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Particularities of FSSC 22000 - Food safety


management system

Article in Journal of environmental protection and ecology · January 2015

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Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology 16, No 1, 274–279 (2015)

Environmental management – food safety

PARTICULARITIES OF FSSC 22000 – FOOD SAFETY


MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

E. CONDREAa*, G. CONSTANTINESCUb, A. C. STANCIUa,


M. CONSTANDACHEc
a
Faculty of Economics Sciences, ‘Ovidius’ University of Constanta, 5 Dumbrava
Rosie Street, 900 613 Constanta, Romania
E-mail: elenacondrea2003@yahoo.com
b
Faculty of Food Engineering,‘Stefan cel Mare’ University of Suceava,
13 Univeritatii Street, 720 429 Suceava, Romania
c
Faculty of Touristic and Commercial Management,’Dimitrie Cantemir’
Christian University, 90A Dezrobirii Street, 900 234 Constanta, Romania

Abstract. FSSC 22000 (Food Safety System Certification) has been recognised by the Global Food
Safety Initiative (GFSI) as a food safety standard in 2010. FSSC 22000 is a full certification scheme
for food safety management systems based on ISO 22000:2005 and ISO/TS 22002-1:2009. FSSC
22000 has been developed to meet food industry companies, processors of both the animal and plant
respectively foods, and that of producers of food ingredients such as food additives, vitamins and
bio-cultures, etc. However, FSSC 22000 includes transport and storage activities where they are
part of the work performed by the companies producing/processing in food industry. In this paper
we tried to present some of the particularities of implementing a food safety management system
as required by FSSC 22000. The benefits of implementation, namely certification of food safety
management systems according to FSSC 22000 for processors/producers as well as consumers, re-
cipients of products put on the market by the requirements of FSSC 22000 certified companies were
also highlighted. In order to develop this paper we consulted both standards, as well as numerous
materials from certification bodies, respectively FSSC 22000 certified organisations.
Keywords: FSSC 22000, ISO 22000, food safety and quality.

AIMS AND BACKGROUND


Among the main objectives of GFSI – Global Food Safety Initiative (The Global
Food Safety Initiative), coordinated by CIES – The Food Forum of Firms (The
Food Business Forum), in cooperation with IMF – Food Marketing Institute (Food
Marketing Institute) we find:
● Improving the quality and safety of foods;
● Ensuring consumer protection;
● Strengthening consumer confidence;

*
For correspondence.

274
● The harmonisation of the requirements laid down in different standards/
systems of quality and food safety;
● Improve cost efficiency throughout the food chain;
● Development and implementation of an international early warning system.
The main standards recognised by GFSI and imposed by some networks su-
permarkets on their suppliers (especially those that produce their own brand) are:
● BRC (British Retail Consortium) Global Standard-Food;
● IFS (International Food Standard);
● FSSC 22000 (Food Safety System Certification), which is based on ISO
22000 and BSI-PAS 220:2008 (British Standards Institution – Publicly Available
Specification).
Many retail organisations require manufacturer suppliers of food products
to implement and certify at least one of the BRC and/or IFS systems to become
business partners.
However, most operators in the food industry know that it is not enough to
certify food safety systems that they have implemented at the level of their organi-
sation using FSSC 22000 certification scheme to be able to market the products
in supermarket networks.
Based on this, in this paper we intend to present some important aspects about
the implementation of a food safety system and respectively FSSC 22000 certifi-
cation, aspects that may help those interested in getting to know more about this
standard, the benefits that the companies could have if they would certify a food
safety system as FSSC 22000.

FOOD SAFETY SYSTEM CERTIFICATION. GENERAL ASPECTS


FSSC 22000 (Food Safety System Certification) has been recognised by the Global
Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) as a food safety standard in 2010. The FSSC 22000
standard is supported by the European Food and Drink Association and AIB (Ameri-
can Institution of Bakering). FSSC 220002 was elaborated/developed to meet the
requirements of the food industry companies (the processors/manufacturers of
animal food products and respectively perishable vegetable foods, as well as the
processors/producers of high shelf life food products, as well as food ingredients
such as food additives, vitamins and bio-cultures, etc. Moreover, FSSC 22000
includes transport and storage activities where they are part of the work performed
by producing/processing the companies in the food industry.
Food business operators who have certified the food safety management system
according to ISO 22000:2005 can be certified according to FSSC 22000 from an
additional audit in conformity with BSI-PAS 220:2008 or ISO/TS 22002-1:2009
(Software prerequisites for food safety. Part 1: Manufacture of foods).

275
Relating to FSSC development, in July 2011 the scope of FSSC was extended
for producers of materials used in food packaging, in conformity with PAS 223:2011
(Prerequisite programmes and design requirements for food safety in the manufac-
ture and provision of food packaging) and in February 2012 for feed manufacturers
in accordance with the requirements of PAS 222:2011 (Prerequisite programmes
on food safety for manufacturing food and feed for animals).
In response to food crises that occurred over time, major manufacturers and
retailers have introduced various customised standards that can be harmonised using
FSSC 22000 as a base and adding specific additional requirements, if necessary3.

CERTIFICATION OF FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN


CONFORMITY WITH FSSC 22000
We know that most food industry operators want to strengthen their market position
by both ensuring a high level of manufactured products, and especially through
ensuring their food safety. All these are not possible without the implementation
of quality management systems, respectively food safety management.
Thus, the competent bodies have developed and implemented numerous spe-
cific standards such as management schemes, including those covered by our study.
FSSC 22000 is a full certification scheme for food safety management sys-
tems based on ISO 22000:2005 and respectively ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 (BSI-
PAS 220:2008 standard replaced in March 2012), which details the requirements
regarding2:
● The construction and location of buildings, workspaces;
● Adequacy and accessibility of equipment, including cleaning, maintenance
and preventive maintenance;
● Provide installations for utilities – water, energy, air and other utilities;
● Management of purchased materials;
● Support services, including garbage and waste;
● Program of cleaning and disinfection;
● Pest control;
● Hygiene of personnel;
● Various facilities for employees;
● Measures to prevent cross-contamination;
● Product recall procedures;
● Storage;
● Protection of food against sabotage and bio-terrorism;
● Product information;
● Consumer awareness on food quality and safety.
The FSSC certification scheme was developed for the following fields of
food industry3:

276
● Manufacture of perishable animal products (e.g. milk and dairy products,
chilled meat, meat products, chilled fish, fish products);
● Manufacture of perishable vegetable products (e.g. packed fruits and veg-
etables, fresh juices, fruit and/or vegetables);
● Manufacture of food products characterised by a high shelf life in the con-
ditions of preserving/storage at ambient temperature (e.g. sugar, mineral water,
alcohol and soft drinks, flour, pasta, canned fruits/vegetables/meat/fish condiments;
stimulants);
● Manufacture of food ingredients such as vitamins, additives and bio-cultures
(excluding technical and technological aids);
● Manufacture of food packaging materials.
Implementation of food safety systems according to FSSC 22000 involves
the following items4:
● A food safety management system operating in accordance with ISO
22000:2005;
● Preliminary programmes as they are stipulated in BSI-PAS 220:2008;
● Specifications for services such as transportation and maintenance, and
supervision of staff in the application of the principles of food safety.
Requirements and respectively guidance specific to FSSC 22000 certification
scheme can be grouped as4:
● Food safety system requirements as well as how to apply for certification;
● Requirements for receiving certification, including regulations for certifica-
tion bodies and for the harmonisation committee;
● Requirements for receiving accreditation, including rules for accreditation
bodies and regulations addressed to the Management Committee.
The process of implementation and respectively certification of food safety
management system according to the requirements of FSSC 22000 requires steps
specific to the implementation/certification of food safety management system ac-
cording to ISO 22000:2005, plus the steps imposed by meeting the requirements
of BSI PAS 220:2008 or ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 and the FSCC extra criteria.
ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 (Ref. 5) specifies requirements for establishing, im-
plementing and maintaining the premises programs designed to help food manu-
facturer control:
● The likelihood of introducing food safety risks in the work environment;
● Biological, chemical and physical contamination of the product, especially
cross-contamination between products;
● Levels of food safety risks in the product and product processing environ-
ment.
Among the aspects that are considered relevant to manufacturing operations
according to ISO/TS 22002-1:2009, we recall2:
● Reprocessing;

277
● Procedures for product recall;
● Requirements on keeping/storage;
● The security of food, bio-terrorism and bio-vigilance;
● Information on product and consumer awareness.
Among the benefits highlighted by experts in the implementation and certi-
fication of food safety systems as the result of food safety system certification as
required by FSSC 22000, we find3,4:
● A FSSC 22000 certification offers manufacturers the opportunity to concen-
trate their efforts of food safety on scientific and technical progress and resources
on improvements rather than on compliance itself;
● Validation of a food safety management system in conformity with FSSC
22000 automatically includes validation of the ISO 22000 international standard;
● FSSC 22000 certified food business operators are approved by most large
retail chains in the world;
● The control of the internal processes also ensures the reduction of the sig-
nificant risks related to food;
● The management of the supply chain of raw materials, auxiliary materials
is much improved;
● The costs of audits are significantly reduced compared to the situation that
would implement other food safety systems required by retailers;
● Achieving improved protection for brands;
● Consumers gain more confidence in products manufactured by processors/
producers operating in conformity with certified management systems require-
ments, especially the food safety management system.
All this adds to the advantages brought to an organisation by implementing
and respectively food safety management system certification to ISO 22000:2005,
among which6–8:
● Compliance with applicable requirements of the regulatory authority in
terms of food safety;
● Providing final products safe for use in the next link of the food chain or
reliable for the final consumer;
● Evaluating and assessing customer requirements as well as demonstrating
compliance with the mutually agreed customer requirements related to food safety;
● Effective communication with clients and other stakeholders along the
food chain;
● Respecting their own food safety policies;
● Better communication with authorities (National Authority for Consumer
Protection, the National Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety, Department of Public
Health, etc.);
● Motivating staff.

278
CONCLUSIONS
The FSSC 22000 certification scheme was developed as based on ISO 22000:2005
and BSI-PAS 220:2008, in order to improve food safety standards and consumer
confidence in producers/processors of food, in the integrity of the food chain.
In March 2012, BSI-PAS 220 was replaced by ISO/TS 22002-1:2009, standard
intended to complement ISO 22000:2005 and be used with it.
ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 is applicable to all organisations involved in the manu-
facturing stage of the food chain, regardless of the size or complexity and can be
used partially or totally, depending on the nature of the operations involved in
food production.
FSSC 22000, recognised by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) as a
food safety standard in 2010, is a system approved both by producers/processors
in the food industry as well as by the retail chains. Due to lower costs resulting
from by implementing and/or system certification, and audits, FSSC is preferred
by producers/processors of the IFS and BRC systems.
It can be said that by implementing FSSC 22000, food industry business op-
erators adopt, to some extent, risk management techniques and quality confirmed
through the use in many other sectors. Also, this new certification scheme of food
safety systems is credible, independent and respected business partners with food.

REFERENCES
1. Global Food Safety Initiative: Vision, Missing, Objectives. Can be accessed on <http://www.
mygfsi.com/about-gfsi/background.html> [accessed on 27.01.2013].
2. TUVKarpat: Intern Auditor of the Food Safety Management Systems – FSSC 22000 – Course
Support. Bucharest, November 2012.
3. TUVKarpat: FSSC 22000 – New Certification for the Food Industry [on-line]. Can be accessed on
<http://www.tuvkarpat.ro/ro/noutati/fssc-22000-noua-certificare-pentru-industria-alimentara_70.
html> [accessed on 12.03.2013].
4. Web Cert Consult SRL: FSSC 22000 for Food Safety [on-line]. Can be accessed on http://
www.consultanta-certificare.ro/implementare-fssc-22000-siguranta-alimentara.html [accessed
on 20.01.2013].
5. Romanian Standardisation Association (ASRO): ISO/TS 22002-1:2009. Premises for Food Safety
Programs. Part 1: Food Manufacturing. Bucharest, 2010.
6. Romanian Standardisation Association (ASRO): SR EN ISO 22000:2005 Standard. Food
Safety Management Systems. Requirements for Any Organizations in the Food Chain. 1st ed.
Bucharest, 2005.
7. C. SAVU, N. GEORGESCU: Food Safety – Risks and Benefits. SemnE Publ. House, Bucharest,
2004.
8. I. SHEPS: ISO 22000. The New International Standard on Food Safety – A Comparison to
HACCP (Danish Standard DS 3027, 2nd ed.). J Environ Prot Ecol, 8 (4), 940 (2007). Can be
accessed on http://www.jepe-journal.info/journal-content.
Received 4 February 2015
Revised 20 February 2015

279

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