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Matter and energy.

Matter: anything we can see, touch, taste or smell. It is everything on our planet and in the Universe is made up of matter. Materials: are made up of matter, and we use materials to make things. Physical changes of state. Matter has different properties, like shape, size and state. States of matter:

 

GASES

LIQUIDS

SOLIDS

SHAPE

No definite. Change to the form of the container.

No definite. Change to the form of the container.

Definite. When we put a solid in a container, the shape doesn't change.

VOLUME

No definite. Fill the container they are in.

Definite. We can change the container but the amount of liquid stays the same.

Definite. We can change the container but the amount of solid stays the same.

Physical changes: the properties of matter which can change. Bend, twist, press and stretch are examples of physical changes. Mixtures. A mixture is something that contains two o more different materials, incluiding the air. In some mixtures we can see the different materials, but in others is impossible. Separating materials in a mixture:

We can separate the different materials in a mixture by sieving, filtering or evaporating.

Sieving: good for separating solids of different sizes.

Filtering: good for separating solids and liquids.

Evaporing: good for separating a solid that is dissolved in a liquid. Energy. Energy is important for everything we do.

Thermal energy: is in anything that is hot. The Sun produces lots of thermal energy.

When we heat a material, we are adding thermal energy to it. thermal energy can make materials change state. Solid liquid = melting. Liquid gas = evaporation.

Light energy: The Sun produces lots of light energy. Plants need light energy to grow.

We use electrical energy for lots of things in out homes.

Properties of materials in the way thay respond yo electricity. Electrical conductors: electricity can pass through this

materials. metals and water. Electrical insulators: materials don't allow electicity to pass. wood and plastics.

Things that make a noise have sound energy.

Everything that moves has kinetic energy.