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Rom. J. Mineral Deposits, 78, p.

35-45, Bucureşti, 1997

NEOGENE MAGMATISM AND METALLOGENY IN THE


OAŞ-GUTÂI-ŢIBLEŞ MTS.j A NEW APPROACH BASED
ON RADIOMETRIC DATINGS

Marine! KOVACS, Oscar EDELSTEIN, Maria GAHOR


Cuarţ S.A., str. Victoriei 146, 4800 Baia Mare, România

Michel BONHOMME
Institute Dolomieu, 15, Rue Maurice-Gignoux, 38031 Grenoble Cedex, France

Zoltân PECSKAY
Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pf 51, H 4001 Debrecen, Hungary

Key words: Neogene volcanism. Epithermal ores.,~ndesites. K-Ar datings. Adularia.


Blite. Pannonian. O~-Gutâi-Ţible§Mts. East Carpilhians.

Abstract: The Oa§-Gutâi-Ţible§ Mts are studied with numerous occurrences of fresh
magmatic rocks and hydrothermaly altered rocks with ages reaching Badenian to the
youngest Upper Pannonian. K-Ar and Ar-Ar datings are the main tools for establishing
their distribution in time. Radiometric determinations on whole rocks, adularia and illite
were carried out at geochronological laboratories in Oebrecen, Jerusalem and Grenoble.
According to the available analytical datathe magmatic activity started in Badenian
("acid phase") and continued with a complex-intermediate volcanic activity ("interme-
diate phase") in Sarmatian and Pannonian. ACter a short period of quaiescence (about
1 million years) the volcanic activity tinished with basalts ("basic phase", 8.1-6.0 Ma)
around the Pannonian/Pontian boundary. Thedominant phase of magmatism belongs to
the Pannonian. A. continuation of the magmatism inta the Pontian-Pliocene has been the
subject of much debate. K-Ar determinations demonstrated that the O~-Gutâi- Ţible§
volcanismtinished earlier than was expected. The hydrothermal activity and metal-
logenetic events have developeddl,1n.ng the Pannonian (11.5-7.8 Ma). The previously .
. pnsft\ered Sarmatian and Pontr{tli'~~'ăses in the Gutâi M ts have not been proved. Based
-'on radiometric data, the metallogenesis in the Gutâi Mts consists of two main phases:
the tirst phase took place in the Lower Pannonian substage (11.S-10.0 Ma), including the
metallogenetical events from Ilba-Nistru and Sasar-Dealul crucii districts and the second
onewas in the Upper Pannonian (9.4-7.0 Ma) including those of Herja-Băiut district. The
metallogenetic activity in the Oa§ and Ţible§ Mts is contemporaneous with the second
phase of the Gutâi Mts (9.6- 7.8 Ma). The radiometric data give evidence of the presence
of a gap (0.5-1.5 Ma) between the ages of the epithermal mineralizations (adularia-sericite
type) and the host magmatic rocks (both volcanic and su-bvo\canic products). The results
obtained in Baia Mare are a are very similar tftO'se':~ other occurrences of the subduction
zones.

duction area locate<i &t the boundary of the East


European Plate (Bl~u et al., 1973; Rădulescu &
Introd uc tion Săndulescu, 1973). '.'".'
The Pre-Neogene basement consists of crystalline
The Oa.j-Gutâi- Ţible~ Mts belong to the Neo- rocks belonging to Median Dacides and Paleogene for-
genefQuaternary volcanic chain of the Eastern mations of Transcarpathian Flysch forming the Botiza,
c.:>
O>

K-Ar DATA Gutâi Mountains Sedlmenlary deposlts:


(AccordIng 10 EdeIsIeIn el o~ 1980) 1. Quafemary; 2. Ne<:>gene;
3.
10 km Igneous raclc.s:

Ponnonlon

6
7
Sarmallon 8 2 2.
---~

P')'Toxene
Badenlon 9 ITIIill 3 3.

2
4
3
4
5

and
anei dacltes

Mounfains

2
3
BULGAIIA
NEOGENE MAGMATISM AND METALLOGEN'l 37

lated to this area a deep-seated Neogene pluton was The Tibleş Mts represent a polystadial subvolcanic
recently put in evidence by geophysical studies (Borcoş complex consisting of two magmatic phases (Edelstein
et al., 1991, 1993, unpuhl. report). et al., 1981, unpubl. report; Uduba.§a et al., 1983):
The calc-alkaline character of the volcanism, their 1. an earlier acid phase including microgranodiorites
affinities with the island arc series, the presence of pre- and dacites and 2. an in'termediate phase consisting
vailing medium K rocks and the intense crustal con- of quartz monzodiorites (the main intrusion, Ţibleş
tamination of t.he parentalmagmas were emphasized Măgura Neagră) and quartz diorites, microdiorites and
by Kovacs et al. (1987, 1992). andesites (the ring of the main intrusion and the small
An important metallogenetical activity is related to intrusions situated around the ring or in the nortwest-
the Neogene magmatism in the Oaş-Gutâi-Ţibleş Mts. ern part of the Ţibleş Mts, Fig. 4).
Well-known base metal and gold epithermal ore de- K-Ar determinations on 15 magmatic rocks from
posits occur especially in the southern part of the the Ţibleş Mts have yielded a range of ages 11.3-8.3
Gutâi Mts (Baia Mare area). Ma. Thus, the magmatism in this area is con tempo-
The sequence of eruption cannot generally be es- raneous with the dominant phase of the volcanism of
tablished by mere observations because of lacking the Oaş-Gutâi Mts. On the other hand the previously
stratigraphic relations and intercalations. Therefore accepted stratigraphic succesion of magmatic activity
a meaningful correlation in the complex magmatic ac- agrees with the relevant K-Ar ages. Contrary to ex-
tivity and related metallogenesis can only be attained pectations (Edelstein et al., 1981, unpubl.; Udubaşa
by radiometric dating. et al., 1983), the small intrusions do not belong to the
The tirst K-Ar data on volcanics and adularia or second phase of magmatism. In fact they are slightly
sericite from different ore deposits in the Baia Mare older than the igneous rocks of the tirst phase (Hudieş
mining district were determined at the Institute of Peak- 10.6 Ma and Stegioara Peak - 10.9 Ma, respec-
Physics and Nuclear Engineering în Bucharest. tively).
In the last years a large-scale radiometric investî- The Gutâi Mts represent the unit with the most
gations were performed in a scientitic cooperat ion of complex volcanism. According to Giuşcă et al. (1973)
Cuarţ S.A. Baia Mare with the Institute of Nuclear and Borcoş et al. (1973) the volcanic p.ctivity de-
Research in Debrecen, Hungary, the Geological Sur- veloped in three cycles: the first cycle corresponds
vey of Israel in Jerusalem and the Dolomieu Institute to the Badenian-Buglovian volcanism, the second cy-
of the Joseph Fourier University în Grenoble, France. ele consists of four distinct phases between Sarmatian
At present more than 100 K- Ar data obtaîned on un- and Pontian and the third cycle includes the Pontian-
altered rocks (measured in Debrecen), 20 K-Ar and Upper Pliocene volcanics.
3 Ar-Ar data determined on adularîa (performed în
The K-Ar datings on the volcanic rocks from the
Jerusalem) and 26 k-Ar ages obt.ained on adularia
Gutâi Mts (Edelstein et al., 1993; Pecskay et al.,
and illite mineral fractions (measured in Grenoble) are 1994) do not contirm the presence of the Pontian and
available for establishing the evolution of the Neogene
Pliocene volcanics (Fig. 1).
magmatism and associated metallogenesis in the Oaş­
Gutâi-Ţibleş Mts.
A sequence of events can be set up on the basis
of field observations, petrographic consideratÎons and
geochronological data. The volcanism started with
.,Magmatism and metallogenYi
acid products, predominantly explosive, mainly ign-
geochronological data
imbritic character. Because of the strong alteration
The Oaş-G u tâi- Ţi bleş volcanic chain consists of of these volcanic rocks they have not been radiometri-
. three distinct units that show some pecularities re- cally dated yet. However, the products of this volcanic
garding the f'volution of the magmatic activity and phase have been determinated biostratigraphically as
the structural reatures. Badenian-Lower Sarmatian. These are fol\owed by an
The Oa.'i l\1t.s represent the northwestern part of the intermediate volcanic phase which consists of effusive
volcanic chaill and consist of Neogene volcanic and ancl explosive features with associated intrusive coun-
sedimentary rocks. On the hasis of biostratigraphical temparLs. Andesites and basaltic andesites, mainly
data, t.he volcanic products were generally considered with pyroxenic character are predominant. The com-
Pannonian and Pontian-Pliocene in age (Borcoş et al., plex andesitic volcanic activ.îty lasted about 4-5 Ma
1974, unpubl. report; Edelstein et al., 1980; Jude. (13.4-9.0 Ma). A basic phase, consisting of smal! in-
38

Table 1
Tbe succesion of tbe volcanic rocks
in the Gutâi Mts according witb tbe K-Ar ages'

PONTIAN Basic Pyroxene basalts zone) 6.9-8.1


7.0-8.5
IX Quartz, biotite, homblende,
pyroxeneandesiles (Gutin type) 9.0-9.3

VIII andesites and basaltic


andesites (Igniş-Mara, Săpînta and • 9.1-10.3

VII Amphibole andesites and dacites 10.0

PANNONIAN 1ntermediate VI andesites and basaItic


andesites and pyroxene, 10.1-10.9
homblende andesites (lereapăn
e
V bearing andesites 10.5-11.3

IV Biotite dacites 1l.6


-11.5±O.5- III 11.9 ?
II Pyroxene basaltic andesites and
SARMATIAN andesites and 12.1-13.4
Cavnic
roxene dacites 13.2
-13.6±O.2- Acid phase Volcaniclastic complex miunly
BADENIAN ignimbrites

durillg the intermediate phase (Tab. 1). The distribu- The hydrothermal alt.erations consist predOln~llantly
tion of the radiometric ages on these rocks of adularia-sericite type (typically
from the Gutâi Mts have led tothe conclusion that the especially in the Gutâi Mts) and only in some
dominant of volcanism took place in the Pan- areas advanced argillic An
nonian consisting predominantly of medium '''''U''''lUJ; from the of reducing H2 0-C0 2 -H 2 S
K ea\c-alkaline rocks (Fig. 3). solutions in a partially c10sed system, was
It is worth mentioning that the subvo\canic activity Stanciu (1984) for the of the alter-
in the Poiana Botizei-Botiza area (southeastern part of ation areas.
the Gutâi Mts) is contemporaneous "With the paroxysm The mineralizations cOl1sist of
of the voleanie activity in and Gu!.âi M ts 1). vem having a base-metal and gold-silver ehar-
NEOGENE MAGMATISM AND METALLOGENY 39

13.6 11.5 8.5 .7.0 5.6


50

W~. ~._- =S:. .:A.:. :R.:. :M. .:.:A:. :.T.:. :I.:. :A.:. :N __ +.--__---.:.P...:.A..:..N..:..N_O..:..N_I_A_N_ _ _ _ \r-- - __ . . ,. \ _P_O_N_TI_A_N_ _J..., ~
o .~ I l c
<
al
30

10

illk~111111111.1111i1 12 11 10 9 Ma

Fig. 2 - Distribution of the K-Ar ages on volcanic rocks in the Gutâi Mts (the histogra.m consists of a number
of determinations reported at 0.5 Ma time interval)

lsland Arc.
Calcalkalic
Series Tholeiitic Ser ies

V'" VC~TH
MgO
Continental
Margi~
Calcalkalic
Series
Alkal ic Series

A~------------------------~M

-
2 --- " • :: •...: 1,: ':. ':':"::' :::~.:.:•••,. 'MEDII'M K
,,- .,.:.:_" :~:,,':
' : : : ••: • .::':;•• ,,' -. UI

1 .... " " ',- : ..::.:"


LOY K
52 56 63 70

Fig. 3 - Distribution of the volcanic rocks belonging to the intermedJate and basic phases" in the Gutâ.i Mts in the
AFM, MgO-FeO+Fe203 and K20-Si02 diagrams

ader. The stockworks and breccia pipes are subordi- 1983, 1984).
nate. A hidden porphyry copper system was described In most of the cases the mineralizations developed
in the southern part of the Ţjbleli Mts (Udub~a et al., almost entirely as vertical or subvertical veins of sev-
40

o 1km

B
9
10
10.9 11
t7.Si8.0112

Fig. 4 - Melallogenetic map of the l'ible§ Mts to Udub1l§a el. al, 1983) with radio-
metric data. 1. Oligo-Miocene sedimentary 2. microgranodiorites and dacites; 3. quartz
monzoclioritesj 4. quartz microcliorites and andesites (the of the main intrusion); 5. cliorites,
quartz diorites, mierodiorites and andesites; 6. externa! of lower temperature vein assem-
7. inner zone of high temperature vein 8. copper enriched ores and the
porphyry system; 9. Mo-Cu-Zn-Ti-B 10. vein!!; 11. K-Ar age!! of the
igneous TOcks; 12. K-Ar ages on sericite

eraI hundred of meters up to 5 km in and down good accordance and correspond to the presumed end
ta 800 m in depth. The of the ore of the volcanism in the Mts.
reveals a well vertical zonality: silver In the Mts a adÎv-
in the upper part, lead-zinc in the middle part and ity took place. Two main mineralization types were de-
copper in the part Iy in the Gutâi Mts). scribed by Udub~a et al. (1983, 1984): 1. a vein sys-
In the O~ the main ore Socea-Tarna tem which forms some distinct metallogenetical belts
Mare, Ghezuri and Penigher- have a base metal and 2. and disseminated ores.
character. Each of them a peculiar ore struc- The last one includes a hidden with
ture. The Sacea ore deposit represents an andesit.ic magnetite and chalcopyrite, developed in the south-
alructure with associated inlravolcanic eastern of the main monzodioritic intrusion, and
intrusions. The mineralizations consist of a vein sys- a dissemÎnated mineralization with sphalerite-rutile-
tem located both in voIe-anica and in intrusions and in Valea Mesteacănului area
of some breccia columns (Iike breccia pipes). The (northeastern paft of the massif).
Ghezuri ore an intrusi ve slructure U ntil now, only two samples of sericite from the vein
dacites (microgranodiorites) with a vein sys- of Izvorul Rău II gallery (Bonhomme, 1993, unpubl.)
tem located at the western flank of the intrusion. The were radiometrically dated (7.8 and 8.0 Ma respec-
Penigher ore is very similar with the Ghezuri tively). These ages are younger than the radiometric
structure but the veins are located only within the in- ages determined on rocks Fig. 4).
trusÎon (microdioritcs-monzodioritcs) The best known ore deposits occur in the southern
The ages of the two adularia obtained part of the Gutâi Mts (Baia Mare
in Grenoble laboratory (9.7 Ma from and in et aI. (1973) and & Lang (
Jerusalem Jaboratory (9.2 Ma from are in metallogenetic events in the Gutâi Mts took
NEOGENE MAGMATISM AND METALLOGENY 41

Table 2. Radiometric
from the Gu!.âi

1. Rase metal metallogcnetical field llua - Nistru IPb - Zn + Cu ± Au, AgJ

Colbului Purcărcţ Mihai-Nepomuc Nistru


Valley ore deposit ore deposit ore deposit
ore deposit
11. 10.8 ± 0.2 (4) 11.5 ± 0.2 (2)
(Ad) (Ad)
0.7 ± 0.6 (2)
(III) .
10.6 ± 0.3
,
(Ad)
Ar-Ar
2. Gold cpithcrmal slstcm Săsar - Dealul Crucii metallogcnctical field [Au - Ag ± Pb,
Zn)

BOrzllŞ Dealul Crucii


ore deposit ore deposit
10.0 10.8 ± 0.3 (5) 10.8 ± 0.2 (3)
(Ad) (Ad) (Ad) (Ad) (Ad)
10.1 ± 0.2
. (Ad)

AI-AI
3. Blise metal (± gold) metallogenetical lield Herja ~ Biiiuţ (Pb - Zn ± Cu + Au, Agl

Baia Spric Ca\'nic


ore deposit ore deposit

8.8 ± 0.6 (1) 8.9 ± 0.4 (5) 9.3 ± 0.2 (1) 9.3 ± 0.5 (2) 9.0 ± 0.7 (2)
(III) (Ad) (Ad) (III) (III)
8.2 ± 0.7 (3)
(III)
7.9 ± 0.2
(Ad)
Ar-Ar
... ,

.;::..
t-:>

x x )<
" '"
x
" x x
" o
L
5
J
10km
I

".. .. - _
x
" ~
",/x x
"
~I
.. .. --.. ...................
Colbului Valley ......... , x x
" "
o I" ~
/1- !.4;h:>i-Nepomuc·,\ x
"
x -.! ~rg x x x
Seini
\. -- _ ~ /Nistr Q

"
'\....... :::- ..::::,;;; .J " x x x
Purc~r~x //;1></ ./ WHh~JJ1! ..
. - . _ . _ . _ .............. \ 1'1/ .... ".
x ~ x x_ x
fSofia '. '.
"
:. / Borzaş Dd'~ul ...
1// II = ".
·· .• ;:'1 /1 x /[11 ruCII:!
*- /1\, /' ~·I
··.Valea Rosle

Baiut
/;:::..- \
Văratec)
-'
el __
'l
-....... ............... --...".../
........
,/
./

r;";j 2

/3
C-· . .·
._._•.1 4

(:::.~: ..) 5
r---"
... __ .......... 6

~
~
. Fig. 5 - The main ore ~eposits from the Gutâi Mts: 1, Quatemary, Neogene and Paleogene sedimentary deposits; 2, Neogene volcanic rocks; 3, Veins; O
4, Base metal metallogenetical field Uba-Nistru; 5, Gold epithermal system SlLsar-Dealul Crucii metallogenetical field; 6, Base metal (± gold), ~
metallogenetical field Herja-Băiut. @
~
~
:""-
NEOGENE MAGMATISM AND METALLOGENY 43

I
OAŞ MTS. GU TÂ I M T S. I ŢIBlEŞ H T S.
MI! I
I
I

~"'i
7

BS T
® +
8 e 8.0 +
+
H
BV
9 G Su (
+
)(
X +
s
X So
z li
< le
10 z VR
a
z
~ X

~
De
~+
/

11
[V <>/ W x
X
MN N 11 :
;- x b

12

13
1
//

I
I
7.<.",2,'
"/
'/

/
el I
13,4

I I
14 I I
I

<
al

Fig. 6 Geochronological the magmatic and the hydrothennal K- bearing from the main deposits ilO
the O&jGutâi· Ţible§ Mts; columns ::: time interval recorded dales in fresh magmatic rocks:
a::: pyroxene basaltic an~esites and andesites (~J.,Y~);
b = quartz bearing andesites (Piscuiatu type);>
c =pyroxene basaltic andesites'and pyroxene, hi>rn~nde andesites (Jereaplm type);
d ::: pyroxene andesites and andesites Săpîn~a and type);
e = pyroxene basalts (Firiza
f = suhvolcanic Întrusions from Poiana Botizei
x ::: K-Ar ages on adularia: ::: Ar-Ar ages on adularia (Lang el al, 1994);
+ = K-Ar ages on illite;
ore deposits: S::: Socea; G ::: Ghezuri; CV = Colbul VaIley (llba); P = Purcăreţ; MN = Mihai Nepomuc; N = Nistru; So ::: S~ar
. (Sofia); Wilhelm; B VR = Valea DC = Dealul H = HeTja; Baia Sprie; Şu.ior; C =
Cavruc BV ~ Băiu; T :::. Ţibleş.
44

The "'C.I'.U,(l,.'" in a shorter time


Ma
considered
The Pontian and Pliocene volcanic
On the other hand the radio-
also confirm
9

In the Gutâi Mts the volcanism ceased with a basic

was with the parox-


ysm of the volcanicity of the Mts.
The and metallogenic events
developed in a short time interval (11.5 - 7.8 Ma).
Thf'Y started after the of the intermediate
volcanic phase of the Gutâi Mts anci only
during the Pannonian.
Fig. 7 The relationships between the radiogenic ages OII
III the Gutâi Mts the adivity de-
adulada and iJlite and the spatial distribution of the main oce and 7): the
vdoped in (3
deposits in the Gutâi Mts;)( radiogenic ages of the I1ba-Nislm
tirst Pannonian (11.5
district ore deposits; " == radiogenic ages of the Săsar-Dealul
10 Ma), events from
Crucii district; + == radiogenic ages of the Herja-BlUu~
IIba-Nistru and Săsar-Dealul Crucii and the
district
s"cond one is in the 7.9 Ma),
three phases: ,. including those rrom
1) The Sarmatian phase relatcd to t.he Sarmatian an- The
desitic volcanism developed in the Ilba-Băita district; with
2) the Pannonian phase related to the Pannon- Mts (9.6 - 7.8 Ma).
andesites corresponding to the Băita-Valea The presence of a gap (0.5 - 1.5 Ma) between
district; the ages of the mineralizations
the Pontian phase associat.ed to the Pontian an- sericite and the host rocks in Baia
desites type) developed in the Dealul Crucii- Mare area is very similar as
district. rences rrom the subduction
The K-Ar and Ar-Ar datings on adularia from some McKee et al
ore in Baia Mare area (Lang et aL, 1994) do
not confirm the previous considerations regarding the
events. Based on these radiometric
data the Sarmatian and the Pontian ages for the first
and the third have not been the hy- The authors wish to thank S.A. in Baia Mare,
drothermal adivity took place only during the Pan- the Institute of Nuclear Research in the
Dolomieu Institute in Grenoble, the
on adularia and illite rrom the of Israel in Jerusalem for facilitating this study.
mam ore al, the Dolomieu In- Ar dating performed in Hungary, was spon-
stitute in Grenoble 1993, unpubL data). sored by the Hungarian National ScÎentific Research
AII the available radiometric data for the ore deposits Found (OTKA) Project No. T 7293. Dr. G.
from the Gutiii Mts 5) are presented in Table 2. is t.hallked for helpful comments on the paper and for
In most cases the ages represent an average value of improvement of the verSlOn.
determinations performed in two ore three laborato-
ries (the number between brackets coincides with the
number of K- Ar determinations). References

Bleahu, M., Boccaletti M., Manetti, P., Peltz, S


Conclusions
Neogene Carpathian arc: a cont.inental arc <lisplaying
features of an "island ace". Journ. of Geophlls. Rea., 78,
The radiometric data obtained on fresh rocks and
p. 5025-5032.
on hydrothermal K-bearing minerals rrom different ore
BoI'co§, M., Lang, B., Peltz, S., Stan, N. Vol-
led ta a new interpretation of the evolution of
carusme neogene des Monts Gutâi. Rev. Roum. Geo!.,
the activity and associated metallogeny in Geophys., Geog'r., Ser. Geologie, p. Bu-
the Mts. cure~ti.