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1. What is a TURBINE???
 A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a
fast-moving flow of water, steam, gas, air, or other fluid and converts it
into useful work.
 A turbine is a turbo-machine with at least one moving part called a
rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached.
 Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart
rotational energy to the rotor.
The working principle is very much simple.

• When the fluid strikes the blades of the turbine, the blades are displaced,
which produces rotational energy.

• When the turbine shaft is directly coupled to an electric generator

mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.

• This electrical power is known as hydroelectric power.

3. Basic types of turbines

• Water Turbine

• Steam Turbine

• Gas Turbine

• Wind Turbine

Although the same principles apply to all turbines, their specific designs differ sufficiently to
merit separate descriptions.

3.1. Water turbines

• Impulse turbines

• Reaction turbines

3.1.1. Impulse Turbine

• In an impulse turbine, fast moving fluid is fired through a narrow nozzle at the turbine blades
to make them spin around.
• The blades of an impulse turbine are usually bucket-shaped so they catch the fluid and direct
it off at an angle.

• In an impulse turbine, the fluid is forced to hit the turbine at high speed.

Types of Impulse Turbines

I. Pelton Turbine

II. Cross-flow Turbine Pelton Wheel

• These are usually used for high head, low flow power plants.

• It was invented by Lester Ella Pelton in the 1870s.

• Nozzles are direct forceful, high speed streams of water against a rotary series of spoon-
shaped buckets, also known as impulse blades, which are mounted around the circumferential
rim of a drive wheel also called a runner.

• As the water jet hit the bucket-blades, the direction of water velocity is changed to follow the
contours of the bucket.

• Water impulse energy exerts torque on the bucket and wheel system, spinning the wheel; the
water stream itself does a "uturn" and exits at the outer sides of the bucket.

• Pelton wheels operate best with Drop height: (50 - 2000 m) and Flow rate is (4 - 15 m3/s) Cross-flow Turbine

• It is developed by Anthony Michel, in 1903 and is used for low heads. (10–70 meters)

• As with a water wheel, the water is admitted at the turbine's edge. After passing the runner, it
leaves on the opposite side.

• Going through the runner twice provides additional efficiency.

• The cross-flow turbine is a low-speed machine that is well suited for locations with a low head
but high flow.

3.1.2. Reaction Turbine

• In a reaction turbine, forces driving the rotor are achieved by the reaction of an accelerating
water flow in the runner while the pressure drops. The reaction principle can be observed in a
rotary lawn sprinkler where the emerging jet drives the rotor in the opposite direction.
• In reaction turbines torque developed by reacting to the fluid's pressure. The pressure of the
fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades.

Types of Reaction Turbines

• Kaplan Turbine

• Francis Turbine

• Kinetic Turbine Kaplan Turbine

• The Kaplan turbine is a water turbine which has adjustable blades and is used for low heads
and high discharges.

• It was developed in 1913 by the Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan.

• The Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid
changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy.

• The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed
tangentially through the wicket gate and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to
spin. The Kaplan turbine having drop height: 10 - 700 m and Flow rate 4 - 55 m3/s. Francis Turbine

• The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B.Franceis and are
used for medium head(45-400 m) and medium discharge.(10-700 m^3/s)

• The Francis turbine is a type of reaction turbine, a category of turbine in which the working
fluid comes to the turbine under immense pressure and the energy is extracted by the turbine
blades from the working fluid.

• The turbine's exit tube is shaped to help decelerate the water flow and recover the pressure.

• Water flow is radial from exterior to interior. Kinetic Turbines

• Kinetic energy turbines, also called free-flow turbines, generate electricity from the kinetic
energy present in flowing water.

• The systems may operate in rivers, man-made channels, tidal waters, or ocean currents.

• Kinetic systems utilize the water stream's natural pathway.

• They do not require the diversion of water through manmade channels, riverbeds, or pipes,
• They might have applications in such conduits.

• Kinetic systems do not require large civil works; however, they can use existing structures such
as bridges, tailraces and channels and do not require any dam or reservoir.

3.2. Steam Turbine

• A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to
do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.

• This turbine was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884

• Steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power plants, such as
plants using coal fuel oil or nuclear fuel.

• Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small to large . used as mechanical
drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment, used to generate electricity
(upto1.5 GW).

3.3. Gas turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of internal combustion engine.

• Fresh atmospheric air flows through a compressor that brings it to higher pressure.

• Energy is then added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so the combustion generates a
high-temperature flow.

• Gas turbines are used to power aircraft, trains, ships, electrical generators or even tanks.

3.4. Wind Turbine

• A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power.

• Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components.

• The rotor component, includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational

• The generator component, includes the electrical generator, the control electronics, and most
likely a gearbox

• The structural support component, includes the tower etc

• Wind turbine used for charging batteries may be referred to as a wind charger.

Types of wind turbines

3.4.1. Horizontal-axis wind turbines
• Horizontal-axis wind turbines are being parallel to the ground, the axis of blade

rotation is parallel to the wind flow.

3.4.2. Vertical-axis wind turbines

• Vertical-axis wind turbines has its blades rotating on an axis perpendicular to the ground.

4. References
• Mechanical engineering department manuals Bhagwant university Ajmer.

• Fluid mechanics with engineering applications 10 edition by

John Fennimore and Joseph B. Fanzine

• Hydraulics and Fluid mechanics by E.H.Lewitt 10th edition