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“A Complex "Math" Calculation Tool (Logarithm)”


- A short paragraph to. -

by:
Kafrawi Muhammad Tuara
Nichlason FX. Iwanggin

A briefly task for:


Postgra. Program of System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
2015
1

A COMPLEX "MATH" CALCULATION TOOL


(LOGARITHM)

In the higher school (collages), Math material usually taught is the


development of materials in education level before, such as logarithms.
Logarithm is a Mathematical operation that is the inverse of the exponent or
the rank numbers.

1. Logarithm what does it mean?

Fig 1. Logarithm inverse function to exponential

Logarithm is often used to solve the equations that a rank is unknown. In


the world of mathematics, we recognize various symbols operations,
including the most familiar such “+” as a symbol of the command to “Sum” or
“x”— as a symbol of the command to “Multiply”. And the symbol of
command whether the logs is? ...
In general, the basis of logarithm is follows:
a
log b  c oˆ a c  b (i)
With:
a  0, a a  1, b  0 (ii)

 It is called the main number of logarithm or basis


 It is called the numbers on the logarithmic
 It is called the basis of logarithm results
2

The 10 of main numbers should not be written; because it is depending on


the following most of logarithm basis formula:

a c  b a or a
log b  c (iii)
Where:
a : basis number
b : logarithm numbers
c : results logarithm

For example:

log8  3 oˆ 23  8,
2
log125  3 oˆ 53  125
5

Following are the properties of Logarithms math tools:


 a
log a  1

 log (a  b)  log a  log b
1

 log 2
 log a  log b

 log n  n log a
 log b
 a
log b  p
log a
 log b  1 log a
a
b
 a n log b m  m  alog b
n
 log b  log c  a log c
a b

 a a log b  b
The Operation log is one of the triumvirates of root operations, and also
the log rank. If the each of operations reworded into a language of symbols,
then all the three will form a connecting amongst the commands as follows:
Operating rank ab = x
Root operation = a
Operation log = ……
If known the rank operation log is “ab = x”, in the root operation, which
was ordered is to find … a, rank of the operation, and in the operation log,
which commanded the operation is to find … b, rank of the root operation.
And then for … a, is in the operation quantity raised to the rank, while …b, is
the rank quantity.
3

Furthermore, if we have a math statement 10Log 100, then what we are


going to commanded to seek the rank of number 10 which makes 10 number
that it could be changing to the value of 100. As we know that the 10 squared
is 100, and then the answer to that statement is 2, which a number that
makes the 10 changing to the 100 value.

2. The Complex Calculations

Fig 2. Natural logarithm integral

Before the advent of calculators, logarithms become an important tool to


help perform very complex calculations. This is because the ability of the
logarithm to change the operation of multiplication of the numbers is very
big into operation the sum of the numbers are much smaller but with the
same results accurate. As an illustration of the simplicity of calculations using
logarithms, suppose there is a multiplication of the following:
100,000 — 1,000,000

The multiplication above is involving the two of large numbers, and that is
the numbers with 6 digits and 7 digits and these numbers generated is 12
digits. By logarithm, the calculation made to the two large numbers that can
be converted into the sum than the results appear to the each of that
numbers, that no more than one digit only, namely:
10log 100.000 + 10log 1.000.000
= 5 + 6 = 11 »» it is just producing no more than 2 digits
only!
By using anti logarithms table, we can determine what is the equivalent of
11 is, and that is producing to the two large numbers above. We have no
longer need to bother to perform the calculations of multiplication, because
that is very long and tiring. All we need is just a tool in the form of a table of
logarithms and anti-logarithms, and then perform a very simple summation
operation.
4

3. The Rationale & the Real Simple of Logarithm

Fig 3. Logarithm Derivative

The rationale behind in the real simple of Logarithm, which is make the 2
rows of numbers. Which is a geometric sequence with initial rate is 1. The
ratio between the numbers of free, but we suppose the ratio between the
closest numbers is 2 times. Thus, the number of the second term is 2 times the
number of the first rate; the third-rate number is 2 more than times of the
number of the second term, and so on. So, we have a geometric sequence are:
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192
Then create another sequence of numbers, but this time arithmetic
sequence. Numbers first rate is 0. The difference between the closest
numbers is up, but for the sake of simplicity, we make only difference is 1. So,
the arithmetic sequences that we have are:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
We put the line geometry and arithmetic sequences are adjacent to each
other to be as follows:
 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192
 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

What is interesting from the two rows of numbers above are as follows:
1. If we add up the two members of the second row of numbers, then the
result of numbers would be in to the same position with the number of
multiplication results from the two members of the first sequence of
numbers that are both parallel to the two fruit member first sequence
number.
2. For example, if we add the 4 and 5 will we get the number 9. In the above
number 4, there are 16 numbers, and the above numbers 5, there are 32
numbers. If we make a multiply to the numbers 16 and 32, then we find
an answer is 512. So then, where numbers 512 is? Absolutely it is just
above to the number 9!
5

3. What distinguishes between the logarithm that we learned in school and


our calculation from the example above? Of course, that is the logarithm
we learn, and the two rows of numbers used are:
 1, ….., 10, ….., 100, ….., 1000, ….., 10000
 0, ….., 1, ….., 2, ….., 3, ….., 4
Furthermore, the points is between in the two of numbers in the second
row above are the whole numbers that are in between the two numbers with
the ratio and difference respectively.

4. The Natural Logarithm


The equation y = ax in the equivalent exponent form of the equation y = a
log x in logarithmic form. If a > 0 and a ≠ 0 then the function defined by g (x)
= a log x with x > 0 is called a logarithmic function. For further writing the
logarithm function is simply written with the form.
f ( x)  logx. (iv)
or, y  a logx. (v)
or, y  logax (vi)
The number of e, then can be defined as a unique real number a where ln
(a) = 1. Thus, it can be concluded that the relationship between Logarithm
Natural and Logarithm is common in its operation: Logx = (lnx) (lne). The
Equal Logarithmic Equations and Natural Logarithms are present in the
properties contained in both. But both also have differences namely; the
logarithm has a basis that depends on its principal number, whereas ln has a
basis i.e. e with value e = 2.71828 18284 59045 23536 02874 71352
.............., and so on.
When start to analyzing a problem, where the first problem to be solved is to
determine an output of a Natural Logarithm first. The value of this natural
logarithm is basically taken from the data or the actual outputs depending on
the cases analysis. The values of Natural Logarithm function is an early
indicator in initiating the analysis use an improvisation means.
Determination of the initial value of Natural logarithm using the following
equation:
y
log e ( x)
f ( x)   χ (vii)
n (m)

Where:
f(x) : Function that returns a scalar
n : Number of object rank (m)
y : Determinations of logarithm values
x : Values of authentic data n divided 2
 (chi) : 1. 5 is identifying output of minimum of the lnx or lne
6

5. The Inventors of Logarithm


There must be wondering that who is the inventor of this logarithmic
theory? A person who was a figure behind the genius idea to transform a
complex multiplication process into a simple summation process? He was a
Scottish Mathematician named John Napier (1150-1617). But, the idea
developed by Napier basis logarithmic number was not 10 as we known
today. Napier prefer numbers are closely related to the size of the earth, and
it is number the ten rank seven (107) = 10,000,000. The numbers then
become part of the base number chosen by Napier. For 20 years, Napier
performs careful calculation to establish a table of logarithms.
The struggle for 20 years it generates a table of logarithms with a range of
values between 5 and 10 million. Logarithm term used by Napier and this
"word" was the result of a combination of the two words, namely the
"LOGOS" which means the "Ratio", and "ARITHMOS" which means
"Numbers". In 1614, Napier's work was published under the title: “Mirifici
Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio”• (The Beautiful Rules of Logarithm
Description). After he work was published in 1614, then there was another
British mathematician named Henry Briggs (1561-1630), who was amazed
by the work of Napier, Napier came. During the meeting, Briggs proposes to
use the basis of 10 numbers because it is simpler. Napier approves the
proposal. There exist a number 10 as a new basis of logarithms. The basis 10
number of Logarithm is then we learn in mathematics at school till today.
On the other hand, “Joost Bürgi” in Switzerland independently discovered
logarithms, but did not publish his discovery until four years after Napier.
Before the invention of calculators and computers, they made difficult
calculations more feasible, helping to advance astronomy, surveying,
navigation and mathematics. Napier also used some of his mathematical
talents in theology and believed that his book predicting the Apocalypse was
his most important work. He was convinced the end of the world would be in
1688 or 1700. Unfortunately he died in 1617, so it was not around to find
about, but absolutely he was wrong on that one only.

Acknowledge
This article has been writing on this wall blog: http://wikinut.com/in/tkkklg

References
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Napier
- Kreyszig Erwin, Kreyszig Herbert, Edward J. Norminton., Advanced Engineering
Mathematics 10th. ISBN 978-0-470-45836-5; 2011. Publisher Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- https://www.nationalgalleries.org/collection/artists-a-z/c/artist/copy-by-.....
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Briggs_%28mathematician%2
- https://guides.wikinut.com/The-Strange-Findings-of-Pi-%CF%80-
Value/179ktdt5/