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OBJECTIVE

The objectives of the experiment are


1. To determine the Reid vapour pressure of petroleum products
2. To compare the Reid vapour pressure of different petroleum products
SUMMARY
The objectives of the experiment are to determine the Reid vapour pressure of
petroleum products and to compare the Reid vapour pressure of different petroleum products.
The experiment was conducted inside the water bath with a temperature of 37.8°C. The average
RVP of Diesel, Kerosene, Petrol are 3.7 kPa, 3.2 kPa and 45.1 kPa respectively. Petrol has the
highest Reid vapour pressure by diesel and kerosene due to the higher the vapour pressure, the
higher the volatility of the petroleum. The volatility of the petrol is further supported where a
light hydrocarbon will have a very high vapour pressure and thus, higher volatility while the
heavy hydrocarbon will have lower vapour pressure and thus vaporized slowly at the normal
temperature. Petrol has the highest Reid vapour pressure by diesel and kerosene due to the
higher the vapour pressure, the higher the volatility of the petroleum. The volatility of the petrol
is further supported where a light hydrocarbon will have a very high vapour pressure and thus,
higher volatility while the heavy hydrocarbon will have lower vapour pressure and thus
vaporized slowly at the normal temperature.
INTRODUCTION/THEORY
The volatility characteristics of petroleum fuels are very important especially for
gasolines. Motor and aviation gasolines are manufactured as liquids but they are consumed in
the vapour phase. Consequently, gasoline volatility must be high enough to assure acceptable
engine start-up, warm-up, acceleration and throttle response under normal driving (or flying)
conditions. On the other hand, the maximum volatility of a gasoline must be restricted to avoid
vapour lock, vaporization losses, air pollution, and unsafe storage and handling. The volatility
considerations for other transportation fuels like kerosene and diesel are, to some extent, similar
to those for gasoline.
The Reid vapour pressure (RVP) is frequently used as an indication of volatility of
liquid hydrocarbons. The RVP is defined as the absolute pressure (i.e., psia or bar) exerted by
a mixture, determined at 100 ºF (37.8 ºC) and at a vapour to liquid ratio of 4. This is different
than the true vapour pressure which is defined as the pressure of a vapour in equilibrium with
its condensed phase at a specific temperature. Although the RVP provides a convenient
approximation of the absolute vapour pressure of a partly vaporized sample at 100 °F, it is not
equivalent to the true vapour pressure. In general, RVP is lower than the true vapour pressure
due to some small sample vaporization and the presence of water vapour and air in the confined
space. The apparatus and procedures for determining the RVP are standardized and specified
in ASTM method D-323 and IP402 (ASTM 1995). The Reid vapour pressure test is widely
used as a criterion for blending gasoline and other petroleum products. Once RVP of a fuel is
known the methods provided in the API-TDB (API 1997) can be used to estimate true vapour
pressure of a fuel or a crude oil at any desired temperature. True vapour pressure is an important
thermodynamic property related to volatility and phase equilibrium calculations.
When a pure liquid is placed in an evacuated bulb, molecules will leave the liquid phase
and enter the gas phase until the pressure of the vapour in the bulb reaches a definite value,
which is determined by the nature of the liquid and its temperature. The equilibrium vapour
pressure is independent of the quantity of the liquid and vapour present as long as both phases
exist in equilibrium with each other at the specified temperature. As the temperature is
increased, the vapour pressure also increases to the critical point, at which the two-phase
system becomes a homogeneous, one-phase fluid. If the pressure above the liquid is maintained
at a fixed value (say by admitting to the bulb containing the liquid), then the liquid may be
heated up to a temperature at which the vapour pressure is equal to the external pressure. At
this point vaporization will occur by the formation bubbles in the interior of the liquid as well
as at the surface; this is the boiling point of the liquid at the specified external pressure is seen
to be identical with the variation of the vapour pressure with temperature.
4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION/ TUTORIAL
RESULT

Table 1: Reid Vapour pressure (RVP) of Petroleum Products

Reid vapour pressure (RVP) of petroleum products (kPa)


Time (min)
Diesel Kerosene Petrol
5 3.7 3.2 45.0
10 3.7 3.2 45.1
15 3.7 3.2 45.1
Average 3.7 3.2 45.1

Figure 1: Reid Vapour Pressure of Petroleum Products Against Times


DISCUSSION

Reid vapour pressure (RVP) is a measurement used to determine the volatility of


gasoline. It is the absolute vapour pressure exerted by a liquid at 37.8 °C of temperature without
removing the air first which applied to volatile crude oil and volatile non-viscous petroleum
liquids, except the liquefied petroleum gases with an ability to change phases from liquid to
vapour when exposed directly at the temperature above its boiling point. Volatility is defined
as tendency of the petroleum to vaporize or change phases from the liquid states to the gas
states. It is necessary to measure the volatility of the petroleum to handle and store the products
in proper way or to prevent the problems occurred in the future such as vapour lock,
vaporization losses, and air pollutions (Francis S. Manning, 1995).

The main objectives of the experiment to determine the Reid vapour pressure of
petroleum products while comparing the Reid vapour pressure of different petroleum products.
The apparatus used in this experiment were test units which is consisting vapour chamber
(upper section) and liquid chamber (lower section), pressure gauge and water bath. The samples
used were diesel, petroleum and kerosene. The experiment was conducted by filling each
sample into their test units respectively and dipped them into the water bath at constant
temperature of 37.8 °C. The vapour pressure then, was taken and recorded every 5 minutes for
three times to determine the averages.

From the experiment, the reading of RVP was recorded every 5 minutes. From the table
1, the RVP of Diesel at 5 min, 10 min and 15 min are at constant which are 3.7 kPa respectively.
The RVP of kerosene recorded was also at constant value with 3.2 kPa at 5 min, 10 min and
15 min respectively. The RVP for Petrol meanwhile are 45.0 kPa at the first 5 min and constant
at 45.1 kPa for the 10 min and 15 min. The average RVP of Diesel, Kerosene, Petrol are 3.7
kPa, 3.2 kPa and 45.1 kPa respectively.

Concluded from the result observed, petrol has the highest Reid vapour pressure by
diesel and kerosene due to the higher the vapour pressure, the higher the volatility of the
petroleum. The volatility of the petrol is further supported where a light hydrocarbon will have
a very high vapour pressure and thus, higher volatility while the heavy hydrocarbon will have
lower vapour pressure and thus vaporized slowly at the normal temperature (Leffler, 2000).
However, the comparison of vapour pressure between kerosene and diesel stated otherwise
where there vapour pressure of the diesel is higher compared to kerosene, differ from the
theory. This altered result may be resulting by the accuracy of the device was not accurate
enough and the devices is also old and harmed. The volatility of the samples was also disturbed
due to the leakages of the chambers where the test units was not sealed properly. Another error
can be occurred since the samples were reused for another experiment, the samples might be
mixed and the recycled sample may cause it to be contaminated as well.

Vapour pressure of a liquid is a measure of its volatility. The vapour pressure is


commonly measured with Reid vapour pressure methods which evaluates the vapour pressure
of petrol and other volatile petroleum products at 37.8 °C. if vapour pressure is too high, an
excessive of high-volatility actions in hot weather can lead to vapour lock, a condition where
the fuel cannot be delivered to the carburettor due to an appearance of partial vacuum at the
suction end of the fuel pump, interrupting the flow of liquid fuel to the pump and thus, stalling
the engine (Bloch, 2009).

A few recommendations can be added to experiment to improve the accuracy of the


result obtained and recorded. One of the suggestions is to limit amount of times for the samples
to be recycled so the samples will not be contaminated too much it may alter the data taken.
Make sure to replace the samples each time the experiment is conducted. The second
recommendation is to label the apparatus properly to prevent the confusion among the students
so that the samples will not be mixed altogether.
TUTORIAL

1. What is the difference between Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP) and True Vapour Pressure
(TVP)?

Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP) measures the vapour pressure, volatile crude oil,
and other volatile petroleum products except for liquefied petroleum. It is defined as
the absolute vapour -pressure exerted by a liquid (water bath) at 37.8°C. While true
vapour pressure (TVP) is a common measure of the volatility of petroleum distilate
fuels. It is defined as the equilibrium partial pressure exerted by a volatile organic liquid
as a function of temperature.

2. Discuss the relationship of Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP) between diesel, kerosene, petrol
and lubricating oil.

The higher the vapour pressure, the higher the volatility of the petroleum
product by increasing the temperature. Highly volatile petroleum product will vaporize
more readily at a faster rate than a fuel with a lower volatility where a highly volatile
fuel is more likely to form a flammable or explosive mixture with air than a low volatile
fuel.

3. Discuss the effects of Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP) on engine performance.

If the Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP) is high, the fuels has high tendency to
vaporize easily. This is also related to the volatility. Reid Vapour Pressure measure the
vapour pressure at 100°F. As mentioned before, high vapour pressure causes more fuel
to vaporize quickly and reduce the engine performance and efficiency. The pistons will
be damage and have improper combustion.
5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
CONCLUSIONS
The objectives of the experiment are to determine the Reid vapor pressure of petroleum
products and to compare the Reid vapor pressure of different petroleum products. The
experiment was conducted inside the water bath with a temperature of 37.8°C. The average
RVP of Diesel, Kerosene, Petrol are 3.7 kPa, 3.2 kPa and 45.1 kPa respectively. petrol has the
highest Reid vapor pressure by diesel and kerosene due to the higher the vapor pressure, the
higher the volatility of the petroleum. The volatility of the petrol is further supported where a
light hydrocarbon will have a very high vapor pressure and thus, higher volatility while the
heavy hydrocarbon will have lower vapor pressure and thus vaporized slowly at the normal
temperature (Leffler, 2000).

RECOMMENDATIONS
A few recommendations to improve this experiment in the future is to limit the amount
of times for the samples to be recycled so the samples will not be contaminated too much it
may alter the data taken. One of the suggestions is to limit amount of times for the samples to
be recycled so the samples will not be contaminated too much it may alter the data taken. Make
sure to replace the samples each time the experiment is conducted. Next recommendation is to
label the apparatus properly to prevent the confusion among the students so that the samples
will not be mixed altogether.
6.0 REFERENCES
Bloch, H. P. (2009). Practical Lubrication for Industrial Facilities. Indian Trail Lilburn: The
Fairmont Press, Inc.
Francis S. Manning, R. E. (1995). Oilfield Processing Volume Two: Crude Oil. Oklahoma:
Penn Well Publishing Company.
Leffler, W. L. (2000). Petroleum Refining in Nontechnical Language. Oklahoma: PennWell
Corporation.
ASTM (1995), “Annual Book of Standards,” American Society for Testing and Materials,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1995.
API (1997), American Petroleum Institute (API) Technical Data Book – Petroleum Refining.
Chapter 5, 6th Edition, American Petroleum Institute., Washington DC, 1997