate
1 . . . Pd3 2 . Rb4 mate
1 . . . Pg4 ! 2 . ?
Try l . Rd l ? Waiting
1 . . . Kd3 2 . Qf5 mate
1 . . . Pg4 2 . Pd3 mate
1 . . . Pd3 ! 2 . ?
Key 1 . 0-0-0 ! Waiting
1 <' Kd3 2 . Qf3 mate
• •

1 . . . Pd3 2 . Re l mate
1 . . . Pg4 2 . Pd3 mate

Readers who have worked systematically through this book


1 44 White To Play And Mate In Two

might j ump at Castling to solve 136, but they will know


enough by now to wonder if there is a trick . Is Castling
legal ? Why not Rook moves to solve the problem ? Unlike
135 where Black determines Castling and WR to d l , this
time the choice is entirely White's . I . Rb l ? looks promising
for 2 . Rb4 mate after I . . . Pd3 , but I . . . Pg4 ! lo Rd l ?
provides for I . . . Pg4 with 2 . Pd3 mate , but I . . . Pd3 ! I t is
indeed the 'double ' move I . O--O--{) ! which brings the WR to
d l to chaI1ge the mate after I . . . Ke3 , and to provide again
for I . . . Pd3 2 . Re l mate .

137 BY STEAL TH

Key l o Qa4 ! (threat 2 . Qxd7 mate)


I . . . Kf5 2 . Bxh5 mate
I . . . Bxa4 2 . Be6 mate
'
I . . . Bf5 2 . Qd l mate
I . . . Bc8 2 . Ke5 mate

It's no passive sacrifice of the white Queen , with the BBd7


under threat itself. There's no escape . I . .. . Bc8 seems to
evade the grasp of the Queen and Bishop , but control is lost
to a stealthily formed Q + K battery , and the royal artillery
opens 2 . Ke5 to reclaim the flight-square f5 granted by the
key .

138 ZEROPOSITION

Position (a) Key l . Sf4! Waiting


I . Ke3 2 . Kc4 mate
. .

I . . Sd any 2 . Se6 mate


.

I . Sg any 2 . S�2 mate


. .
'Solutions and Commenta ries 1 45

Position (b) Key l . Se5 ! Waiting


.
l . . . Kxd5 2 . KeJ m a te
1 . : . Sd a n y 2.Sc6 mate
1 . . . S g any 2 . Sf3 mat e

The printed diagram is the Zeroposition from which position


(a) is created by putting the WRe3 on a3 for m a te i n two
moves by l . Sf4 ! It's back to the Zeroposition (t he WR a 3 .
. pack on e3) to create pos i tion (b) by p ut ti n g the WBb l on a2
. . for " mate in two a gain - l . Se5 ! Conceal ed is a conve ntio nal
.� twin diagram (a) printed with WR at a2, and Cb) c r ea t e d by

WRa3 to e3 , and WBb l to a3 - but the doub l e twinning


requirement for ( b ) seems to offend . So is i t Z�roposition or
conventional twinning to show David Shi re's problem to best
advantage ? It's a matter of taste . Better concealed to the
solver's delight are two K-batteries wh i c h open to original
effect after BK moves to flights e3 and d5 granted b y
harmonious keys .

139 CHIVA LR Y CHARGE •

Try l . Kd3? (threat 2 . Rd6 mate)


1 . . . Pxe6 2 . B g2 mate
1 . . . Rxc5 ! 2 . Rd l ?
Try l . Kf3? (threat 2 . Rd6 mate)
1 . . . Rxc5 2 . Rd l m ate
1 . . . Pxe6 ! 2 . B g2?
Key l . Ke3 ! (threat 2 . Rd6 mate)
1 . . . Pxe6 2 . Bg2 mate
1 . . . Rxc5 2 . Rd l mate
1 . . . Rc6 2 . Re5 mate

They say that in days of yore the age of chivalry - Kings


_.

rode into battle . Not now ! But such chivalry is not dead in
..
problem chess , with the white King leading t.he ch arge in
.
1 46 White To Play And Mate In Two

139. ' N o doubt , he grants himself the royal pardon for


interfering with his own Rook and B ishop before he gets it
right ?

140 ROYA L ENCLOSURE

Try I . Qc7 ? Waiting


1 . . . Be7 2 . Qxe7 m ate
1 . . Sxg6 2 . Qxt7 mate
.

1 . . . Pd5 2. Qe5 mate


1 . . . Pxg6 ! 2 . ?
Try ? l . Qd5 ? Waiting
1 . . . Pxg6 2 . Qe6 mate
1 . . . Be7 ! 2 . ?
Try I . Qe4? Waitjng
1 . . . Sxg6 ! 2 . ?
Try I . Qd7? Waiting
1 . . Pd5 ! 2 . ?
.

Key l . Qe8 ! Waiting


1 . . . Pd5 2 . Qe5 mate
j . Be7 2 . Qxe7 mate
. .

1 . . Sxg6 2 . Qxt7 mate


.

1 . . Pxg6 2 . Qe6 mate


.

Problemist and player alike will tell at a glance that the white
Queen poised to savage the black King is not going to be
d�nied in 140, but is anyone so quick to tell at a glance
exactly where she plays to m ate in two ? Perhaps l . Qe8 ! is
�bvious(?) , but tries to c7 , d7 , d5 and e4 to crowd the B K
and t o provide for the black moves a re not t o b e dismissed
lightly .
Solutions and Commentaries 1 47

141 A 1 KEY-MOVE

Try l . Ra 1 ? Waiting
1 . . . Pb4 2 . Sa5 mate
1 . . . Pd2 2 . Bc2 mate
1 . . . Pc3 ! 2 . ?
Key l . Ba1 ! Waiting
1 . . . Pb4 2 . Sd4 mate
1 . . . Pd2 2 . Bc2 mate
1 . . . Pc3 2 . Bg8 mate

There 's a clue for solvers ! The key piece plays to square a1 -
but which piece? l . Ra1 ? clears for 2 . Sa5 mate after
1 . . . Pb4 , but 1 . . . Pc3 ! to close the Bishop's line .
Instead , it is the swooping l . Ba 1 ! which solves , and which
yields a complementary mate 2 . Sd4 after 1 . . . Pb4 . The
long range mate 2 :Bg8 adds nicely to the double corner-to­
corner play by White .

142 BR/STO LS

Position (a) Key l . Rg3 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kxf5 2 . Qf3 mate
1 . . . Kxt7 2 . Rf8 mate
Position (b) Key 1 . Bf8 ! Waiting
1 . . . Kxf5 2 . Rf3 mate
1 . . . Kxt7 2 . Qe7 mate

The Bristol Tourney of 1 861 produced a sensation . The bare


bones of B ritain's Frank Healey's celebrated 1 st Prize three­
mover were black King at c5 , white Queen at g6 and w hite
Rook at d l . Healey's inspiration was l . Rh 1 ! ! 2 . Qb 1 3 . Qg1
mat..;. ! The Bristol clearance of the white Rook was remark- ..
1 48 White To Play And Mate In Two

able for the Rook's having no other use, and having the
purity of purpose (Zweckrein) of j ust clearing for and getting
out of the way of the white Queen .
So , the clearance keys to the ingeniously twinned 142 are
Bristols or , more accurately, Bristol-type keys because the
-

clearing WR and WB have a use in supporting mates .

143 Y- THEME

Key l . Se6.! (threat 2 . Qf4 mate)


1 . . . Kxd6 2 . Sf7 mat�
1 . . . Kf6 2 . Qg5 mate
1 . . . Ke4 2. Qe2 mate
1 . . . Pxd6 2 . Qd4 mate
1 . . . Bxe6 2. Rxe6 mate

Like star-flights and cross/plus flights (cf. 65 and 66) , black


King flights in the form of a Y have acquired theme status ,
although the pattern of flights is often incidental to some
constructions . For �xample , did you spot the Y pattern d4 ,
f4, e6 in 120? Was it intended in the Rev . Moon 's 143?
1 . . . Kxd6 is unprovided with a mate in the diagrammed
position , but after that it is sheer delight for its 6 mates in a
9-piece setting graced by a key-move which gives the black
King two of the flight-squares for its Y-pattern d6 , f6 and e4.

144 CHAMELEON ECHO

Key l . Qh5 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kd5 2 . Sd4 mate
1 . . . Kxf6 2 . Sf7 mate
1 . . . Kd7 2 . l.J�b 'Date
Solutions and Commentaries 1 49

1 . . . B any 2 . 017 mate


1 . . . Pxd6 2. Rxd6 mate

Again , the Y-pattern d7 , d5 and f6 , but here it i s subo rdinate


to a totally intriguing and marvellously named chameleon
ech o . Compare 1 . . . Kd5 (BK on W square ) 2 . Sd4 mate
(battery opening for WS on B square to hold W squares c6
and e6) with 1 . . . Kxf6 (BK on B square) 2 . Sfl mate
(battery opening for WS on W square to hold B square e5 ) .
The mates are echoed and termed chameleon for the switch
. of colours throughout . A 9-piece wonder !

145 Y FRONT-R UNNER

Key l . 0f1 ! Waiting


1 . . . Kxc6 2 . 0a6 mate
1 . . . Kxe7 2 . Bc5 mate
1 . . . Kxe5 2 . Bg3 mate
1 . . . S any 2. R5xe6 mate

Perhaps there are . earlier Y-theme examples , but there can


be few clearer than 145 . Aft'er the brilliant ambush key
l . Of1 ! , the black King's y-pattern of three( ! ) white piece
captures leaps to the eye . The two Q + B battery openings
after 1 . . . Kxe7 and 1 . . . Kxe5 are finely paired: the
switchback mate 2 . 0a6 ! made possible by the Queen 's
sacrifice of the Bishop completes a classic Y.

146 THE REASON Y

Set play 1 .. . Kxc2 2 . Bc4 mate


Key l . Qc1 ! Waiting
1 50 White To Play And Mate In Two

1 . . . Ka2 2 . Bc4 mate


1 . . . Ka4 2 . 0a3 mate
1 . . . Kc3 2 . Rf3 mate

The well-hidden and generous give-and-take key-move


l . 0c1 ! to 146 puts the problem in the 'definitive example'
class . The key takes c2 (deceptively set with 2 . B c4 mate
after 1 . . . Kxc2) , but gives all three flights of the Y-pattern
(cf. 145) . 2 . Bc4 mate returns after 1 . . . Ka2 ; 2 . 0a3 is mate
after 1 . . . Ka4 ; and - great surprise - 2 . Rf3( ! ) mate pops
up after 1 . . . Kc3 . A Complete . Block, with added and
subtracted mates - no Mutate !
As letter Y is next to last in the alphabet , it is the inspired
Y-theme pair 145 and 146 which is next to last in this book .
That's the reason why !

147 THE STOR Y Of 0

Key l . Kgl ! Waiting


1 . . . Kd 1 2 . Qb l mate
1 . . . Pdl = O/S 2 . Sg2 mate
1 . . . Se any 2 . 0xd2 mate
1 . . . Sg any 2 . 0e2 mate

Not much to tell really , other than that letter problems can
be fun . Composers and solvers enj oy the symbolism and the
'silly season ' stories which can be written round them "" They
are not taken too seriously , and the conventions of problem
composition can be relaxed . John Keeble's ' 0 ' can mean all
or nothing ! Certainly , it scores for all of its 8 pieces having a
use , and not being there j ust to make the shape of the ' 0 ' ­
and that is much more difficult than it might appear.
Solutions and Commentaries 1 51

148 MAN OF LETTERS

Key l . Rb8 ! Waiting


Letter K becomes R
1 . . Ria5 2 . Pc8 = Q mate
.

Letter R becomes P (full stop ! ) and F with the mate


1 . . . Rc4 2 . Bb4 mate
Letter D underlined !
1 . . . Bxb8 2 . Pxb8 = S mate
1 . " . B xb6 2. Rxb6 mate

This could be the best letter problem (cf. 147) ever


composed . George Hume and Joe Bunting worked to
perfect it , and American Anthony Taffs recently added a
B B a7 instead of a BP to add a second promotion mate .
The solution spells out the letters KRPFD . Another
American , Edgar Holiday , suggested the letters could
represent (even if in more than one language) the six types
of chess piece s : K - King or Knight , R - Rook , P - Pawn , F -
Fou/Bishop , and D - Dame/Queen !
Letter problems should be fun and full of invention . Why
not Kasparov Refutes Prepared French Defence or Karpov
Repeats Position For Draw? Active minds to work !
C O M PO S E R I N D EX BY
PRO B LE M N U M B E RS

Alien F. B . 24 Harley B . I ntroduction , 72 ,


.
Andrade B . J . de C. 1 1 4 133
Andrews D . P . 22 Heathcote G. 103 , 105
Hume G . 4, 148
Banaszek M. 90
B arnes B . P . 1 8 , 25 , 56 , 59, Keeble J . 147
68 , 74 , 75 , 82 , 87 , 122 , 137 Kipping C . S . 7 , 99 , 1 13
Batchelor R . A . 35
Beal E J . 93 Langstaff W . 101
BiUington T . H . 12 Laws B . G . 1 1
Bolus A . 126 Lea J . P . 120
Bunting J . 79 , 148 Lewis B . N . 61
Lewis R . T . 3 , 10, 20, 69 , 70 ,
Challenger A . C . 8 94 , 98 , 1 1 6 , 121 , 128 , 146
Clark W . A . 144 Libby F . 46
Lipton M . 2 , 6, 28 , 58, 63 ,
D awson T . R . 1 3 , 14, 37 , 38 81 , 107 , 108 , 1 10 , 1 15 ·
Lytton C . J . 5 5
Feast F . B . 1 5 , 40 , 92 , 95 , 125
Fenner A . J . 30 Macleod N . A . 1 9 , 26 , 7 1 , 96 ,
Frankenstein E . N . 9 100 , 106 , 1 12 , 123 , 1 3 1"
1 35 , 140
Gill J . J . 66 Mansfield C . 73
Gleave W. 48 McDowell M . 27 , 29 , 83 , 87 ,
Gooderson A . R . 1 , 109 124
Guest F . H . 45 Moon J . F . 143
Morse Sir Jeremy 5 1 , 57 , 60 ,
Hancock R . 9 1 77 , 97 , 98 , 134

1 52
Composer Index By Problem Numbers 1 53

Neale H . R . 17, 41 Sumner C . R . B . 21


Sydenbam C . P. 36, 5 2 , 76,
Pierce J . 145 84, 1 18 , 129, 130 , 136,
141 , 142
Quack G . C . 3 1
Taverner T . 34
Rice J . M . 23 , 33 , 43 , 44 , 50 , Thompson W . H . 49
62 , 67
Vaugban C . 1 8 , 53
Shire D . J . 1 6 , 32 , 39 , 42 , 64 ,
78 , 80 , 86, 88 , 89, 1 17, Warton J . 127
. 1 32 , 1 3 8 , 1 39 Way C . J . 102
Slater G . J . 1 19 White H . 54
Smedley D . A . 85 , 121 Williams P.H . 5 , 47 , 104
Stubbs A . G . 1 1 1 Winter-Wood E.J. 65
I N D EX TO P R O B L E M
I D EAS AN D STRATEG I E S

Activity by Black piece 103 , Black Tertiary 61 , 62


1 04 Cross-checks 46 , 67 , 68 , 1 1 1 ,
Albino 23 1 12
Ambush 8 , 3 1 , 92 , 145 Cyclic play 6 , 50 , 5 1 , 52
Asymmetry 37 , 38
Dombrovskis theme 87
B anny theme 89 Dual-avoidance 44 , 1 10
Battery play 1 5 , 1 6 , 1 8 , 26 , Duels 97 , 1 3 1 , 134
40 , 97 , 121 , 122 , 123 , 133 , Duals 28 , 56, 68 , 1 10 , 1 12
137 , 144
Echo (Chameleon) 144
Board rotation 1 3 , 14, 17
En-passant 1 , 76 , 105
Bristol theme 142
Fleck theme 132
Castling 1 7 , 1 8 , 1 9 , 20 , 38 ,
Flight-taking key 60
1 35 , 136
Flights 7 , 73 , 74 , 1 19
Changed play 20 , 23 , 68 , 73 ,
Flights on Mate Squares 73 ,
75 , 76, 77 , 79 , 1 20 , 121 ,
82
122 , 136, 1 38 , 142 (see
Focal play 95 , 96, 103 , 104 ,
also Half-B attery , Mutate
124
and Zagoruj ko)
Check provocation 47 , 68 Gamage unpins 30
Checking key 49 , 50, 53 Grimshaw Black 54
Clearance key 1 33 , 142 Grimshaw White 5 3 , 55
Correction -
Arrival White 1 1 8 Half-Battery 106 , 107 , 108
Black Reciprocal 1 1 7 Half-Pin Black 1 13
Black Secondary 1 , 3 1 , 32 , Half-Pi� White 42 , 1 14
39, 43 , 44 , 78 , 1 3 1 , 1 32 Hannelius theme 88

1 54
Index To Problem Ideas And Strategies 1 55

Herpai theme 1 1 0 Paradox themes 73 , 74 , 75 ,


82 , 87 , 90
Interference - Pickabish theme 130
Black with Black 30 , 54, Pins -
80 , 130 (includes Black pins Black 29 , 52
Grimshaw , Nowotny Black pins White 40
and Valve ) White pins Black 28 , 57 ,
Black with White 77 , 1 17 58 , 59
White with Black 33 , 34 , White pins White 99 , 102 ,
35 , 36, 107 , 129 1 14
( incl udes Nowotny) Plus/Cross Flights 66
White with White 20, 32, Promotion play 2 , 60, 7 1 , 72 ,
39 , 53 , 55 , 5 6 , 1 1 7 , 129 , 134
1 39 Provisional key 24 , 9 1 , 104 ,
1 13
Java theme 6
Radical change 73
Le Grand Pseudo 85 , 86 Reciprocal change 1 1 5 , 1 16
Le Grand theme 83 , 84 Reciprocal play 83 , 109 , 1 15 ,
Letter Problem 147 , 148 1 16 , 1 17
Line play 6 , 109 , 1 17 Record 22 , 49 , 57 , 58 , 60 ,
62 , 97 , 98 , 1 1 6 , 125 , 1 34
Mansfield Couplet 29 Retrograde Analysis 1 8 , 19
Mate-transference 63 , 64 , Reversal themes 81-90
73 , 120 inclusive
Mates on Flight Squares 74 , Royal battery 26 , 123 , 125 ,
75 , 82 1 37 , 1 3 8 , Introduction
Mates on same square 46 , 76 Royal unpin 102
Miniature 90
Mirrored King 65 , 83 Sacrificial key 1 1 , 1 2 , 45
Model mates 8 Salazar Pseudo 82
Multi-Solution 52 , 53 Salazar theme 8 1
Mutate 3, 1 0 , 69 , 70 , 7 1 , 72 , Schiffmann defence 29 , 30
93 , 94 , 1 24 , 1 27 , 1 28 Self-blocks 21 , 22 , 45 , 79 ,
80 , Introduction
Nowotny 3 3 , 34 , 35 , 36, 107 Separation 132, 135 ·
Sequence reversal 8 1
Open Gate 5 , 77 , 78 Sequence reversal Pseudo 82
1 56 White To Play And Mate In Two

Set Play - Hints for Solving Unpins -


14 Black unpins Black 64 ,
Shut-offs 98 101
Simultaneous unpin 101 . Black unpins White 41 ,
Square-vacation 47 , 48 42, 43 , 44, 99 , 100, 101 ,
Stalemate Relief 26, 53 102
Star-Flights 65 , 66 White unpins Black 24,
Symmetry 37 , 38 26, 30
White unpins White 29
Task 22, 57 , 58, 60
Three Solutions 52 Valve 109 , 126
Tries 6, 23 , 66 , 130 Vladimirov theme 90
Tries with Common Aim 2,
67, 130, 131 , 139 , 140 ' Y-theme 120, 143 , 144, 145 ,
Twin 2, 1 3 , 14, 17, 18, 24, 146
25 , 26, 53 , 82, 83 , 107,
138 , 142 Zagoruj ko 25 , 26, 27 ; 28, 96
Two Solutions 53 Zeroposition 138

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