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Universitatea Tehnica”Gheorghe Asachi” Iasi

Facultatea de Mecanica

Specializarea Autovehicule Rutiere

PROIECT – DINAMICA AUTOVEHICULELOR RUTIERE

Profesor îndrumător: Student:

ș.l.dr.ing. TALIF Sorin


Tema proiectului

Să se proiecteze din punct de vedere dinamic un autoturism având următoarele date inițiale:

 masa m = 1500 [kg]

 viteza v = 95 [km/h] = 26.38 [m/s]

 puterea P = 55 [kW]

 turația motorului n = 5500 [rot/min]

 momentul motor M = 155 [Nm]

 turația la cuplul maxim nM = 2500 [rot/min]

Mazda 121 Nissan


Model KIA Sephica 1.5RS FORD Focus I Sedan Honda Civic 1.4 iS
Sportive Micra 1.4
Puterea Kw 56 56 55 55 60
Turatia maxima (nP)rpm 5500 5000 6000 5200 6000
Cuplul (Mmax) N 155 125 109 110 160
Turatie cuplu (nM) rpm 2500 3500 3000 4000 2800
Lungime L mm 4407 4458 4425 4480 4365
latime l mm 1701 1798 1762 1634 1660

inaltime h mm 1315 1415 1390 1430 1525

Ampatament A mm 2510 2649 2685 2476 2480


Ecartament E mm 1445 1484 1477 1449 1470
Dimensiuni anvelope[-] 185/60 R14 175/70/R14 185/60/R14 165/70/R13 185/65/R14
Masa proprie (G0) Kg 1195 1190 1155 1160 1300
vmax Km/h 170 171 165 170 174

Greutatea și capacitatea de încărcare a autovehiculelor

Masele autovehiculului sunt:


a) masa proprie a autovehiculului " M0" careia ii corespunde greutatea proprie "Go".

M0= 1195 [kg]


Ga = 11172 [N]

Aceasta reprezinta masa vehiculului carosat tara lncarcatura , gata de drum cu 90% din carburant si
a conducatorului auto (75 kg).

b) masa totala maxima admisibila "Ma'' , careia li corespunde greutatea totala maxima admisibila
"Ga'' .

Ma=1500 [kg]
Ga= 14175 [N]

Aceasta reprezinta masa proprie a autovehiculului la care se adauga masa maxima


a incarcaturii stabilita de constructor .

c) masa totala maxima autorizata , careia li corespunde greutatea totala maxima autorizata .

Aceasta reprezinta masa totala maxima a fiecarui tip de autovehicul autorizat pentru circulatia pe
drumurile publice conform legislatiei in vigoare.
d) Sarcina utila maxima constructiva a autovehiculului , "Mu" , careia li corespunde greutatea utila
"Gu" a autovehiculului. Aceasta reprezinta masa maxima a incarcaturii prescrisa de constructor.
e) Sarcinile pe puntea din fata si pe puntea din spate reprezinta masele ce revin fiecarei punti prin
repartizarea masei totale maxime admisibile . Acestora le corespund greutatile pe puntea din fata si
pe puntea din spate notate cu G1, respectiv G2.

Masa autovehiculului se considera aplicata in centrul de masa (centrul de greutate), situat in


planul vertical ce trece prin axa longitudinala de simetrie a autovehiculului .
Pozitia centrului de masa se apreciaza prin coordonatele longitudinale a si b si inaltimea hg.

In faza de proiectare a autovehiculului, alegerea pozitiei centrului de masa se poate face prin
mai multe metode si anume:
a) utilizarea de valori in concordanta cu valorile coordonatelor centrului de masa al
autovehiculelor considerate in studiul solutiilor similare;
b) utilizarea de valori medii dupa datele oferite de literatura de specialitate. Astfel de valori
sunt indicate in tabel:

0.47
gol
a/L
0.49
incarcat
0.2
gol
hg/L
0.19
incarcat

a
Gol 1203.2 mm

b
gol 1356.8 mm

hg
Gol 512 mm

L=2564 [mm]

Masa autovehiculului se transmite cadrului prin intermediul punttlor .


Pentru autovehiculele cu doua punti, masele ce revin puntilor sunt:

M1=802.95 [kg]

M2=712.05 [kg]

respectiv greutatile:

G1=7876.93 [N]

G2=6885.21 [N]

Masa admisa pe punte este limitata de distanta dintre punti ~i de calitatea drumului. In cazul
drumuri lor cu imbracaminte tare, masa admisa pe punte nu poate depasi 10000 kg pentru punti
situate la distante mai mici de 3 m si 9000 kg pentru punti care au intre ele mai mult de 3 m.
Functie de masa repartizata puntilor se poate determina masa ce revine unui pneu.
- pentru pneurile puntii din fata:

Mp1=401.44 [kg]

- pentru pneurile puntii spate:

Mp2=356.02 [kg]

Valorile Mp1 si Mp2 astfel determinate conditioneaza impreuna cu viteza maxima a


autovehiculului tipul pneurilor folosite si caracteristicile de utilizare.

Alegerea pneurilor

Functie de anvelopa aleasa, standardele dau indicatii asupra dimensiunilor principale.


Pentru calculele de dinamica autovehiculului este necesara cunoasterea razei de rulare, care
se apreciaza analitic functie de raza nominala a rotii si un coeficient de deformare, λ care depinde
de presiunea interioara a aerului din pneu si are
valorile:
λ = 0,93-0,935 - pentru pneurile utilizate Ia presiuni mai mici de 600 kPa (6 bari);

λ=0.93

Pentru calcule aproximative se poate considera raza Iibera egala cu raza nominal, ro = rn.
Dimensiunile principale ale anvelopelor sunt:
D - diametrul exterior (nominal) al anvelopei
d - diametrul interior al anvelopei
H - inaltimea profilului
B- latimea profilului (balonajul).
D=d+2·H

Tipul anvelopelor:

180/60 R14
Rr 269.45
0.93-0.935
0.93 λ
0.945-0.95
r0 288.8 mm
rn 288.8 mm
D 577.6 mm
Inch
14

H 111 mm
401.47
indice de sarcina 83
kg/anvelopa
indice de viteza S 180 km/h

Alegerea randamentului transmisiei

Pentru propulsarea autovehiculului puterea dezvoltata de motor trebuie sa fie transmisa


rotilor motoare ale acestuia.
Transmiterea tluxului de putere este caracterizata de pierderi datorate fenomenelor de
frecare din organele transmisiei.
Experimentari efectuate au permis sa se determine urmatoarele valori ale randamentelor
subansamblelor componente ale transmisiei:

• cutia de viteze:
ηcv = 0,97 ... 0,98 (In treapta de priza directa);
ηcv = 0,92 ... 0,94 ('in celelalte trepte );
• reductor distribuitor:
ηcv = 0,91 ... 0,94
• transmisia longitudinala:
ηTL = 0,990 ... 0,995
• transmisia pricipala:
ηo = 0,92 ... 0,94 pentru transmisii pricipale simple;
ηo = 0,90 ... 0,92 pentru transmisii pricipale duble.

Deoarece valoarea globala a randamentului transmisiei depinde de numerosi factori a caror


influneta este dificil de apreciat, in calcule se opereaza cu valorile din figura:

Randamentul transmisiei 0.93

Rezistenta la rulare

Rezistenta la rulare, Rr, este o forta cu actiune permanenta datorata exclusiv rostogolirii
rotilor pe cale, si este de sens opus sensului de deplasare al automobilului.
Cauzele fizice ale rezistentei Ia rulare sunt:
 deformarea cu histerezis a pneului
 frecarile superficiale dintre pneu si cale
 frecarile din lagarele butucului rotii
 deformarea caii de rulare
 percutia dintre elementele benzii de rulare si microneregularitatile caii de rulare
Intre cauzele amintite mai sus, in cazul autoturismelor, care se deplaseaza pe cai rigide, netede,
aderente - ponderea importanta o are deformarea cu histerezis a pneului.

Principalii factori care intluenteaza rezistenta Ia rulare sunt:


 viteza de deplasare a autovehiculului
 caracteristicile constructive ale pneului
 presiunea interioara a aerului din pneu
 sarcina normal ape pneu
 tipul si starea caii de rulare
 fortele si momentele aplicate rotilor.

Calculul rezistentei la rulare

Se constata ca multitudinea de factori amintiti mai sus face dificila determinarea cu


exactitate a coeficientului rezistentei la rulare in orice moment al rularii rotii, de aceea apare
necesitatea utilizarii unor relatii/seturi de relatii empirice pentru determinarea acestui coeftcient.
Exprimarea acestora este diversa prin numarul s i calitatea marimilor de intrare.
Pentru calculele simple se poate adopta valoarea coeficientului rezistentei la rulare in functie
de calitatea drumului pe care se deplaseaza autovehiculul , dupa recomandarile din tabel:
Parametrii pentru calculul coeficientului de rezistenta la rulare

Valorile indicatorului neregularitatilor caii

Coeficientii din relatia lui fr se aleg cu ajutorul diagramelor:


0.013295
f0

f01 -0.000028664

f02 1.8036E-07

f03 0

λs 4

150
Hd

fr,0 0.0075

0.0026
fr,1

fr,4 0.0006

f0 0.0125

0.007
fs

Calculul rezistenței la rulare Tabelul 1 corespunzator Anexa 1

v fR fr1 fr2 fr3 fr4 Rr [N]

0 0,013295 0,013295 0,0075 0,0125 0,0125 197,59228

50 0,0123127 0,028295 0,0088375 0,014002602 0,0137374 182,99319

100 0,0122322 0,073295 0,0107 0,021 0,0195 181,79679


150 0,0130535 0,148295 0,0144375 0,035923246 0,0317897 194,00308
200 0,0147766 0,253295 0,0223 0,060583261 0,052098 219,61205

Rr [N] Rr [N] Rr [N] Rr [N] Pr [kW] Pr [kW] Pr [kW] Pr [kW] Pr [kW]

197,59228 111,46613 185,77688 185,776875 0 0 0 0 0

420,52453 131,34425 208,10877 204,167847 2,54157214 5,84061853 1,8242257 2,89039958 2,835665

1089,3213 159,02501 312,10515 289,811925 5,04991087 30,2589246 4,41736125 8,6695875 8,050331


2203,9825 214,57229 533,89667 472,463761 8,08346146 91,8326056 8,94051211 22,2456944 19,68599
3764,5083 331,42595 900,39751 774,28799 12,2006692 209,139349 18,4125525 50,0220841 43,016
Rezistenta la rulare
0.35
0.3
0.25
coeficienti

Series1
0.2
Series2
0.15
0.1 Series3

0.05 Series4
0 Series5
0 50 100 150 200 250
viteza

variatia rezistentei la rulare functie de coef f


6000
Rr [N]
4000
Rr [N]
Rr

2000
Rr [N]
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 Rr [N]
viteza Rr [N]

Puterea necesare invingerii rezistentei aerului Tabelul 2 corespunzator Anexa 2

v Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
10 0,537778476 0,573637706 0,320364377 0,517156556 0,51696073
50 2,541572143 5,840618531 1,824225703 2,890399583 2,835664546
100 5,049910868 30,25892456 4,41736125 8,6695875 8,05033125
150 8,083461459 91,83260559 8,940512109 22,2456944 19,68599006
200 12,20066921 209,1393491 18,4125525 50,02208413 43,01599943
300 Variatia puterii functie de rezistenta la rulare
250
200
Pr [kW]
150
Pr

Pr [kW]
100
Pr [kW]
50
Pr [kW]
0
Pr [kW]
0 50 100 150 200 250
viteza

Rezistenta aerului
Calculul rezistentei aerului

Pentru calculul rezistentei se recomanda:


p= 1 ,225 kg/m3

Aria transversala maxima se determina cu suficienta precizie (erori sub 5%) dupa desenul de
ansamblu al automobilului in vedere.

Valori medii ale parametrilor aerodinamici

ρ 1.225
cx 0.4
A 1.65
0.8
k 0.8…0.9

Rezistența aerului Tabelul 3 corespunzător Anexa 3


v Ra [N] Pa [kW]
10 3,135054784 0,008708486
50 78,3763696 1,088560689
100 313,5054784 8,708485511
150 705,3873264 29,3911386
200 1254,021914 69,66788409

Puterea necesara invingerii rezistentei aerului


100
80
60
Pa

Series2
40
20
0
0 50 100 Viteza 150 200 250

Rezistenta aerului
1600
1400
1200
1000
Ra

800
600 Ra [N]
400
200
0
0 50 100 150 200 250
viteza

Rezistenta la panta

La deplasarea autovehiculului pe cai cu inclinare longitudinala,forta de greutate genereaza o


componenta Rp dupa directia deplasarii.

Aceasta forta este forta de rezistenta la urcarea pantelor (de sens opus vitezei de deplasare)
si forta activa la coborarea pantelor.

Alegerea unghiului de inclinare longitudinala a caii se face functie de tipul i destinatia


automobilului.
Valori medii si maxime ale unghiului de inclinare longitudinala a caii

Deoarece rezistenta la rulare cat si rezistenta la panta sunt determinate de starea si


caracteristicile caii de rulare, se foloseste gruparea celor doua forte intr-o forta de rezistenta total a a
caii (R ψ).

Deoarece Ia M.A.C. domeniul de utilizare la propulsarea autovehiculelor este cuprins in


intervalul turatiilor n0 - nr se considera: nr = np = nmax; Pr = Pp = P max; Mr = Mp = Mm ; cer =
cep.

Rezistența la pantă Tabelul 4 corespunzător Anexa 4

α Rp ψ Rψ
0 0 0,02 297,243
10 2580,785264 0,19334433 2873,512475
18 4592,656923 0,32803812 4875,351815

Rezistenta la panta
6000

5000

4000
Rp

3000
Rp
2000

1000

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
alfa
Valori ale consumului specific de combustibil la valoarea maxima a puterii

Trasarea caracteristicii de turatie exterioara a motorului

Aprecierea motorului ca sursa de energie pentru autopropulsarea automobilului se face prin


oferta de putere (P) si de moment (M). Oferta se exprima functie de turatia arborelui motor (n),
printr-un camp de caracteristici P=f(n) si M=f(n), numite caracteristici de turatie.
Domeniul de oferta este limitat de caracteristica de turatie la sarcina totala (sau caracteristica
exterioara), care determina posibilitatile maxime ale motorului in privinta puterii si momentului la
fiecare turatie din domeniul turatiilor de functionare ale motorului.
Pentru autopropulsarea automobilelor majoritatea motoarelor sunt motoare cu ardere interna
(m.a.i.), cu piston in miscare de translatie si anume; motoare cu aprindere prin scanteie - M.A.S.
(Otto) si motoare cu aprindere prin comprimare - M.A.C. (Diesel).
In figura sunt reprezentate caracteristicile exterioare, completate cu curbele consumului specific de
combustibil, pentru un motor cu aprindere prin scanteie (M.A.S) si respectiv cu aprindere prin
comprimare (M.A.C.).

5500 rpm
nr=nP=nmax
Pr=PP=Pmax 56 kW
Mr=MP=Mm 155 N*m

α 1.18
β 1.81
γ 1.99
ce 0.46
ca 1.59

cmin 310 g/kW


ω 575.95
nmin 1045 rpm
nmin stabil 1228 rpm
Nmax 6325 rpm

Trasarea caracteristicii de turație exterioară maximă Tabelul 5


corespunzător Anexa 5
n [rpm] Pmax [kW] M [N*m] cs c0
1000 14,71912608 140,6265306 341,68517 5,0293071
2500 40,57890511 155,0763438 309,8473876 12,573268
4500 60,94254147 129,3877869 371,3642619 22,631882
5500 56 97,27709091 493,9498041 27,661189

Caracteristica exterioara a motorului


70 80

60 70

60
50
50
P, M, cs, c0

40 Series1
40
30 Series2
30 Series3
20
20 Series4
10 10

0 0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Turatia [rpm]
Determinare grafica a vitezei maxime

Punctul B (0,Pvmax*ηtr) 58.71


viteza max din grafic 170 km/h
f ales 0.01610084

Determinarea grafică a vitezei maxime Tabelul 6 corespunzător Anexa 6

v Pr+Pa Pr+Pa Pr+Pa Pr+Pa Pr+Pa Pmax*ηtr


10 0,546486961 0,582346192 0,329072863 0,525865041 0,5256692 58,715306
50 3,630132832 6,92917922 2,912786392 3,978960272 3,9242252 58,715306
100 13,75839638 38,96741007 13,12584676 17,37807301 16,758817 58,715306
150 37,47460006 121,2237442 38,33165071 51,636833 49,077129 58,715306
200 81,86855329 278,8072332 88,08043659 119,6899682 112,68388 58,715306

400

350

300
Pr+Pa
250
Pr+Pa

200 Pr+Pa
Pr+Pa
150
Pr+Pa
100 Pmax*ηtr

50

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100110120130140150160170180190200210220

Determinarea raportului de transmitere al transmisiei principale

Raportul de transmitere al transmisiei principale se determina din conditia ca in priza directa


autovehiculul (icvn=1) sa se deplaseze pe un drum orizontal cu viteza maxima, motorul functionand
pe caracteristica de turatie la sarcina totala.

Zc- numarul de dinti ai coroanei


Zp- numarul de dinti ai pinionului

Valorile indicate pentru numarul de dinti al pistonului de atac (Gleason)


io 3.61
zp 11

zc 33
i0ef 3

Determinarea rapoartelor de transmitere ale cutiei de viteze

Determinarea raportului de transmitere a cutiei de viteze fn treapta I

Pentru valoarea maxima a raportului de transmitere, obtinut cand este cuplata prima treapta
de viteza in cutia de viteze se pot formula ca performante dinamice independente sau simultane
urmatoarele:
-panta maxima sau rezistenta specifica a caii;
-acceleratia maxima de porn ire din loc.

Performantele date prin fortele la roata necesare pot fi formulate ca valori maxime cand
fortele la roata oferite prin transmisie au valori maxime, respectiv motorul functioneaza la turatia
momentului maxim, iar in transmisie este cuplat cel mai mare raport de transmitere, respectiv:
itmax=icv1*i0.

Determinarea rapoartelor de transmitere a cutiei de viteze in celelalte trepte

Etajarea cutiei de viteze in progresie geometrica

In cazul etajarii cutiei in progresie geometrica, intre valoarea maxima si minima a viteze i, in cutia
de viteze sunt necesare n trepte date.

Fiind determinat numarul de trepte, rapoartul de transmitere in cele 4+1 trepte este:

FRmax 4818.81 N

Forta la roata
Coef. de rezistenta la rulare f 0.016 ales
Unghiul de inclinare a caii de
α 18 ˚
rulare
Raportul in treapta I icv1 2.368
Nr minim de trepte kmin 3.01
n 4
Nr treptelor de viteza k 5
Ratia de etajare q 1.33
Raportul in treapta II icv2 1.77
Raportul in treapta III icv3 1.33
Raportul in treapta IV icv4 1
Raportul in treapta V icv5 0.8

A 5-a treapta nu este considerata in perfonnantele dinamice, deoarece, datorita alungirii


curbei puterii, puterile disponibile sunt relativ scazute, deci performantele automobilului sunt
influentate negativ.
Ea reprezinta o treapta economica utilizata la deplasarea cu viteze constante mari, oferind totodata
si posibilitatea unor usoare demaraje sau abordarea unor pante mici.

Verificarea fortei la roata maxime


Coeficientul de aderenta ϕ 0,8
Greutatea aderenta la puntea
Gad Gad=m1*Ga*b/L 6548,439371
fata
Coeficientul de incarcare
m1ϕ m1ϕ=cos α/(1+hg/L*ϕ) 0,831343109
dinamica
Forta de aderenta Fϕ Fϕ=ϕ*Gad 5238,751496
Verificare Frmax<=Fϕ Se verifica

Determinarea vitezelor minime si maxime in fiecare treapta

Aceasta determinare se face pentru autovehicul in cazul in care se deplaseaza pe un drum


orizontal, cand aderenta pneurilor este maxima.
Se aleg doua turatii de functionare stabila a motorului si se procedeaza la
schimbarea treptelor de viteze. Pentru schimbarea unei trepte de viteze se consuma circa 1 ... 3
secunde, timp in care viteza autovehiculului se micsoreaza datorita rezistentelor de deplasare, din
aceasta cauza viteza minima intr-o treapta superioara va fi mai mica decat viteza maxima intr-o
treapta inferioara.

Trasarea diagramei ferastrau

Turatia minima n1 2500 rpm


Turatia maxima n2 5500 rpm
Trasarea diagramei fierastrau Tabelul 7 corespunzator Anexa 7

n Treapta I Treapta II Treapta III Treapta IV Treapta V

viteza viteza viteza viteza viteza

[m/s] [km/h] [m/s] [km/h] [m/s] [km/h] [m/s] [km/h]

2500 7,674839296 27,62942146 10,23100048 36,831602 13,63851 49,098635 18,180915 65,451294 22,7261436 81,814117

5500 16,88464645 60,78472722 22,50820105 81,029524 30,004722 108,017 39,998013 143,99285 49,9975159 179,991057

Diagrama fierastrau progresie geometrica


200

150
I
viteza

100 II
III
50
IV
V
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
turatia

Etajarea cutiei de viteze fn progresie aritmetica

In cazul etajarii cutiei in progresie geometrica, intre valoarea maxima si minima a


vitezei, in cutia de viteze sunt necesare n trepte date de relatia determinata din
conditia demarajului in domeniul de stabilitate al motorului.
Prin etajarea in progresie aritmetica consideram constant intervalul de viteze al
fiecarei trepte de viteza.

Determinarea vitezelor minime si maxime in fiecare treapta Tabelul 8 corespunzător Anexa 8

treapta 1 treapta 2 treapta 3 treapta 4 treapta 5


n
v[m/s] v[km/h] v[m/s] v[km/h] v[m/s] v[km/h] v[m/s] v[km/h] v[m/s] v[km/h]
1000 3,0699357 11,051769 4,4707458 16,094685 5,87155588 21,1376012 7,27236595 26,1805174 8,67317603 31,22343
2500 7,6748393 27,629421 11,176864 40,236712 14,6788897 52,8440029 18,1809149 65,4512936 21,6829401 78,05858
4500 13,814711 49,732959 20,118356 72,426082 26,4220014 95,1192052 32,7256468 117,812328 39,0292922 140,5055
5500 16,884646 60,784727 24,589102 88,520767 32,2935573 116,256806 39,9980128 143,992846 47,7024682 171,7289
diagrama fierastrau progresie aritmetica
180
160
140
120 treapta 1
viteza

100
treapta 2
80
60 treapta 3
40 treapta 4
20 treapta 5
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
turatia

Caracteristica de tractiune a autovehiculelor

Caracteristica de tractiune, numita si caracteristica fortei la roata, se detennina din conditiile


functionarii motorului la sarcina totala cu reglajele la valorile optime. Aceasta reprezinta graficul de
variatie al fortei tangentiale la roata dezvoltata de motor, in functie de viteza de deplasare a
autovehiculului, pentru fiecare treapta de viteza selectata.

treapta
1 4919,577854 N
2 3378,1361 N
3 2572,195188 N
4 2076,736493 N
5 1741,321485 N

Caracteristica de tracțiune în progresie geometrică Tabelul 9 corespunzătoe Anexa 9

itr 9,191326 itr 6,894922 itr 5,17226229 itr 3,88 itr 3,104
Treapta I Treapta II Treapta III Treapta IV Treapta V
n [rpm] Me [Nm]
va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N] va[km/h] FR[N]
1000 140,6265306 11,052029 4371,9544 14,732988 3279,6448 19,639917 2460,24294 26,1811342 1845,56429 32,7264178 1476,45144

2500 155,0763438 27,630072 4821,1863 36,832469 3616,6385 49,099792 2713,04055 65,4528356 2035,20176 81,8160445 1628,16141

4500 129,3877869 49,73413 4022,5518 66,298445 3017,5386 88,379625 2263,62257 117,815104 1698,06849 147,26888 1358,45479
5500 97,27709091 60,786159 3024,2587 81,031433 2268,6637 108,01954 1701,85011 143,996238 1276,65189 179,995298 1021,32151
Caracteristica de tractiune progresie geometrica
6000
5000
4000 Treapta I
Treapta II
FR

3000
2000 Treapta III
1000 Treapta IV
0
Treapta V
0 50 100 150 200
Va

Caracteristica de tracțiune în progresie aritmetică Tabelul 10 corespunzător Anexa 10

Pentru etajare in progresie aritmetica


itr 9,191326 itr 6,3114257 itr 4,8056734 itr 3,88 itr 3,25333878
Treapta I Treapta II Treapta III Treapta IV Treapta V
n [rpm] Me [Nm]
va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N] va[km/h] FR[N]
1000 140,6265306 11,052029 4371,9544 16,095064 3002,0984 21,138099 2285,87094 26,1811342 1845,56429 31,2241693 1547,48605
2500 155,0763438 27,630072 4821,1863 40,23766 3310,5734 52,845248 2520,75128 65,4528356 2035,20176 78,0604233 1706,49506
4500 129,3877869 49,73413 4022,5518 72,427788 2762,1735 95,121446 2103,18623 117,815104 1698,06849 140,508762 1423,81238
5500 97,27709091 60,786159 3024,2587 88,522852 2076,6736 116,25955 1581,2299 143,996238 1276,65189 171,732931 1070,45904

Caracteristica de tractiune progresie aritmetica


6000
5000
4000 Treapta I
Treapta II
FR

3000
2000 Treapta III
1000 Treapta IV
0
Treapta V
0 50 100 150 200
Va
Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculelor

Caracteristica puterilor este reprezentarea grafica a bilantului de putere functie de viteza


automobilului, pentru toate treptele de viteze.

Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculelor în progresie geometric Tabelul 11


corespunzător Anexa 11

Pentru etajare in progresie geometrica


itr 9,191326 itr 6,894922 itr 5,17226229 itr 3,88 itr 3,104
Treapta 1 Treapta 2 Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5
n [rpm] Me [Nm]
va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W]
1000 140,6265306 11,052029 13421,935 14,732988 13421,935 19,639917 13421,9351 26,1811342 13421,9351 32,7264178 13421,9351
2500 155,0763438 27,630072 37002,702 36,832469 37002,702 49,099792 37002,7018 65,4528356 37002,7018 81,8160445 37002,7018
4500 129,3877869 49,73413 55571,699 66,298445 55571,699 88,379625 55571,6987 117,815104 55571,6987 147,26888 55571,6987
5500 97,27709091 60,786159 51064,741 81,031433 51064,741 108,01954 51064,7415 143,996238 51064,7415 179,995298 51064,7415

Caracteristica de putere progr. geometrica


60000

50000

40000
Treapta 4
30000 Treapta 2
Pr

Treapta 3
20000
Treapta 4
10000 Treapta 5
0
0 50 100 150 200
viteza
Caracterisitica de putere în progresie aritmetică Tabelul 12 corespunzător Anexa 12

Pentru etajare in progresie aritmetica


itr 9,191326 itr 6,3114257 itr 4,8056734 itr 3,88 itr 3,25333878
Treapta 1 Treapta 2 Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5
n [rpm] Me [Nm]
va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W]
2500 155,0763438 27,630072 37002,702 40,23766 37002,702 52,845248 37002,7018 65,4528356 37002,7018 78,0604233 37002,7018
4500 129,3877869 49,73413 55571,699 72,427788 55571,699 95,121446 55571,6987 117,815104 55571,6987 140,508762 55571,6987
5500 97,27709091 60,786159 51064,741 88,522852 51064,741 116,25955 51064,7415 143,996238 51064,7415 171,732931 51064,7415

Caracteristica de putere progr. aritmetica


60000

50000

40000
Treapta 1
30000 Treapta 2
Pr

Treapta 3
20000
Treapta 4
10000 Treapta 5

0
0 50 100 150 200
viteza

Bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculului

Bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculului reprezinta echilibrul tuturor fortelor care actioneaza


asupra acestuia in cazul miscarii rectilinii , cu motorul functionand la sarcina totala si reglajele la
valorile optime .
Bilantul de tractiune se utilizeaza pentru determinarea fortei disponibile pentru accelerare, a
vitezei maxime , a pantei maxime pe care poate sa o urce autovehiculul , sau a rezistentelor la
inaintare pe care le poate invinge autovehiculul cu o anumita viteza de deplasare.

Caracteristica de tractiune si bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculului pentru α≠0.


Se va determina viteza maxima cu care se poate deplasa autovehiculul folosind
caracteristica de tractiune pentru urmatoarele valori ale lui α = 5, 10, max. [grade].
Valorile rezistenței aerului și a rezistenței la rulare Tabelul 13 corespunzător Anexa 13

va [km/h] Ra [N] Ra+Rr [N]


10 3,135054784 240,9294548
50 78,3763696 316,1707696
100 313,5054784 551,2998784
150 705,3873264 943,1817264
170 906,0308326 1143,825233

Caracteristica de tractiune progresie aritmetica


6000

5000

4000 Treapta I
Treapta II
3000
Fr

Treapta III
2000 Treapta IV
Treapta V
1000
Ra+Rr [N]
0
0 50 100 150 200
Va

Caracteristica de tractiune progresie geometrica


6000

5000
Treapta I
4000
Treapta II
FR

3000
Treapta III
2000 Treapta IV
1000 Treapta V

0 Ra+Rr [N]
0 50 100 150 200
Va
Valorile rezistenței aerului, a rezistenței la rulare și a rezistenței pantei Tabelul 14
corespunzător Anexa 14
α
5 10 18
va [km/h] Ra [N] Ra+Rr [N] Rp Rp Rp
0 0 237,7944 1295,32172 2580,785 4592,657
10 3,13505478 240,929455 1295,32172 2580,785 4592,657
50 78,3763696 316,17077 1295,32172 2580,785 4592,657
100 313,505478 551,299878 1295,32172 2580,785 4592,657
150 705,387326 943,181726 1295,32172 2580,785 4592,657
170 906,030833 1143,82523 1295,32172 2580,785 4592,657

α α
5 10 18 5 10 18
Rp+Rr Rp+Rr Rp+Rr Ra+Rr+Rp Ra+Rr+Rp Ra+Rr+Rp
1533,116 2818,58 4830,451 1533,116 2818,58 4830,451
1533,116 2818,58 4830,451 1536,251 2821,715 4833,586
1533,116 2818,58 4830,451 1611,492 2896,956 4908,828
1533,116 2818,58 4830,451 1846,622 3132,085 5143,957
1533,116 2818,58 4830,451 2238,503 3523,967 5535,839
1533,116 2818,58 4830,451 2439,147 3724,61 5736,482

7000 Caracteristica de tractiune progresie geometrica


6000

5000 Treapta I

4000 Treapta II
FR

Treapta III
3000
Treapta IV

2000 Treapta V
5 Ra+Rr+Rp
1000
10 Ra+Rr+Rp
0 18 Ra+Rr+Rp
0 50 100 150 200
Va
Caracteristica de tractiune progresie aritmetica
7000

6000

Treapta I
5000
Treapta II
4000 Treapta III
FR

3000 Treapta IV
Treapta V
2000 5 Ra+Rr+Rp

1000 10 Ra+Rr+Rp
18 Ra+Rr+Rp
0
0 50 100 150 200
Va

Bilantul de putere al autovehiculului

Bilantul de putere al automobilului reprezinta echilibrul dinamic dintre puterea Ia roata PR


si suma puterilor necesare invingerii rezistentelor la inaintare, respectiv rezistenta a rulare ( Pr),
rezistenta la urcarea pantei ( Pp ), rezistenta Ia demarare ( Pd) si rezistenta aerului ( Pa ).

Valorile rezistenței aerului, a rezistenței la rulare și a rezistenței pantei Tabelul 15


corespunzător Anexa 15 α
5 10 18
va [km/h] Pr [kW] Ra Pa Rp Rp Rp
0 0 0 0 1295,322 2580,785 4592,657
10 2377,944 3,135055 31,35055 1295,322 2580,785 4592,657
50 11889,72 78,37637 3918,818 1295,322 2580,785 4592,657
100 23779,44 313,5055 31350,55 1295,322 2580,785 4592,657
150 35669,16 705,3873 105808,1 1295,322 2580,785 4592,657
170 40425,048 906,0308 154025,2 1295,322 2580,785 4592,657
α α
5 10 18 5 10 18
Pp Pp Pp Pp+Pr Pp+Pr Pp+Pr
0 0 0 0 0 0
12953,22 25807,85 45926,57 15331,16 28185,8 48304,51
64766,09 129039,3 229632,8 76655,81 140929 241522,6
129532,2 258078,5 459265,7 153311,6 281858 483045,1
194298,3 387117,8 688898,5 229967,4 422786,9 724567,7
220204,7 438733,5 780751,7 260629,7 479158,5 821176,7

α
5 10 18
Pa+Pr+Pp Pa+Pr+Pp Pa+Pr+Pp
0 0 0
15362,51 28217,15 48335,86
63331,08 114749,6 195224,5
210370,4 351771,3 573077,2
335775,5 528595 830375,8
414655 633183,8 975202

Caracteristica de putere progr. geometrica


120000

100000 18 Pa+Pr+Pp

80000 10 Pa+Pr+Pp
Pr

5 Pa+Pr+Pp
60000
Treapta 1
40000 Treapta 2

20000 Treapta 3
Treapta 4
0
Treapta 5
0 50 100 150 200
viteza
Caracteristica de putere progr. aritmetica
120000
18 Pa+Pr+Pp
100000
10 Pa+Pr+Pp
80000
5 Pa+Pr+Pp
60000
Pr

Treapta 1
40000
Treapta 2
20000
Treapta 3
0
0 50 100 150 200 Treapta 4
Treapta 5
viteza

Caracteristica dinamica a autovehiculelor

Rezultatele referitoare la perfonnantele autovehiculului obtinute folosind caracteristica de


tractiune nu permit compararea autovehiculelor intre ele deoarece la valori egale ale fortei de
tractiune, FR , calitatile dinamice ale unui autovehicul cu greutate totala mai mica sunt superioare
celor ale unui autovehicul cu greutate totala mai mare.
Dintre toate rezistentele la inaintare numai rezistenta aerului nu depinde de greutatea
autovehiculului.

Pentru compararea autovehiculelor din punct de vedere al performantelor dinamice se


utilizeaza un parametru adimensional notat cu "D" numit factor dinamic sau forta de tractiune
excedentara specifica .

Intrucat s-a observat in lucrarile anterioare ca atat FR cat si Ra depinde de viteza de


deplasare a autovehiculului va , rezulta ca si factorul dinamic D este functie de va.
Graficul care reprezinta variatia factorului dinamic D in functie de viteza de deplasare va
pentru toate treptele de viteza ale autovehiculului, se numeste caracteristica dinamica.

Factorul dinamic depinde de valoarea fortei tangentiale la roata FR, respectiv de capacitatea
maxima a motorului de a genera o forta de tractiune la periferia rotilor motoare.
Fortei de tractiune FR i se opune reactiunea drumului a carei valoare maxima este limitata
de aderenta dintre pneu si calea de rulare.

Forta de aderenta reprezinta capacitatea maxima a drumului de a impinge autovehiculul in


sensul de deplasare . Aceasta capacitate se apreciaza prin factorul de propulsie al caii de rulare,
denumit si factor dinamic la limita de aderenta Dφ.

Reprezentarea grafica a variatiei factorului dinamic la limita de aderenta Dφ = f(va) pentru


diferite valori ale coeficientului de aderenta, φ, reprezinta caracteristica de propulsie a drumului.

Caracteristica dinamica si caracteristica de propulsie a drumului


Pentru valori ale factorului dinamic D > Dφ are loc patinarea rotilor motoare si din acesta
cauza solicitarea autovehiculului se poate realiza numai pana la nivelul lui Dφ.
Pentru valori ale factorului dinamic D < Dφ aderenta este asigurata iar deplasarea este
determinata numai de capacitatea motorului de a dezvolta o forta tangentiala la roata care sa
depaseasca rezistentele la inaintare.

La atingerea vitezei maxime autovehiculul se deplaseaza in regim stabil de miscare.

Pentru determinarea vitezei maxime de deplasare a autovehiculului pe un drum cu


coeficientul de rezistenta la rulare f si panta p se utilizeaza caracteristica dinamica si caracteristica
de propulsie a drumului parcurgand urmatoarele etape :
- se calculeaza valoarea fiecarui coeficient de rezistenta totala al drumului ψ , corespunzator
inclinarilor pentru un drum din beton
- se traseaza dreptele orizontale de ordonate D = ψ pana cand acestea intersecteaza curbele
factorului dinamic D sau factorului de propulsie Dφ
- valorile absciselor acestor puncte reprezinta valorile vitezelor maxime cautate

Ga 14862,15 N

Valorile factorului dinamic în progresie geometrică Tabelul 16 corespunzător Anexa 16

Treapta 1 Treapta 2 Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5


va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR [N] Ra [N] D
11,052029 4371,954 3,829386 0,293909 14,73299 3279,645 6,804979 0,220213 19,63992 2460,243 12,09273 0,164724 26,18113 1845,564 21,48929 0,122733 32,72642 1476,451 33,57701 0,097084
27,6300724 4821,186 23,93366 0,322783 36,83247 3616,638 42,53112 0,240484 49,09979 2713,041 75,57957 0,177462 65,45284 2035,202 134,3081 0,127902 81,81604 1628,161 209,8563 0,095431
48,6289274 4100,419 74,13692 0,270908 64,82515 3075,951 131,7444 0,198101 86,41563 2307,441 234,1153 0,139504 115,197 1730,939 416,0326 0,088473 143,9962 1384,751 650,051 0,049434
60,7861593 3024,259 115,8389 0,195693 81,03143 2268,664 205,8506 0,138796 108,0195 1701,85 365,8051 0,089896 143,9962 1276,652 650,051 0,042161 179,9953 1021,322 1015,705 0,000378

Caracteristica dinaminca pt progresie geometrica


0.35

0.3

0.25
Treapta 1
0.2
Treapta 2
D

0.15 Treapta 3

0.1 Treapta 4
Treapta 5
0.05

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
viteza
Valorile factorului dinamic în progresie aritmetică Tabelul 17 corespunzător Anexa 17

Treapta 1 Treapta 2 Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5


va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D
11,052029 4371,95439 3,829386 0,293909 16,09506 3002,098 8,121393 0,20145 21,1381 2285,871 14,00803 0,152862 26,18113 1845,564 21,48929 0,122733 31,22417 1547,486 30,56518 0,102066
27,6300724 4821,1863 23,93366 0,322783 40,23766 3310,573 50,75871 0,219337 52,84525 2520,751 87,55017 0,163718 65,45284 2035,202 134,3081 0,127902 78,06042 1706,495 191,0324 0,101968
48,6289274 4100,41866 74,13692 0,270908 70,81828 2815,642 157,2302 0,178871 93,00764 2143,899 271,1954 0,126005 115,197 1730,939 416,0326 0,088473 137,3863 1451,374 591,7418 0,05784
60,7861593 3024,25867 115,8389 0,195693 88,52285 2076,674 245,6722 0,123199 116,2595 1581,23 423,7428 0,077882 143,9962 1276,652 650,051 0,042161 171,7329 1070,459 924,5966 0,009814

Caracteristica dinamica pt progresie aritmetica


0.35

0.3

0.25
Treapta 1
D

0.2
Treapta 2
0.15
Treapta 3
0.1 Treapta 4
Treapta 5
0.05

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Viteza

Factorul dinamic la limita de aderență în progresie geometrică Tabelul 18 corespondență


Anexa 18

Zi 7876,9395 N
Ga 14862,15 N

ϕ
va
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,6 0,8
0 0,053 0,106 0,159 0,1855 0,212 0,318 0,424
10 0,05278906 0,105789 0,158789 0,185289 0,211789 0,317789 0,423789
50 0,04772644 0,100726 0,153726 0,180226 0,206726 0,312726 0,418726
100 0,03190578 0,084906 0,137906 0,164406 0,190906 0,296906 0,402906
150 0,005538 0,058538 0,111538 0,138038 0,164538 0,270538 0,376538
170 -0,0079623 0,045038 0,098038 0,124538 0,151038 0,257038 0,363038
pt progresie geometrica
0.45

0.4 Treapta 1
0.35 Treapta 2
Treapta 3
0.3
Treapta 4
0.25 Treapta 5
D,D ϕ

0.2 0.1
0.2
0.15
0
0.1 0.35
0.05 0.4
0.6
0
0.8
0 50 100 150 200
-0.05
viteza

Factorul dinamic la limita de aderență în progresie aritmetrică Tabelul 19 corespondență


Anexa 19


ϕ
va
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,6 0,8
0 0,053 0,106 0,159 0,1855 0,212 0,318 0,424
50 0,047726 0,100726 0,153726 0,180226 0,206726 0,312726 0,418726
100 0,031906 0,084906 0,137906 0,164406 0,190906 0,296906 0,402906
150 0,005538 0,058538 0,111538 0,138038 0,164538 0,270538 0,376538
170 -0,00796 0,045038 0,098038 0,124538 0,151038 0,257038 0,363038
pt progresia aritmetica
0.45
Treapta 1
0.4
Treapta 2
0.35
Treapta 3
0.3 Treapta 4
0.25 Treapta 5
D,D ϕ

0.2 0.1

0.15 0.2
0.3
0.1
0.35
0.05
0.4
0 0.6
0 50 100 150 200
-0.05 0.8
viteza
Caracteristica dinamică și caracteristica de propulsie a drumului

Caracteristica dinamică și caracteristica de propulsie a drumului în progresie geometrică

0 5
sosea din beton f
tr de viteza va[km/h] ψ tr de viteza va[km/h] tr de viteza va[km/h] ψ
in stare buna 0,015 5 172 0,015 4 100 3 99 0,102098663
in stare satisfacatoare 0,018 5 170 0,018 4 104 3 102 0,105087247
sosea pavata
stare buna 0,025 5 162 0,025 4 92 3 0,11206061
cu hartoape 0,035 5 155 0,035 4 80 3 0,122022557

10 18
tr de viteza va[km/h] ψ tr de viteza va[km/h] ψ
2 64 0,188420294 1 30 0,3232828
2 67 0,191374717 1 29 0,326136

2 68 0,198268371 1 0,3327934
2 58 0,208116449 1 0,342304

progresie geometrica sosea din beton stare buna


0.35
Treapta 1
0.3
Treapta 2
0.25 Treapta 3
0.2 Treapta 4
D

Treapta 5
0.15
psi0sb
0.1 psi5sb
0.05 psi10sb
0 psi18sb
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
viteza

progresie geometrica sosea beton stare satisfacatoare


0.35
0.3 Treapta 1
0.25 Treapta 2
Treapta 3
0.2
Treapta 4
D

0.15
Treapta 5
0.1 psi0
0.05 psi5
0 psi10
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 psi18
viteza
progresie geometrica sosea pavata stare buna
0.35
0.3 Treapta 1
Treapta 2
0.25
Treapta 3
0.2
Treapta 4
D

0.15
Treapta 5
0.1 psi0
0.05 psi5
0 psi10
0 50 100 150 200 psi18
viteza

progresie geometrica sosea pavata cu hartoape


0.4
0.35 Treapta 1
0.3 Treapta 2
0.25 Treapta 3
0.2 Treapta 4
D

0.15 Treapta 5
0.1 psi0
0.05 psi5
0 psi10
0 50 100 150 200 psi18
viteza

Caracteristica dinamică și caracteristica de propulsie a drumului în progresie aritmetrică

0 5
sosea din beton f
tr de viteza va[km/h] ψ tr de viteza va[km/h] tr de viteza va[km/h] ψ
in stare buna 0,015 5 170 0,015 4 102 3 104 0,102098663
in stare satisfacatoare 0,018 5 165 0,018 4 107 3 107 0,105087247
sosea pavata
stare buna 0,025 5 160 0,025 4 95 3 0,11206061
cu hartoape 0,035 5 155 0,035 4 82 3 0,122022557

10 18
tr de viteza va[km/h] ψ tr de viteza va[km/h] ψ
2 69 0,188420294 1 30 0,3232828
2 66 0,191374717 1 28 0,326136

2 60 0,198268371 1 0,3327934
2 55 0,208116449 1 0,342304
progresie aritmetica sosea beton stare buna
0.35
0.3 Treapta 1

0.25 Treapta 2
0.2 Treapta 3
D

0.15 Treapta 4
0.1 Treapta 5
0.05 psi0
0
psi5
0 50 100 150 200
Viteza psi10

progresie aritmetica sosea beton stare satisfacatoare


0.35
Treapta 1
0.3
Treapta 2
0.25
Treapta 3
0.2
D

Treapta 4
0.15
Treapta 5
0.1
psi0
0.05 psi5
0 psi10
0 50 100 150 200
psi18
Viteza

progresie aritmetica sosea pavata stare buna


0.35
0.3 Treapta 1

0.25 Treapta 2
0.2 Treapta 3
D

0.15 Treapta 4
0.1 Treapta 5
0.05 psi0
0 psi5
0 50 100 150 200
psi10
Viteza
progresie aritmetica sosea pavata cu hartoape
0.4

0.35
Treapta 1
0.3 Treapta 2
0.25 Treapta 3
D

0.2 Treapta 4

0.15 Treapta 5
psi0
0.1
psi5
0.05
psi10
0
0 50 100 150 200 psi18
Viteza

Caracteristica dinamică și caracteristica de propulsie a drumului Tabelul 20 corespunzător


Anexa 20

sosea beton stare buna sosea beton stare satisfacatoare


va
ψ0 ψ5 ψ10 ψ18 ψ0 ψ5 ψ10 ψ18
0 0,016 0,102099 0,18842 0,323283 0,018 0,105087 0,191375 0,326136
10 0,016 0,102099 0,18842 0,323283 0,018 0,105087 0,191375 0,326136
50 0,016 0,102099 0,18842 0,323283 0,018 0,105087 0,191375 0,326136
100 0,016 0,102099 0,18842 0,323283 0,018 0,105087 0,191375 0,326136
150 0,016 0,102099 0,18842 0,323283 0,018 0,105087 0,191375 0,326136
170 0,016 0,102099 0,18842 0,323283 0,018 0,105087 0,191375 0,326136

sosea pavata stare buna sosea pavata cu hartoape


ψ0 ψ5 ψ10 ψ18 ψ0 ψ5 ψ10 ψ18
0,025 0,112061 0,198268 0,332793 0,035 0,122023 0,208116 0,342304
0,025 0,112061 0,198268 0,332793 0,035 0,122023 0,208116 0,342304
0,025 0,112061 0,198268 0,332793 0,035 0,122023 0,208116 0,342304
0,025 0,112061 0,198268 0,332793 0,035 0,122023 0,208116 0,342304
0,025 0,112061 0,198268 0,332793 0,035 0,122023 0,208116 0,342304
0,025 0,112061 0,198268 0,332793 0,035 0,122023 0,208116 0,342304
Rezistenta totala maxima a drumului

Rezistenta totala maxima a drumului pe care poate sa o invinga autovehiculul deplasandu-se


cu viteza va se determina prin ridicarea unei verticale de pe axa absciselor , din punctul
corespunzator valorii vitezei "va" pana cand acesta intersecteaza curba factorului dinamic al celei
mai mici trepte de viteza in punctul B. Ordonata acestui punct reprezinta rezistenta totata maxima a
drumului D = ψ ce poate fi invinsa cu viteza va .
Rezistenta totala maxima a drumului pe care se poate deplasa autovehiculul intr-o anumita
treapta de viteza se obtine prin trasarea tangentelor orizontale la curbele factorului dinamic
corespunzatoare fiecarei trepte.
Coordonatele punctului de tangenta reprezinta rezistenta totala maxima a drumului ,
respectiv viteza de deplasare la care se poate invinge aceasta rezistenta cu schimbatorul de viteze
intr-o anumita treapta .
In cazul cand tangenta se duce la curba factorului dinamic al treptei a 1-a se obtine rezistenta
totala maxima a drumului pe care se poate deplasa autovehiculul ψ max .

D viteza

0 30 60 90 110 130 150 170


0,05 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
0,1 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
0,15 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
0,2 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
0,25 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
0,3 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
0,35 30 60 90 110 130 150 170

progresie geometrica
viteza 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
ψ 0,315 0,2 0,135 0,095 0,075 0,045 0,015

progresie geometrica
0.4
Treapta 1
0.35
Treapta 2
0.3 Treapta 3
0.25 Treapta 4
Treapta 5
0.2
D

v30
0.15 v60
v90
0.1
v110
0.05 v130
0 v150
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 v170
viteza
progresie aritmetica
viteza 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
ψ 0,32 0,18 0,35 0,095 0,065 0,045 0,015

progresie aritmetica
0.4
Treapta 1
0.35
Treapta 2
0.3 Treapta 3

0.25 Treapta 4
D

Treapta 5
0.2
v30
0.15 v60

0.1 v90
v110
0.05
v130
0 v150
0 50 100 150 200
v170
Viteza

Panta maxima

Atunci cand se cunoaste valoarea factorului dinamic D si coeficientul de rezistenta la rulare


f se poate calcula panta drumului p care poate fi urcata de autovehicul .

Rezistenta
Vitezele D Viteza [km/h]
la rulare f
30 60 90 130 150 170 0 0,018 0
30 60 90 130 150 170 0,05 0,018 30
30 60 90 130 150 170 0,1 0,018 60
30 60 90 130 150 170 0,15 0,018 90
30 60 90 130 150 170 0,2 0,018 110
30 60 90 130 150 170 0,25 0,018 130
30 60 90 130 150 170 0,3 0,018 150
30 60 90 130 150 170 0,35 0,018 170
Progresie geometrica
viteza auroveh.[km/h] 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
panta maxima 0,297 0,182 0,117 0,077 0,047 0,027 -0,003
unghiul de inclinare 17,27750495 10,48627587 6,718995469 4,416146264 2,693894061 1,547174067 -0,1718876

progresie geometrica
0.4
Treapta 1
0.35
Treapta 2
0.3 Treapta 3
0.25 Treapta 4
0.2 Treapta 5
D

0.15 v30
v60
0.1
v90
0.05
v130
0
v150
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
viteza v170

Progresie aritmetica
viteza auroveh.[km/h] 30 60 90 110 130 150 170
panta maxima 0,302 0,162 0,332 0,077 0,029 0,027 -0,003
unghiul de inclinare 17,57776743 9,323002477 19,39021239 4,416146264 1,661810592 1,547174067 -0,1718876

progresie aritmetica
0.4
Treapta 1
0.35
Treapta 2
0.3
Treapta 3
0.25
D

Treapta 4
0.2
Treapta 5
0.15
v30
0.1
v60
0.05
v90
0
v130
0 50 100 150 200
Viteza v150
Variatia factorului dinamic functie de greutate
Ga
DG  D
Ga  G
G1 750 N 75 daN
G2 1000 N 100 daN
Ga 14862,15 N

scara
D D DG(+G1) DG(-G1) DG(+G2) DG(-G2) 0,0025
0 0 0 0 0 0
0,05 -0,05 -0,047598025 -0,052657285 -0,046847842 -0,053606944
0,1 -0,1 -0,095196049 -0,105314569 -0,093695684 -0,107213888
0,15 -0,15 -0,142794074 -0,157971854 -0,140543527 -0,160820832
0,2 -0,2 -0,190392098 -0,210629139 -0,187391369 -0,214427776
0,25 -0,25 -0,237990123 -0,263286423 -0,234239211 -0,26803472
0,3 -0,3 -0,285588148 -0,315943708 -0,281087053 -0,321641665
0,35 -0,35 -0,333186172 -0,368600993 -0,327934895 -0,375248609
0,4 -0,4 -0,380784197 -0,421258277 -0,374782738 -0,428855553
0,45 -0,45 -0,428382222 -0,473915562 -0,42163058 -0,482462497
0 0 0 0 0
-20 -19,03920985 -21,06291387 -18,73913688 -21,44277764
-40 -38,07841969 -42,12582774 -37,47827375 -42,88555527
-60 -57,11762954 -63,18874162 -56,21741063 -64,32833291
-80 -76,15683938 -84,25165549 -74,9565475 -85,77111054
-100 -95,19604923 -105,3145694 -93,69568438 -107,2138882
-120 -114,2352591 -126,3774832 -112,4348213 -128,6566658
-140 -133,2744689 -147,4403971 -131,1739581 -150,0994434
-160 -152,3136788 -168,503311 -149,913095 -171,5422211
-180 -171,3528886 -189,5662248 -168,6522319 -192,9849987

progresie geometrica
0.5

Treapta 1

0.4 Treapta 2
Treapta 3
Treapta 4
0.3 Treapta 5
0.1
D,D(ϕ)

0.2
0.2
0
0.35
0.1 0.4
0.6
0.8
0
Ga
-250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200
Ga+G1

-0.1 Ga-G1
viteza
progresia aritmetica
0.5

Treapta 1

0.4 Treapta 2
Treapta 3
Treapta 4
0.3 Treapta 5
0.1
0.2
D,D(ϕ)

0.2
0.3
0.35

0.1 0.4
0.6
0.8
0 Ga+G1
-250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200
Ga-G1
Ga
-0.1
viteza

Diagrama acceleratiilor vehiculului

Performantele si calitatile dinamice ale autovehiculelor sunt influentate semnificativ de


capacitatea de demarare a acestora .
Demarajul reprezinta procesul de crestere a vitezei autovehiculului si are o influenta importanta in
cazul pornirii de pe loc si in trafic la depasirea altui autovehicul.
Studiul demarajului autovehiculelor consta in determinarea unor parametri cu ajutorul carora
se poate aprecia si compara capacitatea de demarare intre diferite tipuri de autovehicule .
Cei mai importanti parametri de apreciere a capacitatii de demaraj sunt : acceleratia de
demaraj , timpul de demaraj si spatiul de demaraj .
Procesul de demarare este caracterizat prin :
- acceleratia de demaraj - este acceleratia autovehiculului in timpul cand viteza sa creste de la zero
sau de la o valoare inferioara v0, pana la o valoare superioara vn
- timpul de demaraj - timpul necesar cresterii vitezei autovehiculului de la zero pana la o valoare vn,
cu schimbarea succesiva a treptelor de viteza, pe un sector de drum orizontal si rectiliniu , incarcat
cu sarcina nominata si in conditii meteorologice standard .
In unele cazuri timpul de demaraj se mai poate aprecia si prin timpul necesar de la pornirea
de pe loc pana la parcurgerea unei anumite distante Sd (in
mod obisnuit se au in vedere doua valori Sd=400 m si S = 1000 m);
- timpul de repriza- timpul necesar cresterii vitezei autovehiculului intr-o anumita treapta de viteza
de la o valoare va1 pana la o valoare va2 (de obicei va1 = 40; 60; 90 Km/h, iar va2 = 60; 90; 120;
160 Km /h)
- spatiul de demaraj- spatiul parcurs de autovehicul in timpul demarajului

Acceleratia autovehiculului este direct proportionala cu diferenta D –ψ invers


proportionala cu δi .

Deoarece factorul dinamic maxim este limitat de aderenta, rezulta ca si acceleratia maxima
poate fi limitata de aderenta rotilor motoare.

Variatia factorului dinamic D in functie de viteza de deplasare a autovehiculului, va si de


treapta de viteza selectata , determina implicit si variatia acceleratiei in functie de acesti factori.
In cazul atingerii limitei de aderenta , deoarece factorul dinamic la limita de aderenta Dφ are
o variatie redusa in functie de viteza de deplasare (are forma
caracteristicii de propulsie a drumului ) , rezulta ca si acceleratia autovehiculului se va mentine
aproximativ constanta.

Jm 0.02….0.07 0,04 kg*m^2


ηtr 0,9114 -
ma 1515 kg
rr 0,2694504 m
JR 0.2….0.6 0,35 kg*m^2
ψ 0,015
itr=i0*iCVi
Treapta 1 9,191325974
Treapta 2 6,894921951
itr(pr. Geometrica) Treapta 3 5,172262287
Treapta4 3,88
Treapta 5 3,104
Treapta 1 9,191325974
Treapta 2 6,311425696
itr(pr. Aritmetica) Treapta 3 4,805673403
Treapta4 3,88
Treapta 5 3,253338776

progresie geometrica
λi tr1 λi tr2 λi tr3 λi tr4 λi tr5 ξ δi tr1 δi tr2 δi tr3 δi tr4 λi tr5
0,027999808 0,015756416 0,008866655 0,004989559 0,003193318 0,012727929 1,040727737 1,02848434 1,021594584 1,017717488 1,015921247

progresie aritmetica
λi tr1 λi tr2 λi tr3 λi tr4 λi tr5 ξ δi tr1 δi tr2 δi tr3 δi tr4 λi tr5
0,027999808 0,013202424 0,007654331 0,004989559 0,003507982 0,012727929 1,040727737 1,02593035 1,02038226 1,017717488 1,015921247

Diagrama acceleratiilor vehiculului în progresie geometrică Tabelul 21 corespunzător Anexa


21

Treapta 1 Treapta 2

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a
11,052029 0,293909 2,629027 0,380369 14,73299 0,220213 1,957385 0,510886
27,6300724 0,322783 2,901194 0,344686 36,83247 0,240484 2,150735 0,464957
50,8393332 0,259697 2,306541 0,43355 67,77174 0,189215 1,661714 0,601788
58,5757535 0,211833 1,855368 0,538977 78,08484 0,151475 1,301745 0,7682
Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a va D a 1/a


21,1381 0,152862 1,323842 0,755377 26,18113 0,122733 1,038461 0,962963 31,22417 0,102066 0,840732 1,189439
52,84525 0,163718 1,428084 0,700239 65,45284 0,127902 1,088284 0,918878 78,06042 0,101968 0,839785 1,190781
97,23526 0,118689 0,995689 1,00433 120,4332 0,081334 0,639408 1,563946 143,6312 0,050334 0,341199 2,930843
112,0319 0,088065 0,701618 1,425276 138,76 0,051862 0,355324 2,814329 165,4881 0,019772 0,046084 21,69948

Diagrama variatiei acceleratiei (pr. geometrica )


4.5

3.5

3 Treapta 1
Treapta 2
2.5
Treapta 3
a

2
Treapta 4
1.5 Treapta 5

1 aphi0.8
aphi0.35
0.5

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Va

Diagrama inversa acceleratiei (pr. geometrica )


8

5 Treapta 1
Treapta 2
1/a

4
Treapta 3
3 Treapta 4

2 Treapta 5

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Va
Diagrama acceleratiilor vehiculului în progresie aritmetrică Tabelul 22 corespunzător Anexa
22

Treapta 1 Treapta 2

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a
11,052029 0,29390936 2,62902653 0,380369 16,09506 0,20145 1,782843 0,560902
27,6300724 0,32278322 2,90119431 0,344686 40,23766 0,219337 1,953878 0,511803
48,6289274 0,27090843 2,41221755 0,414556 70,81828 0,178871 1,566946 0,638184
58,5757535 0,21183309 1,85536773 0,538977 85,30384 0,13508 1,148212 0,87092

Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a va D a 1/a


21,1381 0,152862 1,325415 0,754481 26,18113 0,122733 1,040297 0,961264 31,22417 0,102066 0,840732 1,189439
52,84525 0,163718 1,429781 0,699408 65,45284 0,127902 1,088284 0,918878 78,06042 0,101968 0,839785 1,190781
93,00764 0,126005 1,067206 0,937026 115,197 0,088473 0,708227 1,411977 137,3863 0,05784 0,413678 2,417341
112,0319 0,088065 0,702452 1,423585 138,76 0,051862 0,355324 2,814329 165,4881 0,019772 0,046084 21,69948

Diagrama variatiei acceleratiei (pr. aritmetica )


4.5

3.5

3 Treapta 1
Treapta 2
2.5
Treapta 3
a

2
Treapta 4
1.5 Treapta 5
aphi0.8
1
aphi0.35
0.5

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Va
Diagrama inversa acceleratiei (pr. aritmetica )
8

5
Treapta 1
1/a

4 Treapta 2
Treapta 3
3
Treapta 4
2
Treapta 5

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Va

ϕ=0.8 ϕ=0.35
ψ va Dϕ aϕ Dϕ aϕ
0,102098663 0 0,424 3,03427304 0,1855 0,795507601
0,102098663 10 0,423789058 3,032284678 0,185289058 0,79349557
0,102098663 20 0,423156231 3,026319593 0,184656231 0,787459475
0,102098663 30 0,42210152 3,016377785 0,18360152 0,777399316
0,102098663 40 0,420624925 3,002459254 0,182124925 0,763315094
0,102098663 50 0,418726445 2,984563999 0,180226445 0,745206809
0,102098663 60 0,41640608 2,962692021 0,17790608 0,723074461
0,102098663 70 0,413663832 2,93684332 0,175163832 0,696918049
0,102098663 80 0,410499698 2,907017896 0,171999698 0,666737573
0,102098663 90 0,406913681 2,873215748 0,168413681 0,632533035
0,102098663 100 0,402905779 2,835436877 0,164405779 0,594304433
0,102098663 110 0,398475992 2,793681283 0,159975992 0,552051767
0,102098663 120 0,393624322 2,747948966 0,155124322 0,505775038
0,102098663 130 0,388350766 2,698239925 0,149850766 0,455474246
0,102098663 140 0,382655327 2,644554162 0,144155327 0,40114939
0,102098663 150 0,376538002 2,586891675 0,138038002 0,342800472
0,102098663 160 0,369998794 2,525252464 0,131498794 0,280427489
0,102098663 170 0,363037701 2,459636531 0,124537701 0,214030443
Diagrama acceleratiilor vehiculului în progresie geometrică Tabelul 23 corespunzător Anexa
23 pentru alfa = 5 grade
Treapta 1 Treapta 2

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a
9,94682606 0,29390936 1,80802613 0,553089 13,25969 0,220213 1,126612 0,887617
27,851113 0,32116448 2,06493548 0,484277 37,12713 0,238849 1,304366 0,766656
48,7394477 0,24082714 1,30766798 0,76472 64,97248 0,174305 0,688726 1,451956
52,7181781 0,21183309 1,03436733 0,966775 70,27635 0,151475 0,470971 2,123273
Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a va D a 1/a


19,02429 0,152862 0,487465 2,051429 23,56302 0,122733 0,198898 5,027702 28,10175 0,102066 -0,00031 -3174,93
53,26801 0,161587 0,571247 1,750557 65,97646 0,125092 0,22164 4,511811 78,68491 0,09827 -0,03697 -27,0486
93,21902 0,106521 0,042462 23,55043 115,4588 0,069557 -0,31367 -3,18804 137,6986 0,038054 -0,61843 -1,61699
100,8287 0,088065 -0,13476 -7,4207 124,884 0,051862 -0,48424 -2,0651 148,9393 0,019772 -0,79496 -1,25792

3.5
diag acceleratiilor, pr. geometrica pt alfa= 5
3
2.5
acceleratia

Treapta 1
2
Treapta 2
1.5
Treapta 3
1
ϕ0.8
0.5
ϕ0.35
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
viteza

inversa acceleratiei pr geometrica alfa=5


9
8
7
6
5
1/a

Treapta 1
4
Treapta 2
3
Treapta 3
2
1
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
viteza
Diagrama acceleratiilor vehiculului în progresie aritmetrică Tabelul 24 corespunzător Anexa
24 pentru alfa = 5 grade

Treapta 1 Treapta 2 Treapta 3

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a va D a 1/a


11,052029 0,2939094 1,8080261 0,5530894 16,095064 0,20144979 0,95000073 1,05263077 21,1380991 0,15286233 0,488044 2,048995
27,630072 0,3227832 2,0801939 0,4807244 40,23766 0,21933668 1,1210361 0,89203193 52,8452478 0,16371798 0,592411 1,688018
48,628927 0,2709084 1,5912172 0,6284497 70,818282 0,17887131 0,73410412 1,36220459 93,0076362 0,12600488 0,229835 4,35094
58,575753 0,2118331 1,0343673 0,9667745 85,303839 0,13508003 0,31536953 3,17088335 112,031925 0,0880652 -0,13492 -7,41189

diag acceleratiilor pr. aritmetica, alfa=5


3.5

2.5
Treapta 1
acceleratia

2
Treapta 2
1.5
Treapta 3
1
ϕ0.8
0.5 ϕ0.35
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
viteza

25 invers acceleratie pr aritmetica alfa=5

20

15
1/a

Treapta 1
10 Treapta 2
Treapta 3

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
viteza
Timpul si spatial de demarare al autovehiculelor

Capacitatea de demarare a autovehiculelor este caracterizata de acceleratia acestuia , insa


pentru a avea parametri de apreciere mai usor de utilizat in compararea diferitelor tipuri de
autovehicule , este mai utila determinarea timpului si spatiului de demarare.

Pentru a se determina timpul de demarare de la ponirea de pe loc pina la vmax , se


construieste diagrama inversului acceleratiei pentru toate treptele de viteza,
considerandu-se ca trecerea de la o treapta la alta se face continuu, fara intreruperile necesare
schimbarii angrenajelor din cutia de viteze.

In practica exploatarii autovehiculului se utilizeaza mai mult diagrama demarajului. Aceasta


reprezinta graficul de crestere a vitezei de deplasare in functie
de timpul de demarare Va = f (td).

Capacitatea de accelerare a autovehiculului intr-o treapta de viteza aleasa se apreciaza prin


timpul de repriza.

Determinarea timpului de repriza pentru cresterea vitezei de la v1 = 40 Km/h pana la v2 =


160 Km/h se face in ultimile doua trepte ale schimbatorului de viteze ( treptele a IV -a si a V -a), la
deplasarea pe drum orizontal, din beton in stare uscata.

Determinarea grafica a timpului de demarare in treapta I Tabelul 25 corespunzator Anexa 25

Treapta I α=0

va 1/ai 1/ai+1 dv ΔTi td


11,05202896 0,380368927 0,375200826 1,105202896 0,115980261 0,115980261
27,63007239 0,344685634 0,344983501 1,105202896 0,10586449 1,744160895
48,6289274 0,414556307 0,423608536 1,105202896 0,128658641 3,906668061
50,83933319 0,433549549

timpul de demarare alfa=0


4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
td

2
1.5 Series1
1
0.5
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Va
Determinarea grafica a timpului de demarare in toate treptele de viteză Tabelul 26
corespunzator Anexa 26

Pentru toate treptele de viteza


α=5
Va 1/ai 1+ai+1 dv ΔTi td
10,7229021 0,53753249 0,52119526 0,9748093 0,150845423 0,1508454
61,4129847 0,47796071 0,49002451 0,9748093 0,137916608 6,2361236
81,2557692 0,67709016 0,69614547 1,310577 0,145529161 8,6017266
110,314748 1,17941889 1,23844312 1,69715 0,197869468 11,731892
146,260385 3,23940063 3,6851641 2,359038 0,407685294 16,116566
162,773654 43,4939898 0 -162,773654 -0,037111853 23,561546

Diagrama demarajului de la plecarea de pe loc


pana la vn pentru toate treptele de viteza
180

160

140

120

100

80 td

60

40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25

Spatiul de demarare
Determinarea grafica a spatiului de demarare in toate treptele de viteză Tabelul 26
corespunzator Anexa 26

α=5
t vi vi+1 dt ΔSi Sd
0,150845423 10,7229021 11,6977114 0,14640442 0,455899572 0,455899572
6,236123615 61,4129847 62,387794 0,141519401 2,433362776 61,00135708
8,601726642 81,2557692 82,5663462 0,149774405 3,407827751 107,3009881
11,73189216 110,314748 112,011898 0,208228149 6,429814713 190,1334554
16,11656633 146,260385 148,619423 0,4698006 19,24093204 347,0513201
23,56154602 162,773654 0 0 0 669,8457836
Diagrama spatiului de demarare
800

700

600

500
Sd

400
Sd
300

200

100

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Va

Diagrama demarajului pentru ultimele doua


trepte ale cutiei de viteze
160
140
120
Treapta 4
100
80 Treapta 5
60
40
20
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Parametrii capacitatii de franare ai autovehiculelor

Franarea este un regim tranzitoriu de miscare in care autovehiculul isi reduce viteza pana la
o anumita valoare sau pana la repaus .
Importanta deosebita pe care o are capacitatea de franare in siguranta circulatiei si a rularii
cu viteze ridicate pe drumurile publice face ca aceasta sa fie una dintre principalele limite in
cresterea vitezelor de deplasare ale autovehiculelor .
Parametrii capacitatii de franare sunt :
- deceleratia maxima corespunzatoare procesului de franare
- timpul minim de franare
- spatiul minim de franare
- spatiul de oprire
- deceleratia la franare - reprezinta acceleratia miscarii autovehiculului in timpul procesului de
franare .
Deoarece viteza autovehiculului se reduce, valoarea acceleratiei miscarii este negativa .
Valoarea deceleratiei depinde de intensitatea cu care este actionat sistemul de franare ,
caracteristicile tehnice ale sistemului de franare, starea suprafetei caii de rulare, starea anvelopelor,
viteza initiala a autovehiculului , daca franarea se executa cu motorul decuplat sau cuplat la
transmisie.
Cand franarea se produce fara decuplarea motorului si cu pedala de acceleratie libera
(mersului in gol corespunzator sarcinii motorului egala cu zero), asupra rotilor motoare se manifesta
atat rezistentele exterioare datorate inaintarii autovehiculului , forta de inertie a autovehiculului in
miscare de translatie , momentele de inertie
ale rotilor si ale organelor transmisiei in miscare de rotatie , cat si influenta momentelor de inertie
motorului in miscare de rotatie si fortele de rezistenta din motor (fortele de frecare , rezistentele
datorita admisiunii si comprimarii amestecului in cilindri, a evacuarii gazelor arse).

Daca franarea incepe la o viteza mai mica de 80 Km/h influenta rezistentei aerului se poate
neglija, iar in cazul deplasarii pe un drum foarte bun se poate neglija influenta rezistentei la rulare.
Valoarea maxima a deceleratiei se obtine atunci cand toate rotile ajung simultan la limita de
aderenta .
In acest caz valoarea fortei de franare specifice γf este egala cu valoarea sa maxima φ.

Timpul de franare - reprezinta perioada de franare intensa cuprisa intre momentul in care
forta de franare a atins intensitatea impusa de conducatorul auto si momentul in care viteza s-a
redus la valoarea dorita , sau autovehiculul s-a oprit.

Influenta constructiei si a starii tehnice a mecanismului de franare, a greutatii totale a


autovehiculului si a repartitiei dinamice a sarcinilor pe punti se apreciaza prin coeficientul de
eficacitate al franelor, Ke.

Spatiul minim de franare - reprezinta distanta parcursa in timpul franarii cu intensitate


maxima, cand viteza autovehiculului s-a micsorat de la va1 la va2.
Dintre parametrii capacitatii de franare, spatiul minim de franare determina in modul cel mai
direct calitatile de franare si siguranta circulatiei.

In practica datorita influentei starii pneurilor, a caii de rulare si a eficientei mecanismului de


franare, valorile reale ale spatiului minim de franare Sfmin sunt mai mari cu 30 - 40% fata de
valorile calculate.

Spatiul de oprire, Sopr - reprezinta distanta parcursa de autovehicul din momentul


sesizarii de catre operator a necesitatii franarii si pana la oprirea completa a acestuia prin franare.
Variatia deceleratiei in timpul procesului de franare

-t1- timpul intarzierilor fiziologice . Reprezinta timpul de reactie al conducatorului auto din
momentul sesizarii necesitatii franarii, pana la inceperea actionarii pedalei de frana ( t1 = 0,5-1,0 s )
-t2 - timpul intarzierilor mecanice . Este timpul scurs din momentul inceperii actionarii pedalei,
pana la inceperea efectului de franare . Depinde de tipul
sistemului de franare (t2 0,2 0,5)s
-t3 - timpul de initiere a franarii. Reprezinta intervalul de timp din momentul inceperii efectului de
franare pana cand forta de franare atinge valoarea sa maxima ( t3 = 0,1 s pentru frane cu comanda
hidraulica, t3 = 0,5 - 1,0 s pentru frane cu comanda pneumatica).

-t4 = trmin - timpul de franare intensiva corespunzator spatiului minim de franare.

Momentul de inertie al unei roti JR 0,4 kg m2


Raza de rulare a rotii rr 0,2694504 m
Masa autov ma 1515 kg
Numarul de roti n 4
Forta defranare specifica γf 0...ϕ

Coef de frecare intre pneu si cale μ <ϕ


Momentul de franare nul 0
Coef de rez la rulare f 0,01693126
panta drumului p 0…5
Coef de rezistenta aerodinamica a
k 0,83
autovehiculului
Aria sectiunii transversale a
A 1,65838 m2
autovehiculului
Greutatea autov. Ga 14862,15 N
Acceleratia gravitationala g 9,81 m/s2
ξ 0,014546204
1
δ 1,014546204
1…1,05(frana cu
Coeficientul de eficienta al franelor K 1,05
repartitor)
Deceleratia maxima si timpul minim de franare
(dv/dt)max
Unghiul de inclinare al drumului Modul de franare Starea caii de rulare Viteza initiala 2
tfmin[s]
[m/s ]
beton uscat ϕ=0.7 0,7 60 7,180249144 2,524430128
0,7 100 7,621122956 4,207383546
0,7 170 8,923078432 7,152552028
cu toate rotile pana la beton umed ϕ=0.35 0,35 60 3,795977451 4,932375814
linita de aderenta, fara 0,35 100 4,236851263 8,220626357
blocare 0,35 170 5,538806739 13,97506481
polei ϕ=0.15 0,15 60 1,862107913 10,84184515
0,15 100 2,302981725 18,06974192
0,15 170 3,604937201 30,71856127
Drum orizontal α=0˚
beton uscat μ=0.56 0,56 60 5,826540467 3,137016483
0,56 100 6,267414279 5,228360805
0,56 170 7,569369755 8,888213369
beton umed μ=0.28 0,28 60 3,119123113 6,095157755
cu toate rotile blocate 0,28 100 3,559996925 10,15859626
0,28 170 4,861952401 17,26961364
polei μ=0.12 0,12 60 1,572027482 13,21716365
0,12 100 2,012901294 22,02860608
0,12 170 3,31485677 37,44863034
beton uscat ϕ=0.7 0,7 60 7,180249144 2,524430128
0,7 100 7,621122956 4,207383546
0,7 170 8,923078432 7,152552028
cu toate rotile pana la beton umed ϕ=0.35 0,35 60 3,795977451 4,932375814
linita de aderenta, fara 0,35 100 4,236851263 8,220626357
blocare 0,35 170 5,538806739 13,97506481
polei ϕ=0.15 0,15 60 1,862107913 10,84184515
0,15 100 2,302981725 18,06974192
0,15 170 3,604937201 30,71856127
Drum inclinat α=5˚(la urcare)
beton uscat μ=0.56 0,56 60 5,826540467 3,137016483
0,56 100 6,267414279 5,228360805
0,56 170 7,569369755 8,888213369
beton umed μ=0.28 0,28 60 3,119123113 6,095157755
cu toate rotile blocate 0,28 100 3,559996925 10,15859626
0,28 170 4,861952401 17,26961364
polei μ=0.12 0,12 60 1,572027482 13,21716365
0,12 100 2,012901294 22,02860608
0,12 170 3,31485677 37,44863034

Spatiul minim de oprire

Spatiul minim de oprire


Modul de franare Viteza initiala [km/h]
10 60 80 100 120 170
Ss 3,055555556 18,33333333 24,44444444 30,55555556 36,6666667 51,94444444
cu toate rotile Sfmin 0,554544326 19,62454939 34,42504378 52,89534073 74,6706312 140,9539022
Sop 3,610099881 37,95788272 58,86948823 83,45089628 111,337298 192,8983467
Ss 3,055555556 18,33333333 24,44444444 30,55555556 36,6666667 51,94444444
Drum orizontal din beton cu suprafata
cu rotile din fata Sfmin 0,90882902 32,71784473 58,1650573 90,88290203 130,871379 262,6515869
uscata
Sop 3,964384576 51,05117806 82,60950174 121,4384576 167,538046 314,5960313
Ss 3,055555556 18,33333333 24,44444444 30,55555556 36,6666667 51,94444444
cu rotile din spate Sfmin 1,358521757 48,90678324 86,94539243 135,8521757 195,627133 392,6127877
Sop 4,414077312 67,24011658 111,3898369 166,4077312 232,2938 444,5572321
Ss 3,055555556 18,33333333 24,44444444 30,55555556 36,6666667 51,94444444
cu toate rotile Sfmin 1,082987634 37,72192091 65,39478032 99,07053467 137,649067 248,6803957
Sop 4,138543189 56,05525424 89,83922477 129,6260902 174,315733 300,6248401
Ss 3,055555556 18,33333333 24,44444444 30,55555556 36,6666667 51,94444444
Drum orizontal din beton cu suprafata
cu rotile din fata Sfmin 1,965606951 70,76185023 125,7988449 196,5606951 283,047401 568,0604088
umeda
Sop 5,021162506 89,09518357 150,2432893 227,1162506 319,714068 620,0048533
Ss 3,055555556 18,33333333 24,44444444 30,55555556 36,6666667 51,94444444
cu rotile din spate Sfmin 2,550207508 91,8074703 163,2132805 255,0207508 367,229881 737,0099699
Sop 5,605763064 110,1408036 187,657725 285,5763064 403,896548 788,9544143
Ss 3,055555556 18,33333333 24,44444444 30,55555556 36,6666667 51,94444444
cu toate rotile Sfmin 2,377752879 79,79758317 134,8278486 198,4405967 267,474654 448,6288661
Sop 5,433308434 98,13091651 159,2722931 228,9961523 304,141321 500,5733105
Ss 3,055555556 18,33333333 24,44444444 30,55555556 36,6666667 51,94444444
Drum orizontal din beton cu suprafata
cu rotile din fata Sfmin 4,783681432 172,2125316 306,1556117 478,3681432 688,850126 1382,483934
acoperita cu polei
Sop 7,839236988 190,5458649 330,6000561 508,9236988 725,516793 1434,428378
Ss 3,055555556 18,33333333 24,44444444 30,55555556 36,6666667 51,94444444
cu rotile din spate Sfmin 5,728036179 206,2093024 366,5943155 572,8036179 824,83721 1655,402456
Sop 8,783591734 224,5426358 391,0387599 603,3591734 861,503876 1707,3469
Spatiul minim de oprire pentru toate rotile
600

500

400 ϕ0.15
ϕ0.35
300
ϕ0.7

200

100

0
0 50 100 150 200

Spatiul minim de oprire pentru toate rotile puntii


1600
fata
1400

1200
ϕ0.15
1000
ϕ0.35
800
ϕ0.7
600

400

200

0
0 50 100 150 200
Spatiul minim de oprire pentru toate rotile puntii
1800
spate
1600

1400

1200 ϕ0.15
1000 ϕ0.35

800 ϕ0.7

600

400

200

0
0 50 100 150 200

Spatiul minim de franare

Spatiul minim de franare


Viteza initiala
coef. De aderenta/
Felul suprafetei de rulare Rotile franate [km/h]
frecare
10 60 80 100 120 170
toate rotile 0,554544326 19,62454939 34,42504378 52,8953407 74,67063119 140,9539022
0,7 ale puntii fata 0,90882902 32,71784473 58,1650573 90,882902 130,8713789 262,6515869
Drum de beton cu
suprafata uscata ale puntii spate 1,358521757 48,90678324 86,94539243 135,852176 195,627133 392,6127877

0,56 toate rotile 0,689028837 24,28448583 42,46820366 65,0094557 91,37854058 170,3923032


toate rotile 1,082987634 37,72192091 65,39478032 99,0705347 137,6490667 248,6803957
Drum orizontal α=0˚ Drumde beton cu 0,35 ale puntii fata 1,965606951 70,76185023 125,7988449 196,560695 283,0474009 568,0604088
suprafata umeda ale puntii spate 2,550207508 91,8074703 163,2132805 255,020751 367,2298812 737,0099699
0,28 toate rotile 1,337990644 46,25536954 79,7563687 120,071166 165,6922779 294,0922314
toate rotile 2,377752879 79,79758317 134,8278486 198,440597 267,4746543 448,6288661
Drum de beton cu
0,15 ale puntii fata 4,783681432 172,2125316 306,1556117 478,368143 688,8501263 1382,483934
suprafata acoperita cu
ale puntii spate 5,728036179 206,2093024 366,5943155 572,803618 824,8372098 1655,402456
polei
0,12 toate rotile 2,897340554 95,85526366 160,4728918 233,880977 312,1955637 512,3976817
toate rotile 0,631579009 22,29844802 39,04621214 59,8662492 84,30175429 158,0051808
Drum de beton cu 0,7 ale puntii fata 0,757990054 27,28764196 48,51136349 75,7990054 109,1505678 219,0591257
suprafata uscata ale puntii spate 1,045541995 37,63951183 66,9146877 104,5542 150,5580473 302,1616366
0,56 toate rotile 0,812104334 28,51625081 49,73050511 75,8726237 106,2462663 196,0430765
toate rotile 1,421621067 49,02666218 84,3884571 126,792021 174,5935276 308,2199375
Drumde beton cu 0,35 ale puntii fata 1,369935541 49,31767946 87,6758746 136,993554 197,2707179 395,9113712
Drum inclinat α=5˚[la urcare]
suprafata umeda ale puntii spate 1,629244589 58,65280522 104,2716537 162,924459 234,6112209 470,8516863
0,28 toate rotile 1,895949989 64,49724269 109,9697096 163,469776 222,5811184 382,2504644
toate rotile 4,984664803 156,2102313 253,2479359 357,419041 462,9374631 713,8943465
Drum de beton cu
0,15 ale puntii fata 2,318049727 83,44979018 148,3551825 231,804973 333,7991607 669,9163712
suprafata acoperita cu
ale puntii spate 2,518484677 90,66544838 161,1830193 251,848468 362,6617935 727,8420717
polei
0,12 toate rotile 7,98763002 233,3112675 364,8475377 498,238277 627,1596756 916,6434837
drum de beton cu suprafata uscata
1800
1600
1400
1200
toate rotile 0.7
1000
punte fata0.7
800
punte spate 0.7
600
toate rotile 0.56
400
200
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

drum de beton cu suprafata umeda


600

500

400 toate rotile 0.35

300 punte fata 0.35


punte spate 0.35
200
toate rotile 0.28
100

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

drum de beton cu suprafata acoperita cu polei


500
450
400
350
300 toate rotile 0.15

250 punte fata 0.15


200 punte spate
150 toate rotile 0.12
100
50
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Stabilitatea miscarii autovehiculelor cu roti

Stabilitatea unui autovehicul reprezinta capacitatea acestu ia de a se opune aalunecarii,


deraparii, patinarii si rasturnarii in timpul deplasarii.
Principalii factori care produc pierderea stabilitatii autovehiculului sunt:
- fortele care actioneaza asupra autovehiculului ( forta de tractiune , forta de franare, fortele de
inertie, forta laterala datorata vantului );
- caracteristicile geometrice ale caii de rulare (inclinarile longitudinale sau transversale , denivelari,
neregularitati, curbe);
- oscilatiile autovehiculelor ( tangaj , ruliu, giratie).

1. La urcarea unei pante autovehiculul poate sa-si piarda stabilitatea prin alunecare catre piciorul
pantei, sau prin rasturanarea in raport cu axa rotilor din spate.
Deoarece la urcarea pantelor mari , viteza si acceleratia autovehiculului au valori reduse, se poate
neglija influenta rezistentei aerului si rezistentei la demarare.

Conditia de stabilitate longitudinala la alunecare a autovehiculului catre piciorul pantei este


in cazul puntii motoare in fata:

2. La deplasarea rectilinie cu viteza mare pe drum orizontal este posibila pierderea stabilitatii
longitudinale datorita actiunii fortei de rezistenta frontala a aerului si a fortei portante.
Conditia de stabilitate longitudinala la rasturnare in acest caz este:

3. La deplasarea autovehiculului pe o cale de rulare cu inclinare transversala , sau in viraje se poate


pierde stabilitatea prin alunecarea sau prin rasturnarea transversala.
Conditiile de stabilitate transversala la rasturnare in cazul deplasarii in viraje cu viteza constanta (va
= constant) pe o traiectorie de raza constanta sunt:

• pentru calea de rulare cu inclinare transversal

• pentru calea de rulare orizontala


Conditiile de stabilitate transversala la derapare in aceleasi situatii de deplasare ale
autovehiculului sunt:
• pentru calea de rulare cu inclinare transversal

• pentru calea de rulare orizontala

Factorii care influenteaza stabilitatea transversala a autovehiculului la derapare sunt :


• forta laterala a vantului ;
• inclinarile transversale ale caii de rulare ;
• interactiunea dintre rotile autovehiculului si calea de rulare la demarare si la franare;
• bracarea brusca a rotilor de directie ;

4.La deplasarea autovehiculului cu viteza constanta pe o cale de rulare rectilinie cu inclinare laterala
β, sau in cazul stationarii, conditiile de stabilitate transversala sunt :
- conditia de stabilitate transversala la rasturnare

- conditia de stabilitate transversala la derapare

5. La deplasarea autovehiculului cu viteza ridicata pe o cale de rulare rectilinie fara inclinare


transversala, in cazul rotirii bruste a rotilor de directie, conditiile de stabilitate tran sversala sunt:

• pentru evitarea rasturnarii

• pentru evitarea deraparii

reprezinta viteza unghiulara de bracare a rotilor de directive

Inaltimea metacentrului fata de calea


ha (0.45…0.5)*H 0,6792 m
de rulare
densitatea aerului ρ 1.205 kg/m3
coef de portanta Cz 0.3…0.5 0,45
Aria sectiunii transversale A 1,65838 m2
coef aerodinamic frontal k 0,0245
coef de rezistenta a aerului cx 0,4
L 2,56 m
a 1,2032 m
b 1,3568 m
hg 0,512 m
E 1,465 m
coef. De aderenta transversala ϕy 0.8*ϕ
Unghiurile limita de stabilitate longitudinala
Unghiurile limita de stabilitate Aderenta Punte motoare spate Punte mot. Fata Ambele punti mot.
αr -- 69,32557524 69,32557524 69,32557524
0,7 20,93475847 18,02688765 34,9920202
αa 0,35 10,03082291 9,835296808 19,29004622
0,15 4,15697151 4,413593452 8,53076561

Conditia de stabilitate longitudinala la rasturnare

va < 20,72888134

Viteza minima de stabilitate la derapare in viraj

Viteza minima de stabilitate la derapare in viraj


Raza de curbura a drumului [m]
Coef.de aderenta laterala
15 20 30 40 60 80 100 140 180 240 300
0,56 32,75051145 37,8170332 46,31621746 53,48136124 65,50102289 75,6340664 84,56145694 100,0544652 113,4510996 131,0020458 146,4647398
ϕy 0,28 23,15810873 26,74068062 32,75051145 37,8170332 46,31621746 53,4813612 59,79397963 70,74919081 80,22204186 92,63243492 103,5662107
0,12 15,16054089 17,50588472 21,44024254 24,7570596 30,32108177 35,0117694 39,14434825 46,31621746 52,51765417 60,64216355 67,8

Stabilitate la derapare in viraj


350
300
250
200
Vad

ϕy = 0.56
150
ϕy = 0.28
100
ϕy = 0.12
50
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
R

Viteza minimă de stabilitate la rasturnare transversală

Viteza minima de stavilitate la rasturnarea transversala


Raza de curbura a
Unghiul de inclinare transversala drumului [m]
15 20 30 40 60 80 100 140 180 240 300
0 52,34713375 60,44526353 74,0300265 85,48251146 104,6942675 120,890527 135,1597182 159,9231352 181,3357906 209,388535 234,103499
β 3 55,41522737 63,98799288 78,36896611 90,49268736 110,8304547 127,975986 143,0815018 169,296316 191,9639786 221,6609095 247,8244308
5 57,6526399 66,57153433 81,53314525 94,14636672 115,3052798 133,143069 148,8584761 176,1317242 199,714603 230,6105596 257,8304438
Stabilitate transversala la rasturnare
350

300

250

200
Var

β=0
150
β=3
100 β=5

50

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
R

Viteza limită de bracare a roților

Viteza unghiulara limita de bracare a rotilor de directie


Viteza limita de bracare a rotilor de Coef. De aderenta Viteza autovehiculului [km/h]
transversala 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 170
-- 9,533081515 4,766540758 3,177693838 2,383270379 1,588846919 1,19163519 0,953308152 0,79442346 0,680934394 0,560769501
0,7 4,664377358 2,332188679 1,554792453 1,16609434 0,777396226 0,58304717 0,466437736 0,388698113 0,333169811 0,274375139
0,35 2,332188679 1,16609434 0,777396226 0,58304717 0,388698113 0,29152358 0,233218868 0,194349057 0,166584906 0,137187569
0,15 0,999509434 0,499754717 0,333169811 0,249877358 0,166584906 0,12493868 0,099950943 0,083292453 0,071393531 0,058794673

Limita de stabilitate transversala pentru deraparii


5
4.5
4
3.5
3
ϕy = 0.7
2.5
ϕy = 0.35
2
ϕy = 0.15
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Limita de stabilitate transversala pentru evitarea rasturnarii
12

10

6
Pentru evitarea rasturnarii
4

0
0 50 100 150 200
Anexa 1

v fR fr1 fr2 fr3 fr4


0 0,013295 0,013295 0,0075 0,0125 0,0125
10 0,013026396 0,013895 0,00776006 0,012526879 0,012522136
20 0,012793864 0,015695 0,00802096 0,012652053 0,01262522
30 0,012597404 0,018695 0,00828486 0,012919008 0,012845065
40 0,012437016 0,022895 0,00855536 0,01336014 0,01320835
50 0,0123127 0,028295 0,0088375 0,014002602 0,013737437
60 0,012224456 0,034895 0,00913776 0,014870266 0,014451984
70 0,012172284 0,042695 0,00946406 0,015984689 0,015369744
80 0,012156184 0,051695 0,00982576 0,017365684 0,016507034
90 0,012176156 0,061895 0,01023366 0,019031685 0,017879034
100 0,0122322 0,073295 0,0107 0,021 0,0195
110 0,012324316 0,085895 0,01123846 0,023286999 0,021383411
120 0,012452504 0,099695 0,01186416 0,025908248 0,023542087
130 0,012616764 0,114695 0,01259366 0,02887862 0,025988275
140 0,012817096 0,130895 0,01344496 0,032212378 0,028733723
150 0,0130535 0,148295 0,0144375 0,035923246 0,031789732
160 0,013325976 0,166895 0,01559216 0,040024465 0,035167206
170 0,013634524 0,186695 0,01693126 0,044528841 0,038876693
180 0,013979144 0,207695 0,01847856 0,049448787 0,042928413
190 0,014359836 0,229895 0,02025926 0,054796354 0,047332291
200 0,0147766 0,253295 0,0223 0,060583261 0,05209798
210 0,015229436 0,277895 0,02462886 0,066820926 0,05723488
220 0,015718344 0,303695 0,02727536 0,073520481 0,062752161

Rr [N] Rr [N] Rr [N] Rr [N] Rr [N]


197,5922843 197,592284 111,466125 185,776875 185,776875
193,6002513 206,509574 115,3311757 186,1763601 186,1058627
190,1443258 233,261444 119,2087107 188,0367039 187,6379106
187,2245079 277,847894 123,130832 192,0042311 190,9052859
184,8407973 340,268924 127,1510436 198,5603976 196,3044819
182,9931943 420,524534 131,3442506 208,10877 204,1678473
181,6816987 518,614724 135,8067598 221,004121 214,7875482
180,9063107 634,539494 140,6562793 237,5668458 228,4274392
180,66703 768,298844 146,031919 258,0913993 245,3300126
180,9638569 919,892774 152,09419 282,8517499 265,7208896
181,7967912 1089,32128 159,025005 312,10515 289,811925
183,165833 1276,58437 167,0276783 346,0948722 317,803461
185,0709823 1481,68204 176,3269255 385,0522711 349,8860247
187,5122391 1704,61429 187,168864 429,198382 386,2416454
190,4896033 1945,38112 199,8210123 478,7451913 427,0449002
194,003075 2203,98253 214,5722906 533,8966656 472,4637613
198,0526542 2480,41852 231,7330207 594,8495988 522,6602946
202,6383409 2774,68909 251,6349258 661,7943205 577,7912419
207,760135 3086,79424 274,6311305 734,9152936 638,0085138
213,4180366 3416,73397 301,096161 814,3916266 703,4596116
219,6120457 3764,50828 331,425945 900,3975143 774,2879897
226,3421622 4130,11717 366,0378116 993,1026214 850,633372
233,6083863 4513,56064 405,3704916 1092,672419 932,6320288
Pr [kW] Pr [kW] Pr [kW] Pr [kW] Pr [kW]
0 0 0 0 0
0,537778476 0,573637706 0,320364377 0,5171566 0,5169607
1,056357366 1,295896913 0,662270615 1,0446484 1,0424328
1,560204232 2,315399119 1,026090267 1,6000353 1,5908774
2,053786637 3,780765825 1,412789374 2,2062266 2,1811609
2,541572143 5,840618531 1,824225703 2,8903996 2,8356645
3,028028312 8,643578738 2,263445996 3,683402 3,5797925
3,517622707 12,33826794 2,734983209 4,6193553 4,4416447
4,01482289 17,07330765 3,245153755 5,7353644 5,4517781
4,524096422 22,99731936 3,802354749 7,0712937 6,6430222
5,049910868 30,25892456 4,41736125 8,6695875 8,0503313
5,596733787 39,00674477 5,103623503 10,575121 9,7106613
6,169032744 49,38940148 5,877564185 12,835076 11,662867
6,7712753 61,55551618 6,758875643 15,49883 13,947615
7,407929018 75,65371039 7,770817144 18,617869 16,607302
8,083461459 91,83260559 8,940512109 22,245694 19,68599
8,802340187 110,2408233 10,29924537 26,43776 23,229346
9,569032763 131,026985 11,88276039 31,251398 27,284586
10,38800675 154,3397122 13,73155653 36,745765 31,900426
11,26372971 180,3276264 15,89118628 42,98178 37,127035
12,20066921 209,1393491 18,4125525 50,022084 43,015999
13,2032928 240,9235018 21,35220568 57,930986 49,62028
14,27606805 275,828706 24,77264115 66,774426 56,99418

Anexa 2

v Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
0 0 0 0 0 0
10 0,537778476 0,573637706 0,320364377 0,517156556 0,51696073
20 1,056357366 1,295896913 0,662270615 1,044648355 1,042432836
30 1,560204232 2,315399119 1,026090267 1,600035259 1,590877383
40 2,053786637 3,780765825 1,412789374 2,20622664 2,18116091
50 2,541572143 5,840618531 1,824225703 2,890399583 2,835664546
60 3,028028312 8,643578738 2,263445996 3,683402016 3,579792469
70 3,517622707 12,33826794 2,734983209 4,619355335 4,441644651
80 4,01482289 17,07330765 3,245153755 5,735364428 5,451778058
90 4,524096422 22,99731936 3,802354749 7,071293747 6,643022241
100 5,049910868 30,25892456 4,41736125 8,6695875 8,05033125
110 5,596733787 39,00674477 5,103623503 10,5751211 9,710661307
120 6,169032744 49,38940148 5,877564185 12,8350757 11,66286749
130 6,7712753 61,55551618 6,758875643 15,49883046 13,94761497
140 7,407929018 75,65371039 7,770817144 18,61786855 16,60730167
150 8,083461459 91,83260559 8,940512109 22,2456944 19,68599006
160 8,802340187 110,2408233 10,29924537 26,43775995 23,22934643
170 9,569032763 131,026985 11,88276039 31,25139847 27,28458642
180 10,38800675 154,3397122 13,73155653 36,74576468 31,90042569
190 11,26372971 180,3276264 15,89118628 42,98178029 37,12703506
200 12,20066921 209,1393491 18,4125525 50,02208413 43,01599943
210 13,2032928 240,9235018 21,35220568 57,93098625 49,62028003
220 14,27606805 275,828706 24,77264115 66,7744256 56,99417954
Anexa 3
v Ra [N] Pa [kW]
0 0 0
10 3,135054784 0,008708486
20 12,54021914 0,069667884
30 28,21549306 0,235129109
40 50,16087654 0,557343073
50 78,3763696 1,088560689
60 112,8619722 1,88103287
70 153,6176844 2,98701053
80 200,6435062 4,458744582
90 253,9394375 6,348485938
100 313,5054784 8,708485511
110 379,3416289 11,59099422
120 451,4478889 15,04826296
130 529,8242585 19,13254267
140 614,4707377 23,89608424
150 705,3873264 29,3911386
160 802,5740247 35,66995665
170 906,0308326 42,78478932
180 1015,75775 50,7878875
190 1131,754777 59,73150212
200 1254,021914 69,66788409
210 1382,55916 80,64928432
220 1517,366515 92,72795372

Anexa 4
α Rp ψ Rψ
0 0 0,02 297,243
1 259,3802823 0,03744936 556,5780108
2 518,6815549 0,054887313 815,7434825
3 777,8248321 0,072308547 1074,660471
4 1036,731176 0,089707755 1333,250107
5 1295,321722 0,107079637 1591,433623
6 1553,5177 0,124418901 1849,132372
7 1811,240462 0,141720266 2106,267858
8 2068,411502 0,158978462 2362,761754
9 2324,952485 0,176188232 2618,53593
10 2580,785264 0,193344333 2873,512475
11 2835,831911 0,210441539 3127,61372
12 3090,014736 0,227474643 3380,762263
13 3343,256312 0,244438456 3632,880993
14 3595,479501 0,26132781 3883,893113
15 3846,607471 0,278137562 4133,722162
16 4096,563728 0,29486259 4382,292038
17 4345,272131 0,3114978 4629,527026
18 4592,656923 0,328038125 4875,351815
19 4838,642747 0,344478526 5119,691525
20 5083,154673 0,360813996 5362,471727
21 5326,118221 0,377039558 5603,618468
22 5567,459382 0,393150271 5843,058293
Anexa 5

n [rpm] Pmax [kW] M [N*m] cs c0


1000 14,71912608 140,6265306 341,68517 5,029307097
1100 16,4054685 142,4889509 337,2191296 5,532237806
1200 18,1146655 144,2229285 333,1647783 6,035168516
1300 19,84268393 145,8284633 329,4967177 6,538099225
1400 21,58549063 147,3055553 326,1927216 7,041029935
1500 23,33905242 148,6542046 323,2333733 7,543960645
1600 25,09933615 149,874411 320,6017603 8,046891354
1700 26,86230866 150,9661747 318,2832188 8,549822064
1800 28,62393678 151,9294956 316,2651191 9,052752774
1900 30,38018735 152,7643736 314,5366871 9,555683483
2000 32,12702721 153,470809 313,088856 10,05861419
2100 33,86042319 154,0488015 311,9141437 10,5615449
2200 35,57634213 154,4983512 311,0065552 11,06447561
2300 37,27075087 154,8194582 310,3615047 11,56740632
2400 38,93961625 155,0121224 309,9757572 12,07033703
2500 40,57890511 155,0763438 309,8473876 12,57326774
2600 42,18458428 155,0121224 309,9757572 13,07619845
2700 43,75262059 154,8194582 310,3615047 13,57912916
2800 45,27898089 154,4983512 311,0065552 14,08205987
2900 46,75963202 154,0488015 311,9141437 14,58499058
3000 48,19054081 153,470809 313,088856 15,08792129
3100 49,5676741 152,7643736 314,5366871 15,590852
3200 50,88699872 151,9294956 316,2651191 16,09378271
3300 52,14448152 150,9661747 318,2832188 16,59671342
3400 53,33608933 149,874411 320,6017603 17,09964413
3500 54,45778898 148,6542046 323,2333733 17,60257484
3600 55,50554733 147,3055553 326,1927216 18,10550555
3700 56,47533119 145,8284633 329,4967177 18,60843626
3800 57,36310742 144,2229285 333,1647783 19,11136697
3900 58,16484285 142,4889509 337,2191296 19,61429768
4000 58,87650431 140,6265306 341,68517 20,11722839
4100 59,49405865 138,6356674 346,5919045 20,6201591
4200 60,01347269 136,5163615 351,9724631 21,12308981
4300 60,43071329 134,2686127 357,8647237 21,62602051
4400 60,74174727 131,8924212 364,3120625 22,12895122
4500 60,94254147 129,3877869 371,3642619 22,63188193
4600 61,02906274 126,7547099 379,0786161 23,13481264
4700 60,9972779 123,99319 387,5212824 23,63774335
4800 60,84315379 121,1032274 396,768947 24,14067406
4900 60,56265726 118,0848219 406,9108901 24,64360477
5000 60,15175514 114,9379737 418,0515668 25,14653548
5100 59,60641427 111,6626827 430,3138598 25,64946619
5200 58,92260148 108,258949 443,8432154 26,1523969
5300 58,09628361 104,7267724 458,8129559 26,65532761
5400 57,12342751 101,066153 475,4311761 27,15825832
5500 56 97,27709091 493,9498041 27,66118903
Anexa 6

v Pr+Pa Pr+Pa Pr+Pa Pr+Pa Pr+Pa Pmax*ηtr


0 0 0 0 0 0 58,71530646
10 0,546486961 0,582346192 0,329072863 0,525865041 0,525669215 58,71530646
20 1,12602525 1,365564797 0,731938499 1,114316239 1,11210072 58,71530646
30 1,795333341 2,550528228 1,261219376 1,835164368 1,826006492 58,71530646
40 2,61112971 4,338108898 1,970132446 2,763569713 2,738503982 58,71530646
50 3,630132832 6,92917922 2,912786392 3,978960272 3,924225235 58,71530646
60 4,909061183 10,52461161 4,144478867 5,564434887 5,46082534 58,71530646
70 6,504633237 15,32527847 5,721993739 7,606365865 7,428655181 58,71530646
80 8,473567471 21,53205223 7,703898337 10,19410901 9,91052264 58,71530646
90 10,87258236 29,34580529 10,15084069 13,41977968 12,99150818 58,71530646
100 13,75839638 38,96741007 13,12584676 17,37807301 16,75881676 58,71530646
110 17,187728 50,59773898 16,69461772 22,16611531 21,30165552 58,71530646
120 21,21729571 64,43766444 20,92582715 27,88333867 26,71113045 58,71530646
130 25,90381797 80,68805885 25,89141831 34,63137313 33,08015764 58,71530646
140 31,30401326 99,54979463 31,66690139 42,51395279 40,50338592 58,71530646
150 37,47460006 121,2237442 38,33165071 51,636833 49,07712866 58,71530646
160 44,47229684 145,91078 45,96920202 62,1077166 58,89930308 58,71530646
170 52,35382208 173,8117743 54,6675497 74,03618778 70,06937574 58,71530646
180 61,17589425 205,1275997 64,51944403 87,53365218 82,68831319 58,71530646
190 70,99523183 240,0591285 75,6226884 102,7132824 96,85853718 58,71530646
200 81,86855329 278,8072332 88,08043659 119,6899682 112,6838835 58,71530646
210 93,85257711 321,5727861 102,00149 138,5802706 130,2695644 58,71530646
220 107,0040218 368,5566598 117,5005949 159,5023793 149,7221333 58,71530646

Anexa 7
viteza viteza
[m/s] [km/h] [m/s] [km/h]
2500 7,674839296 27,62942146 10,23100048 36,83160172
2600 7,981832867 28,73459832 10,6402405 38,30486578
2700 8,288826439 29,83977518 11,04948051 39,77812985
2800 8,595820011 30,94495204 11,45872053 41,25139392
2900 8,902813583 32,0501289 11,86796055 42,72465799
3000 9,209807155 33,15530576 12,27720057 44,19792206
3100 9,516800726 34,26048262 12,68644059 45,67118613
3200 9,823794298 35,36565947 13,09568061 47,1444502
3300 10,13078787 36,47083633 13,50492063 48,61771426
3400 10,43778144 37,57601319 13,91416065 50,09097833
3500 10,74477501 38,68119005 14,32340067 51,5642424
3600 11,05176859 39,78636691 14,73264069 53,03750647
3700 11,35876216 40,89154377 15,14188071 54,51077054
3800 11,66575573 41,99672063 15,55112072 55,98403461
3900 11,9727493 43,10189748 15,96036074 57,45729868
4000 12,27974287 44,20707434 16,36960076 58,93056275
4100 12,58673644 45,3122512 16,77884078 60,40382681
4200 12,89373002 46,41742806 17,1880808 61,87709088
4300 13,20072359 47,52260492 17,59732082 63,35035495
4400 13,50771716 48,62778178 18,00656084 64,82361902
4500 13,81471073 49,73295864 18,41580086 66,29688309
4600 14,1217043 50,83813549 18,82504088 67,77014716
4700 14,42869788 51,94331235 19,2342809 69,24341123
4800 14,73569145 53,04848921 19,64352092 70,71667529
4900 15,04268502 54,15366607 20,05276093 72,18993936
5000 15,34967859 55,25884293 20,46200095 73,66320343
5100 15,65667216 56,36401979 20,87124097 75,1364675
5200 15,96366573 57,46919664 21,28048099 76,60973157
5300 16,27065931 58,5743735 21,68972101 78,08299564
5400 16,57765288 59,67955036 22,09896103 79,55625971
5500 16,88464645 60,78472722 22,50820105 81,02952377
Treapta III Treapta IV Treapta V
viteza viteza viteza
[m/s] [km/h] [m/s] [km/h]
13,63850977 49,09863519 18,1809149 65,45129359 22,72614361 81,81411699
14,18405017 51,0625806 18,9081515 68,06934534 23,63518935 85,08668167
14,72959056 53,026526 19,6353881 70,68739708 24,5442351 88,35924635
15,27513095 54,99047141 20,3626247 73,30544883 25,45328084 91,63181103
15,82067134 56,95441682 21,0898613 75,92350057 26,36232659 94,90437571
16,36621173 58,91836223 21,8170979 78,54155231 27,27137233 98,17694039
16,91175212 60,88230763 22,5443345 81,15960406 28,18041808 101,4495051
17,45729251 62,84625304 23,2715711 83,7776558 29,08946382 104,7220698
18,0028329 64,81019845 23,9988077 86,39570754 29,99850956 107,9946344
18,54837329 66,77414386 24,7260442 89,01375929 30,90755531 111,2671991
19,09391368 68,73808926 25,4532808 91,63181103 31,81660105 114,5397638
19,63945408 70,70203467 26,1805174 94,24986278 32,7256468 117,8123285
20,18499447 72,66598008 26,907754 96,86791452 33,63469254 121,0848931
20,73053486 74,62992549 27,6349906 99,48596626 34,54373829 124,3574578
21,27607525 76,59387089 28,3622272 102,104018 35,45278403 127,6300225
21,82161564 78,5578163 29,0894638 104,7220698 36,36182977 130,9025872
22,36715603 80,52176171 29,8167004 107,3401215 37,27087552 134,1751519
22,91269642 82,48570712 30,543937 109,9581732 38,17992126 137,4477165
23,45823681 84,44965253 31,2711736 112,576225 39,08896701 140,7202812
24,0037772 86,41359793 31,9984102 115,1942767 39,99801275 143,9928459
24,54931759 88,37754334 32,7256468 117,8123285 40,9070585 147,2654106
25,09485799 90,34148875 33,4528834 120,4303802 41,81610424 150,5379753
25,64039838 92,30543416 34,18012 123,048432 42,72514998 153,8105399
26,18593877 94,26937956 34,9073566 125,6664837 43,63419573 157,0831046
26,73147916 96,23332497 35,6345932 128,2845354 44,54324147 160,3556693
27,27701955 98,19727038 36,3618298 130,9025872 45,45228722 163,628234
27,82255994 100,1612158 37,0890664 133,5206389 46,36133296 166,9007987
28,36810033 102,1251612 37,816303 136,1386907 47,27037871 170,1733633
28,91364072 104,0891066 38,5435396 138,7567424 48,17942445 173,445928
29,45918111 106,053052 39,2707762 141,3747942 49,0884702 176,7184927
30,0047215 108,0169974 39,9980128 143,9928459 49,99751594 179,9910574
 * nv max * rr
vmax k   R max k * rr 
Anexa 8 30 * i0 * icvk
treapta 1 treapta 2
n
v[m/s] v[km/h] v[m/s] v[km/h]
1000 3,069935718 11,05176859 4,470745797 16,09468487
1100 3,37692929 12,15694544 4,917820377 17,70415336
1200 3,683922862 13,2621223 5,364894957 19,31362184
1300 3,990916434 14,36729916 5,811969536 20,92309033
1400 4,297910005 15,47247602 6,259044116 22,53255882
1500 4,604903577 16,57765288 6,706118696 24,1420273
1600 4,911897149 17,68282974 7,153193275 25,75149579
1700 5,218890721 18,7880066 7,600267855 27,36096428
1800 5,525884293 19,89318345 8,047342435 28,97043277
1900 5,832877865 20,99836031 8,494417014 30,57990125
2000 6,139871436 22,10353717 8,941491594 32,18936974
2100 6,446865008 23,20871403 9,388566174 33,79883823
2200 6,75385858 24,31389089 9,835640754 35,40830671
2300 7,060852152 25,41906775 10,28271533 37,0177752
2400 7,367845724 26,52424461 10,72978991 38,62724369
2500 7,674839296 27,62942146 11,17686449 40,23671217
2600 7,981832867 28,73459832 11,62393907 41,84618066
2700 8,288826439 29,83977518 12,07101365 43,45564915
2800 8,595820011 30,94495204 12,51808823 45,06511763
2900 8,902813583 32,0501289 12,96516281 46,67458612
3000 9,209807155 33,15530576 13,41223739 48,28405461
3100 9,516800726 34,26048262 13,85931197 49,8935231
3200 9,823794298 35,36565947 14,30638655 51,50299158
3300 10,13078787 36,47083633 14,75346113 53,11246007
3400 10,43778144 37,57601319 15,20053571 54,72192856
3500 10,74477501 38,68119005 15,64761029 56,33139704
3600 11,05176859 39,78636691 16,09468487 57,94086553
3700 11,35876216 40,89154377 16,54175945 59,55033402
3800 11,66575573 41,99672063 16,98883403 61,1598025
3900 11,9727493 43,10189748 17,43590861 62,76927099
4000 12,27974287 44,20707434 17,88298319 64,37873948
4100 12,58673644 45,3122512 18,33005777 65,98820797
4200 12,89373002 46,41742806 18,77713235 67,59767645
4300 13,20072359 47,52260492 19,22420693 69,20714494
4400 13,50771716 48,62778178 19,67128151 70,81661343
4500 13,81471073 49,73295864 20,11835609 72,42608191
4600 14,1217043 50,83813549 20,56543067 74,0355504
4700 14,42869788 51,94331235 21,01250525 75,64501889
4800 14,73569145 53,04848921 21,45957983 77,25448737
4900 15,04268502 54,15366607 21,90665441 78,86395586
5000 15,34967859 55,25884293 22,35372899 80,47342435
5100 15,65667216 56,36401979 22,80080357 82,08289283
5200 15,96366573 57,46919664 23,24787814 83,69236132
5300 16,27065931 58,5743735 23,69495272 85,30182981
5400 16,57765288 59,67955036 24,1420273 86,9112983
5500 16,88464645 60,78472722 24,58910188 88,52076678
treapta 3 treapta 4 treapta 5
v[m/s] v[km/h] v[m/s] v[km/h] v[m/s] v[km/h]
5,871555876 21,13760115 7,27236595 26,18051744 8,673176034 31,22343372
6,458711464 23,25136127 7,99960255 28,79856918 9,540493637 34,34577709
7,045867051 25,36512138 8,72683915 31,41662093 10,40781124 37,46812047
7,633022639 27,4788815 9,45407574 34,03467267 11,27512884 40,59046384
8,220178226 29,59264161 10,1813123 36,65272441 12,14244645 43,71280721
8,807333814 31,70640173 10,9085489 39,27077616 13,00976405 46,83515058
9,394489402 33,82016185 11,6357855 41,8888279 13,87708165 49,95749395
9,981644989 35,93392196 12,3630221 44,50687964 14,74439926 53,07983733
10,56880058 38,04768208 13,0902587 47,12493139 15,61171686 56,2021807
11,15595616 40,16144219 13,8174953 49,74298313 16,47903446 59,32452407
11,74311175 42,27520231 14,5447319 52,36103488 17,34635207 62,44686744
12,33026734 44,38896242 15,2719685 54,97908662 18,21366967 65,56921082
12,91742293 46,50272254 15,9992051 57,59713836 19,08098727 68,69155419
13,50457851 48,61648265 16,7264417 60,21519011 19,94830488 71,81389756
14,0917341 50,73024277 17,4536783 62,83324185 20,81562248 74,93624093
14,67888969 52,84400288 18,1809149 65,45129359 21,68294008 78,0585843
15,26604528 54,957763 18,9081515 68,06934534 22,55025769 81,18092768
15,85320087 57,07152311 19,6353881 70,68739708 23,41757529 84,30327105
16,44035645 59,18528323 20,3626247 73,30544883 24,28489289 87,42561442
17,02751204 61,29904335 21,0898613 75,92350057 25,1522105 90,54795779
17,61466763 63,41280346 21,8170979 78,54155231 26,0195281 93,67030116
18,20182322 65,52656358 22,5443345 81,15960406 26,8868457 96,79264454
18,7889788 67,64032369 23,2715711 83,7776558 27,75416331 99,91498791
19,37613439 69,75408381 23,9988077 86,39570754 28,62148091 103,0373313
19,96328998 71,86784392 24,7260442 89,01375929 29,48879851 106,1596747
20,55044557 73,98160404 25,4532808 91,63181103 30,35611612 109,282018
21,13760115 76,09536415 26,1805174 94,24986278 31,22343372 112,4043614
21,72475674 78,20912427 26,907754 96,86791452 32,09075132 115,5267048
22,31191233 80,32288438 27,6349906 99,48596626 32,95806893 118,6490481
22,89906792 82,4366445 28,3622272 102,104018 33,82538653 121,7713915
23,4862235 84,55040461 29,0894638 104,7220698 34,69270414 124,8937349
24,07337909 86,66416473 29,8167004 107,3401215 35,56002174 128,0160783
24,66053468 88,77792484 30,543937 109,9581732 36,42733934 131,1384216
25,24769027 90,89168496 31,2711736 112,576225 37,29465695 134,260765
25,83484585 93,00544508 31,9984102 115,1942767 38,16197455 137,3831084
26,42200144 95,11920519 32,7256468 117,8123285 39,02929215 140,5054517
27,00915703 97,23296531 33,4528834 120,4303802 39,89660976 143,6277951
27,59631262 99,34672542 34,18012 123,048432 40,76392736 146,7501385
28,1834682 101,4604855 34,9073566 125,6664837 41,63124496 149,8724819
28,77062379 103,5742457 35,6345932 128,2845354 42,49856257 152,9948252
29,35777938 105,6880058 36,3618298 130,9025872 43,36588017 156,1171686
29,94493497 107,8017659 37,0890664 133,5206389 44,23319777 159,239512
30,53209056 109,915526 37,816303 136,1386907 45,10051538 162,3618554
31,11924614 112,0292861 38,5435396 138,7567424 45,96783298 165,4841987
31,70640173 114,1430462 39,2707762 141,3747942 46,83515058 168,6065421
32,29355732 116,2568063 39,9980128 143,9928459 47,70246819 171,7288855
Anexa 9
itr 9,191325974 itr 6,894921951
Treapta I Treapta II
n [rpm] Me [Nm]
va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N]
1000 140,6265306 11,05202896 4371,954391 14,73298777 3279,644785
1100 142,4889509 12,15723185 4429,855392 16,20628655 3323,079528
1200 144,2229285 13,26243475 4483,763221 17,67958533 3363,518772
1300 145,8284633 14,36763764 4533,677877 19,15288411 3400,962516
1400 147,3055553 15,47284054 4579,599361 20,62618288 3435,410761
1500 148,6542046 16,57804343 4621,527672 22,09948166 3466,863506
1600 149,874411 17,68324633 4659,462811 23,57278044 3495,320752
1700 150,9661747 18,78844922 4693,404777 25,04607922 3520,782498
1800 151,9294956 19,89365212 4723,353571 26,51937799 3543,248744
1900 152,7643736 20,99885501 4749,309192 27,99267677 3562,719491
2000 153,470809 22,10405791 4771,27164 29,46597555 3579,194739
2100 154,0488015 23,20926081 4789,240917 30,93927433 3592,674486
2200 154,4983512 24,3144637 4803,21702 32,4125731 3603,158735
2300 154,8194582 25,4196666 4813,199952 33,88587188 3610,647484
2400 155,0121224 26,52486949 4819,18971 35,35917066 3615,140733
2500 155,0763438 27,63007239 4821,186297 36,83246943 3616,638483
2600 155,0121224 28,73527528 4819,18971 38,30576821 3615,140733
2700 154,8194582 29,84047818 4813,199952 39,77906699 3610,647484
2800 154,4983512 30,94568107 4803,21702 41,25236577 3603,158735
2900 154,0488015 32,05088397 4789,240917 42,72566454 3592,674486
3000 153,470809 33,15608687 4771,27164 44,19896332 3579,194739
3100 152,7643736 34,26128976 4749,309192 45,6722621 3562,719491
3200 151,9294956 35,36649266 4723,353571 47,14556088 3543,248744
3300 150,9661747 36,47169555 4693,404777 48,61885965 3520,782498
3400 149,874411 37,57689845 4659,462811 50,09215843 3495,320752
3500 148,6542046 38,68210134 4621,527672 51,56545721 3466,863506
3600 147,3055553 39,78730424 4579,599361 53,03875599 3435,410761
3700 145,8284633 40,89250713 4533,677877 54,51205476 3400,962516
3800 144,2229285 41,99771003 4483,763221 55,98535354 3363,518772
3900 142,4889509 43,10291293 4429,855392 57,45865232 3323,079528
4000 140,6265306 44,20811582 4371,954391 58,9319511 3279,644785
4100 138,6356674 45,31331872 4310,060217 60,40524987 3233,214542
4200 136,5163615 46,41852161 4244,172871 61,87854865 3183,7888
4300 134,2686127 47,52372451 4174,292352 63,35184743 3131,367558
4400 131,8924212 48,6289274 4100,418661 64,82514621 3075,950816
4500 129,3877869 49,7341303 4022,551797 66,29844498 3017,538575
4600 126,7547099 50,83933319 3940,691761 67,77174376 2956,130835
4700 123,99319 51,94453609 3854,838553 69,24504254 2891,727595
4800 121,1032274 53,04973899 3764,992171 70,71834131 2824,328855
4900 118,0848219 54,15494188 3671,152618 72,19164009 2753,934616
5000 114,9379737 55,26014478 3573,319892 73,66493887 2680,544878
5100 111,6626827 56,36534767 3471,493993 75,13823765 2604,159639
5200 108,258949 57,47055057 3365,674922 76,61153642 2524,778902
5300 104,7267724 58,57575346 3255,862678 78,0848352 2442,402664
5400 101,066153 59,68095636 3142,057262 79,55813398 2357,030928
5500 97,27709091 60,78615925 3024,258673 81,03143276 2268,663691
itr 5,17226229 itr 3,88 itr 3,104
Treapta III Treapta IV Treapta V
va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N] va[km/h] FR[N]
19,63991676 2460,24294 26,18113423 1845,564295 32,72641778 1476,451436
21,60390844 2492,82574 28,79924765 1870,006457 35,99905956 1496,005166
23,56790012 2523,16145 31,41736107 1892,762953 39,27170134 1514,210363
25,53189179 2551,25008 34,03547449 1913,833783 42,54434312 1531,067027
27,49588347 2577,09161 36,65358792 1933,218947 45,8169849 1546,575157
29,45987515 2600,68605 39,27170134 1950,918444 49,08962668 1560,734755
31,42386682 2622,03341 41,88981476 1966,932275 52,36226845 1573,54582
33,3878585 2641,13367 44,50792819 1981,260439 55,63491023 1585,008351
35,35185017 2657,98685 47,12604161 1993,902937 58,90755201 1595,12235
37,31584185 2672,59293 49,74415503 2004,859768 62,18019379 1603,887815
39,27983353 2684,95193 52,36226845 2014,130934 65,45283557 1611,304747
41,2438252 2695,06383 54,98038188 2021,716432 68,72547735 1617,373146
43,20781688 2702,92864 57,5984953 2027,616265 71,99811912 1622,093012
45,17180856 2708,54637 60,21660872 2031,830431 75,2707609 1625,464345
47,13580023 2711,917 62,83472214 2034,35893 78,54340268 1627,487144
49,09979191 2713,04055 65,45283557 2035,201764 81,81604446 1628,161411
51,06378358 2711,917 68,07094899 2034,35893 85,08868624 1627,487144
53,02777526 2708,54637 70,68906241 2031,830431 88,36132802 1625,464345
54,99176694 2702,92864 73,30717584 2027,616265 91,63396979 1622,093012
56,95575861 2695,06383 75,92528926 2021,716432 94,90661157 1617,373146
58,91975029 2684,95193 78,54340268 2014,130934 98,17925335 1611,304747
60,88374197 2672,59293 81,1615161 2004,859768 101,4518951 1603,887815
62,84773364 2657,98685 83,77962953 1993,902937 104,7245369 1595,12235
64,81172532 2641,13367 86,39774295 1981,260439 107,9971787 1585,008351
66,775717 2622,03341 89,01585637 1966,932275 111,2698205 1573,54582
68,73970867 2600,68605 91,63396979 1950,918444 114,5424622 1560,734755
70,70370035 2577,09161 94,25208322 1933,218947 117,815104 1546,575157
72,66769202 2551,25008 96,87019664 1913,833783 121,0877458 1531,067027
74,6316837 2523,16145 99,48831006 1892,762953 124,3603876 1514,210363
76,59567538 2492,82574 102,1064235 1870,006457 127,6330294 1496,005166
78,55966705 2460,24294 104,7245369 1845,564295 130,9056711 1476,451436
80,52365873 2425,41304 107,3426503 1819,436465 134,1783129 1455,549172
82,48765041 2388,33606 109,9607638 1791,62297 137,4509547 1433,298376
84,45164208 2349,01199 112,5788772 1762,123808 140,7235965 1409,699047
86,41563376 2307,44083 115,1969906 1730,93898 143,9962382 1384,751184
88,37962544 2263,62257 117,815104 1698,068485 147,26888 1358,454788
90,34361711 2217,55723 120,4332174 1663,512324 150,5415218 1330,809859
92,30760879 2169,2448 123,0513309 1627,270497 153,8141636 1301,816397
94,27160046 2118,68528 125,6694443 1589,343003 157,0868054 1271,474402
96,23559214 2065,87867 128,2875577 1549,729843 160,3594471 1239,783874
98,19958382 2010,82496 130,9056711 1508,431016 163,6320889 1206,744813
100,1635755 1953,52417 133,5237846 1465,446523 166,9047307 1172,357219
102,1275672 1893,97629 136,141898 1420,776364 170,1773725 1136,621091
104,0915588 1832,18132 138,7600114 1374,420538 173,4500143 1099,536431
106,0555505 1768,13926 141,3781248 1326,379046 176,722656 1061,103237
108,0195422 1701,85011 143,9962382 1276,651887 179,9952978 1021,32151
Anexa 10
itr 9,191325974 itr 6,311425696
Treapta I Treapta II
n [rpm] Me [Nm]
va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N]
1000 140,6265306 11,05202896 4371,954391 16,09506405 3002,098431
1100 142,4889509 12,15723185 4429,855392 17,70457045 3041,857424
1200 144,2229285 13,26243475 4483,763221 19,31407685 3078,874418
1300 145,8284633 14,36763764 4533,677877 20,92358326 3113,149412
1400 147,3055553 15,47284054 4579,599361 22,53308966 3144,682407
1500 148,6542046 16,57804343 4621,527672 24,14259607 3173,473402
1600 149,874411 17,68324633 4659,462811 25,75210247 3199,522397
1700 150,9661747 18,78844922 4693,404777 27,36160888 3222,829393
1800 151,9294956 19,89365212 4723,353571 28,97111528 3243,39439
1900 152,7643736 20,99885501 4749,309192 30,58062169 3261,217387
2000 153,470809 22,10405791 4771,27164 32,19012809 3276,298384
2100 154,0488015 23,20926081 4789,240917 33,7996345 3288,637382
2200 154,4983512 24,3144637 4803,21702 35,4091409 3298,23438
2300 154,8194582 25,4196666 4813,199952 37,01864731 3305,089379
2400 155,0121224 26,52486949 4819,18971 38,62815371 3309,202378
2500 155,0763438 27,63007239 4821,186297 40,23766011 3310,573378
2600 155,0121224 28,73527528 4819,18971 41,84716652 3309,202378
2700 154,8194582 29,84047818 4813,199952 43,45667292 3305,089379
2800 154,4983512 30,94568107 4803,21702 45,06617933 3298,23438
2900 154,0488015 32,05088397 4789,240917 46,67568573 3288,637382
3000 153,470809 33,15608687 4771,27164 48,28519214 3276,298384
3100 152,7643736 34,26128976 4749,309192 49,89469854 3261,217387
3200 151,9294956 35,36649266 4723,353571 51,50420495 3243,39439
3300 150,9661747 36,47169555 4693,404777 53,11371135 3222,829393
3400 149,874411 37,57689845 4659,462811 54,72321776 3199,522397
3500 148,6542046 38,68210134 4621,527672 56,33272416 3173,473402
3600 147,3055553 39,78730424 4579,599361 57,94223056 3144,682407
3700 145,8284633 40,89250713 4533,677877 59,55173697 3113,149412
3800 144,2229285 41,99771003 4483,763221 61,16124337 3078,874418
3900 142,4889509 43,10291293 4429,855392 62,77074978 3041,857424
4000 140,6265306 44,20811582 4371,954391 64,38025618 3002,098431
4100 138,6356674 45,31331872 4310,060217 65,98976259 2959,597438
4200 136,5163615 46,41852161 4244,172871 67,59926899 2914,354446
4300 134,2686127 47,52372451 4174,292352 69,2087754 2866,369454
4400 131,8924212 48,6289274 4100,418661 70,8182818 2815,642463
4500 129,3877869 49,7341303 4022,551797 72,42778821 2762,173472
4600 126,7547099 50,83933319 3940,691761 74,03729461 2705,962482
4700 123,99319 51,94453609 3854,838553 75,64680102 2647,009492
4800 121,1032274 53,04973899 3764,992171 77,25630742 2585,314502
4900 118,0848219 54,15494188 3671,152618 78,86581382 2520,877513
5000 114,9379737 55,26014478 3573,319892 80,47532023 2453,698525
5100 111,6626827 56,36534767 3471,493993 82,08482663 2383,777537
5200 108,258949 57,47055057 3365,674922 83,69433304 2311,114549
5300 104,7267724 58,57575346 3255,862678 85,30383944 2235,709562
5400 101,066153 59,68095636 3142,057262 86,91334585 2157,562576
5500 97,27709091 60,78615925 3024,258673 88,52285225 2076,67359
itr 4,8056734 itr 3,88 itr 3,253338776
Treapta III Treapta IV Treapta V
va [km/h] FR [N] va [km/h] FR [N] va[km/h] FR[N]
21,13809914 2285,87094 26,18113423 1845,564295 31,22416932 1547,486052
23,25190905 2316,14441 28,79924765 1870,006457 34,34658625 1567,980546
25,36571896 2344,33005 31,41736107 1892,762953 37,46900318 1587,061627
27,47952888 2370,42786 34,03547449 1913,833783 40,59142011 1604,729294
29,59333879 2394,43785 36,65358792 1933,218947 43,71383704 1620,983547
31,7071487 2416,36002 39,27170134 1950,918444 46,83625398 1635,824387
33,82095862 2436,19436 41,88981476 1966,932275 49,95867091 1649,251814
35,93476853 2453,94088 44,50792819 1981,260439 53,08108784 1661,265828
38,04857845 2469,59956 47,12604161 1993,902937 56,20350477 1671,866428
40,16238836 2483,17043 49,74415503 2004,859768 59,3259217 1681,053615
42,27619827 2494,65347 52,36226845 2014,130934 62,44833863 1688,827388
44,39000819 2504,04868 54,98038188 2021,716432 65,57075557 1695,187749
46,5038181 2511,35607 57,5984953 2027,616265 68,6931725 1700,134695
48,61762801 2516,57563 60,21660872 2031,830431 71,81558943 1703,668229
50,73143793 2519,70737 62,83472214 2034,35893 74,93800636 1705,788349
52,84524784 2520,75128 65,45283557 2035,201764 78,06042329 1706,495055
54,95905775 2519,70737 68,07094899 2034,35893 81,18284023 1705,788349
57,07286767 2516,57563 70,68906241 2031,830431 84,30525716 1703,668229
59,18667758 2511,35607 73,30717584 2027,616265 87,42767409 1700,134695
61,3004875 2504,04868 75,92528926 2021,716432 90,55009102 1695,187749
63,41429741 2494,65347 78,54340268 2014,130934 93,67250795 1688,827388
65,52810732 2483,17043 81,1615161 2004,859768 96,79492488 1681,053615
67,64191724 2469,59956 83,77962953 1993,902937 99,91734182 1671,866428
69,75572715 2453,94088 86,39774295 1981,260439 103,0397587 1661,265828
71,86953706 2436,19436 89,01585637 1966,932275 106,1621757 1649,251814
73,98334698 2416,36002 91,63396979 1950,918444 109,2845926 1635,824387
76,09715689 2394,43785 94,25208322 1933,218947 112,4070095 1620,983547
78,2109668 2370,42786 96,87019664 1913,833783 115,5294265 1604,729294
80,32477672 2344,33005 99,48831006 1892,762953 118,6518434 1587,061627
82,43858663 2316,14441 102,1064235 1870,006457 121,7742603 1567,980546
84,55239655 2285,87094 104,7245369 1845,564295 124,8966773 1547,486052
86,66620646 2253,50965 107,3426503 1819,436465 128,0190942 1525,578145
88,78001637 2219,06053 109,9607638 1791,62297 131,1415111 1502,256825
90,89382629 2182,52359 112,5788772 1762,123808 134,2639281 1477,522091
93,0076362 2143,89882 115,1969906 1730,93898 137,386345 1451,373944
95,12144611 2103,18623 117,815104 1698,068485 140,5087619 1423,812384
97,23525603 2060,38581 120,4332174 1663,512324 143,6311789 1394,83741
99,34906594 2015,49756 123,0513309 1627,270497 146,7535958 1364,449022
101,4628759 1968,52149 125,6694443 1589,343003 149,8760127 1332,647222
103,5766858 1919,4576 128,2875577 1549,729843 152,9984297 1299,432008
105,6904957 1868,30588 130,9056711 1508,431016 156,1208466 1264,803381
107,8043056 1815,06634 133,5237846 1465,446523 159,2432635 1228,76134
109,9181155 1759,73896 136,141898 1420,776364 162,3656805 1191,305886
112,0319254 1702,32377 138,7600114 1374,420538 165,4880974 1152,437019
114,1457353 1642,82075 141,3781248 1326,379046 168,6105143 1112,154738
116,2595452 1581,2299 143,9962382 1276,651887 171,7329312 1070,459044
Anexa 11
itr 9,191325974 itr 6,894921951
Treapta 1 Treapta 2
n [rpm] Me [Nm]
va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W]
1000 140,6265306 11,05202896 13421,93514 14,73298777 13421,93514
1100 142,4889509 12,15723185 14959,66085 16,20628655 14959,66085
1200 144,2229285 13,26243475 16518,22698 17,67958533 16518,22698
1300 145,8284633 14,36763764 18093,95581 19,15288411 18093,95581
1400 147,3055553 15,47284054 19683,16962 20,62618288 19683,16962
1500 148,6542046 16,57804343 21282,19069 22,09948166 21282,19069
1600 149,874411 17,68324633 22887,34129 23,57278044 22887,34129
1700 150,9661747 18,78844922 24494,9437 25,04607922 24494,9437
1800 151,9294956 19,89365212 26101,32021 26,51937799 26101,32021
1900 152,7643736 20,99885501 27702,79309 27,99267677 27702,79309
2000 153,470809 22,10405791 29295,68462 29,46597555 29295,68462
2100 154,0488015 23,20926081 30876,31708 30,93927433 30876,31708
2200 154,4983512 24,3144637 32441,01275 32,4125731 32441,01275
2300 154,8194582 25,4196666 33986,0939 33,88587188 33986,0939
2400 155,0121224 26,52486949 35507,88281 35,35917066 35507,88281
2500 155,0763438 27,63007239 37002,70177 36,83246943 37002,70177
2600 155,0121224 28,73527528 38466,87305 38,30576821 38466,87305
2700 154,8194582 29,84047818 39896,71892 39,77906699 39896,71892
2800 154,4983512 30,94568107 41288,56168 41,25236577 41288,56168
2900 154,0488015 32,05088397 42638,72359 42,72566454 42638,72359
3000 153,470809 33,15608687 43943,52694 44,19896332 43943,52694
3100 152,7643736 34,26128976 45199,294 45,6722621 45199,294
3200 151,9294956 35,36649266 46402,34705 47,14556088 46402,34705
3300 150,9661747 36,47169555 47549,00837 48,61885965 47549,00837
3400 149,874411 37,57689845 48635,60024 50,09215843 48635,60024
3500 148,6542046 38,68210134 49658,44493 51,56545721 49658,44493
3600 147,3055553 39,78730424 50613,86474 53,03875599 50613,86474
3700 145,8284633 40,89250713 51498,18192 54,51205476 51498,18192
3800 144,2229285 41,99771003 52307,71877 55,98535354 52307,71877
3900 142,4889509 43,10291293 53038,79757 57,45865232 53038,79757
4000 140,6265306 44,20811582 53687,74058 58,9319511 53687,74058
4100 138,6356674 45,31331872 54250,87009 60,40524987 54250,87009
4200 136,5163615 46,41852161 54724,50837 61,87854865 54724,50837
4300 134,2686127 47,52372451 55104,97771 63,35184743 55104,97771
4400 131,8924212 48,6289274 55388,60039 64,82514621 55388,60039
4500 129,3877869 49,7341303 55571,69867 66,29844498 55571,69867
4600 126,7547099 50,83933319 55650,59485 67,77174376 55650,59485
4700 123,99319 51,94453609 55621,6112 69,24504254 55621,6112
4800 121,1032274 53,04973899 55481,06999 70,71834131 55481,06999
4900 118,0848219 54,15494188 55225,29351 72,19164009 55225,29351
5000 114,9379737 55,26014478 54850,60404 73,66493887 54850,60404
5100 111,6626827 56,36534767 54353,32385 75,13823765 54353,32385
5200 108,258949 57,47055057 53729,77522 76,61153642 53729,77522
5300 104,7267724 58,57575346 52976,28043 78,0848352 52976,28043
5400 101,066153 59,68095636 52089,16176 79,55813398 52089,16176
5500 97,27709091 60,78615925 51064,74149 81,03143276 51064,74149
itr 5,17226229 itr 3,88 itr 3,104
Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5
va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W]
19,63991676 13421,9351 26,18113423 13421,93514 32,72641778 13421,93514
21,60390844 14959,6609 28,79924765 14959,66085 35,99905956 14959,66085
23,56790012 16518,227 31,41736107 16518,22698 39,27170134 16518,22698
25,53189179 18093,9558 34,03547449 18093,95581 42,54434312 18093,95581
27,49588347 19683,1696 36,65358792 19683,16962 45,8169849 19683,16962
29,45987515 21282,1907 39,27170134 21282,19069 49,08962668 21282,19069
31,42386682 22887,3413 41,88981476 22887,34129 52,36226845 22887,34129
33,3878585 24494,9437 44,50792819 24494,9437 55,63491023 24494,9437
35,35185017 26101,3202 47,12604161 26101,32021 58,90755201 26101,32021
37,31584185 27702,7931 49,74415503 27702,79309 62,18019379 27702,79309
39,27983353 29295,6846 52,36226845 29295,68462 65,45283557 29295,68462
41,2438252 30876,3171 54,98038188 30876,31708 68,72547735 30876,31708
43,20781688 32441,0127 57,5984953 32441,01275 71,99811912 32441,01275
45,17180856 33986,0939 60,21660872 33986,0939 75,2707609 33986,0939
47,13580023 35507,8828 62,83472214 35507,88281 78,54340268 35507,88281
49,09979191 37002,7018 65,45283557 37002,70177 81,81604446 37002,70177
51,06378358 38466,873 68,07094899 38466,87305 85,08868624 38466,87305
53,02777526 39896,7189 70,68906241 39896,71892 88,36132802 39896,71892
54,99176694 41288,5617 73,30717584 41288,56168 91,63396979 41288,56168
56,95575861 42638,7236 75,92528926 42638,72359 94,90661157 42638,72359
58,91975029 43943,5269 78,54340268 43943,52694 98,17925335 43943,52694
60,88374197 45199,294 81,1615161 45199,294 101,4518951 45199,294
62,84773364 46402,347 83,77962953 46402,34705 104,7245369 46402,34705
64,81172532 47549,0084 86,39774295 47549,00837 107,9971787 47549,00837
66,775717 48635,6002 89,01585637 48635,60024 111,2698205 48635,60024
68,73970867 49658,4449 91,63396979 49658,44493 114,5424622 49658,44493
70,70370035 50613,8647 94,25208322 50613,86474 117,815104 50613,86474
72,66769202 51498,1819 96,87019664 51498,18192 121,0877458 51498,18192
74,6316837 52307,7188 99,48831006 52307,71877 124,3603876 52307,71877
76,59567538 53038,7976 102,1064235 53038,79757 127,6330294 53038,79757
78,55966705 53687,7406 104,7245369 53687,74058 130,9056711 53687,74058
80,52365873 54250,8701 107,3426503 54250,87009 134,1783129 54250,87009
82,48765041 54724,5084 109,9607638 54724,50837 137,4509547 54724,50837
84,45164208 55104,9777 112,5788772 55104,97771 140,7235965 55104,97771
86,41563376 55388,6004 115,1969906 55388,60039 143,9962382 55388,60039
88,37962544 55571,6987 117,815104 55571,69867 147,26888 55571,69867
90,34361711 55650,5949 120,4332174 55650,59485 150,5415218 55650,59485
92,30760879 55621,6112 123,0513309 55621,6112 153,8141636 55621,6112
94,27160046 55481,07 125,6694443 55481,06999 157,0868054 55481,06999
96,23559214 55225,2935 128,2875577 55225,29351 160,3594471 55225,29351
98,19958382 54850,604 130,9056711 54850,60404 163,6320889 54850,60404
100,1635755 54353,3238 133,5237846 54353,32385 166,9047307 54353,32385
102,1275672 53729,7752 136,141898 53729,77522 170,1773725 53729,77522
104,0915588 52976,2804 138,7600114 52976,28043 173,4500143 52976,28043
106,0555505 52089,1618 141,3781248 52089,16176 176,722656 52089,16176
108,0195422 51064,7415 143,9962382 51064,74149 179,9952978 51064,74149
Anexa 12

itr 9,191325974 itr 6,311425696


Treapta 1 Treapta 2
n [rpm] Me [Nm]
va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W]
1000 140,6265306 11,05202896 13421,93514 16,09506405 13421,93514
1100 142,4889509 12,15723185 14959,66085 17,70457045 14959,66085
1200 144,2229285 13,26243475 16518,22698 19,31407685 16518,22698
1300 145,8284633 14,36763764 18093,95581 20,92358326 18093,95581
1400 147,3055553 15,47284054 19683,16962 22,53308966 19683,16962
1500 148,6542046 16,57804343 21282,19069 24,14259607 21282,19069
1600 149,874411 17,68324633 22887,34129 25,75210247 22887,34129
1700 150,9661747 18,78844922 24494,9437 27,36160888 24494,9437
1800 151,9294956 19,89365212 26101,32021 28,97111528 26101,32021
1900 152,7643736 20,99885501 27702,79309 30,58062169 27702,79309
2000 153,470809 22,10405791 29295,68462 32,19012809 29295,68462
2100 154,0488015 23,20926081 30876,31708 33,7996345 30876,31708
2200 154,4983512 24,3144637 32441,01275 35,4091409 32441,01275
2300 154,8194582 25,4196666 33986,0939 37,01864731 33986,0939
2400 155,0121224 26,52486949 35507,88281 38,62815371 35507,88281
2500 155,0763438 27,63007239 37002,70177 40,23766011 37002,70177
2600 155,0121224 28,73527528 38466,87305 41,84716652 38466,87305
2700 154,8194582 29,84047818 39896,71892 43,45667292 39896,71892
2800 154,4983512 30,94568107 41288,56168 45,06617933 41288,56168
2900 154,0488015 32,05088397 42638,72359 46,67568573 42638,72359
3000 153,470809 33,15608687 43943,52694 48,28519214 43943,52694
3100 152,7643736 34,26128976 45199,294 49,89469854 45199,294
3200 151,9294956 35,36649266 46402,34705 51,50420495 46402,34705
3300 150,9661747 36,47169555 47549,00837 53,11371135 47549,00837
3400 149,874411 37,57689845 48635,60024 54,72321776 48635,60024
3500 148,6542046 38,68210134 49658,44493 56,33272416 49658,44493
3600 147,3055553 39,78730424 50613,86474 57,94223056 50613,86474
3700 145,8284633 40,89250713 51498,18192 59,55173697 51498,18192
3800 144,2229285 41,99771003 52307,71877 61,16124337 52307,71877
3900 142,4889509 43,10291293 53038,79757 62,77074978 53038,79757
4000 140,6265306 44,20811582 53687,74058 64,38025618 53687,74058
4100 138,6356674 45,31331872 54250,87009 65,98976259 54250,87009
4200 136,5163615 46,41852161 54724,50837 67,59926899 54724,50837
4300 134,2686127 47,52372451 55104,97771 69,2087754 55104,97771
4400 131,8924212 48,6289274 55388,60039 70,8182818 55388,60039
4500 129,3877869 49,7341303 55571,69867 72,42778821 55571,69867
4600 126,7547099 50,83933319 55650,59485 74,03729461 55650,59485
4700 123,99319 51,94453609 55621,6112 75,64680102 55621,6112
4800 121,1032274 53,04973899 55481,06999 77,25630742 55481,06999
4900 118,0848219 54,15494188 55225,29351 78,86581382 55225,29351
5000 114,9379737 55,26014478 54850,60404 80,47532023 54850,60404
5100 111,6626827 56,36534767 54353,32385 82,08482663 54353,32385
5200 108,258949 57,47055057 53729,77522 83,69433304 53729,77522
5300 104,7267724 58,57575346 52976,28043 85,30383944 52976,28043
5400 101,066153 59,68095636 52089,16176 86,91334585 52089,16176
5500 97,27709091 60,78615925 51064,74149 88,52285225 51064,74149
itr 4,8056734 itr 3,88 itr 3,253338776
Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5
va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W] va[km/h] PR[W]
21,13809914 13421,9351 26,18113423 13421,93514 31,22416932 13421,93514
23,25190905 14959,6609 28,79924765 14959,66085 34,34658625 14959,66085
25,36571896 16518,227 31,41736107 16518,22698 37,46900318 16518,22698
27,47952888 18093,9558 34,03547449 18093,95581 40,59142011 18093,95581
29,59333879 19683,1696 36,65358792 19683,16962 43,71383704 19683,16962
31,7071487 21282,1907 39,27170134 21282,19069 46,83625398 21282,19069
33,82095862 22887,3413 41,88981476 22887,34129 49,95867091 22887,34129
35,93476853 24494,9437 44,50792819 24494,9437 53,08108784 24494,9437
38,04857845 26101,3202 47,12604161 26101,32021 56,20350477 26101,32021
40,16238836 27702,7931 49,74415503 27702,79309 59,3259217 27702,79309
42,27619827 29295,6846 52,36226845 29295,68462 62,44833863 29295,68462
44,39000819 30876,3171 54,98038188 30876,31708 65,57075557 30876,31708
46,5038181 32441,0127 57,5984953 32441,01275 68,6931725 32441,01275
48,61762801 33986,0939 60,21660872 33986,0939 71,81558943 33986,0939
50,73143793 35507,8828 62,83472214 35507,88281 74,93800636 35507,88281
52,84524784 37002,7018 65,45283557 37002,70177 78,06042329 37002,70177
54,95905775 38466,873 68,07094899 38466,87305 81,18284023 38466,87305
57,07286767 39896,7189 70,68906241 39896,71892 84,30525716 39896,71892
59,18667758 41288,5617 73,30717584 41288,56168 87,42767409 41288,56168
61,3004875 42638,7236 75,92528926 42638,72359 90,55009102 42638,72359
63,41429741 43943,5269 78,54340268 43943,52694 93,67250795 43943,52694
65,52810732 45199,294 81,1615161 45199,294 96,79492488 45199,294
67,64191724 46402,347 83,77962953 46402,34705 99,91734182 46402,34705
69,75572715 47549,0084 86,39774295 47549,00837 103,0397587 47549,00837
71,86953706 48635,6002 89,01585637 48635,60024 106,1621757 48635,60024
73,98334698 49658,4449 91,63396979 49658,44493 109,2845926 49658,44493
76,09715689 50613,8647 94,25208322 50613,86474 112,4070095 50613,86474
78,2109668 51498,1819 96,87019664 51498,18192 115,5294265 51498,18192
80,32477672 52307,7188 99,48831006 52307,71877 118,6518434 52307,71877
82,43858663 53038,7976 102,1064235 53038,79757 121,7742603 53038,79757
84,55239655 53687,7406 104,7245369 53687,74058 124,8966773 53687,74058
86,66620646 54250,8701 107,3426503 54250,87009 128,0190942 54250,87009
88,78001637 54724,5084 109,9607638 54724,50837 131,1415111 54724,50837
90,89382629 55104,9777 112,5788772 55104,97771 134,2639281 55104,97771
93,0076362 55388,6004 115,1969906 55388,60039 137,386345 55388,60039
95,12144611 55571,6987 117,815104 55571,69867 140,5087619 55571,69867
97,23525603 55650,5949 120,4332174 55650,59485 143,6311789 55650,59485
99,34906594 55621,6112 123,0513309 55621,6112 146,7535958 55621,6112
101,4628759 55481,07 125,6694443 55481,06999 149,8760127 55481,06999
103,5766858 55225,2935 128,2875577 55225,29351 152,9984297 55225,29351
105,6904957 54850,604 130,9056711 54850,60404 156,1208466 54850,60404
107,8043056 54353,3238 133,5237846 54353,32385 159,2432635 54353,32385
109,9181155 53729,7752 136,141898 53729,77522 162,3656805 53729,77522
112,0319254 52976,2804 138,7600114 52976,28043 165,4880974 52976,28043
114,1457353 52089,1618 141,3781248 52089,16176 168,6105143 52089,16176
116,2595452 51064,7415 143,9962382 51064,74149 171,7329312 51064,74149
Anexa 13

va [km/h] Ra [N] Ra+Rr [N]


0 0 237,7944
10 3,135054784 240,9294548
20 12,54021914 250,3346191
30 28,21549306 266,0098931
40 50,16087654 287,9552765
50 78,3763696 316,1707696
60 112,8619722 350,6563722
70 153,6176844 391,4120844
80 200,6435062 438,4379062
90 253,9394375 491,7338375
100 313,5054784 551,2998784
110 379,3416289 617,1360289
120 451,4478889 689,2422889
130 529,8242585 767,6186585
140 614,4707377 852,2651377
150 705,3873264 943,1817264
160 802,5740247 1040,368425
170 906,0308326 1143,825233

Anexa 14

va [km/h] Ra [N] Ra+Rr [N]


0 0 237,7944
10 3,135054784 240,9294548
20 12,54021914 250,3346191
30 28,21549306 266,0098931
40 50,16087654 287,9552765
50 78,3763696 316,1707696
60 112,8619722 350,6563722
70 153,6176844 391,4120844
80 200,6435062 438,4379062
90 253,9394375 491,7338375
100 313,5054784 551,2998784
110 379,3416289 617,1360289
120 451,4478889 689,2422889
130 529,8242585 767,6186585
140 614,4707377 852,2651377
150 705,3873264 943,1817264
160 802,5740247 1040,368425
170 906,0308326 1143,825233
α α α
5 10 18 5 10 18 5 10 18
Rp Rp Rp Rp+Rr Rp+Rr Rp+Rr Ra+Rr+Rp Ra+Rr+Rp Ra+Rr+Rp
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,4513
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1536,251177 2821,714718 4833,5864
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1545,656341 2831,119883 4842,9915
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1561,331615 2846,795157 4858,6668
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1583,276999 2868,74054 4880,6122
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1611,492492 2896,956033 4908,8277
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1645,978094 2931,441636 4943,3133
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1686,733806 2972,197348 4984,069
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1733,759628 3019,22317 5031,0948
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1787,05556 3072,519101 5084,3908
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1846,6216 3132,085142 5143,9568
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1912,457751 3197,921293 5209,793
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 1984,564011 3270,027553 5281,8992
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 2062,940381 3348,403922 5360,2756
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 2147,58686 3433,050401 5444,9221
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 2238,503448 3523,96699 5535,8386
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 2335,690147 3621,153688 5633,0253
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,656923 1533,116122 2818,579664 4830,451323 2439,146955 3724,610496 5736,4822

Anexa 15
va [km/h] Pr [kW] Ra Pa
0 0 0 0
10 2377,944 3,135054784 31,35054784
20 4755,888 12,54021914 250,8043827
30 7133,832 28,21549306 846,4647917
40 9511,776 50,16087654 2006,435062
50 11889,72 78,3763696 3918,81848
60 14267,664 112,8619722 6771,718333
70 16645,608 153,6176844 10753,23791
80 19023,552 200,6435062 16051,48049
90 21401,496 253,9394375 22854,54938
100 23779,44 313,5054784 31350,54784
110 26157,384 379,3416289 41727,57917
120 28535,328 451,4478889 54173,74667
130 30913,272 529,8242585 68877,1536
140 33291,216 614,4707377 86025,90327
150 35669,16 705,3873264 105808,099
160 38047,104 802,5740247 128411,844
170 40425,048 906,0308326 154025,2415

α α
5 10 18 5 10 18
Rp Rp Rp Pp Pp Pp
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 0 0 0
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 12953,21722 25807,85264 45926,56923
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 25906,43444 51615,70527 91853,13846
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 38859,65166 77423,55791 137779,7077
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 51812,86888 103231,4105 183706,2769
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 64766,0861 129039,2632 229632,8461
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 77719,30332 154847,1158 275559,4154
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 90672,52055 180654,9685 321485,9846
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 103625,7378 206462,8211 367412,5538
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 116578,955 232270,6737 413339,1231
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 129532,1722 258078,5264 459265,6923
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 142485,3894 283886,379 505192,2615
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 155438,6066 309694,2316 551118,8308
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 168391,8239 335502,0843 597045,4
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 181345,0411 361309,9369 642971,9692
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 194298,2583 387117,7896 688898,5384
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 207251,4755 412925,6422 734825,1077
1295,321722 2580,785264 4592,65692 220204,6928 438733,4948 780751,6769
α α
5 10 18 5 10 18
Pp+Pr Pp+Pr Pp+Pr Pa+Pr+Pp Pa+Pr+Pp Pa+Pr+Pp
0 0 0 0 0 0
15331,16122 28185,797 48304,513 15362,512 28217,147 48335,8638
30662,32244 56371,593 96609,026 30913,127 56622,398 96859,8308
45993,48366 84557,39 144913,54 46839,948 85403,855 145760,004
61324,64488 112743,19 193218,05 63331,08 114749,62 195224,488
76655,8061 140928,98 241522,57 80574,625 144847,8 245441,385
91986,96732 169114,78 289827,08 98758,686 175886,5 296598,798
107318,1285 197300,58 338131,59 118071,37 208053,81 348884,831
122649,2898 225486,37 386436,11 138700,77 241537,85 402487,586
137980,451 253672,17 434740,62 160835 276526,72 457595,168
153311,6122 281857,97 483045,13 184662,16 313208,51 514395,68
168642,7734 310043,76 531349,65 210370,35 351771,34 573077,225
183973,9346 338229,56 579654,16 238147,68 392403,31 633827,905
199305,0959 366415,36 627958,67 268182,25 435292,51 696835,826
214636,2571 394601,15 676263,19 300662,16 480627,06 762289,088
229967,4183 422786,95 724567,7 335775,52 528595,05 830375,797
245298,5795 450972,75 772872,21 373710,42 579384,59 901284,056
260629,7408 479158,54 821176,72 414654,98 633183,78 975201,966
Anexa 16

Treapta 1 Treapta 2
va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D
11,05202896 4371,954391 3,829386152 0,293909361 14,73298777 3279,644785 6,804979031 0,22021308
12,15723185 4429,855392 4,633557244 0,297751122 16,20628655 3323,079528 8,234024627 0,22303943
13,26243475 4483,763221 5,514316059 0,301319049 17,67958533 3363,518772 9,799169804 0,22565508
14,36763764 4533,677877 6,471662598 0,304613142 19,15288411 3400,962516 11,50041456 0,22806001
15,47284054 4579,599361 7,505596859 0,307633402 20,62618288 3435,410761 13,3377589 0,23025424
16,57804343 4621,527672 8,616118843 0,310379827 22,09948166 3466,863506 15,31120282 0,23223775
17,68324633 4659,462811 9,80322855 0,312852419 23,57278044 3495,320752 17,42074632 0,23401056
18,78844922 4693,404777 11,06692598 0,315051177 25,04607922 3520,782498 19,6663894 0,23557265
19,89365212 4723,353571 12,40721113 0,316976101 26,51937799 3543,248744 22,04813206 0,23692404
20,99885501 4749,309192 13,82408401 0,318627191 27,99267677 3562,719491 24,5659743 0,23806472
22,10405791 4771,27164 15,31754461 0,320004447 29,46597555 3579,194739 27,21991612 0,23899468
23,20926081 4789,240917 16,88759293 0,32110787 30,93927433 3592,674486 30,00995753 0,23971394
24,3144637 4803,21702 18,53422898 0,321937458 32,4125731 3603,158735 32,93609851 0,24022249
25,4196666 4813,199952 20,25745275 0,322493213 33,88587188 3610,647484 35,99833907 0,24052032
26,52486949 4819,18971 22,05726424 0,322775133 35,35917066 3615,140733 39,19667922 0,24060745
27,63007239 4821,186297 23,93366345 0,32278322 36,83246943 3616,638483 42,53111894 0,24048387
28,73527528 4819,18971 25,88665039 0,322517473 38,30576821 3615,140733 46,00165825 0,24014958
29,84047818 4813,199952 27,91622505 0,321977892 39,77906699 3610,647484 49,60829713 0,23960458
30,94568107 4803,21702 30,02238743 0,321164477 41,25236577 3603,158735 53,3510356 0,23884887
32,05088397 4789,240917 32,20513754 0,320077228 42,72566454 3592,674486 57,22987365 0,23788245
33,15608687 4771,27164 34,46447537 0,318716146 44,19896332 3579,194739 61,24481128 0,23670532
34,26128976 4749,309192 36,80040092 0,317081229 45,6722621 3562,719491 65,39584849 0,23531748
35,36649266 4723,353571 39,2129142 0,315172479 47,14556088 3543,248744 69,68298527 0,23371893
36,47169555 4693,404777 41,7020152 0,312989895 48,61885965 3520,782498 74,10622164 0,23190967
37,57689845 4659,462811 44,26770392 0,310533476 50,09215843 3495,320752 78,6655576 0,2298897
38,68210134 4621,527672 46,90998037 0,307803224 51,56545721 3466,863506 83,36099313 0,22765902
39,78730424 4579,599361 49,62884453 0,304799138 53,03875599 3435,410761 88,19252824 0,22521763
40,89250713 4533,677877 52,42429643 0,301521219 54,51205476 3400,962516 93,16016293 0,22256553
41,99771003 4483,763221 55,29633604 0,297969465 55,98535354 3363,518772 98,2638972 0,21970273
43,10291293 4429,855392 58,24496338 0,294143877 57,45865232 3323,079528 103,5037311 0,21662921
44,20811582 4371,954391 61,27017844 0,290044456 58,9319511 3279,644785 108,8796645 0,21334498
45,31331872 4310,060217 64,37198122 0,285671201 60,40524987 3233,214542 114,3916975 0,20985004
46,41852161 4244,172871 67,55037173 0,281024112 61,87854865 3183,7888 120,0398301 0,2061444
47,52372451 4174,292352 70,80534996 0,276103188 63,35184743 3131,367558 125,8240623 0,20222804
48,6289274 4100,418661 74,13691591 0,270908431 64,82514621 3075,950816 131,744394 0,19810098
49,7341303 4022,551797 77,54506959 0,265439841 66,29844498 3017,538575 137,8008254 0,1937632
50,83933319 3940,691761 81,02981098 0,259697416 67,77174376 2956,130835 143,9933563 0,18921472
51,94453609 3854,838553 84,59114011 0,253681157 69,24504254 2891,727595 150,3219868 0,18445552
53,04973899 3764,992171 88,22905695 0,247391065 70,71834131 2824,328855 156,7867169 0,17948562
54,15494188 3671,152618 91,94356152 0,240827138 72,19164009 2753,934616 163,3875465 0,174305
55,26014478 3573,319892 95,73465381 0,233989378 73,66493887 2680,544878 170,1244758 0,16891368
56,36534767 3471,493993 99,60233382 0,226877784 75,13823765 2604,159639 176,9975046 0,16331164
57,47055057 3365,674922 103,5466016 0,219492356 76,61153642 2524,778902 184,006633 0,1574989
58,57575346 3255,862678 107,567457 0,211833094 78,0848352 2442,402664 191,151861 0,15147545
59,68095636 3142,057262 111,6649002 0,203899998 79,55813398 2357,030928 198,4331885 0,14524128
60,78615925 3024,258673 115,8389311 0,195693069 81,03143276 2268,663691 205,8506157 0,13879641
Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5
va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR [N] Ra [N] D
19,63991676 2460,242938 12,09273178 0,164723826 26,18113423 1845,564295 21,489289 0,1227329 32,726418 1476,4514 33,577014 0,09708383
21,60390844 2492,825741 14,63220545 0,166745292 28,79924765 1870,006457 26,00204 0,1240739 35,99906 1496,0052 40,628187 0,09792506
23,56790012 2523,161454 17,41353376 0,168599289 31,41736107 1892,762953 30,944576 0,1252725 39,271701 1514,2104 48,350901 0,09863038
25,53189179 2551,250078 20,4367167 0,170285817 34,03547449 1913,833783 36,316899 0,1263288 42,544343 1531,067 56,745154 0,09919977
27,49588347 2577,091611 23,70175428 0,171804877 36,65358792 1933,218947 42,119007 0,1272427 45,816985 1546,5752 65,810948 0,09963324
29,45987515 2600,686055 27,2086465 0,173156469 39,27170134 1950,918444 48,350901 0,1280143 49,089627 1560,7348 75,548282 0,0999308
31,42386682 2622,033409 30,95739335 0,174340591 41,88981476 1966,932275 55,01258 0,1286435 52,362268 1573,5458 85,957156 0,10009243
33,3878585 2641,133673 34,94799483 0,175357245 44,50792819 1981,260439 62,104046 0,1291305 55,63491 1585,0084 97,037571 0,10011814
35,35185017 2657,986847 39,18045096 0,17620643 47,12604161 1993,902937 69,625297 0,1294751 58,907552 1595,1223 108,78953 0,10000793
37,31584185 2672,592931 43,65476171 0,176888147 49,74415503 2004,859768 77,576334 0,1296773 62,180194 1603,8878 121,21302 0,0997618
39,27983353 2684,951925 48,37092711 0,177402395 52,36226845 2014,130934 85,957156 0,1297372 65,452836 1611,3047 134,30806 0,09937975
41,2438252 2695,06383 53,32894713 0,177749174 54,98038188 2021,716432 94,767765 0,1296548 68,725477 1617,3731 148,07463 0,09886177
43,20781688 2702,928644 58,5288218 0,177928484 57,5984953 2027,616265 104,00816 0,12943 71,998119 1622,093 162,51275 0,09820788
45,17180856 2708,546369 63,9705511 0,177940326 60,21660872 2031,830431 113,67834 0,1290629 75,270761 1625,4643 177,62241 0,09741807
47,13580023 2711,917004 69,65413503 0,177784699 62,83472214 2034,35893 123,77831 0,1285534 78,543403 1627,4871 193,4036 0,09649233
49,09979191 2713,040549 75,5795736 0,177461604 65,45283557 2035,201764 134,30806 0,1279017 81,816044 1628,1614 209,85634 0,09543068
51,06378358 2711,917004 81,74686681 0,17697104 68,07094899 2034,35893 145,26759 0,1271075 85,088686 1627,4871 226,98062 0,0942331
53,02777526 2708,546369 88,15601465 0,176313007 70,68906241 2031,830431 156,65692 0,1261711 88,361328 1625,4643 244,77643 0,09289961
54,99176694 2702,928644 94,80701713 0,175487505 73,30717584 2027,616265 168,47603 0,1250923 91,63397 1622,093 263,24379 0,09143019
56,95575861 2695,06383 101,6998742 0,174494535 75,92528926 2021,716432 180,72492 0,1238711 94,906612 1617,3731 282,38269 0,08982485
58,91975029 2684,951925 108,834586 0,173334096 78,54340268 2014,130934 193,4036 0,1225077 98,179253 1611,3047 302,19313 0,0880836
60,88374197 2672,592931 116,2111524 0,172006189 81,1615161 2004,859768 206,51207 0,1210019 101,4519 1603,8878 322,67511 0,08620642
62,84773364 2657,986847 123,8295734 0,170510813 83,77962953 1993,902937 220,05032 0,1193537 104,72454 1595,1223 343,82863 0,08419332
64,81172532 2641,133673 131,689849 0,168847968 86,39774295 1981,260439 234,01836 0,1175632 107,99718 1585,0084 365,65369 0,0820443
66,775717 2622,033409 139,7919793 0,167017654 89,01585637 1966,932275 248,41618 0,1156304 111,26982 1573,5458 388,15028 0,07975936
68,73970867 2600,686055 148,1359643 0,165019872 91,63396979 1950,918444 263,24379 0,1135552 114,54246 1560,7348 411,31842 0,0773385
70,70370035 2577,091611 156,7218038 0,162854621 94,25208322 1933,218947 278,50119 0,1113377 117,8151 1546,5752 435,1581 0,07478171
72,66769202 2551,250078 165,549498 0,160521902 96,87019664 1913,833783 294,18837 0,1089779 121,08775 1531,067 459,66932 0,07208901
74,6316837 2523,161454 174,6190469 0,158021713 99,48831006 1892,762953 310,30533 0,1064757 124,36039 1514,2104 484,85209 0,06926039
76,59567538 2492,825741 183,9304503 0,155354056 102,1064235 1870,006457 326,85209 0,1038312 127,63303 1496,0052 510,70639 0,06629584
78,55966705 2460,242938 193,4837084 0,152518931 104,7245369 1845,564295 343,82863 0,1010443 130,90567 1476,4514 537,23223 0,06319538
80,52365873 2425,413045 203,2788212 0,149516337 107,3426503 1819,436465 361,23495 0,0981151 134,17831 1455,5492 564,42961 0,05995899
82,48765041 2388,336062 213,3157885 0,146346274 109,9607638 1791,62297 379,07106 0,0950436 137,45095 1433,2984 592,29853 0,05658669
84,45164208 2349,011989 223,5946105 0,143008742 112,5788772 1762,123808 397,33696 0,0918297 140,7236 1409,699 620,83899 0,05307846
86,41563376 2307,440827 234,1152872 0,139503742 115,1969906 1730,93898 416,03264 0,0884735 143,99624 1384,7512 650,051 0,04943431
88,37962544 2263,622574 244,8778185 0,135831273 117,815104 1698,068485 435,1581 0,0849749 147,26888 1358,4548 679,93454 0,04565425
90,34361711 2217,557232 255,8822044 0,131991336 120,4332174 1663,512324 454,71336 0,0813341 150,54152 1330,8099 710,48962 0,04173826
92,30760879 2169,244799 267,1284449 0,127983929 123,0513309 1627,270497 474,6984 0,0775508 153,81416 1301,8164 741,71624 0,03768635
94,27160046 2118,685277 278,6165401 0,123809054 125,6694443 1589,343003 495,11322 0,0736253 157,08681 1271,4744 773,61441 0,03349852
96,23559214 2065,878665 290,34649 0,119466711 128,2875577 1549,729843 515,95783 0,0695574 160,35945 1239,7839 806,18411 0,02917477
98,19958382 2010,824963 302,3182944 0,114956899 130,9056711 1508,431016 537,23223 0,0653471 163,63209 1206,7448 839,42536 0,0247151
100,1635755 1953,524172 314,5319535 0,110279618 133,5237846 1465,446523 558,93641 0,0609945 166,90473 1172,3572 873,33814 0,0201195
102,1275672 1893,97629 326,9874672 0,105434868 136,141898 1420,776364 581,07038 0,0564996 170,17737 1136,6211 907,92247 0,01538799
104,0915588 1832,181319 339,6848356 0,10042265 138,7600114 1374,420538 603,63413 0,0518624 173,45001 1099,5364 943,17833 0,01052056
106,0555505 1768,139257 352,6240586 0,095242963 141,3781248 1326,379046 626,62767 0,0470828 176,72266 1061,1032 979,10574 0,0055172
108,0195422 1701,850106 365,8051362 0,089895807 143,9962382 1276,651887 650,051 0,0421609 179,9953 1021,3215 1015,7047 0,00037793
Anexa 17

Treapta 1 Treapta 2
va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D
11,05202896 4371,954391 3,829386152 0,293909361 16,09506405 3002,098431 8,121393484 0,20144979
12,15723185 4429,855392 4,633557244 0,297751122 17,70457045 3041,857424 9,826886116 0,20401022
13,26243475 4483,763221 5,514316059 0,301319049 19,31407685 3078,874418 11,69480662 0,20637523
14,36763764 4533,677877 6,471662598 0,304613142 20,92358326 3113,149412 13,72515499 0,20854481
15,47284054 4579,599361 7,505596859 0,307633402 22,53308966 3144,682407 15,91793123 0,21051897
16,57804343 4621,527672 8,616118843 0,310379827 24,14259607 3173,473402 18,27313534 0,2122977
17,68324633 4659,462811 9,80322855 0,312852419 25,75210247 3199,522397 20,79076732 0,21388101
18,78844922 4693,404777 11,06692598 0,315051177 27,36160888 3222,829393 23,47082717 0,21526889
19,89365212 4723,353571 12,40721113 0,316976101 28,97111528 3243,39439 26,31331489 0,21646135
20,99885501 4749,309192 13,82408401 0,318627191 30,58062169 3261,217387 29,31823048 0,21745839
22,10405791 4771,27164 15,31754461 0,320004447 32,19012809 3276,298384 32,48557394 0,21826
23,20926081 4789,240917 16,88759293 0,32110787 33,7996345 3288,637382 35,81534527 0,21886618
24,3144637 4803,21702 18,53422898 0,321937458 35,4091409 3298,23438 39,30754446 0,21927694
25,4196666 4813,199952 20,25745275 0,322493213 37,01864731 3305,089379 42,96217153 0,21949228
26,52486949 4819,18971 22,05726424 0,322775133 38,62815371 3309,202378 46,77922647 0,21951219
27,63007239 4821,186297 23,93366345 0,32278322 40,23766011 3310,573378 50,75870928 0,21933668
28,73527528 4819,18971 25,88665039 0,322517473 41,84716652 3309,202378 54,90061996 0,21896575
29,84047818 4813,199952 27,91622505 0,321977892 43,45667292 3305,089379 59,2049585 0,21839939
30,94568107 4803,21702 30,02238743 0,321164477 45,06617933 3298,23438 63,67172492 0,2176376
32,05088397 4789,240917 32,20513754 0,320077228 46,67568573 3288,637382 68,3009192 0,21668039
33,15608687 4771,27164 34,46447537 0,318716146 48,28519214 3276,298384 73,09254136 0,21552776
34,26128976 4749,309192 36,80040092 0,317081229 49,89469854 3261,217387 78,04659139 0,2141797
35,36649266 4723,353571 39,2129142 0,315172479 51,50420495 3243,39439 83,16306928 0,21263621
36,47169555 4693,404777 41,7020152 0,312989895 53,11371135 3222,829393 88,44197505 0,21089731
37,57689845 4659,462811 44,26770392 0,310533476 54,72321776 3199,522397 93,88330868 0,20896298
38,68210134 4621,527672 46,90998037 0,307803224 56,33272416 3173,473402 99,48707018 0,20683322
39,78730424 4579,599361 49,62884453 0,304799138 57,94223056 3144,682407 105,2532596 0,20450804
40,89250713 4533,677877 52,42429643 0,301521219 59,55173697 3113,149412 111,1818768 0,20198743
41,99771003 4483,763221 55,29633604 0,297969465 61,16124337 3078,874418 117,2729219 0,1992714
43,10291293 4429,855392 58,24496338 0,294143877 62,77074978 3041,857424 123,5263949 0,19635995
44,20811582 4371,954391 61,27017844 0,290044456 64,38025618 3002,098431 129,9422958 0,19325307
45,31331872 4310,060217 64,37198122 0,285671201 65,98976259 2959,597438 136,5206245 0,18995077
46,41852161 4244,172871 67,55037173 0,281024112 67,59926899 2914,354446 143,2613811 0,18645304
47,52372451 4174,292352 70,80534996 0,276103188 69,2087754 2866,369454 150,1645655 0,18275989
48,6289274 4100,418661 74,13691591 0,270908431 70,8182818 2815,642463 157,2301779 0,17887131
49,7341303 4022,551797 77,54506959 0,265439841 72,42778821 2762,173472 164,4582181 0,17478731
50,83933319 3940,691761 81,02981098 0,259697416 74,03729461 2705,962482 171,8486861 0,17050789
51,94453609 3854,838553 84,59114011 0,253681157 75,64680102 2647,009492 179,4015821 0,16603304
53,04973899 3764,992171 88,22905695 0,247391065 77,25630742 2585,314502 187,1169059 0,16136276
54,15494188 3671,152618 91,94356152 0,240827138 78,86581382 2520,877513 194,9946576 0,15649707
55,26014478 3573,319892 95,73465381 0,233989378 80,47532023 2453,698525 203,0348371 0,15143594
56,36534767 3471,493993 99,60233382 0,226877784 82,08482663 2383,777537 211,2374445 0,14617939
57,47055057 3365,674922 103,5466016 0,219492356 83,69433304 2311,114549 219,6024798 0,14072742
58,57575346 3255,862678 107,567457 0,211833094 85,30383944 2235,709562 228,129943 0,13508003
59,68095636 3142,057262 111,6649002 0,203899998 86,91334585 2157,562576 236,819834 0,12923721
60,78615925 3024,258673 115,8389311 0,195693069 88,52285225 2076,67359 245,6721529 0,12319896
Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5
va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D va [km/h] FR[N] Ra [N] D
21,13809914 2285,870939 14,00802781 0,152862332 26,18113423 1845,564295 21,489289 0,1227329 31,224169 1547,4861 30,565177 0,10206605
23,25190905 2316,144406 16,94971364 0,154701352 28,79924765 1870,006457 26,00204 0,1240739 34,346586 1567,9805 36,983865 0,10301314
25,36571896 2344,330047 20,17156004 0,156381041 31,41736107 1892,762953 30,944576 0,1252725 37,469003 1587,0616 44,013855 0,10382399
27,47952888 2370,427863 23,67356699 0,1579014 34,03547449 1913,833783 36,316899 0,1263288 40,59142 1604,7293 51,65515 0,10449862
29,59333879 2394,437854 27,4557345 0,15926243 36,65358792 1933,218947 42,119007 0,1272427 43,713837 1620,9835 59,907748 0,10503701
31,7071487 2416,36002 31,51806256 0,160464129 39,27170134 1950,918444 48,350901 0,1280143 46,836254 1635,8244 68,771649 0,10543917
33,82095862 2436,19436 35,86055118 0,161506499 41,88981476 1966,932275 55,01258 0,1286435 49,958671 1649,2518 78,246854 0,10570509
35,93476853 2453,940875 40,48320036 0,162389538 44,50792819 1981,260439 62,104046 0,1291305 53,081088 1661,2658 88,333363 0,10583479
38,04857845 2469,599565 45,38601009 0,163113248 47,12604161 1993,902937 69,625297 0,1294751 56,203505 1671,8664 99,031175 0,10582825
40,16238836 2483,170429 50,56898038 0,163677627 49,74415503 2004,859768 77,576334 0,1296773 59,325922 1681,0536 110,34029 0,10568547
42,27619827 2494,653468 56,03211122 0,164082677 52,36226845 2014,130934 85,957156 0,1297372 62,448339 1688,8274 122,26071 0,10540646
44,39000819 2504,048682 61,77540262 0,164328397 54,98038188 2021,716432 94,767765 0,1296548 65,570756 1695,1877 134,79243 0,10499122
46,5038181 2511,356071 67,79885458 0,164414786 57,5984953 2027,616265 104,00816 0,12943 68,693172 1700,1347 147,93546 0,10443975
48,61762801 2516,575634 74,10246709 0,164341846 60,21660872 2031,830431 113,67834 0,1290629 71,815589 1703,6682 161,68979 0,10375204
50,73143793 2519,707372 80,68624016 0,164109576 62,83472214 2034,35893 123,77831 0,1285534 74,938006 1705,7883 176,05542 0,1029281
52,84524784 2520,751284 87,55017378 0,163717976 65,45283557 2035,201764 134,30806 0,1279017 78,060423 1706,4951 191,03236 0,10196793
54,95905775 2519,707372 94,69426796 0,163167045 68,07094899 2034,35893 145,26759 0,1271075 81,18284 1705,7883 206,6206 0,10087153
57,07286767 2516,575634 102,1185227 0,162456785 70,68906241 2031,830431 156,65692 0,1261711 84,305257 1703,6682 222,82014 0,09963889
59,18667758 2511,356071 109,822938 0,161587195 73,30717584 2027,616265 168,47603 0,1250923 87,427674 1700,1347 239,63099 0,09827002
61,3004875 2504,048682 117,8075138 0,160558275 75,92528926 2021,716432 180,72492 0,1238711 90,550091 1695,1877 257,05314 0,09676491
63,41429741 2494,653468 126,0722502 0,159370025 78,54340268 2014,130934 193,4036 0,1225077 93,672508 1688,8274 275,0866 0,09512357
65,52810732 2483,170429 134,6171472 0,158022445 81,1615161 2004,859768 206,51207 0,1210019 96,794925 1681,0536 293,73135 0,093346
67,64191724 2469,599565 143,4422047 0,156515535 83,77962953 1993,902937 220,05032 0,1193537 99,917342 1671,8664 312,98742 0,0914322
69,75572715 2453,940875 152,5474228 0,154849295 86,39774295 1981,260439 234,01836 0,1175632 103,03976 1661,2658 332,85478 0,08938216
71,86953706 2436,19436 161,9328014 0,153023725 89,01585637 1966,932275 248,41618 0,1156304 106,16218 1649,2518 353,33345 0,08719589
73,98334698 2416,36002 171,5983406 0,151038825 91,63396979 1950,918444 263,24379 0,1135552 109,28459 1635,8244 374,42342 0,08487338
76,09715689 2394,437854 181,5440404 0,148894596 94,25208322 1933,218947 278,50119 0,1113377 112,40701 1620,9835 396,1247 0,08241465
78,2109668 2370,427863 191,7699007 0,146591036 96,87019664 1913,833783 294,18837 0,1089779 115,52943 1604,7293 418,43728 0,07981968
80,32477672 2344,330047 202,2759215 0,144128146 99,48831006 1892,762953 310,30533 0,1064757 118,65184 1587,0616 441,36116 0,07708847
82,43858663 2316,144406 213,0621029 0,141505926 102,1064235 1870,006457 326,85209 0,1038312 121,77426 1567,9805 464,89635 0,07422104
84,55239655 2285,870939 224,1284449 0,138724377 104,7245369 1845,564295 343,82863 0,1010443 124,89668 1547,4861 489,04284 0,07121737
86,66620646 2253,509647 235,4749474 0,135783497 107,3426503 1819,436465 361,23495 0,0981151 128,01909 1525,5781 513,80063 0,06807747
88,78001637 2219,060529 247,1016105 0,132683287 109,9607638 1791,62297 379,07106 0,0950436 131,14151 1502,2568 539,16973 0,06480133
90,89382629 2182,523587 259,0084341 0,129423748 112,5788772 1762,123808 397,33696 0,0918297 134,26393 1477,5221 565,15013 0,06138896
93,0076362 2143,898819 271,1954183 0,126004878 115,1969906 1730,93898 416,03264 0,0884735 137,38634 1451,3739 591,74183 0,05784036
95,12144611 2103,186226 283,6625631 0,122426679 117,815104 1698,068485 435,1581 0,0849749 140,50876 1423,8124 618,94484 0,05415553
97,23525603 2060,385807 296,4098684 0,118689149 120,4332174 1663,512324 454,71336 0,0813341 143,63118 1394,8374 646,75915 0,05033446
99,34906594 2015,497563 309,4373342 0,11479229 123,0513309 1627,270497 474,6984 0,0775508 146,7536 1364,449 675,18477 0,04637716
101,4628759 1968,521494 322,7449606 0,1107361 125,6694443 1589,343003 495,11322 0,0736253 149,87601 1332,6472 704,22169 0,04228362
103,5766858 1919,4576 336,3327476 0,106520581 128,2875577 1549,729843 515,95783 0,0695574 152,99843 1299,432 733,86991 0,03805385
105,6904957 1868,30588 350,2006951 0,102145732 130,9056711 1508,431016 537,23223 0,0653471 156,12085 1264,8034 764,12944 0,03368785
107,8043056 1815,066335 364,3488032 0,097611552 133,5237846 1465,446523 558,93641 0,0609945 159,24326 1228,7613 795,00026 0,02918562
109,9181155 1759,738965 378,7770719 0,092918043 136,141898 1420,776364 581,07038 0,0564996 162,36568 1191,3059 826,4824 0,02454715
112,0319254 1702,323769 393,4855011 0,088065204 138,7600114 1374,420538 603,63413 0,0518624 165,4881 1152,437 858,57583 0,01977245
114,1457353 1642,820748 408,4740908 0,083053035 141,3781248 1326,379046 626,62767 0,0470828 168,61051 1112,1547 891,28057 0,01486152
116,2595452 1581,229902 423,7428411 0,077881535 143,9962382 1276,651887 650,051 0,0421609 171,73293 1070,459 924,59662 0,00981436
Anexa 18

ϕ
va
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,6 0,8
0 0,053 0,106 0,159 0,1855 0,212 0,318 0,424
10 0,052789058 0,105789058 0,158789058 0,185289058 0,211789058 0,317789058 0,42378906
20 0,052156231 0,105156231 0,158156231 0,184656231 0,211156231 0,317156231 0,42315623
30 0,05110152 0,10410152 0,15710152 0,18360152 0,21010152 0,31610152 0,42210152
40 0,049624925 0,102624925 0,155624925 0,182124925 0,208624925 0,314624925 0,42062492
50 0,047726445 0,100726445 0,153726445 0,180226445 0,206726445 0,312726445 0,41872644
60 0,04540608 0,09840608 0,15140608 0,17790608 0,20440608 0,31040608 0,41640608
70 0,042663832 0,095663832 0,148663832 0,175163832 0,201663832 0,307663832 0,41366383
80 0,039499698 0,092499698 0,145499698 0,171999698 0,198499698 0,304499698 0,4104997
90 0,035913681 0,088913681 0,141913681 0,168413681 0,194913681 0,300913681 0,40691368
100 0,031905779 0,084905779 0,137905779 0,164405779 0,190905779 0,296905779 0,40290578
110 0,027475992 0,080475992 0,133475992 0,159975992 0,186475992 0,292475992 0,39847599
120 0,022624322 0,075624322 0,128624322 0,155124322 0,181624322 0,287624322 0,39362432
130 0,017350766 0,070350766 0,123350766 0,149850766 0,176350766 0,282350766 0,38835077
140 0,011655327 0,064655327 0,117655327 0,144155327 0,170655327 0,276655327 0,38265533
150 0,005538002 0,058538002 0,111538002 0,138038002 0,164538002 0,270538002 0,376538
160 -0,001001206 0,051998794 0,104998794 0,131498794 0,157998794 0,263998794 0,36999879
170 -0,007962299 0,045037701 0,098037701 0,124537701 0,151037701 0,257037701 0,3630377

Anexa 19

ϕ
va
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,6 0,8
0 0,053 0,106 0,159 0,1855 0,212 0,318 0,424
10 0,052789058 0,105789058 0,158789058 0,185289058 0,211789058 0,317789058 0,42378906
20 0,052156231 0,105156231 0,158156231 0,184656231 0,211156231 0,317156231 0,42315623
30 0,05110152 0,10410152 0,15710152 0,18360152 0,21010152 0,31610152 0,42210152
40 0,049624925 0,102624925 0,155624925 0,182124925 0,208624925 0,314624925 0,42062492
50 0,047726445 0,100726445 0,153726445 0,180226445 0,206726445 0,312726445 0,41872644
60 0,04540608 0,09840608 0,15140608 0,17790608 0,20440608 0,31040608 0,41640608
70 0,042663832 0,095663832 0,148663832 0,175163832 0,201663832 0,307663832 0,41366383
80 0,039499698 0,092499698 0,145499698 0,171999698 0,198499698 0,304499698 0,4104997
90 0,035913681 0,088913681 0,141913681 0,168413681 0,194913681 0,300913681 0,40691368
100 0,031905779 0,084905779 0,137905779 0,164405779 0,190905779 0,296905779 0,40290578
110 0,027475992 0,080475992 0,133475992 0,159975992 0,186475992 0,292475992 0,39847599
120 0,022624322 0,075624322 0,128624322 0,155124322 0,181624322 0,287624322 0,39362432
130 0,017350766 0,070350766 0,123350766 0,149850766 0,176350766 0,282350766 0,38835077
140 0,011655327 0,064655327 0,117655327 0,144155327 0,170655327 0,276655327 0,38265533
150 0,005538002 0,058538002 0,111538002 0,138038002 0,164538002 0,270538002 0,376538
160 -0,001001206 0,051998794 0,104998794 0,131498794 0,157998794 0,263998794 0,36999879
170 -0,007962299 0,045037701 0,098037701 0,124537701 0,151037701 0,257037701 0,3630377
Anexa 20

sosea beton stare buna sosea beton stare satisfacatoare


va
ψ0 ψ5 ψ10 ψ18 ψ0 ψ5 ψ10 ψ18
0 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
10 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
20 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
30 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
40 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
50 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
60 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
70 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
80 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
90 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
100 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
110 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
120 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
130 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
140 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
150 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
160 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012
170 0,016 0,102098663 0,188420294 0,323282842 0,018 0,105087247 0,19137472 0,326136012

sosea pavata stare buna sosea pavata cu hartoape


ψ0 ψ5 ψ10 ψ18 ψ0 ψ5 ψ10 ψ18
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304
0,025 0,11206061 0,198268371 0,332793407 0,035 0,1220226 0,2081164 0,342304

Anexa 21
Treapta 1 Treapta 2

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a
11,05202896 0,293909361 2,629026527 0,380368927 14,73298777 0,220213079 1,957385459 0,51088558
12,15723185 0,297751122 2,665239338 0,375200826 16,20628655 0,223039433 1,984344094 0,50394486
13,26243475 0,301319049 2,698870964 0,37052531 17,67958533 0,225655077 2,009292914 0,49768752
14,36763764 0,304613142 2,729921406 0,366310912 19,15288411 0,228060012 2,03223192 0,49206982
15,47284054 0,307633402 2,758390663 0,362530229 20,62618288 0,230254237 2,053161112 0,48705384
16,57804343 0,310379827 2,784278736 0,359159443 22,09948166 0,232237752 2,072080491 0,48260673
17,68324633 0,312852419 2,807585624 0,356177917 23,57278044 0,234010557 2,088990056 0,47870022
18,78844922 0,315051177 2,828311327 0,353567866 25,04607922 0,235572653 2,103889806 0,47531006
19,89365212 0,316976101 2,846455846 0,351314074 26,51937799 0,236924039 2,116779743 0,47241571
20,99885501 0,318627191 2,86201918 0,349403668 27,99267677 0,238064716 2,127659866 0,46999994
22,10405791 0,320004447 2,87500133 0,347825926 29,46597555 0,238994683 2,136530175 0,46804862
23,20926081 0,32110787 2,885402295 0,346572123 30,93927433 0,23971394 2,143390671 0,46655051
24,3144637 0,321937458 2,893222075 0,345635411 32,4125731 0,240222487 2,148241352 0,46549704
25,4196666 0,322493213 2,898460671 0,345010719 33,88587188 0,240520325 2,151082219 0,46488228
26,52486949 0,322775133 2,901118083 0,344694691 35,35917066 0,240607453 2,151913273 0,46470274
27,63007239 0,32278322 2,90119431 0,344685634 36,83246943 0,240483871 2,150734512 0,46495743
28,73527528 0,322517473 2,898689352 0,344983501 38,30576821 0,24014958 2,147545938 0,46564778
29,84047818 0,321977892 2,89360321 0,345589885 39,77906699 0,239604579 2,14234755 0,46677767
30,94568107 0,321164477 2,885935883 0,346508045 41,25236577 0,238848868 2,135139348 0,46835351
32,05088397 0,320077228 2,875687371 0,347742947 42,72566454 0,237882447 2,125921332 0,47038429
33,15608687 0,318716146 2,862857675 0,349301332 44,19896332 0,236705317 2,114693502 0,47288177
34,26128976 0,317081229 2,847446795 0,351191812 45,6722621 0,235317477 2,101455858 0,47586058
35,36649266 0,315172479 2,82945473 0,353424987 47,14556088 0,233718928 2,086208401 0,4793385
36,47169555 0,312989895 2,80888148 0,356013597 48,61885965 0,231909668 2,068951129 0,48333669
37,57689845 0,310533476 2,785727045 0,358972715 50,09215843 0,229889699 2,049684044 0,48788007
38,68210134 0,307803224 2,759991427 0,362319966 51,56545721 0,227659021 2,028407144 0,49299767
39,78730424 0,304799138 2,731674623 0,36607581 53,03875599 0,225217632 2,005120431 0,49872316
40,89250713 0,301521219 2,700776635 0,370263867 54,51205476 0,222565534 1,979823904 0,50509543
41,99771003 0,297969465 2,667297463 0,374911315 55,98535354 0,219702726 1,952517563 0,51215929
43,10291293 0,294143877 2,631237105 0,380049368 57,45865232 0,216629209 1,923201408 0,51996634
44,20811582 0,290044456 2,592595564 0,385713844 58,9319511 0,213344982 1,891875439 0,52857603
45,31331872 0,285671201 2,551372837 0,391945852 60,40524987 0,209850045 1,858539657 0,53805685
46,41852161 0,281024112 2,507568927 0,398792627 61,87854865 0,206144398 1,82319406 0,54848797
47,52372451 0,276103188 2,461183831 0,406308536 63,35184743 0,202228042 1,78583865 0,559961
48,6289274 0,270908431 2,412217551 0,414556307 64,82514621 0,198100976 1,746473425 0,57258243
49,7341303 0,265439841 2,360670087 0,423608536 66,29844498 0,1937632 1,705098387 0,58647642
50,83933319 0,259697416 2,306541437 0,433549549 67,77174376 0,189214715 1,661713535 0,60178844
51,94453609 0,253681157 2,249831604 0,44447771 69,24504254 0,18445552 1,616318869 0,6186898
53,04973899 0,247391065 2,190540586 0,456508319 70,71834131 0,179485615 1,568914389 0,63738341
54,15494188 0,240827138 2,128668383 0,46977726 72,19164009 0,174305001 1,519500095 0,65811118
55,26014478 0,233989378 2,064214995 0,484445662 73,66493887 0,168913677 1,468075988 0,68116365
56,36534767 0,226877784 1,997180423 0,500705889 75,13823765 0,163311643 1,414642066 0,70689259
57,47055057 0,219492356 1,927564667 0,518789339 76,61153642 0,157498899 1,35919833 0,7357278
58,57575346 0,211833094 1,855367726 0,538976714 78,0848352 0,151475446 1,301744781 0,76819974
Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a va D a 1/a


21,13809914 0,152862332 1,32384167 0,755377341 26,18113423 0,122732916 1,038461 0,9629635 31,224169 0,102066 0,8407324 1,18943912
23,25190905 0,154701352 1,341501101 0,745433604 28,79924765 0,124073867 1,0513867 0,9511248 34,346586 0,1030131 0,8498778 1,17663981
25,36571896 0,156381041 1,357630545 0,736577417 31,41736107 0,125272479 1,0629404 0,9407865 37,469003 0,103824 0,8577076 1,16589849
27,47952888 0,1579014 1,372230001 0,728740808 34,03547449 0,126328754 1,073122 0,9318605 40,59142 0,1044986 0,864222 1,15711015
29,59333879 0,15926243 1,38529947 0,721865576 36,65358792 0,12724269 1,0819317 0,9242728 43,713837 0,105037 0,8694208 1,15019102
31,7071487 0,160464129 1,396838952 0,715902144 39,27170134 0,128014288 1,0893693 0,9179624 46,836254 0,1054392 0,8733042 1,14507643
33,82095862 0,161506499 1,406848445 0,710808619 41,88981476 0,128643547 1,0954348 0,9128795 49,958671 0,1057051 0,875872 1,14171934
35,93476853 0,162389538 1,415327952 0,706550025 44,50792819 0,129130469 1,1001284 0,9089848 53,081088 0,1058348 0,8771243 1,14008922
38,04857845 0,163113248 1,422277471 0,703097687 47,12604161 0,129475052 1,1034499 0,9062487 56,203505 0,1058282 0,8770612 1,14017132
40,16238836 0,163677627 1,427697002 0,700428732 49,74415503 0,129677297 1,1053994 0,9046504 59,325922 0,1056855 0,8756825 1,14196639
42,27619827 0,164082677 1,431586546 0,698525704 52,36226845 0,129737203 1,1059768 0,9041781 62,448339 0,1054065 0,8729883 1,14549066
44,39000819 0,164328397 1,433946102 0,697376281 54,98038188 0,129654772 1,1051823 0,9048281 65,570756 0,1049912 0,8689787 1,15077622
46,5038181 0,164414786 1,43477567 0,696973067 57,5984953 0,129430002 1,1030157 0,9066054 68,693172 0,1044398 0,8636535 1,15787175
48,61762801 0,164341846 1,434075252 0,697313477 60,21660872 0,129062894 1,099477 0,9095233 71,815589 0,103752 0,8570128 1,16684366
50,73143793 0,164109576 1,431844845 0,698399693 62,83472214 0,128553448 1,0945664 0,9136038 74,938006 0,1029281 0,8490567 1,17777769
52,84524784 0,163717976 1,428084451 0,7002387 65,45283557 0,127901663 1,0882837 0,9188781 78,060423 0,1019679 0,839785 1,19078099
54,95905775 0,163167045 1,42279407 0,702842401 68,07094899 0,127107541 1,0806289 0,925387 81,18284 0,1008715 0,8291978 1,20598486
57,07286767 0,162456785 1,415973701 0,706227806 70,68906241 0,12617108 1,0716022 0,9331821 84,305257 0,0996389 0,8172951 1,22354823
59,18667758 0,161587195 1,407623345 0,710417317 73,30717584 0,125092281 1,0612034 0,9423264 87,427674 0,09827 0,8040769 1,24366208
61,3004875 0,160558275 1,397743001 0,715439104 75,92528926 0,123871143 1,0494326 0,9528959 90,550091 0,0967649 0,7895433 1,26655506
63,41429741 0,159370025 1,386332669 0,721327588 78,54340268 0,122507668 1,0362898 0,9649811 93,672508 0,0951236 0,7736941 1,29250054
65,52810732 0,158022445 1,37339235 0,72812405 81,1615161 0,121001854 1,0217749 0,9786891 96,794925 0,093346 0,7565294 1,32182574
67,64191724 0,156515535 1,358922044 0,735877385 83,77962953 0,119353702 1,005888 0,9941465 99,917342 0,0914322 0,7380492 1,35492326
69,75572715 0,154849295 1,34292175 0,744645025 86,39774295 0,117563211 0,9886291 1,0115017 103,03976 0,0893822 0,7182535 1,39226613
71,86953706 0,153023725 1,325391468 0,754494068 89,01585637 0,115630383 0,9699981 1,0309298 106,16218 0,0871959 0,6971423 1,43442741
73,98334698 0,151038825 1,306331199 0,765502654 91,63396979 0,113555216 0,9499951 1,052637 109,28459 0,0848734 0,6747156 1,48210598
76,09715689 0,148894596 1,285740943 0,777761652 94,25208322 0,111337711 0,9286201 1,0768666 112,40701 0,0824146 0,6509734 1,53616112
78,2109668 0,146591036 1,263620698 0,791376717 96,87019664 0,108977868 0,9058731 1,1039074 115,52943 0,0798197 0,6259157 1,5976593
80,32477672 0,144128146 1,239970467 0,806470821 99,48831006 0,106475686 0,881754 1,1341031 118,65184 0,0770885 0,5995425 1,66793856
82,43858663 0,141505926 1,214790248 0,823187379 102,1064235 0,103831166 0,8562629 1,1678656 121,77426 0,074221 0,5718538 1,74869884
84,55239655 0,138724377 1,188080041 0,841694133 104,7245369 0,101044308 0,8293998 1,2056912 124,89668 0,0712174 0,5428495 1,84213105
86,66620646 0,135783497 1,159839847 0,862188002 107,3426503 0,098115112 0,8011646 1,2481829 128,01909 0,0680775 0,5125298 1,95110595
88,78001637 0,132683287 1,130069665 0,884901198 109,9607638 0,095043578 0,7715574 1,2960798 131,14151 0,0648013 0,4808946 2,07945769
90,89382629 0,129423748 1,098769496 0,910108994 112,5788772 0,091829705 0,7405782 1,3502963 134,26393 0,061389 0,4479439 2,23242245
93,0076362 0,126004878 1,065939339 0,938139689 115,1969906 0,088473494 0,708227 1,4119767 137,38634 0,0578404 0,4136777 2,41734102
95,12144611 0,122426679 1,031579195 0,969387523 117,815104 0,084974945 0,6745037 1,4825716 140,50876 0,0541555 0,3780959 2,64483133
97,23525603 0,118689149 0,995689063 1,004329602 120,4332174 0,081334058 0,6394084 1,5639457 143,63118 0,0503345 0,3411987 2,93084337
99,34906594 0,11479229 0,958268944 1,043548376 123,0513309 0,077550832 0,6029411 1,6585369 146,7536 0,0463772 0,302986 3,30048266
101,4628759 0,1107361 0,919318837 1,087761895 125,6694443 0,073625268 0,5651017 1,769593 149,87601 0,0422836 0,2634578 3,79567492
103,5766858 0,106520581 0,878838742 1,137865176 128,2875577 0,069557366 0,5258903 1,9015372 152,99843 0,0380539 0,222614 4,49208
105,6904957 0,102145732 0,836828661 1,194987752 130,9056711 0,065347126 0,4853069 2,0605518 156,12085 0,0336879 0,1804548 5,54155431
107,8043056 0,097611552 0,793288591 1,260575295 133,5237846 0,060994547 0,4433514 2,255547 159,24326 0,0291856 0,13698 7,30033327
109,9181155 0,092918043 0,748218534 1,336507924 136,141898 0,056499631 0,400024 2,4998503 162,36568 0,0245472 0,0921898 10,8471862
112,0319254 0,088065204 0,70161849 1,425276008 138,7600114 0,051862376 0,3553244 2,8143293 165,4881 0,0197725 0,0460841 21,6994755
Anexa 22
Treapta 1 Treapta 2

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a
11,05202896 0,293909361 2,629026527 0,380368927 16,09506405 0,201449793 1,782842727 0,56090197
12,15723185 0,297751122 2,665239338 0,375200826 17,70457045 0,204010223 1,807325697 0,5533037
13,26243475 0,301319049 2,698870964 0,37052531 19,31407685 0,206375229 1,829940008 0,546466
14,36763764 0,304613142 2,729921406 0,366310912 20,92358326 0,208544811 1,850685661 0,54034028
15,47284054 0,307633402 2,758390663 0,362530229 22,53308966 0,210518968 1,869562654 0,53488445
16,57804343 0,310379827 2,784278736 0,359159443 24,14259607 0,2122977 1,886570989 0,53006222
17,68324633 0,312852419 2,807585624 0,356177917 25,75210247 0,213881008 1,901710665 0,52584235
18,78844922 0,315051177 2,828311327 0,353567866 27,36160888 0,215268892 1,914981682 0,52219821
19,89365212 0,316976101 2,846455846 0,351314074 28,97111528 0,216461351 1,926384041 0,51910729
20,99885501 0,318627191 2,86201918 0,349403668 30,58062169 0,217458386 1,93591774 0,51655087
22,10405791 0,320004447 2,87500133 0,347825926 32,19012809 0,218259997 1,943582781 0,51451372
23,20926081 0,32110787 2,885402295 0,346572123 33,7996345 0,218866183 1,949379163 0,51298384
24,3144637 0,321937458 2,893222075 0,345635411 35,4091409 0,219276944 1,953306886 0,51195232
25,4196666 0,322493213 2,898460671 0,345010719 37,01864731 0,219492281 1,955365951 0,51141322
26,52486949 0,322775133 2,901118083 0,344694691 38,62815371 0,219512194 1,955556356 0,51136343
27,63007239 0,32278322 2,90119431 0,344685634 40,23766011 0,219336682 1,953878103 0,51180265
28,73527528 0,322517473 2,898689352 0,344983501 41,84716652 0,218965746 1,950331191 0,51273343
29,84047818 0,321977892 2,89360321 0,345589885 43,45667292 0,218399385 1,94491562 0,51416112
30,94568107 0,321164477 2,885935883 0,346508045 45,06617933 0,2176376 1,93763139 0,51609403
32,05088397 0,320077228 2,875687371 0,347742947 46,67568573 0,21668039 1,928478502 0,5185435
33,15608687 0,318716146 2,862857675 0,349301332 48,28519214 0,215527756 1,917456954 0,52152409
34,26128976 0,317081229 2,847446795 0,351191812 49,89469854 0,214179698 1,904566748 0,5250538
35,36649266 0,315172479 2,82945473 0,353424987 51,50420495 0,212636215 1,889807883 0,52915432
36,47169555 0,312989895 2,80888148 0,356013597 53,11371135 0,210897307 1,873180359 0,53385142
37,57689845 0,310533476 2,785727045 0,358972715 54,72321776 0,208962976 1,854684177 0,53917536
38,68210134 0,307803224 2,759991427 0,362319966 56,33272416 0,206833219 1,834319335 0,54516135
39,78730424 0,304799138 2,731674623 0,36607581 57,94223056 0,204508039 1,812085835 0,55185024
40,89250713 0,301521219 2,700776635 0,370263867 59,55173697 0,201987434 1,787983676 0,55928922
41,99771003 0,297969465 2,667297463 0,374911315 61,16124337 0,199271404 1,762012858 0,56753275
43,10291293 0,294143877 2,631237105 0,380049368 62,77074978 0,19635995 1,734173381 0,57664361
44,20811582 0,290044456 2,592595564 0,385713844 64,38025618 0,193253071 1,704465246 0,58669427
45,31331872 0,285671201 2,551372837 0,391945852 65,98976259 0,189950768 1,672888452 0,59776849
46,41852161 0,281024112 2,507568927 0,398792627 67,59926899 0,186453041 1,639442999 0,60996326
47,52372451 0,276103188 2,461183831 0,406308536 69,2087754 0,182759889 1,604128887 0,6233913
48,6289274 0,270908431 2,412217551 0,414556307 70,8182818 0,178871313 1,566946116 0,63818404
49,7341303 0,265439841 2,360670087 0,423608536 72,42778821 0,174787312 1,527894686 0,65449537
50,83933319 0,259697416 2,306541437 0,433549549 74,03729461 0,170507887 1,486974598 0,67250644
51,94453609 0,253681157 2,249831604 0,44447771 75,64680102 0,166033038 1,444185851 0,69243166
53,04973899 0,247391065 2,190540586 0,456508319 77,25630742 0,161362764 1,399528445 0,71452638
54,15494188 0,240827138 2,128668383 0,46977726 78,86581382 0,156497065 1,35300238 0,739097
55,26014478 0,233989378 2,064214995 0,484445662 80,47532023 0,151435942 1,304607656 0,76651397
56,36534767 0,226877784 1,997180423 0,500705889 82,08482663 0,146179395 1,254344274 0,79722929
57,47055057 0,219492356 1,927564667 0,518789339 83,69433304 0,140727423 1,202212233 0,83179989
58,57575346 0,211833094 1,855367726 0,538976714 85,30383944 0,135080027 1,148211533 0,87091966
Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a va D a 1/a


21,13809914 0,152862332 1,325414536 0,754480936 26,18113423 0,122732916 1,0402971 0,9612639 31,224169 0,102066 0,8407324 1,18943912
23,25190905 0,154701352 1,343094949 0,744548999 28,79924765 0,124073867 1,0513867 0,9511248 34,346586 0,1030131 0,8498778 1,17663981
25,36571896 0,156381041 1,359243556 0,735703322 31,41736107 0,125272479 1,0629404 0,9407865 37,469003 0,103824 0,8577076 1,16589849
27,47952888 0,1579014 1,373860358 0,727876013 34,03547449 0,126328754 1,073122 0,9318605 40,59142 0,1044986 0,864222 1,15711015
29,59333879 0,15926243 1,386945355 0,72100894 36,65358792 0,12724269 1,0819317 0,9242728 43,713837 0,105037 0,8694208 1,15019102
31,7071487 0,160464129 1,398498547 0,715052584 39,27170134 0,128014288 1,0893693 0,9179624 46,836254 0,1054392 0,8733042 1,14507643
33,82095862 0,161506499 1,408519933 0,709965104 41,88981476 0,128643547 1,0954348 0,9128795 49,958671 0,1057051 0,875872 1,14171934
35,93476853 0,162389538 1,417009514 0,705711564 44,50792819 0,129130469 1,1001284 0,9089848 53,081088 0,1058348 0,8771243 1,14008922
38,04857845 0,163113248 1,423967289 0,702263323 47,12604161 0,129475052 1,1034499 0,9062487 56,203505 0,1058282 0,8770612 1,14017132
40,16238836 0,163677627 1,42939326 0,699597534 49,74415503 0,129677297 1,1053994 0,9046504 59,325922 0,1056855 0,8756825 1,14196639
42,27619827 0,164082677 1,433287425 0,697696765 52,36226845 0,129737203 1,1059768 0,9041781 62,448339 0,1054065 0,8729883 1,14549066
44,39000819 0,164328397 1,435649784 0,696548706 54,98038188 0,129654772 1,1051823 0,9048281 65,570756 0,1049912 0,8689787 1,15077622
46,5038181 0,164414786 1,436480338 0,696145971 57,5984953 0,129430002 1,1030157 0,9066054 68,693172 0,1044398 0,8636535 1,15787175
48,61762801 0,164341846 1,435779087 0,696485977 60,21660872 0,129062894 1,099477 0,9095233 71,815589 0,103752 0,8570128 1,16684366
50,73143793 0,164109576 1,433546031 0,697570903 62,83472214 0,128553448 1,0945664 0,9136038 74,938006 0,1029281 0,8490567 1,17777769
52,84524784 0,163717976 1,42978117 0,699407728 65,45283557 0,127901663 1,0882837 0,9188781 78,060423 0,1019679 0,839785 1,19078099
54,95905775 0,163167045 1,424484503 0,702008339 68,07094899 0,127107541 1,0806289 0,925387 81,18284 0,1008715 0,8291978 1,20598486
57,07286767 0,162456785 1,41765603 0,705389727 70,68906241 0,12617108 1,0716022 0,9331821 84,305257 0,0996389 0,8172951 1,22354823
59,18667758 0,161587195 1,409295753 0,709574266 73,30717584 0,125092281 1,0612034 0,9423264 87,427674 0,09827 0,8040769 1,24366208
61,3004875 0,160558275 1,39940367 0,714590094 75,92528926 0,123871143 1,0494326 0,9528959 90,550091 0,0967649 0,7895433 1,26655506
63,41429741 0,159370025 1,387979782 0,72047159 78,54340268 0,122507668 1,0362898 0,9649811 93,672508 0,0951236 0,7736941 1,29250054
65,52810732 0,158022445 1,375024088 0,727259987 81,1615161 0,121001854 1,0217749 0,9786891 96,794925 0,093346 0,7565294 1,32182574
67,64191724 0,156515535 1,36053659 0,735004121 83,77962953 0,119353702 1,005888 0,9941465 99,917342 0,0914322 0,7380492 1,35492326
69,75572715 0,154849295 1,344517285 0,743761356 86,39774295 0,117563211 0,9886291 1,0115017 103,03976 0,0893822 0,7182535 1,39226613
71,86953706 0,153023725 1,326966176 0,753598711 89,01585637 0,115630383 0,9699981 1,0309298 106,16218 0,0871959 0,6971423 1,43442741
73,98334698 0,151038825 1,307883261 0,764594234 91,63396979 0,113555216 0,9499951 1,052637 109,28459 0,0848734 0,6747156 1,48210598
76,09715689 0,148894596 1,287268541 0,776838684 94,25208322 0,111337711 0,9286201 1,0768666 112,40701 0,0824146 0,6509734 1,53616112
78,2109668 0,146591036 1,265122016 0,790437592 96,87019664 0,108977868 0,9058731 1,1039074 115,52943 0,0798197 0,6259157 1,5976593
80,32477672 0,144128146 1,241443685 0,805513784 99,48831006 0,106475686 0,881754 1,1341031 118,65184 0,0770885 0,5995425 1,66793856
82,43858663 0,141505926 1,216233549 0,822210504 102,1064235 0,103831166 0,8562629 1,1678656 121,77426 0,074221 0,5718538 1,74869884
84,55239655 0,138724377 1,189491608 0,840695296 104,7245369 0,101044308 0,8293998 1,2056912 124,89668 0,0712174 0,5428495 1,84213105
86,66620646 0,135783497 1,161217861 0,861164845 107,3426503 0,098115112 0,8011646 1,2481829 128,01909 0,0680775 0,5125298 1,95110595
88,78001637 0,132683287 1,13141231 0,883851087 109,9607638 0,095043578 0,7715574 1,2960798 131,14151 0,0648013 0,4808946 2,07945769
90,89382629 0,129423748 1,100074952 0,909028969 112,5788772 0,091829705 0,7405782 1,3502963 134,26393 0,061389 0,4479439 2,23242245
93,0076362 0,126004878 1,06720579 0,937026401 115,1969906 0,088473494 0,708227 1,4119767 137,38634 0,0578404 0,4136777 2,41734102
95,12144611 0,122426679 1,032804822 0,968237153 117,815104 0,084974945 0,6745037 1,4825716 140,50876 0,0541555 0,3780959 2,64483133
97,23525603 0,118689149 0,996872049 1,003137766 120,4332174 0,081334058 0,6394084 1,5639457 143,63118 0,0503345 0,3411987 2,93084337
99,34906594 0,11479229 0,95940747 1,04231 123,0513309 0,077550832 0,6029411 1,6585369 146,7536 0,0463772 0,302986 3,30048266
101,4628759 0,1107361 0,920411087 1,08647105 125,6694443 0,073625268 0,5651017 1,769593 149,87601 0,0422836 0,2634578 3,79567492
103,5766858 0,106520581 0,879882898 1,136514874 128,2875577 0,069557366 0,5258903 1,9015372 152,99843 0,0380539 0,222614 4,49208
105,6904957 0,102145732 0,837822903 1,193569663 130,9056711 0,065347126 0,4853069 2,0605518 156,12085 0,0336879 0,1804548 5,54155431
107,8043056 0,097611552 0,794231103 1,259079373 133,5237846 0,060994547 0,4433514 2,255547 159,24326 0,0291856 0,13698 7,30033327
109,9181155 0,092918043 0,749107498 1,334921893 136,141898 0,056499631 0,400024 2,4998503 162,36568 0,0245472 0,0921898 10,8471862
112,0319254 0,088065204 0,702452088 1,423584636 138,7600114 0,051862376 0,3553244 2,8143293 165,4881 0,0197725 0,0460841 21,6994755
Anexa 23
Treapta 1 Treapta 2

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a
9,94682606 0,293909361 1,808026129 0,553089352 13,259689 0,220213079 1,126611621 0,88761733
10,94150867 0,297751122 1,84423894 0,542229089 14,5856579 0,223039433 1,153570255 0,86687395
11,93619127 0,301319049 1,877870567 0,532518065 15,9116268 0,225655077 1,178519076 0,84852254
12,93087388 0,304613142 1,908921008 0,523856145 17,2375957 0,228060012 1,201458082 0,83232201
13,92555648 0,307633402 1,937390265 0,516158266 18,5635646 0,230254237 1,222387274 0,81807134
14,92023909 0,310379827 1,963278338 0,509352128 19,88953349 0,232237752 1,241306653 0,80560271
15,9149217 0,312852419 1,986585226 0,50337634 21,21550239 0,234010557 1,258216218 0,79477596
16,9096043 0,315051177 2,007310929 0,498178925 22,54147129 0,235572653 1,273115968 0,7854744
17,90428691 0,316976101 2,025455448 0,493716118 23,86744019 0,236924039 1,286005905 0,77760141
18,89896951 0,318627191 2,041018782 0,489951395 25,19340909 0,238064716 1,296886028 0,77107778
19,89365212 0,320004447 2,054000932 0,486854696 26,51937799 0,238994683 1,305756337 0,76583967
20,88833473 0,32110787 2,064401897 0,484401803 27,84534689 0,23971394 1,312616832 0,76183695
21,88301733 0,321937458 2,072221678 0,482573853 29,17131579 0,240222487 1,317467514 0,759032
22,87769994 0,322493213 2,077460273 0,481356978 30,49728469 0,240520325 1,320308381 0,75739881
23,87238254 0,322775133 2,080117685 0,480742031 31,82325359 0,240607453 1,321139435 0,75692238
24,86706515 0,32278322 2,080193912 0,480724414 33,14922249 0,240483871 1,319960674 0,75759833
25,86174776 0,322517473 2,077688954 0,481303998 34,47519139 0,24014958 1,3167721 0,75943286
26,85643036 0,321977892 2,072602812 0,482485112 35,80116029 0,239604579 1,311573712 0,76244285
27,85111297 0,321164477 2,064935485 0,484276631 37,12712919 0,238848868 1,30436551 0,76665627
28,84579557 0,320077228 2,054686973 0,48669214 38,45309809 0,237882447 1,295147494 0,77211283
29,84047818 0,318716146 2,041857277 0,489750195 39,77906699 0,236705317 1,283919664 0,77886493
30,83516079 0,317081229 2,026446397 0,493474686 41,10503589 0,235317477 1,27068202 0,78697895
31,82984339 0,315172479 2,008454332 0,497895314 42,43100479 0,233718928 1,255434563 0,79653694
32,824526 0,312989895 1,987881082 0,5030482 43,75697369 0,231909668 1,238177291 0,80763878
33,8192086 0,310533476 1,964726648 0,508976657 45,08294259 0,229889699 1,218910206 0,82040498
34,81389121 0,307803224 1,938991029 0,515732144 46,40891149 0,227659021 1,197633306 0,83498012
35,80857381 0,304799138 1,910674225 0,523375459 47,73488039 0,225217632 1,174346593 0,85153736
36,80325642 0,301521219 1,879776237 0,531978211 49,06084929 0,222565534 1,149050066 0,8702841
37,79793903 0,297969465 1,846297065 0,541624649 50,38681819 0,219702726 1,121743725 0,89146922
38,79262163 0,294143877 1,810236708 0,552413944 51,71278709 0,216629209 1,09242757 0,9153925
39,78730424 0,290044456 1,771595166 0,564463044 53,03875599 0,213344982 1,061101601 0,94241682
40,78198684 0,285671201 1,73037244 0,577910268 54,36472489 0,209850045 1,027765819 0,97298429
41,77666945 0,281024112 1,686568529 0,592919874 55,69069379 0,206144398 0,992420222 1,00763767
42,77135206 0,276103188 1,640183433 0,609687904 57,01666269 0,202228042 0,955064812 1,04704936
43,76603466 0,270908431 1,591217153 0,628449736 58,34263158 0,198100976 0,915699587 1,09206121
44,76071727 0,265439841 1,539669689 0,649489957 59,66860048 0,1937632 0,874324549 1,14374005
45,75539987 0,259697416 1,48554104 0,673155418 60,99456938 0,189214715 0,830939697 1,20345677
46,75008248 0,253681157 1,428831206 0,699872732 62,32053828 0,18445552 0,785545031 1,2730015
47,74476509 0,247391065 1,369540188 0,730172075 63,64650718 0,179485615 0,738140551 1,35475554
48,73944769 0,240827138 1,307667985 0,764720106 64,97247608 0,174305001 0,688726257 1,45195568
49,7341303 0,233989378 1,243214597 0,80436636 66,29844498 0,168913677 0,637302149 1,56911443
50,7288129 0,226877784 1,176180025 0,850209984 67,62441388 0,163311643 0,583868228 1,71271522
51,72349551 0,219492356 1,106564269 0,903698075 68,95038278 0,157498899 0,528424492 1,89241796
52,71817812 0,211833094 1,034367328 0,966774543 70,27635168 0,151475446 0,470970943 2,12327324
Treapta 3 Treapta 4 Treapta 5

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a va D a 1/a


19,02428922 0,152862332 0,48746499 2,051429377 23,5630208 0,122732916 0,198898 5,0277015 28,101752 0,102066 -0,000315 -3174,934
20,92671814 0,154701352 0,505124421 1,979710262 25,91932288 0,124073867 0,2118238 4,7209057 30,911928 0,1030131 0,0088304 113,245298
22,82914707 0,156381041 0,521253865 1,918451003 28,27562496 0,125272479 0,2233774 4,4767277 33,722103 0,103824 0,0166602 60,0231369
24,73157599 0,1579014 0,535853321 1,86618233 30,63192705 0,126328754 0,2335591 4,2815715 36,532278 0,1044986 0,0231746 43,1507031
26,63400491 0,15926243 0,54892279 1,82174983 32,98822913 0,12724269 0,2423687 4,1259447 39,342453 0,105037 0,0283734 35,2442257
28,53643383 0,160464129 0,560462272 1,784241421 35,34453121 0,128014288 0,2498063 4,0031011 42,152629 0,1054392 0,0322568 31,0012262
30,43886276 0,161506499 0,570471765 1,752935133 37,70083329 0,128643547 0,2558719 3,9082056 44,962804 0,1057051 0,0348246 28,7153065
32,34129168 0,162389538 0,578951272 1,727261082 40,05713537 0,129130469 0,2605654 3,8378074 47,772979 0,1058348 0,036077 27,7185107
34,2437206 0,163113248 0,58590079 1,706773598 42,41343745 0,129475052 0,263887 3,7895014 50,583154 0,1058282 0,0360138 27,7671232
36,14614952 0,163677627 0,591320322 1,691130785 44,76973953 0,129677297 0,2658364 3,7617115 53,39333 0,1056855 0,0346352 28,8724022
38,04857845 0,164082677 0,595209865 1,68007968 47,12604161 0,129737203 0,2664139 3,753558 56,203505 0,1054065 0,031941 31,3077381
39,95100737 0,164328397 0,597569422 1,673445735 49,48234369 0,129654772 0,2656193 3,7647864 59,01368 0,1049912 0,0279313 35,8021064
41,85343629 0,164414786 0,59839899 1,671125814 51,83864577 0,129430002 0,2634527 3,7957476 61,823855 0,1044398 0,0226061 44,2357552
43,75586521 0,164341846 0,597698572 1,673084139 54,19494785 0,129062894 0,2599141 3,8474253 64,63403 0,103752 0,0159655 62,6351556
45,65829413 0,164109576 0,595468165 1,679350901 56,55124993 0,128553448 0,2550034 3,9215161 67,444206 0,1029281 0,0080093 124,854857
47,56072306 0,163717976 0,591707771 1,690023435 58,90755201 0,127901663 0,2487207 4,0205737 70,254381 0,1019679 -0,0012624 -792,156209
49,46315198 0,163167045 0,58641739 1,70527003 61,26385409 0,127107541 0,241066 4,1482415 73,064556 0,1008715 -0,0118496 -84,3913414
51,3655809 0,162456785 0,579597021 1,72533668 63,62015617 0,12617108 0,2320393 4,3096157 75,874731 0,0996389 -0,0237522 -42,1012944
53,26800982 0,161587195 0,571246665 1,750557267 65,97645825 0,125092281 0,2216405 4,5118113 78,684907 0,09827 -0,0369704 -27,048649
55,17043875 0,160558275 0,561366321 1,781368 68,33276033 0,123871143 0,2098697 4,764862 81,495082 0,0967649 -0,0515041 -19,4159263
57,07286767 0,159370025 0,549955989 1,81832732 70,68906241 0,122507668 0,1967268 5,0831908 84,305257 0,0951236 -0,0673533 -14,8470827
58,97529659 0,158022445 0,53701567 1,862143054 73,04536449 0,121001854 0,182212 5,4881139 87,115432 0,093346 -0,084518 -11,8318005
60,87772551 0,156515535 0,522545364 1,913709449 75,40166657 0,119353702 0,1663251 6,0123229 89,925608 0,0914322 -0,1029982 -9,70890902
62,78015443 0,154849295 0,50654507 1,974157997 77,75796865 0,117563211 0,1490661 6,7084316 92,735783 0,0893822 -0,1227939 -8,14372831
64,68258336 0,153023725 0,489014788 2,044927933 80,11427073 0,115630383 0,1304352 7,666643 95,545958 0,0871959 -0,1439051 -6,94902506
66,58501228 0,151038825 0,469954519 2,127865484 82,47057281 0,113555216 0,1104322 9,0553298 98,356133 0,0848734 -0,1663318 -6,0120802
68,4874412 0,148894596 0,449364262 2,225366109 84,82687489 0,111337711 0,0890572 11,22874 101,16631 0,0824146 -0,190074 -5,2611093
70,38987012 0,146591036 0,427244018 2,340582798 87,18317698 0,108977868 0,0663101 15,080648 103,97648 0,0798197 -0,2151317 -4,64831567
72,29229905 0,144128146 0,403593787 2,477738838 89,53947906 0,106475686 0,0421911 23,701695 106,78666 0,0770885 -0,2415049 -4,14070279
74,19472797 0,141505926 0,378413568 2,64261138 91,89578114 0,103831166 0,0167 59,880331 109,59683 0,074221 -0,2691936 -3,71479847
76,09715689 0,138724377 0,351703361 2,843305215 94,25208322 0,101044308 -0,0101632 -98,394644 112,40701 0,0712174 -0,2981978 -3,35347858
77,99958581 0,135783497 0,323463167 3,091542108 96,6083853 0,098115112 -0,0383983 -26,04281 115,21718 0,0680775 -0,3285175 -3,04397755
79,90201474 0,132683287 0,293692985 3,404916192 98,96468738 0,095043578 -0,0680055 -14,704693 118,02736 0,0648013 -0,3601528 -2,77659963
81,80444366 0,129423748 0,262392816 3,811079954 101,3209895 0,091829705 -0,0989847 -10,10257 120,83754 0,061389 -0,3931035 -2,54385949
83,70687258 0,126004878 0,229562659 4,356109154 103,6772915 0,088473494 -0,131336 -7,6140607 123,64771 0,0578404 -0,4273697 -2,33989451
85,6093015 0,122426679 0,195202515 5,122884824 106,0335936 0,084974945 -0,1650592 -6,0584309 126,45789 0,0541555 -0,4629514 -2,16005386
87,51173042 0,118689149 0,159312383 6,276975976 108,3898957 0,081334058 -0,2001545 -4,9961394 129,26806 0,0503345 -0,4998486 -2,0006056
89,41415935 0,11479229 0,121892264 8,203966116 110,7461978 0,077550832 -0,2366219 -4,2261519 132,07824 0,0463772 -0,5380614 -1,85852404
91,31658827 0,1107361 0,082942157 12,0565951 113,1024999 0,073625268 -0,2744612 -3,6435017 134,88841 0,0422836 -0,5775896 -1,73133309
93,21901719 0,106520581 0,042462062 23,55043407 115,4588019 0,069557366 -0,3136726 -3,1880371 137,69859 0,0380539 -0,6184333 -1,61698915
95,12144611 0,102145732 0,00045198 2212,484956 117,815104 0,065347126 -0,3542561 -2,822817 140,50876 0,0336879 -0,6605926 -1,51379237
97,02387504 0,097611552 -0,043088089 -23,20826996 120,1714061 0,060994547 -0,3962115 -2,5239045 143,31894 0,0291856 -0,7040673 -1,42031874
98,92630396 0,092918043 -0,088158146 -11,34325127 122,5277082 0,056499631 -0,439539 -2,2751111 146,12911 0,0245472 -0,7488576 -1,33536744
100,8287329 0,088065204 -0,13475819 -7,420699238 124,8840103 0,051862376 -0,4842385 -2,0650981 148,93929 0,0197725 -0,7949633 -1,2579197
Anexa 24
Treapta 1 Treapta 2 Treapta 3

va D a 1/a va D a 1/a va D a 1/a


11,05202896 0,293909361 1,808026129 0,553089352 16,09506405 0,201449793 0,950000727 1,05263077 21,13809914 0,152862332 0,488044151 2,04899495
12,15723185 0,297751122 1,84423894 0,542229089 17,70457045 0,204010223 0,974483697 1,02618443 23,25190905 0,154701352 0,505724563 1,977360944
13,26243475 0,301319049 1,877870567 0,532518065 19,31407685 0,206375229 0,997098009 1,00291044 25,36571896 0,156381041 0,521873171 1,916174381
14,36763764 0,304613142 1,908921008 0,523856145 20,92358326 0,208544811 1,017843661 0,98246915 27,47952888 0,1579014 0,536489973 1,863967736
15,47284054 0,307633402 1,937390265 0,516158266 22,53308966 0,210518968 1,036720655 0,96457999 29,59333879 0,15926243 0,54957497 1,819587964
16,57804343 0,310379827 1,963278338 0,509352128 24,14259607 0,2122977 1,05372899 0,94901062 31,7071487 0,160464129 0,561128161 1,782124066
17,68324633 0,312852419 1,986585226 0,50337634 25,75210247 0,213881008 1,068868666 0,93556864 33,82095862 0,161506499 0,571149547 1,750854929
18,78844922 0,315051177 2,007310929 0,498178925 27,36160888 0,215268892 1,082139683 0,92409512 35,93476853 0,162389538 0,579639128 1,725211345
19,89365212 0,316976101 2,025455448 0,493716118 28,97111528 0,216461351 1,093542041 0,91445958 38,04857845 0,163113248 0,586596904 1,704748173
20,99885501 0,318627191 2,041018782 0,489951395 30,58062169 0,217458386 1,103075741 0,90655606 40,16238836 0,163677627 0,592022874 1,689123924
22,10405791 0,320004447 2,054000932 0,486854696 32,19012809 0,218259997 1,110740782 0,90030007 42,27619827 0,164082677 0,595917039 1,678085933
23,20926081 0,32110787 2,064401897 0,484401803 33,7996345 0,218866183 1,116537164 0,89562626 44,39000819 0,164328397 0,598279398 1,671459861
24,3144637 0,321937458 2,072221678 0,482573853 35,4091409 0,219276944 1,120464887 0,89248669 46,5038181 0,164414786 0,599109953 1,669142693
25,4196666 0,322493213 2,077460273 0,481356978 37,01864731 0,219492281 1,122523951 0,89084959 48,61762801 0,164341846 0,598408702 1,671098694
26,52486949 0,322775133 2,080117685 0,480742031 38,62815371 0,219512194 1,122714357 0,89069851 50,73143793 0,164109576 0,596175645 1,677358019
27,63007239 0,32278322 2,080193912 0,480724414 40,23766011 0,219336682 1,121036103 0,89203193 52,84524784 0,163717976 0,592410784 1,688017888
28,73527528 0,322517473 2,077688954 0,481303998 41,84716652 0,218965746 1,117489191 0,89486324 54,95905775 0,163167045 0,587114117 1,70324639
29,84047818 0,321977892 2,072602812 0,482485112 43,45667292 0,218399385 1,11207362 0,89922104 57,07286767 0,162456785 0,580285645 1,723289227
30,94568107 0,321164477 2,064935485 0,484276631 45,06617933 0,2176376 1,104789391 0,90514989 59,18667758 0,161587195 0,571925367 1,748479885
32,05088397 0,320077228 2,054686973 0,48669214 46,67568573 0,21668039 1,095636502 0,91271147 61,3004875 0,160558275 0,562033284 1,779254055
33,15608687 0,318716146 2,041857277 0,489750195 48,28519214 0,215527756 1,084614955 0,92198618 63,41429741 0,159370025 0,550609396 1,816169515
34,26128976 0,317081229 2,026446397 0,493474686 49,89469854 0,214179698 1,071724748 0,9330754 65,52810732 0,158022445 0,537653703 1,859933253
35,36649266 0,315172479 2,008454332 0,497895314 51,50420495 0,212636215 1,056965883 0,94610433 67,64191724 0,156515535 0,523166204 1,911438454
36,47169555 0,312989895 1,987881082 0,5030482 53,11371135 0,210897307 1,04033836 0,96122573 69,75572715 0,154849295 0,5071469 1,971815268
37,57689845 0,310533476 1,964726648 0,508976657 54,72321776 0,208962976 1,021842177 0,97862471 71,86953706 0,153023725 0,48959579 2,042501222
38,68210134 0,307803224 1,938991029 0,515732144 56,33272416 0,206833219 1,001477336 0,99852484 73,98334698 0,151038825 0,470512876 2,125340351
39,78730424 0,304799138 1,910674225 0,523375459 57,94223056 0,204508039 0,979243835 1,02119611 76,09715689 0,148894596 0,449898156 2,222725271
40,89250713 0,301521219 1,879776237 0,531978211 59,55173697 0,201987434 0,955141676 1,0469651 78,2109668 0,146591036 0,42775163 2,337805234
41,99771003 0,297969465 1,846297065 0,541624649 61,16124337 0,199271404 0,929170859 1,07622833 80,32477672 0,144128146 0,4040733 2,474798511
43,10291293 0,294143877 1,810236708 0,552413944 62,77074978 0,19635995 0,901331382 1,10946986 82,43858663 0,141505926 0,378863164 2,639475399
44,20811582 0,290044456 1,771595166 0,564463044 64,38025618 0,193253071 0,871623246 1,14728468 84,55239655 0,138724377 0,352121222 2,839931071
45,31331872 0,285671201 1,73037244 0,577910268 65,98976259 0,189950768 0,840046452 1,19041036 86,66620646 0,135783497 0,323847476 3,087873381
46,41852161 0,281024112 1,686568529 0,592919874 67,59926899 0,186453041 0,806600999 1,23977035 88,78001637 0,132683287 0,294041924 3,400875586
47,52372451 0,276103188 1,640183433 0,609687904 69,2087754 0,182759889 0,771286887 1,29653442 90,89382629 0,129423748 0,262704567 3,806557354
48,6289274 0,270908431 1,591217153 0,628449736 70,8182818 0,178871313 0,734104116 1,36220459 93,0076362 0,126004878 0,229835404 4,350939769
49,7341303 0,265439841 1,539669689 0,649489957 72,42778821 0,174787312 0,695052687 1,43873985 95,12144611 0,122426679 0,195434436 5,116805508
50,83933319 0,259697416 1,48554104 0,673155418 74,03729461 0,170507887 0,654132598 1,52874204 97,23525603 0,118689149 0,159501663 6,269527103
51,94453609 0,253681157 1,428831206 0,699872732 75,64680102 0,166033038 0,611343851 1,63574067 99,34906594 0,11479229 0,122037085 8,194230487
53,04973899 0,247391065 1,369540188 0,730172075 77,25630742 0,161362764 0,566686445 1,76464429 101,4628759 0,1107361 0,083040701 12,04228756
54,15494188 0,240827138 1,307667985 0,764720106 78,86581382 0,156497065 0,52016038 1,92248398 103,5766858 0,106520581 0,042512512 23,52248682
55,26014478 0,233989378 1,243214597 0,80436636 80,47532023 0,151435942 0,471765657 2,11969648 105,6904957 0,102145732 0,000452517 2209,859405
56,36534767 0,226877784 1,176180025 0,850209984 82,08482663 0,146179395 0,421502274 2,37246644 107,8043056 0,097611552 -0,043139282 -23,18072876
57,47055057 0,219492356 1,106564269 0,903698075 83,69433304 0,140727423 0,369370233 2,70731074 109,9181155 0,092918043 -0,088262887 -11,32979026
58,57575346 0,211833094 1,034367328 0,966774543 85,30383944 0,135080027 0,315369533 3,17088335 112,0319254 0,088065204 -0,134918298 -7,411893111
Anexa 25
Treapta I α=0

va 1/ai 1/ai+1 dv ΔTi td


11,05202896 0,380368927 0,375200826 1,105202896 0,115980261 0,115980261
12,15723185 0,375200826 0,37052531 1,105202896 0,114469262 0,230449523
13,26243475 0,37052531 0,366310912 1,105202896 0,113104656 0,343554179
14,36763764 0,366310912 0,362530229 1,105202896 0,111877408 0,455431587
15,47284054 0,362530229 0,359159443 1,105202896 0,110779655 0,566211242
16,57804343 0,359159443 0,356177917 1,105202896 0,109804572 0,676015815
17,68324633 0,356177917 0,353567866 1,105202896 0,108946263 0,784962078
18,78844922 0,353567866 0,351314074 1,105202896 0,108199661 0,893161739
19,89365212 0,351314074 0,349403668 1,105202896 0,107560455 1,000722194
20,99885501 0,349403668 0,347825926 1,105202896 0,107025023 1,107747217
22,10405791 0,347825926 0,346572123 1,105202896 0,10659038 1,214337597
23,20926081 0,346572123 0,345635411 1,105202896 0,106254135 1,320591732
24,3144637 0,345635411 0,345010719 1,105202896 0,106014459 1,426606191
25,4196666 0,345010719 0,344694691 1,105202896 0,105870058 1,532476248
26,52486949 0,344694691 0,344685634 1,105202896 0,105820157 1,638296406
27,63007239 0,344685634 0,344983501 1,105202896 0,10586449 1,744160895
28,73527528 0,344983501 0,345589885 1,105202896 0,106003292 1,850164187
29,84047818 0,345589885 0,346508045 1,105202896 0,106237311 1,956401498
30,94568107 0,346508045 0,347742947 1,105202896 0,106567806 2,062969304
32,05088397 0,347742947 0,349301332 1,105202896 0,106996577 2,169965882
33,15608687 0,349301332 0,351191812 1,105202896 0,107525979 2,277491861
34,26128976 0,351191812 0,353424987 1,105202896 0,108158962 2,385650823
35,36649266 0,353424987 0,356013597 1,105202896 0,108899108 2,494549931
36,47169555 0,356013597 0,358972715 1,105202896 0,109750686 2,604300617
37,57689845 0,358972715 0,362319966 1,105202896 0,110718717 2,715019334
38,68210134 0,362319966 0,36607581 1,105202896 0,111809045 2,826828378
39,78730424 0,36607581 0,370263867 1,105202896 0,113028436 2,939856815
40,89250713 0,370263867 0,374911315 1,105202896 0,11438469 3,054241505
41,99771003 0,374911315 0,380049368 1,105202896 0,115886769 3,170128273
43,10291293 0,380049368 0,385713844 1,105202896 0,117544961 3,287673235
44,20811582 0,385713844 0,391945852 1,105202896 0,119371076 3,40704431
45,31331872 0,391945852 0,398792627 1,105202896 0,121378675 3,528422985
46,41852161 0,398792627 0,406308536 1,105202896 0,123583352 3,652006337
47,52372451 0,406308536 0,414556307 1,105202896 0,126003084 3,778009421
48,6289274 0,414556307 0,423608536 1,105202896 0,128658641 3,906668061
49,7341303 0,423608536 0,433549549 1,105202896 0,131574111 4,038242172
50,83933319 0,433549549
Anexa 26
Pentru toate treptele de viteza
α=5
Va 1/ai 1+ai+1 dv ΔTi td
10,7229021 0,53753249 0,52119526 0,9748093 0,150845423 0,150845423
11,6977114 0,52119526 0,50636275 0,9748093 0,14640442 0,297249843
12,6725207 0,50636275 0,4928636 0,9748092 0,142367796 0,439617639
13,6473299 0,4928636 0,48055273 0,9748093 0,138690421 0,57830806
14,6221392 0,48055273 0,46930658 0,9748093 0,135334064 0,713642124
15,5969485 0,46930658 0,45901933 0,9748093 0,132266028 0,845908152
16,5717578 0,45901933 0,4495999 0,9748093 0,129458259 0,975366412
17,5465671 0,4495999 0,44096958 0,9748093 0,126886567 1,102252979
18,5213764 0,44096958 0,43306007 0,9748092 0,124530018 1,226782996
19,4961856 0,43306007 0,42581189 0,9748093 0,122370367 1,349153364
20,4709949 0,42581189 0,4191731 0,9748093 0,12039178 1,469545143
21,4458042 0,4191731 0,41309823 0,9748093 0,118580363 1,588125506
22,4206135 0,41309823 0,40754741 0,9748093 0,116923957 1,705049463
23,3954228 0,40754741 0,40248562 0,9748092 0,115411906 1,820461369
24,370232 0,40248562 0,39788209 0,9748093 0,114034798 1,934496168
25,3450413 0,39788209 0,39370978 0,9748093 0,112784434 2,047280602
26,3198506 0,39370978 0,38994493 0,9748093 0,111653563 2,158934165
27,2946599 0,38994493 0,38656675 0,9748093 0,110635839 2,269570004
28,2694692 0,38656675 0,38355705 0,9748092 0,109725717 2,379295721
29,2442784 0,38355705 0,38090001 0,9748093 0,10891832 2,488214042
30,2190877 0,38090001 0,378582 0,9748093 0,108209485 2,596423527
31,193897 0,378582 0,3765913 0,9748093 0,107595589 2,704019115
32,1687063 0,3765913 0,37491806 0,9748093 0,107073558 2,811092673
33,1435156 0,37491806 0,37355411 0,9748093 0,106640825 2,917733498
34,1183249 0,37355411 0,37249284 0,9748092 0,106295295 3,024028794
35,0931341 0,37249284 0,3717292 0,9748093 0,106035275 3,130064069
36,0679434 0,3717292 0,37125955 0,9748093 0,105859558 3,235923627
37,0427527 0,37125955 0,37108168 0,9748093 0,105767301 3,341690928
38,017562 0,37108168 0,37119475 0,9748093 0,105758068 3,447448997
38,9923713 0,37119475 0,37159929 0,9748092 0,105831827 3,553280824
39,9671805 0,37159929 0,37229722 0,9748093 0,105988894 3,659269718
40,9419898 0,37229722 0,37329183 0,9748093 0,106230044 3,765499762
41,9167991 0,37329183 0,37458788 0,9748093 0,106556413 3,872056175
42,8916084 0,37458788 0,37619161 0,9748093 0,106969567 3,979025742
43,8664177 0,37619161 0,37811083 0,9748093 0,10747151 4,086497252
44,841227 0,37811083 0,38035503 0,9748092 0,108064717 4,19456197
45,8160362 0,38035503 0,38293547 0,9748093 0,108752111 4,303314081
46,7908455 0,38293547 0,38586537 0,9748093 0,109537214 4,412851294
47,7656548 0,38586537 0,38916002 0,9748093 0,110424075 4,523275369
48,7404641 0,38916002 0,39283708 0,9748093 0,11141739 4,63469276
49,7152734 0,39283708 0,39691673 0,9748092 0,112522563 4,747215322
50,6900826 0,39691673 0,40142203 0,9748093 0,113745718 4,86096104
51,6648919 0,40142203 0,40637927 0,9748093 0,115093921 4,976054961
52,6397012 0,40637927 0,41181834 0,9748093 0,116575167 5,092630128
53,6145105 0,41181834 0,41777326 0,9748093 0,11819856 5,210828688
54,5893198 0,41777326 0,42428278 0,9748093 0,119974469 5,330803157
55,5641291 0,42428278 0,43139103 0,9748092 0,121914714 5,452717871
56,5389383 0,43139103 0,43914844 0,9748093 0,124032731 5,576750602
57,5137476 0,43914844 0,4476127 0,9748093 0,126343962 5,703094564
58,4885569 0,4476127 0,45685002 0,9748093 0,128866048 5,831960612
59,4633662 0,45685002 0,46693665 0,9748093 0,131619286 5,963579898
60,4381755 0,46693665 0,47796071 0,9748092 0,134627109 6,098207008
61,4129847 0,47796071 0,49002451 0,9748093 0,137916608 6,236123615
62,387794 0,49002451 0,50324737 0,9748093 0,141519401 6,377643016
63,3626033 0,50324737 0,5177692 0,9748093 0,145472409 6,523115424
64,3374126 0,5177692 0,53375504 0,9748093 0,149819081 6,672934505
65,3122219 0,53375504 0,5514008 0,9748093 0,154610844 6,827545349
66,2870312 0,5514008 0,5709408 0,9748092 0,159909014 6,987454363
67,2618404 0,5709408 0,59265744 0,9748093 0,165787161 7,153241525
68,2366497 0,59265744 0,5660028 1,2239272 0,131482521 7,284724045
69,4605769 0,5660028 0,57433515 1,3105769 0,120847751 7,405571796
70,7711538 0,57433515 0,5834756 1,310577 0,122699428 7,528271224
72,0817308 0,5834756 0,59349014 1,3105769 0,124729395 7,653000619
73,3923077 0,59349014 0,60445447 1,3105769 0,126952639 7,779953258
74,7028846 0,60445447 0,61645561 1,3105769 0,129386413 7,909339672
76,0134615 0,61645561 0,62959389 1,310577 0,132050563 8,041390234
77,3240385 0,62959389 0,64398541 1,3105769 0,134968054 8,176358289
78,6346154 0,64398541 0,65976503 1,3105769 0,138165452 8,314523741
79,9451923 0,65976503 0,67709016 1,3105769 0,141673741 8,456197481
81,2557692 0,67709016 0,69614547 1,310577 0,145529161 8,601726642
82,5663462 0,69614547 0,71714883 1,3105769 0,149774405 8,751501047
83,8769231 0,71714883 0,74035896 1,3105769 0,154459946 8,905960993
85,1875 0,74035896 0,76608525 1,3105769 0,159646002 9,065606995
86,4980769 0,76608525 0,79470062 1,3105769 0,16540488 9,231011875
87,8086538 0,79470062 0,8266585 1,310577 0,171824141 9,402836016
89,1192308 0,8266585 0,86251555 1,3105769 0,179010867 9,581846883
90,4298077 0,86251555 0,90296263 1,3105769 0,187097226 9,768944109
91,7403846 0,90296263 0,84936921 1,6028639 0,151840354 9,920784463
93,3432485 0,84936921 0,86918478 1,69715 0,140640517 10,06142498
95,0403985 0,86918478 0,89102298 1,6971499 0,144049326 10,20547431
96,7375484 0,89102298 0,91512173 1,69715 0,147808639 10,35328295
98,4346984 0,91512173 0,94176217 1,6971496 0,151960995 10,50524394
100,131848 0,94176217 0,97127858 1,69715 0,156556642 10,66180058
101,828998 0,97127858 1,00407112 1,69715 0,161655791 10,82345637
103,526148 1,00407112 1,04062263 1,69715 0,167330668 10,99078704
105,223298 1,04062263 1,08152066 1,69715 0,173668871 11,16445591
106,920448 1,08152066 1,12748718 1,69715 0,180777565 11,34523348
108,617598 1,12748718 1,17941889 1,69715 0,188789218 11,53402269
110,314748 1,17941889 1,23844312 1,69715 0,197869468 11,73189216
112,011898 1,23844312 1,30599658 1,69715 0,208228149 11,94012031
113,709048 1,30599658 1,38393885 1,69715 0,220135016 12,16025533
115,406198 1,38393885 1,47471986 1,69715 0,233942746 12,39419807
117,103348 1,47471986 1,58163377 1,69715 0,250121415 12,64431949
118,800498 1,58163377 1,5551951 1,510464 0,288434995 12,93275448
120,310962 1,5551951 1,61706172 2,359038 0,186767328 13,11952181
122,67 1,61706172 1,68734556 2,359038 0,194547716 13,31406953
125,029038 1,68734556 1,76762805 2,359039 0,203412256 13,51748179
127,388077 1,76762805 1,85992971 2,359038 0,213573273 13,73105506
129,747115 1,85992971 1,96687246 2,359039 0,225303737 13,9563588
132,106154 1,96687246 2,09191969 2,359038 0,238962294 14,19532109
134,465192 2,09191969 2,23974162 2,359039 0,255027419 14,45034851
136,824231 2,23974162 2,4167892 2,359038 0,274154292 14,7245028
139,183269 2,4167892 2,63223025 2,359039 0,297262021 15,02176482
141,542308 2,63223025 2,89954558 2,359038 0,325684537 15,34744936
143,901346 2,89954558 3,23940063 2,359039 0,361431675 15,70888103
146,260385 3,23940063 3,6851641 2,359038 0,407685294 16,11656633
148,619423 3,6851641 4,29443705 2,359039 0,4698006 16,58636693
150,978462 4,29443705 5,1759232 2,359038 0,557569574 17,1439365
153,3375 5,1759232 6,56224363 2,359038 0,691087193 17,83502369
155,696538 6,56224363 9,0568747 2,359039 0,919578689 18,75460238
158,055577 9,0568747 14,8628996 2,359038 1,408282052 20,16288443
160,414615 14,8628996 43,4939898 2,359039 3,435773435 23,59865787
162,773654 43,4939898 0 -162,773654 -0,037111853 23,56154602