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Castingsof ASTMIIIA(Figs. 10.41, 10.42and 10.

43) are
to be preferred in corrosive slurries. With regard to the
castings in Figs. 1 0.42 and Fig. 1 0.43, it should be kept in mind
that coal slurries can become acidic due to reactions of thei¡
sulfur content with water. The lowest pH-value, where hi_eh-
Cr irons are useful, depends on the relative amounts of

Fig 10.39. An auger flight shoe ior a 112-cm (44-in.) Eagle


sand screw is shown. This part weighs 5 kg (12 lb) and is cast
in the ASTM A 532 Class ill Type A. This part is one oÍ
approximately 96 pieces that is bolted onto an auger to protecl
the auger from wear. The screw is designed to wash gravel.
Fig 10.36. High-Cr (ASTM illA) sand and gravel pump (Courtesy of Eagle Foundry Co.)
housings. Casting weights range from 1100 to 2900 kg (2500 to
6500 lb). (Courtesy of Mobile Pulley and Machine Works)

Fig. 10.40. High-Cr (ASTM A532 lllA) drag head parts for the
sand and gravel business. Parts weigh from 15 to 125 kg (-25
Fig 10.37. High-Cr (ASTM illA) AR parts for the dredging
to 300 lb). (Courtesy of Mobile Pulley and Machine)
industry. Weights of large castings can exceed 5780 kg (13,000
lb). (Courtesy of Mobile Pulley and Machine Works)

Fig 10.41. High-Cr (ASTM lllA) 135-cm (SA-in.) dia impetter for
corrosion/erosion pump slurry application. Casting is
Fig 10.38. Ni-Hard 4 (ASTM lD) 183 cm (72 in.) dia pump head positioned on a two-plane dynamic balancing machine. The
liner. The approximate we¡ght of the casting is 575 kg (1300 approximate weight of the cast¡ng is 1500 kg (3400 tb).
lb). (Courtesy of Weatherly Caating and Machine Co.) (Courtesy of Weatherly Casting and Machine Co.)

Applications 173
,¡r¡-<ion and corrosion. Chloride content increases wear loss A classic example of this combined corrosive/abrasive
rr high-Cr irons in slightly acidic slunies. Eventually, special wear behavior is that found in the mechanical pulping of
-r"-ns rr ith high-Cr:C ratios or AR stainless steels have to be wood chips. In this application, the corrosive medium is the
::¿i. In any case, however, total wearloss willbe muchhigher wood pulp liquor and the abrasive is rock particles embedded
::.n the sum of abrasive and cortosive loss alone. within the woodchips. Therefinerplate segments are mounted
onto a disk and spun against a counter-rotating disk or a
statically fixed disk. The wood chips are then fed between
these rotating disks and processed into wood fibers. Figure
10.44 shows a circle of refiner plates and Fig. 10.45 shows
several examples of separate refiner plate segments made
from ASTM IIIA. Their high Cr content (257o) andhtgh CVF
(approximately 30Vo) provides superior corrosioniabrasive
resistance. In some specialty applications, super high-Cr
grades (30% Cr) are sometimes used as refiner plate alloys to
combat corrosive wear.

Fig 10.42. High-Cr (ASTM illA) pipe elbow to transier bauxite


sludge. The casting has a dia of 53.3 cm (21 in.) and weighs
about 550 kg (1235 lb). (Courtesy of Texaloy Foundry Co.)

Fig 10.44. High-Cr (ASTM lllA) AR reÍiner plate segments, laid


out to form a complete circle prior to installation onto a refiner
disk. The refiner plate circle has a dia of 1.5 m (5 ft) and is
composed of 12 refiner plate segments. (Courtesy of
Durametal Corporation)

Fig 10.43a. High-Cr (ASTM lllA) casting used to de-water coal.


Casting is approximately 81x81 cm (32x32 in.) and weighs 290
kg §50 lb). (Courtesy oi ltnited Machine and Foundry)

Fig. 10.43b. High-Cr (ASTM lllA) casting used in asphalt Fig 10.45 High-Cr (ASTM illA) AR refiner plates ior the pulp and
mixing. Casting is approximately 74x46 cm (29x18 in.) and paper industry. The holes are about 35 mm (1.4 in.) dia and the
weighs 67 kg (150 lb). (Courtesy ot Unitecl Machine and castings weigh about 10 kg (22 lb) each. (Courtesy of
Foundry) Durametal Corporation)

Abrasion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


Appendices
Appendix A 1Zz Appendix D 194
Hardness of Minerals, lron phases and Carbides Hardness Measurements
Table Al. Hardness of Minerals, Iron phases and Carbides Table D 1 . Generalized Comparison of Erro¡s in Hardness Measurements
Table D2. Hardness Conversion Equations
Appendix B 1ZZ Table D3. Approximate Hardness Conve¡sion Data for AR White
Cast
Mechanical & Thermophysical properties kons
Pearlific White AR Cast Irons Fig. Dl. Schematic of common ha¡dness tests.
Table 81. Mechanical & Thermophysical properties of Fig. D2. Hypoeutectic, sand cast, white cast iron showing an Lp indenta_
a Representative
Pearlitic White Cast hon tion.
Fig. D3. Comparison of curve-fitting errors between HB and HRC
Table B2. Effect of carbon content on Mechanicar properties of pearlitic data.
White AR Cast Iron Fig. D4. Comparison ofcurve-ñning errors berween HB and Lp data.
Table 83. Effect of Carbon Content on Thermal properties of pearlitic References/Bibüography

White AR Cast IIon


Ni-Hard 1 & Ni-Hard 2 AR Cast lrons
Appendix E 198
Table B4. Typical Range of Mechanical properties of Ni_Hard I and Ni_
Standards
Table E1. National Standard Desigaations Correlating Nearest Equiva_
Ha¡d 2 AR Cast Irons
lent Grades
Table 85. Some Typical Physical properties of Ni_Hard I and Ni_Hard
2 Table E2. France-Specifications
Table 86. Fracture Toughness ofNi-Hard 1 Alloys
Table E'3. Germany-Speciñcations
Fig. B 1. Hot ha¡dness úesting of a heavy-section Ni_Hard I casting.
Table E¿[. United Kingdom-Specifications
Ni-Hard 4 AR Cast lrons Table E5. India-Specifications
TableBT. TypicalRange ofMechanicalproperties of Ni_Ha¡d4 AR Cast Table E6. Sweden-Speciñcations
Irons Table E7a. United States ASTM A 532/AS32M_1993 Chemical Compo_
Table 88. Some Typical Physical properties of Ni_Hard 4 sition
Table 89. Fracture Toughness of Ni-Hard 4 Alloys Table E7b. United States ASTM A 5 32t As3}Mr_lgg3 Hardness Require_

High-Chromium AR Cast lrons ments


Table Bl0. Typical Range of Mechanicalproperties of High_CrAR Cast Table E8. AR White Cast Irons According to European Standard 12
513
I¡on Table E9. Comparison of EN and ASTM Grades andCommon T¡adenames
Table B I l. Some Typical physical properties of High_Cr AR Cast kon
Fig. B2. Tlpical values ofcompressive strength vs. hardness...
Fig. B3. Hot hardness ofhigh-Cr AR cast irons.
Appendix F 2Oo
Sample Preparation for Metallography
Fig. B4. Elasticmodulus ... as afunction of composition andtemp€rature.
Table Fl. General Metallographic Etchants to Reveal White Iron Mic¡o_
Fig. 85. Thermal conductivity as a function of composition and tempera_
structures
ture.
Table F2. Specific Metallographic Etchants to Reveal Various
Fig. 86. Specific heat ... as a function of composition and temperature. Carbide
Sauctures

Appendix G t 83
Table F3. Mesh and Grit Sizes for Abrasive paficles
Fig. Fl. Photo showing a preferred method for secüoning and mounting
Genera! Mechanical & Wear properties a5x25 mm (0.25x1.0 in.) pin in Bakeliteru or epoxy.
Diosbarg & Boric Q97g gert)
Table Cl. Type and Composition of hon and Steel Alloys
Table C2. Heat Treatment ofkon and Steel Alloys
Appendix G 2Os
Calculation of Superheat
Table C3. Mechanical Properties and Abrasion Resist¿nce of Iron and
Table Gl. Applicable Chemistries and Superheat Equations for Typical
Steel Alloys
AR Cast Irons
Hardness and Abras¡on Res¡stance Table G2. Approximate Austenite Liquidus Temperatures in
"C and ("F)
Avery (1974) (text)
Table C4. Composition and Heat T¡eatment of Grinding Mill Alloys. Appendix H 206
Table C5. Abrasion Resistance of Thin and Thick Sections of Grinding Fluidity Measurements
Mill Liner Casrings
Fig. Cla and Clb. Relationships between gouging wear, C content and Table Hl. Experimental Raw Data
various metals. Tables H2-H4. Regression Analyses
Table H5. Relationships for Fluidity
Abrasion Resistance & Fracture Toughness
Fig. Hl. Design of fluidis spiral and gating system.
Sare (1979) (text) Figs. H2-H4. Plot of spiral length vs. pour temperature for 7_39Vo
Table C6. Alloy Compositions (Wt.Zo) and Abrasion Test Data chromium irons.
Table C7. Heat Treatments
Table C8. Abrasion & Fracture Toughness Test Results
Fig. C2. Schematic of shell liners studied.
Fig. C3. Description of wear and fracture tests.

175
Appendices
Appendix A Appendix B
Hardness of Minerals, Iron phases and Carbides
Mechanical and Thermophysical properties
Appendix B consists of tables and figures that are categorized
by
Hardness ot n¡nrr"Jlil'nllnases ana caro¡aes,¡ type of AR cast iron. They are as follows:
. Pearütic White Cast Irons
Knoop(2) . Ni-Hard I and Ni-Hard 2 AR Cast hons
Vickers
. Ni-Hard 4 AR Cast kons
Minerals: -Hardnéss_ . High-Chromium AR Cast Irons
Talc... ..........20
Carbon ... 35 .
Gypsum .. 40 . ...... g6 o Pearlitic White AR Cast lrons
Calc¡te . 1gO . .....140
Fluorite .. fiS . ..... 190
Apatite . .335 . .....540 Table Bl
Mechanical and Thermophysical properties
Gtass. ".4ss. .....s00 of a Representative pearlitic White Cast lrono)
Felspar .. S5O . . 600_750
Magnetite SZS . . Chilt Cast
Orthoclase ......620 Property Sand Cast (perm. Mold)
Flint... ..820. .....9S0 Hardness, HBN .. . . .. g96i-479 ..
Quartz . 13gO . .. .. 1430
410_SlO
Topaz . 1960
Tensile Strength
Garnet .
.
kpsi (MPa) .. 30-60 (230-460) . . 35_60 (280_460)
1360 ..
Emery. 14OO .
Elastic Modutus Mpsi (Gpa) . . . . 30 (210) . . 30 (210)
Corundum ... _.. ZO2O ..... lB0O Compressive Strength
Siliconcarbidesic... ...2S8S .....2600 psi (MPa) .. . ..
19s-Z2s (1500_1750) .. .... n.a.
Diamond 7s7s . .. 10,000 Bending Strength
lron Phases: psi (MPa)(2) . . 5s-90 (37H20) . 70_105 (s1o-72s)
Ferrite. ..255. ..70_2OO Density
Pearlite, unalloyed l[/i¡.e (g/6ms) . . . . 0.27-0.28 (7.6-7.8) O.2t_0.28 (7.6_7.8)
ZOO_}2O
Pearlite,atloyed . .g00_460 Specific Heat
Austenite, 12o/oun gO5 .. Btu/lb.F(J/kg.K) ..0.195(s6s)..
170_2AO ....n.a.
Austenite, low alloy 2SG_350 Latent Heat of Fusion
Austenite,highCriron... .300-600 Btu/lb(J/kg) .....84 (195,000) ......
Martensite .. . 566800 . 500_1010
n_a.
Thermal Conductivity
Cement¡te .. . .. . 1025 . 840_1 100 Btu/hr.ft.F (Wm.K) ....7.5-11 (13_gO) ... ... n.a.
Carbides: Coetficient of Thermal Expansion:
.... .1tSS
Chromium Carbide (Fe,Cr)7C3 12OO_1600
0-528F (V276C); s.s-6 (1 0-1 1 )x1 oo
s28-1 263F (zZ 6-{;BaC); 8.8-9. 1 (1 s.9_1 6.4)x1 0e
...... lgOO
Molybdenumcarbide Mo2C ..... 1S0O
TungstencarbideWC... 1BOO. ....2400 n.a. = not available
VanadiumcarbideVC ... 2660. ....2800
TitaniumcarbideTic.. ..2470 (l)The numbers presented ¡n th¡s tabte are representative of
.....g200 pearlitic unalloyed white cast irons cast into gO mm (l
Boroncarbide ...2gOO .....g700 .2 in.) dia
bars. Compositions are between 2.5_3.5% C, O.io.Ozy"
S¡,
(1) Data obtained from W. Fairhurst and K. Róhrig, 0.3-0.96% Mn, batance Fe. Data obkined from Angus, H.T.,
Abrasion_ "Cast I ron : Physical and Engineering properties,,, Butterwoñhs,
Resistant High-Chromium White Cast trons," Flundry Trade
Joumal, vol. 156, No.29gg, pp.685-98 (1g74). London (1976).
(2)Transverse rupture stress ¡n a gO mm (1.2 in.)
(2) Typical values. dia bar using a
12 in. (3O5 mm) span.

Appendices
177
(Appendix B, Mechanical & Thermophysical Properties
Pearlitic White AR Cast lrons, continued)

Table 82
Eff*t ot Carbon Content on Mechanical Properties of Pearlltic Wh¡te AR Cast lron(t)

CarbonContent(7"1 ... ..1.77(31 .....2.00 .....2.22(4) .......2.30 ......2.50 .....2.57§l ......3.00....... 3.50

TensileStrength(l)kpsi(Mpa) ....64(520) . ....80(570).. .77(54O)


TensileStrength(2)kpsi(Mpa) ......50(350).. .....55(390) ...60(420) .....70(490) ....73(510)
Straintof¿ilu¡s(r)%.... ..0.51 . .0.49.. .....0.51
CompressiveSrength(2)ksi(MPa) .190(1350) .....200 (1400) .205(1430) . ..215(1500) ..225(1575)
Elastic Modulus(t,2) lvlpsi (GPa) ....28-30 ..(200-210)

(1) Test bars were sand cast to 30 mm (1.2 in.). After casting, bars were tempered at 990( F (550( C) for t hr and then furnace cooled. Data
obtained from: H.T. Angus, "Cast lron: Physical and Engineering Properties," Buttewo¡1hs, London (1976).

(2) Data obtained from Ruddeck, P., Über die Quatitátsbestimmung und Quatitátsentwicklung von untegiefiem HartguB, Dr.lng. Dissertation,
Freiberg (1966).

(3) Chemical composition wds 1.77o/o total C, 0.960/0 Si, 0.22"/" Mn, 0.1% S, 0.07"/" P, balance Fe.

(4) Chemical composition was 2.22o/o total C, 1.12o/o Si, 0.22o/o Mn, 0.1% S, 0.05% P, balance Fe.

(5) Chemical composition was 2.57% total C, 1.03% Si, 0.21% Mn, 0.1"/" S, 0.07% P, balance Fe.

Table 83
Eltect of Carbon Content on
Themal Properties of Pearlitic White AR Cast lro¡11)

Coefficlent ofThermal Thermal Conduct¡vity


Carbon Content (%) F
Expansion(2) Strain / Btu/hr.ft.F (Wm.K)
(Strain / C)xl06

3.12.. .5.0(9.1) .......15(26)


3.5... .4.e(8.8) .......13(23)
3.e .. . .4.8 (8.6) ... .. .. 12 (20)
(1) Data obtained from Walzen lrle, GmbH, Netphen-Deuz, Germany.
(2) Coefficient of thermal expansion is given as an average value between the temperatures of 7A-390F (20-200C).

¡ Ni-Hard I and Ni-Hard 2 AR Cast lrons

Table 84
Typical Range oi Mechanlcal Properties of Ni-Hard 1 and Ni-Hard 2 AR Cast lronslt)

Tensile Transverse Modulus of lmpact


Br¡nell Strength Strengthe) Deflect¡on(2) Elast¡city Energy(a)
Hardness kpsi (MPa) kpsi(MPa) in. (mm) Mpsi(Gpa) Ib.ft (J)

Ni-Ha¡d I (3.F3.6%C):
$3¡{ Q¿s1(+) 55M90 4H0 (280-350) 70-90 (50H20) 0.08-0.11 (2.0-2.8) 2,+-26 (169-183) 38-56 (2S-41)
QflillQ6f{+) 600-730 sMo (35H20) 80-125 (56H50) 0.08-0.12 (2.0-3.0) 2¿l-26 (169-183) 48-75 (3s-ss)
Ni-Hard 2 (max 2.9oA C):
sand cast(¿) 53H30 45-55 (320-390) 80-100 (56H80) 0.1H.12 (2.5-3.0) (16$-183) 48-65 (35-48)
24-26
chillcast(a) 58M80 60-75 (420-530) 100-125 (680-870) 0.10-{.12 (2.5-3.0) 2¿+-26 (169-183) 65-105 (48-76)
(1) Data obtained from Ni-Hard Material Data and Applications, Edited by K. Róhrig, NiDl, Ref. Book Seies No. 11017 (1995).
(2) Transverse strength tests were performed on 30 mm (1.2 ln.) dia test bars centered over a 300 mm (12 in.) span.
(3) lmpact tests were conducted using an lzod test procedure on 1.2 in (30 mm) dia bars struck 76 mm (3 in.) above support.
(4) Samples were cast ¡nto 30 mm (1.2 in.) dia bars and have nominal compositions for their alloy range.

178 Abrasion-Res¡stant Cast lron Handbook


(Appendix B, Mechanical & Thermophysical properties
Ni-Hard 1 & Ni-Hard 2 AR Cast lrons, continued)

Table 85
Some Typical Physlcal Properties of Ni-Hard t and Ni-Hard N)
Density¡!/i¡.s(g/6¡s) ....0.274.28(2.6_7.8)
Thermal Conductivity Btu/hr.ft.F (Wm.K):
. lnstantaneous at 70F (20C) 7.8_B.g (i4_1S)
. lnstantaneous at 2S0F (j20C) . . . 7.g (14.2)
.lnstantaneous at 850F (4S0C) . . 10.4 (18.8)

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion e/F (e/G)x100:


. (10-9SC)
Average between 5O-2OOF . 4.S-S.O (8-9)
' Average between 50-480 F (10-250C) . 6.9-€.6 (1 1 .g_1 1 .9)
. Average between 5H00F (10-42SC)
. . 6.8-7.1 (12.2_12.8,)
e = strength.

(1) Dak obtained from Ni-Hard Materiat Data and Applications, Edited
by K.
Róhrig, NiDl, Ref. Book Seies No. fi017 (1995).

Table 86
Fracture Toughness ol Ni-Hard I Ailoys

B¡inell Fracture Toughness

Ni-Hard 1(l - 3.7o/o C - Double Torsion Fracture Bend Test(r)

.Alloya,ascast. ..610. ...29(26)


. Alloy b, 4 hr 500F (275C), air cooted S8O . . . .24 (26)
.Alloyc,4h¡1470F (800C),aircooted ...... 660 ....17(19)
Ni-Hard 1e\ - 3.2o/o C - ASTM E23-72Ktc Fracture Toughness Test(z)
. Alloy 50A, as-cast . S4O . .. .22 (24)
(1) Data obtained from I.R. Sare, "Abrasion Resistance and Fracture
Toughness of White Cast lrons,,, Met.
Technol-, vol. 6, pp. 4t 2-41 9 (l 979).
(2) Data obtained from D.E' Diesburg and F. Borik, "Optimiz¡ng Abrasion
Resistance and Toughness ¡,'n Sfee/s
and lronsforthe Mining lndustry," in Symposium Materials fórthe Mining lndustry, Vail,
CO.iuly30-St,19za,
pp. 15-42, Climax Molybdenum Co.

700
ltltt
¡tt¡l
600
l¡ttt
lttt
500
9
! 400
it\iii
!;
tt\rr.
(¡)

§c 300 - - - - - I - - - - - -.i - - - - -
I I
-\-
t\
- - - - -:-
ll
_ _ _ _ _ _ t_ _ _ _ _ _ _
o ttl ll
:E 200 - - +r i t - _ _ _ _ _ i_ _ --|-r-----Fr
ltl I
rr\¡ I
r00 - -- - -l- --- - _ J_ _ _ _ _ _ J__ __ __ _r_-I
lttt
0
400 óm 800 t000 t200 l¡f00
Temperolure. t
Temp. F 4O1 599 797 896 1004 I 103 1202 1400 1499
remp. (C) (205) (31s) (425\ (480) (so) (5e5) (650) (760) (815)
HV 10 606 521 485 n1
416 308 138 92 75
Fig. 81. Hot hardness testing ol a heavy-*ction Ni4hrd I wting. (IHa obtained from
Ni-Ha¡d Material
Data and Appltcations, Ediad by K. Róhrig, NiDt, Ref. B@k ser*§ ¡io. tlol7, tggS)

Appendices
179
(Appendix B, Mechanical & Thermophysical Properties, continued)
' Ni-Hard 4 AR Cast lrons
Table 87
Typical Range of Mechanical Properties of Ni-Hard 4 AR Cast lrons

Tensile Transverse Modulus of


Brinell Strength Strength Deflection Elast¡city
Hardness kpsi (MPa) kpsi (MPa) in. (mm) Mpsi(GPa)

Ni-Hard 4f) (2.6-3.2oh C\ 550-700 70-85 (50M00) 8F115 (600-800) 0.08-0.11 (2.0-2.e) 27-29 (190-200)
Ni-Hard 4(z) (3.3o/o C, 2.1% Si) 640 not ava¡|. 100 (695) 0.026 (0.66) not avail.
Ni-Hard 4(z) (3"8o/o C, 1.6% Si) 580 not avail. 77 (533) 0.018 (0.46) not avail.
Ni-Hard 4(z\ (3.60/o C, 1.2% Si) 530 not ava¡|. 73 (505) 0.021 (0.53) not avail.

(1 ) Data obtained from Ni-Hard Material Data and Applications, Edited by K. Róhrig, NiDl, Ref . Book Series No. 1 1 01 7 (1 995). Transverse
strengthtestswere performedonS0mm (1.2 in.) diametertestbarscenteredovera300 mm (12 in.) span.lmpacttestswere conducted
using.an lzod test procedure on 1.2 in. (30 mm) diameter bars struck 76 mm (3 in.) above suppo¡|. Samples were cast into 30 mm
(1.2 in.) diameter bars and have nom¡nal compositions for their alloy range.

(2) Data obtained from J.J. Fischer, *The Relationship of Microstructure to Propert¡es in Ni-Hard 4," AFS Transactions, vol. 91, pp. 47-
54 (1983). Other alloy elements haci nom¡nal values of 5.2% N¡, 7.8% C1 0.5% Mn. Bend tests were conducted on carefully machined
and polished bars that were 127 mm (5 in.) long by 22 mm (0.9 in.) wide by 10 mm (0.4 in.) thick. A span distance of 82.5 mm (3.25
in.)was used. Bend sampleswere cutfrom cast¡ngsuchthatthebending plane of tens¡onwasparalleltothechillface. Vatues repoñed
are from samples that are estimated to be 10 mm (0.5 in.) from the chill face.

Table 88
Some Typical Physical Properties of Ni-Hard 4lt)

Densitylb/in.3(g/cms) .....0.27(7.7)
Thermal Conductivity Btu/hr.ft.F (Wm.K) . 7-9 (12.6-15)
Specific Heat at 70F (20C) Btu/lb.F (J/kg.K) 0.119 (500)
Coetficient cif Thermal Expansion, e/F (e/C)x100:
. Average between 70-212F0-100C) (1 .. . 8.2 (14.8)
. Average between 7}-ggzF O-2OOC) (1 . . . 8.4 (1 5.2)
.Average between 70-572F (10-300C) . . . 8.8 (15.8)
. Average between 70-752F (10-400C) . . . 8.8 (1S.9)
.AveragebetweenTO-932F (10-500C) ...8.S(1S.3)
t = strength
(1) Data obtained from Ni-Hard Material Data and Applications, Edited by
K. Róhrig, NiDl, Ref. Book Series No. 11017 (1995).

Table 89
Fracture Toughness of Ni-Hard 4 Alloys

Brinell Fracture Toughness


Alloyand Test Method ...Hardness ... kpsi.in.r¿ (Mpa.mra¡
Ni-Hard 411\ - 3.5o/" C, 1.7o/o S¡, 5.5% Ni, 9.6% Cr, 0.65% Mn, balance Fe
Double Torsion Fracture Bend Test(t)
.Alloya,as-cast ...S00 ....27(30)
.Alloyb,4h(1470F (800C),aircooled ...... 7OO ....24(27)
.Alloyc,4hr147OF (800C),aircooled,tempered 4hrSZSF(275C) .... S90 ....24(26)
Ni-Hard 4e\ - 3.4o/o C, 1.6% Si, 6.2% Ni, 8.6% Cr,0.671" Mn, batance Fe
ASTM E23-72 K¡6 Fracture Toughness Test(z)
.Alloy51B,410F(210C),1 hr .. .... s10 .... 2g(2s)
(1) Data obtained from l.R. Sare, "Abrasion Resistance and Fracture Toughness of White Cast lrons," Met.
Technol., vol. 6, pp. 412-419 (1979).

(2) Data obtained from D.E. Diesburg and F. Borik, "Optimizing Abrasion Resistance and Toughness in Steels and
lrons for the Mining lndustry," ¡n Symposium Materials for the Mining lndustry, Vail, CO. July 30-31 , 1974, pp.
15-42, Climax Molybdenum Co.

180 Abrasion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


(fupendix B, Mechanical & Thermophysical properties,
continued)
' High-Chromium AR Cast lrons

rypiat Rangc ot u*n"n¡"Il!Íoill¡"" or Hish-cr AR casttron

,"',lllil" "#,fiii'li
(MPa) lqc.si rpsilúea) iltñ(*; kps¡.in.rp (Mpa.mra¡
568(1) - 15Cr-3Mo (3'60/' c) 410 ,.8 (1640) 101 (696) 31-33 (215-230)
7zo 460 (3170) t1 @so) 2s.2 (2s.5)
fl1,;lll.tY:]t.t:':]^". ^.
818(1)-20cr-2Mo-1cu (2's%c)
t4o 410(2870) 1oo(689) 3i-3s(2i5-2so)
or-.3 (2rs-2so)
838(1) - 27Cr (2'40/" c) 650 419 (2890)
27.s(go.z)
1g7 (g45) 3l-m (215-230)
848*) -27Ct (3'1% C) 700 42s (2s60) 136 (938) 31-33 (215-230)
(1) Dnakobtained"fr"!,!;,i¡,',ff!rz:'^ilff,iir!;r?i){i,,;3x:;';3:r?:;;:T;i:ig2:ttrx,i,:i;;J:";xi,3:sfortheMiningtndustry,.

(2) Compressive strength was


measured foltowing the ASTM E9-72 specif¡cat¡on using
(3) Transverse strength tests were
10 mm p.a in.) d¡a cytinders 20 mm (0.8 in.) tong.
performed on 13 mm (o'5
bend test). in.) dia barsroaded in 4-point bending (span
tength ¡s not important in the 4-point
n'
'i:i:í:f":;:,i:?i::,tri:;"il:;: [?8,i.,í;?i!,iiilÍ*il?; propert¡es or
weanResistins cast trons,,,transtated
(5) Fracture toughness tesr
;:ir;!i{;:B rrom

, mm (0.5x2x2.I2S in.).

some rypicat ,or""n ,lii!"n,'"1"1or High-cr AR casttron,)


Density lblin.3 (g/cms) ilrrc 6)
ThermatConductiv¡tyBtu/hr.ft.F(Wm.K)
......8.6_17.g(1S_gO)
specific Heat at 7oF (20c) Btu/tb.F (J/kg.K) 0.119 (500)
Coefficient cif Thermal Expansion
e/F (e/C)x100:
.Average between tO-1112F
(1O_6OOC) . . 7.2 (1g.0)
e = strength
(1 ) Data obtained from typical room temperature
*Thermophvs¡cat values from p. E. Betyakova,
et at., propefties of
wear-nZiÁ¡iii ér"t r rons,, transrated
from Metalovedenie i Termich"rxrv"
4e (1e75).
oiálliiá'ilZrrror, No. t 2 pp. 4s_

I aa

t gtl Cyl¡nderspec¡mens having a nominal


looo
; ¿500
I
fia ott 0 mm (0.4 ¡n.) and 20
mm (0.8
rn.) tall were compressed unt¡l
tracture. Heported values have
been
averaged from three ¡nd¡v¡dual
tests.
I he ¡rons had two com_positions:
I
! I 37.-9, 18o/" Cr, 2/" Mo, 1olo Cu,
PTAILIÍ¡C
t 2000
0.5-1.0% Si, balance Fe:
O AUSTlll¡IIC
E (2) 2.6% C,2oo/o Cr, Z.qi" !
o ,6-Ctsf Mo. ty"
L;u,0.5F1.1% Si, balance Fe.
o ;Hflit¡ffti' I illilffll+f;
¡A a it REr§tr¡c
i1

,,t

I
ili

ri
H^[oilEss.
I
'tv3o
Fig' 82' Typical values oi co¡npressiu:
strength versus hardness Íor a serles
obtained from J'L' Parks' 'cnáracter¡stis ot high-cr AR irons.(Flgure i
iíiiast
Motybdenum white trons ¡or rn¡cx_secaiiáiJ¡ii, a!1s_ub*ittcany Heat-Treated High-chromiim'-
ers rnniait¡iíi,.lJt. *, pp. ss_t02, tsTB).
Appendices
181
(Appendix B, Mechanical & Thermophysical Properties,
High-Chromium AR Cast lrons, continued)

I I I rl tt
I I I It ll
É
o
ó{n qI ___t___ .t___L__
tl
_r___!___
ll
E
3
t
I
I
I \- tt
tt
ll
lt
5 500 --{--- + ---;-\ É---F-- -{---+--- u^Attx¡lrlc ircx /.:
o
(,
I
I
t
I
I
I \,i
.i-\--
lr
tl
CnOrrUs Catt tRO¡ ¿-
lr. r¡ac.
5li ¡rco ---t---
I I
r ---t---
I lr
-t- - - I - - -
I I I
j\ t¡
ll

u
I
o I I

«)o I _ _ _t_ _ - J---!___


: i\ ti
--J---
! I I I lt austtflrtr< il¡crl
o I I I cxloyruu call r¡oil
.9 I tt
xoao2m
I I
--a--- t ---l--- a---F--
I I I lt
:E.
I I I lt
Er00 - - -t-
I
- - !
I
I tt
'i---i--
I I I lt lt taittltc Hlcx
I ¡ I lr lt cxioyruu <,a3f rAol¡ /
¡o .¡r ). c,
0 ¡00 2m 3{n ¡mO 500 óOO 700 800
fGmperolrre, dcgraa C ftvrt iatuif,
Fig. 83. Hot hardness of high-Cr AR cast irons. (Left) Hot hardness taken on a martensit¡cally hardened 2.60/o C, 16.90/o Cr, l.2o/o Si
hon. (Courtesy of United Foundries) (Right) Hot hardness data taken on a vaúety of high-Cr AR cast irons. (Data obtained irom
J.W. Boyes and R.E. Phelps, "Hot Hardness Characteristics of High Chromium Cast lrons," BCIRA, vot. 12, pp. 54-69, l964)

\r', \r"r
?,1 ?,J

2ro "¿ xú? 2,?

1r9
04
f \ ,,,
2rl

v
6ar\
lrE .o ?t
D
lr7

\6
\r
f:/ -9
700

000

-áo',
lr9

lre

lr5

lr4 \# 1,?

lr§

1) l5
2-0 Jr0 '/oC w ,0 .hct,
Ftg. 84. Elastic modulus (GPa 100) in high-Cr irons, as a lunction of composition and tempereture
(eft, carbon; right, chromium). (Data obtained from Typical room temperuture values lrom p.E.
Belyakova, et al., "Themophysical Properties ol Wear-Resisting Cast lrons,- translated from
Metallovedenie i Termlcheskaya Obrabotka Metallov, No. 12 pp. /r,4g, t97S).

182 Abrasion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


\ w lm-deg C APPENDIX C
500.c
2t fl A <.
General Mechanical and Wear properties

Diesburg and Boric (1974)

20 Vqrr'V The first broad survey of mechanical and weff property


provided by D.E. Diesburg and F. Boric, ..Optimizing
data is
Abrasion

t5 $o"t Resistance and Toughness in Steels and I_rons for


the Mining Indus_
try," in Symposium Materials for the Mining Industry,
Vail, Colo_
rado, pp. 15-42 (1974). Thei¡ work is fairiy comprehensive
ri w/m-deg C provides a good starting point for the mechanical
and
and wear charac_
tenzation of AR cast irons. A caveat about their
work is that no
history is provided as to section size used for sample preparation
z5 or
the surface f,rnish used on the samples subjected tocompressive
and
four-pointbenüng tests. Whattheir workdoes provide is
a look atthe
20 mechanical and wear properties of a broad range of AR
cast irons.

15 Tables C 1 and C2 provide the chemical compositions


and thermal
histories of the irons. Table C3 gives the mechanical
and wear data
t0 gathered on the irons described in Tables Cl and,C2.For
reference,
a few steels have been included in the tables.
Fig. 85. Thermat conductivity as a function of composition
(top, between 1.i and 3.0o/o carbon; boltom, between The list of irons covered in their work is exhaustive.
l.O and What is
3.0o/" chromium) and temperature. (Data obtained particularly nice is the range of carbon contents (e.g.,
from typicat alloys 63
Room temperature values from p.E. Belyakova et al., ,,fhermo_ through 67) and heat treatments (e.g., alloys 7gA through
Tgl)
physical Properties of Wear-Besisting óast trons,,, translated studied in their work. In some resplcts, there is
something for
from Metallovedenie i Termicheskayá Obrabotka tUtetallov, everybody in their compilation.
No.
12 pp.4548, 1975)
Considering the laboratory basis oftheir work, one can guess
Cp, kJ4tg that
the toughness and abrasion testing samples were prepared
from small
sand cast blocks having a nominal thickness of
2t mm (1 in.). Using
these fine-grained samples, several toughness and
abrasion tests
were performed on the samples.

The gouging test consists of a small laboratory


scale jaw crusher. i

The test sample functions as the stationary jaw


with a ..standard,, ',
material used as the movable jaw. The standa¡d
material is the Tl
grade ofsteel given at the end ofTable Cl.
The test consists of i

crushing one ton of precrushed morainal rock having


a size range of
38-50 mm (1.5- 2.0 in.). After the resr, the plates '.li

ale weighed, and


the weight loss of the test sample is divided I

by weight loss of the


standard. This numerical value was termed
the ..gouging ratio,, by
rl

Diesburg and Borik. A low gouging ratio indicaás ii


good abrasion 1i

resistance. i
il

The pin test abrades a 6. 3 mm (0.250 in.


) dia cylinder against I g0
mesh alumina abrasive cloth. The pin is presseá
against the cloü
under a load of 63.j5 Newton (15 lbr. asihe pin islragged across lri

tl
it rotares ar 20 rpm and fravels a linear distance
9::bü,
(504 in.) in seven minutes. At the end
of 12.g0 m
of this test, the pin is weighed. I

Results presented in Table C3 were averaged from


tvio tests. As can l

be guessed, a low weight loss indicates gáod


abrasion resistance.

The rubber wheel test is covered in ASTM


G 65 listed as
"Standard Practice for Conducting Dry Sand,/Rubber
Wheel Abra_
sion Tests." Atthough Diesburg,s and Éorik,s
work was conducted
prior to the implementation of this standard,
the concept is similar. In
thei¡ work, rhey press a small sample (22x22x50
a0
;m) againsr a
,OQ rotating rubber wheel while an abrasive flows
between the sample
Fig. 86. Specilic heat at carbon concentrations of and üe¡r_heel. The sample is held against the
2.2,2.9 and rubber wheel with a
3,60/o, ds d ¡unction of composition and force of 222 Newton (50 lbr) while the 17g
temperatire. (Data mm diameter wheel
obtainecl lrom typicat room temperature vaiues
from p.E. rotates at 240 rpm. The AFS 50_ to 7O_mesh
silica sand provides üe
Belyakova et al., "Thermophysicat properties of abrasive action. A test consists of 5000 revolutions.
Wear_
Reslsting Cast lrons,,, transtatecl trom' Metattoveden ie i Some other
complications are involved, butin brief, the weightloss
Termicheskaya Obrabotka Metallov, No. 12 pp.4ilg, of the sample
lgTS). is reported based on 5000 revolutions.

Appendices
183
(Appendix C, General Mechanical & Wear Properties, mentioned. This is a shame, considering the sensitivity of wear I

Diesburg & Boric, continued) resistant cast irons to surface flaws. Consequently, the numbers
quoted in Table C3 forcompressive and bend strength should be used I

The toughness tests used by Diesburg and Borik follow ASTM


j
Procedure E 23-72 for the Charpy and ASTM Procedure E399-72 for with care.
the fracture toughness tests. Compression tests were done using the One of the strong features of thei¡ work is the comparison
ASTM Procedure E9-72.The specimens tested under compression provided between wea¡ resistant steels and irons. Figures C1a and
were 10 mm diameter cylinders that were 20 mm long. Tensile data C lb provide a summary of their work in this area. In these fi gures, the
was evaluated by a four-point bend test using 13 mm dia unnotched best abrasion resistance is provided by high-chromium irons. This is
bars. The surface ñnishes on the compression and bend bars were not no big surprise, but it is nice to see it quantitatively graphed.

Table Cl
Type and Composition ol lrcn and Steel AlloysQ)

Code
No. lrons c Mn Si Gr N¡ Mo Other
50 2Cr-4Ni 3.19 0.64 0.57 2.20 3.94 0.031 0.033
51 9Cr-6Ni 3.42 0.67 1.61 8.64 6.17 0.029 0.036
52 12Cr-1Mo-1Cu 3.25 0.70 0.62 12.7 0.68 1.20
53 15Cr-3Mo 2.51 0.80 0.47 14.7 2.62
54 15Cr-3Mo 3.59 0.8 0.4 15.0 2.6
55 15Cr-3Mo 3.60 0.8 0.4 15.0 2.6
56 15Cr-3Mo 3.60 0.84 0.42 14.95 2.62
57 15Cr-3Mo 3.60 0.8 0.4 15.0 2.69
58 15Cr-3Mo 3.60 0.8 o.4 15.0 2.60
59 15Cr-3Mo 3.60 0.85 0.42 14.96 2.61
60 15Cr-3Mo 3.68 0.8 0.4 15.0 2.6
61 15Cr-3Mo 3.62 0.8 0.4 15.0 2.6
62 15Cr-2Mo-1Cu 3.25 0.66 0.49 15.12 1.95 ooan *rn *r",
63 17Cr-1 .5Mo-1Cu 1.23 0.70 o.47 17.69 1_49 0.044 0.025 1.08Cu
64 17Cr-1 .SMo-1Cu 1.83 0.74 0.46 16.95 1.56 0.040 0.029 1 .1OCu
65 17Cr-1 .5Mo-1Cu 2.43 0.75 o.47 16.99 1.58 0.040 0.029 1.00Cu
66 17Cr-1 .5Mo-1Cu 3.01 0.75 0.44 17.06 1.60 0.040 0.029 1.06Cu
67 17Cr-1 .SMo-1Cu 3.65 o.76 0.s0 17.35 1.60 0.039 0.025 1 .1 3Cu

68 18Cr-1Cu 2.89 0.78 0.57 18.0 0.03 0.036 0.024 0.96Cu


69 18Cr-1Cu 2.87 0.78 0.59 18.1 0.04 0.029 0.029 0.99Cu
70 18Cr-1Mo-1Cu 2.85 0.78 0.59 18.1 1.10 0.039 0.025 0.99Cu
71 18Cr-1 Mo-1Cu 2.90 0.76 0.57 18.2 1.02 0.028 0.096 1.00Cu
72 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 2.89 0.76 0.58 18.1 2.12 0.025 0.097 1.00Cu
73 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 2.90 0.77 0.59 18.2 2.13 0.026 0.028 1.00Cu
74 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 3.06 0.76 0.41 18.2 1.96 0.036 0.028 0.98Cu
75 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 3.06 0.76 0.90 18.2 1.96 0.036 0.028 0.98Cu
76 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 3.06 0.76 1.17 18.2 1.96 0.036 0.028 0.98Cu
77 l BCr-2Mo-1Cu 3.06 0.76 1.60 18.2 1.96 0.036 0.028 0.98Cu
78 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 3.28 0.75 0.61 18.2 2.00 0.042 0.029 0.98Cu
7g 18Cr-3Mo-1Cu 2.87 0.77 o.57 18.1 3.02 0.037 0.026 0.98Cu
80 18Cr-3Mo-1Cu 2.83 0.76 059 17.8 3.14 0.039 0.027 1.00Cu
81 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 2.89 0.73 0.55 19.35 0.015 0.016 1 .02Cu
82 27Cr 2.68 0.83 0.36 27.60 lot 0.009 0.008
83 27Cr 2.38 0.8 0.4 26.67

Steels c Mn S¡ Cr N¡ Mo P S Other
7 T-1 Wrought Steel 0.19 0.84 o.28 0.56 0.18 o.oil 0.021 0.02T¡, 0.05v, 0.00328
21 Cr-Ni-Mo Wrought 0.27 1.0 3.0 2.0
22 Alsl4340 0.40 0.7 0.3 0.8 1.8 0.25
30 Cr-Mo Cast Steel 0.88 0,95 0.72 2.44 0.35 o.o27
31 AlSl H-1 1 Tool Steel 0.35 5.0 1.5 0.4v
41 12Mn (0.95C)
Cast Austenitic Mn 0.93 12.97 0.50
44 12Mn (1.1C)
Cast Austenitic Mn 1.1 12.5 0.5
(1) D¡esburg and Borik, 1974.

144 Abrasion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


Table C2
Heat Treatment ol lron and Steel Attoydt)
Code Code
No. lrons Heat Treatment Schedule No. lrons Heat Treatment Schedule
50A 2Cr-4Ni None 74Bto
50B 2Cr-4Ni 410F (210C) -'t hr 77B 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1750F (955C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in. (50-mm)
plate in air,410F (210C) - 2 hr
51A 9Cr-6Ni 410F(210C)-1hr
784 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 410F(210C)-2hr
51B 9Cr-6Ni 41 0F (21 0C) - 2 hr
788 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1700F (925C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in. (50-mm)
524 12Cr1Mo-1Cu None plate ¡n air, 410F (210C) - 2hr
528 12Cr-1Mo-1Cu 1 750F (955C) -1 hr, oil quenched, 400F (205C) 78C 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1750F (955C) - 4 hr, cootéd as 2-in. (50-mm)
53A 15Cr-3Mo None plate in air,410F (210C) - 2 hr
53B 1SCr-SMo 1 850F (f01 0C) - 2 hr, air cooted, 400F (205C) 78D 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1 850F (101 0C) - 4 hr, cooled as 2-in. (SO-mm)

plate in air, 410F (210C) - 2 hr


54 1SCr-3Mo 1650F (900C) - 6 hr, furnace cooled, 400F
(205) 78E 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 2100F (1 150C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in. (SO-mm)
plate ¡n a¡r,410F (210C) - 2 hr
55 15Cr-3Mo 1 650F (900C) - t hr, oil quenched, 400F (205)
564 1sor-3Mo
78F 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 2100F (1 150C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-¡n. (SO-mm)
None
plate in a¡r, 1750F (95SC) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in.
568 1scr-3Mo 1650F (900C) - t hr, furnace cooled, 400F (50 mm) plate ¡n air,410F (210C) - 2 hr
(205)
78G 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 2150F (1 175C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in. (SO-mm)
56C 1SCr-3Mo t
1650F (900C) - hr, furnace cooled, 400F plate in air, 1750F (955C) - 4 hr, cooled as 2-in.
(205), 1850F (1010C) - I hr, air cooted, 410F (50 mm) plate in air,410F (210C) - 2 hr
(210C)
78H 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 2200F (1205C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in. (50-mm)
57 1SCr-3Mo 1650F (900C) - 6 hr, oil quenched,400F (20s) plate in air, 1750F (955C) - 4 hr, cooled as 2-in.
58 lSCr-3Mo 1 800F (980C) - t hr, oil quenched, 400F (205)
(50 mm) plate in air, 410F (210C) - 2 hr

59A 1SCr-3Mo None


781 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 2200F (1205C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in. (50-mm)
plate in air, 1850F (1010C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-
598 15Cr-3Mo 1800F (980C) - t hr, furnace cooled, 400F in. (50 mm) plate in air, 410F (210C) - 2 hr
(205)
79 lSCr-3Mo-1Cu 410F (210C) - 2ht
60 1SCr-3Mo 1 800F (980C) - 6 hr, oil quenched, 400F (205)
80 lSCr-3Mo-1Cu 1750F (955C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in. (SO-mm)
61 15Cr-3Mo 1800F (980C) - 6 hr, furnace cooled, 4OOF plate in air, alOF (210C) - 2hr
(20s)
81A 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu None
624 15Cr-2Mo-'lCu 410F(210C)-2hr
818 18Cr-2Mo-lCu 1 750F (955C) - t hr, air cooted, 400F (205C) -
628 15Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1 850F (1 01 0C) - 4 hr 2hr
62C 1SCr-2Mo-1Cu 1850F (1010C) - 4 hr, air cooted, 410F (210C) 81C lSCr-2Mo-1Cu 1 750F (955C) - t hr, air cooted, 4OOF (205C),
- 2hr 1850F (1010C) - t hr, aircooted, 41OF (210C)
62D 15Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1 850F (1 01 0C) - 4 hr, air cooted, 600F (31 5C) - 2h¡
-2h¡ 82 27Cr 41 0F (21 0C) - 2 hr
62E 15Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1 8s0F (1 01 0C) - 4 hr, air cooted, 800F (42SC) 834 27Cr None
-2hr
838 27Cr 1 850F (1 01 0C) - 2 hr, air cooted, 4S0F (230C)
62F 15Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1750F (955C) - 4 hr, air cooted, 41 0F (210C) -
2hr 844 27Ct None

62G 15Cr-2Mo-1Cu 21 50F (1 1 75C) - 4 hr, furnace cooled to 1 BSOF


a4B 27Cr 1 850F (1 01 0C) - 2 hr, air cooled, 450F (230C)
(1010C) in 3 hr, held at 1850F (1010C) - a hr,
air cooled, 41 0F (210C) - 2 hr No. Steels Heat Treatment Schedule
62H 15Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1S50F (1O1OC) - 4 hr, program cooled to form 7A T-1 Wrought
bainite, air cooled, 41 0F (210C) _ 2 hr Steel Hot-rolled 1-in. (2S mm) ptate, .t700F
634 to (925C), water quenched, I 20OF (6SOC)
674'f 7Cr-1.5Mo-1Cu410F (21OC) - 2hr 21A Cr-Ni-Mo
638 to Wrought Steel Hardened and tempered to 510 HB
678 17Cr-1.5Mo-1Cu 1850F (1010C) -4 hr, aircooled, 410F (210C) 224 AtSt 4340 (0.4C) 1750F (955C), air cooted
- 2h¡
228 AtSt 4340 (0.4C) 1 600F (870C), oil quenched, 2OOF (6S0C)
6B 18Cr-1Cu 410F (210C) - 2 hr
22C AtSt 4340 (0.4C)
1

1 600F (870C), oil quenched, 4O0F (2OSC)


69 18Cr-1Cu 1750F (95SC) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in. (50-mm)
30 Cr-Mo Cast Steel
ptate in air, 410F (210C) - 2hr 1800F (980), air cooled, 1OzsF (s8OC)

70 18Cr-1Mo-1Cu 410F (210C) - 2 hr


314 AlSl H-l1 Toot
Steel Hardened and tempered at 4OOF (205C)
71 18Cr-1 Mo-1Cu 1750F (955C) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-in. (50-mm)
41 12Mn (0.9sC)
ptare in a¡r, a10F (210C) - 2 hr
Cast Austenit¡c
72 18Cr-2Mo-lCu 410F(210C)-2hr Mn Steel 1 900F (1 040C) - 4 hr, water quenched
73 18Cr-2Mo-1Cu 1750F (9SSC) - 4 hr, cooted as 2-¡n. (50-mm) 44 12Mn (1.1C)
plate in a¡r,410F (210C) - 2 hr Cast Austenitic
74Ato Mn Steel 1 900F (1 040C) - 4 hr, water quenched
774 18Ct-2Mo-1Cu 410F (210C\ - 2ht (1) Diesburg and Borik, 1974.

Appendices

FE_-_
(Appendix C, General Mechanical & Wear Properties,
Diesburg & Boric, continued)

V.Notch Charpy Energy, J


2.O?
40 60 80 100 L2A 140 160
2.O

1.8

1.5

1.4
o o
I
(,E
3
(Er
&r.z (§
.9
.o

1.2
iE
o>
o>
(u
É.
É.

o,
fb'ú Pr.o
E
'a
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1.0 6á. §
=u0
c
6,X
'ao -o DO
.E
= b0
E §
E o.a '6 o
o o
(l, C
b 0.6
0.6

0.4

o.2

0 20 40 60 80 100 120
V-Notch Charpy Energy, Ft.Lb
r.0 2.o 3.0
Fig. Clb. Relationship between resistance to gouging
Carbon Content, %
abrasion and toughness of various materials. Area A =
Fig. CIa. Relationshlp between gouging wear ratio (a severe wrought and cast low-alloy steels; Area B = austenit¡c Mn
abrasive wear test) and the C content of various Upes of steels; Area C = vafiety oi heat-trcated steels; Area D = high-Cr
steels and lrons. The numbers in the figurc correspond to irons. The numbers in the figure correspond to specific irons
speclilc lrons and steels provided in Tables C|, C2 and C3, and steels provided in Tables Cl, C2 and C3, authored by
duthored by Diesburg and Borik (1974). Diesburg and Borik (1974).

186 Abrasion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


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188 Abrasion-Res¡stant Cast hon Handbook


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Appendices
C, continued)
rotated against acopper trackwithin a mixture of water and abrasive.
]lrdness and Abrasion Resistance
The sample is pushed against the copper track under a nominal
Atqt Q974) pressure of 54 psi (0.4 MPa) with a velocity of 119 fl/sec (0.60 m/
H§- Avery's work ("Work Hardening in Relation to Abrasion sec). The sample is immersed in a slurry of 0.641100 by weight or
Resistance ," in Symposium Materialsfor the Mining Industry , Y a7l, O.Z.llOOby volume of sand to water. The test is run for 60 minutes
Colmado, pp. 43-78, 1974) represents another great compilation of and üe sample weighed. The wet sand abrasion factor (WSAF) is
ffiess and abrasion dataforAR steels andirons. Ofparticularnote then computed. A low value implies high abrasion resistance.
is his comparison of the hardness and abrasion resistance of castings
One of the interesting features of Avery's workis the comparison
having different section sizes (i.e., having fine- and coarse-grained
between thick- and thin-section castings. Tables C4 and C5 present
*r¡ct¡¡e,s). Aportion of his workis summarized in Tables C4 and C5
part of the data compiled by Avery. In all cases, the best abrasion
mdEg. C2.
resistance is on the surface of the casting. This effect is most
The abrasion test usedby Avery was developed at Abex Corpo- pronounced for heavy-section castings. Some alloys are more sensi-
raion and is known as the wet sand abrasion test. The sample is tive to this thickness effect than are others.

Table C4
Compos¡tion and HeatT,eatment of Grinding Mill Alloydr)

ASTM A- Heat
o/"Ct o/"Mo o/oNi
lEm Type 532 Grade o/oC %Mn %si Treatment

1 Aust. 13 Mn 1.2 13.0 0.5 0.5 WQ

2 Pearlitic Cr-Mo 0.83 0.9 0.25 2.33 o.42 AH&T


3 Pearlitic Cr-Mo 0.90 1.0 0.55 2.25 0.37 AH&T
4 Mart. Cr-Mo 0.65 1.0 0.5 2.3 0.4 AH&T
5 Ni-Hard IA 3.18 0.58 0.s1 2.32 3.93 SR

6 Ni-Hard IA 3.02 0.90 0.43 3.68 4.O2 SR

7 NFHard IA 3.00 0.73 0.77 2.25 4.70 SR

8 HC-250 illA 2.91 1.12 0.62 25.7 0.49 0.25 As Cast

I HC-250 utA 2.91 1.12 0.62 25.7 0.49 0.25 AH2

10 15-3 ilc 3.17 0.94 0.90 16.0 3.17 As Cast

11 15-3 ltc 3.17 0.94 0.90 16.0 3.17 AH&SR


12 Paraboloy ilE 2.95 0.73 0.73 19.1 1.14 0.77 AH2

13 Paraboloy ilE 3.15 0.76 0.65 19.7 1.25 0.71 AH2

14 19Cr-Ni-Mo
(underalloyed) ID 2.47 0.75 0.62 19.8 0.73 0.73 AH2

15 19Cr-Ni-Mo
(overalloyed) ilE 2.83 0.71 19.5 1.24 1.24 AH2

16 Paraboloy ilE 2.70 0.68 0.54 18.1 1.22 0.65 AH2

17 Paraboloy llE 2.89 0.72 0.50 17.g 1.14 o.8o AH2

18 Paraboloy ilE 2.89 0.72 0.50 17..9 1.14 0.80 AH2

Heattreatment:WQ=waterquenchedfrom about 1850F (1010C); AH =airhardened;2 =from2000F (1095C); SR--sfress


relieved at 400-520F (205-270C) - 4 to 10 hr.; T = tempered.

(1) Avery, 1974.

r90 Abrasion-Res¡stant Cast lron Handbook


I

(Appendix C, Hardness and Abrasion Resistance, continued)

Table C5
Abrasion Reslstane or rhin and rhick sections of Grinding
Milt Lrner castingsÍ,)
Thin Section
Th¡ck Sect¡on
2-12lo 3 ¡n. (65 to 75 mm) Thick $1 D,lo 6-1 D in (t t 5 to 1 65 mm)
Liner Surface lnter¡or
Item Type Typetzl HRC HB WSAF HRC HB WSAF HRC HB
Surface lnterlor
WSAF HRC HB WSAF
1 Aust. 13 Mn
Expectancy is 0.80
2 Pearlitic Cr-Mo
36 345 0.64
3 Pearlitic Cr-Mo

4
36 370 0.62
Mart. Cr-Mo
Expectancy is 0.71
5 Ni-Hard B 62 667 0.52 ;;; ;;; 59 600 0.56
b Ni-Hard B 52 447 0.58 51 447 0.63 52 447 0.63 49 460 0.69
7 NFHard B 59 613 0.60 56 55s 0.69 59 613 0.59 56 555 0.67
I HC-250 A 57 555 0.46 57 555 0.49 57 555 0.52 50 477 0.80
I HC-250 A 63 633 0.46 62 667 0.49 62 683 0.45 62 675 0.64
10 15-3 A 48 460 0.81 47 M4 48 460 0.81
0.86 46 444 0.87
11 15-3 A
60 652 0.77
12 Paraboloy A 60 600 0.36 58 555 0.39 63 652 0.s6 61 627 0.42
13 Paraboloy A 63 652 0.35 63 627 0.38 63 667 0.33
14
63 627 0.49
19Cr-Ni-Mo
(underalloyed) A 63 652 0.45 63 652 0.44 63 652 0.58 62 627 0.60
15 19Cr-Ni-Mo
(overalloyed) B 65 685 0.35 64 652 0.43 64 683 0.37 64 652 0.53
16 Paraboloy C 65 713 0.34 64 713 0.37 65 713 0.37 64 698 0.49
17 Paraboloy B 61 600 0.42 61 600 0.46 60 578 0.41 61 627 0.45
l8 Paraboloy A 61 627 0.39 61 627 0.41 62 627 0.40 62 627 0.46
HRC = pl66¡y¡y¿ll, C-scate hardness; HB B¡i¡s¡¡ ¡1¿rdness;
= WSAF = Wet Sand Abrasion Factor
(1) Avery, 1974.

(2) See Fig. CZ, betow.

2rAin,
(65mm)
_t
Block Type Shell Liner
T Weight
49o lb (22o ks)

19t¿ in.
(49Omm)

Slor Speed
Single Wave Shell
SingleWaveShell Liner 4%in.
(rl0mm)
H
TypeB (125to165mm)
____.-=l_
| l99l in._
' (490 mm)
3 in.
Length 3 ft (915 mm) Hg. C2. Schemafic ol Type A, Typ B and
Length 23tlz in. (595 mm) (75 mm)
We¡sht615to 820tb weight 3¡lo lb (155 kg) Type C shell liners studied.
Results are contained ln Table CS, above.

Append¡ces
( App endix C, c ontinued)

Abrasion Resistance and Fracture Toughness


of Wh¡te Cast lrons
an in-depth look at both abrasion resistance and fracture toughness
Sare (1979) in Tables C6, C7, C8 and Fig. C3. His represents an important
In "Abrasion Resistance and Fracture Toughness of White Cast piece of work for its completeness in covering a wide range of irons
Irons, Met. Technol., vol. 6,pp.412-419, 1979, I.R. Sare provides and a few colllmon AR steels.

Table CG
Alloy Composition (Wto/o) and Abrasion Test Datao)

Alloy o/oSi o/oMn o/oC¡ %Mo o/"Ni o/oCu Test Data


Mild Steel 0.24 0.01 0.53 0.07 0.01 0.08 Reference material for abrasion tests
1SCr-3Mo A 3.4 0.30 0.28 15 2.85 0.05 0.01 Abrasion test and K¡si cast 5 mm thick
1SCr-3Mo B 3.5 0.65 0.76 14.9 2.76 0.19 K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
15Cr-3Mo C 3.6 0.70 0.83 14.8 2.55 0.27 K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
1SCr-3Mo D 3.8 0.94 0.59 15.2 2.90 0.13 K¡61 cast 12 mm thick
1SCr-3Mo E 3.5 0.56 0.86 16.1 2.60 0.45 K¡sl cast 12 mm thick
15Cr-3Mo F 3.6 0.75 0.63 15.3 2.50 0.19 K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
15Cr-3Mo G 3.7 0.79 0.73 15.3 2.50 0.20 K¡6i Cast 12 mm thick
1SCr-3Mo H 3.54 0.99 0.60 17.2 3.0 K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
15Cr-2Mo-1Cu 2.75 0.35 0.64 16.6 1.83 0.95 K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
27"/o Cr A 2.55 0.50 0.26 26.3 0.55 ; 0.02 Abrasion test and Krci cast 12 mm thick
27"/" Cr B 2.95 0.74 0.86 28.8 K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
27"ACr C 2.75 0.65 0.70 27.0 o.2 Krci cast 12 mm thick
35o/o Cr A 5.24 1.15 3.30 35.5 0.01 0.15 0.05 Abrasion test and K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
35% Cr B 4.42 0.35 0.40 33.2 0.01 0.08 Abrasion test; cast 12 mm thick
Ni-Cr 1 3.71 0.84 0.55 2.10 0.01 4-07 Abrasion test and K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
Ni-Cr 4 3.43 1.75 0.65 9.60 0.06 5.50 Abrasion test and K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
Ni-Cr-Mo steel A 0.32 1.28 1.08 1.53 0.42 0.39 K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
Ni-Cr-Mo steel B 0.33 1.52 0.72 1.49 0.46 0.24 K¡61 cast 12 mm thick
Ni-Cr-Mo steel C 0.35 1.79 0.86 1.49 0.43 0.28 K¡6i cast 12 mm thick
Cr-Mo steel 0.50 0.58 1.02 0.99 0.39 0.11 K¡6i cast 12 mm thick

(1) 9are,1979.

crackguidirE
groow
width t
propagating creck
front
initiat¡ng notch

P P
2 2

1)Double-Torsion Bend Test: Samples were cast to size, surfaces ground flal, and the crack-
guiding groove and in¡tiat¡ng notch were machined.

€ RubberWheel Abrasive WearTest; All tests were conducted using -1 00, +150 mesh SiC
gr¡1.Results are reported as the weight loss of the m¡ld steel standard d¡vided by the weighl
loss of the wear test specimen.

Fig. C3. Description o¡ abras¡on and fracture tests (Sare, 1979).

Abrasion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


Table C7 Table C8
Heat Treatmentdt) Abrasion Resistance and Fracture Toughness Test Resultdt)

Heat(z) Heat Hard- Abrasion Fracture


Treatment Treat- ness Reslstance Toughness
Alloy Designat¡on Heat Treatment Alloy ment HV50 Ratio K¡s, Mpa.in.lz

1SCr-3Mo A a As cast 1SCr-3Mo A a 557 1.75r0.O4 29.4

b 40 min, 1832F (1000C); AC b 829 1.73+0.04 22.2


c 40 min, 1832F (1000C); 30 c 809 1.67t0.04 21
min,1247F (675C); AC
d 735 1.7910.04 21
d 40 min, 1832F (1000C);
100 hr, 536F (280C); AC 15Cr-3Mo B b 890 19.5

15Cr-3Mo B-H b -3 hr, 1832F (1000C); AC 15Cr-3Mo C b 937 20.8

20Cr-2Mo-1Cu b -3 hr, 1832F (1000C); AC 15Cr-3Mo D b 841 25.5

27o/"Cr A a As cast 15Cr-3Mo E b 859 25.5

b 40 min, 1832F (1000C); AC 15Cr-3Mo F b 925 23.8


c 40 min, 1832F (1000C);
15Cr-3Mo G b 929 21.3
100 min, 1274F (690C);AC

d 40 min, 1832F (1000C); 15Cr-3Mo H b 955 21.4


1 00 hr, 662F (350C); AC
20Cr-2Mo-1Cu b 824 24.5
27"/"Cr B b 3 hr, 1920F (1050C); AC
27o/oCr A a 545 2.0610.06 30.3
27"/" C¡ C b 3 hr, 1920F (1050C); AC
b 868 1.92+0.04 22.6
35"/" Cr A a As cast c 459 1.9810.06 27_4
b 40 min, 1 832F (1000C); AC d 840 '1.90t0.06 22.7
c 40 min, 1832F (1000C); 27o/"Cr B b 697 30.1
2min,124OF (670C); AC
d 60 min, 1832F (1000C); 27o/oCr C b 753 30.6
100 hr, 535F (280C); AC
35%CrA a 729 2.14r0.06 27.1
NiCr a As cast
1
b 884 2.21¡0.06 21.4
b 4 hr,527F (275C); AC
c 885 2.21t0.06 22.2
c 4 hr, 842F (a50C); AC;
d 870 2.2910.06 20.4
4h¡ 527F (27sC); AC

N¡Cr4 a As cast
NiCr 1 a 719 1.32+0.06 25.6

b 4hr,1472F (800C); AC
b 691 1.38t0.06 26.2

c 4 hr, 1472F (800C); AG;


c 788 1.36+0.06 't9.1

4hr 527F (275C); AC NiCr 4 a 604 1.44+0.06 30.6


Ni-Cr-Mo steel A b 1 7 24F (940C)i lu rnace c.ooled ; b 820 1.36+0.06 26.6

Ni-Cr-Mo steel B b 1 796F (980C); AC; 6 hr, 608F c 7O4 1.¿14+0.06 26.2
(320C);AC
Ni-Cr-MoSteel A b 540 88.5
Ni-Cr-Mo steel C b 1 724F (940C); OQ; 6 hr, 608F
(320C);AC Ni-Cr-MoSteel B b 493 70.1

Cr-Mo steel b 1 742F (950C); AC; t hr,752F Ni-Cr-MoSteel C b 548 83.6


(a00C);AC
Cr-Mo steel b 512 50.9
Heat treatment: AC = air cooled; OQ = oil quenched.
(1) 9are,1979.
(1) 9are,1979.

(2) Shows relationship to the alloys in Table C8.

Appendlces 193
Appendix D the spherical projectile used in the indentation process. The reported
ha¡dness value is derived from the impact (V¡-ou") and rebound
Hardness Measurements (V,"¡orn¿) velocities of a spherical indenter as:

B ac k gr o und I nfo rm atio n L = 1000 . V."6s¡¡¿/ V¡-p¿q¡


Hardness measurements are perhaps the single most prevalent and
where L is in honor of the inventor D. Leeb.
important metallurgical measurement made in today's foundry.
Typically, a near homogeneous material is deformed by a much The instrument automatically measures the two velocities and
harder indenter, and the amount of plastic deformation in the sample calculates theLnumber. ReportedLnumbers are always averages of
is measured. This simple concept implies many assumptions about five impact events. Depending upon the type of spherical indenter,
the material's behavior as it is plastically deformed (i.e., an indent is whether tungsten carbide or diamond, the L number is denoted as L¡
left in the sample after the hardness measurement). For example, the or LE, respectively. The L value of üis dynamic measurement is a
amount of plastic deformation produced by a given load is a direct function of the elastic modulus, yield strength and work-hardening
function of the material's elastic modulus, yield strength and work characteristics of the material.
hardening characteristics. Besides these interactions, a key tenet of
all hardness measurements is that the material region "sampled" by Since the rebound velocity of the indenter is a critical factor in
the indenter is representative of the material in general. For macro- calculating the L number, the indented material's elastic modulus
scopically and microscopically heterogeneous AR cast irons, this will have a strong influence on the resulting number. For example,
criterion must be carefully reviewed for each type of hardness specimens of steel (210GPa) and aluminum (70 GPa) weremetallur-
measurement technique employed.
gically designed to have Brinell hardnesses of 150 (i.e., similar yield
strengths and work-hardening characteristics). Upon testing with the
Measurement Technique Equotip instrument, their L» numbers varied from 414 for the steel
Figure D1 shows a schematic of the th¡ee most common hardness specimen to 542 for the aluminum specimen-a variation of 307a
measurement techniques: Brinell, Rockwell and Equotip. A1l üree (calculated as: 128 I 414. 100) (Laird et al., 1995). This behavior is
use a very hard indenter (tungsten carbide for the Equotip L¡ and simply due to the effect of the aluminum storing more elastic energy
Brinell, and diamond for Equotip Ls and Rockwell), which is during impact than steel. If the yield strengths are equivalent, then:
assumed to remain rigid during the indentation test.
Energyr6"l =70 GPa l2l0 GPa .Energyao-inum
Of the three hardness techniques, the Brinell and Rockwell tests
both make direct measurements of the residual plastic deformation The steel specimen only stores about 1/3 the elastic energy ofthe
produced by their indenters. The Brinell test measures the diameter aluminum specimen, and therefore produces a lower rebound veloc-
of indentation crater, while the Rockwell test measures the depth of ity and a lower L number.
the indentation crater. This is an important distinction. The depth of An important concern to the producers of AR cast irons is the
the indentation crateris directly affectedby the elastic response ofthe precision and accuracy of the hardness measurement on heteroge-
undeformed material surrounding the plastically deformed region neous microstructures. Both precision (the ability of the instrument
(elastic recovery), while the diameter of the crater remains relatively to reproduce a certain reading) and accuracy (the deviation of the
unaffected. Consequently, converting Brinell hardness measure- instrument reading from a known standard) are influenced by the
ments to Rockwell hardness measurements or vice versa is not region sampled during the indentation process. Since AR irons are
recommended between materials having different elastic moduli used in macroscopic wear environments, where wear losses are
(i.e., between aluminum and iron). measured in centimeters, an accurate hardness measurement must
The Equotip measurement technique is a relatively new tech- sample a macroscopic region of the casting.
nique invented by D. Leeb in the late 1970s. The name Equotip is an A simple calculation shows that, at a hardness Brinell (HB) of
abbreviation for Energy-quotient (Equo) and "tip" is derived from 578, using a 3000 kgf staüc load and a lO-mm tungsten carbide ball,

o
Fl ü
Z7//\D,
r%;/tt////t
. . - //////,/////al

Brinell Rocl<weil (C)


7% Equotip
HB = Dia of HRC = Depth ol L = lmpact Veloc¡ty / Rebound
lndentation Crutér lndentation Velocity
. Non-instrumented . lnstrumented . lnstrumented
. Static Measurcment . Stat¡c Measurcment . Dynamic Measurement
. Spherical lndentor . Sphero-C o n i ca I I ndentor . Spherical lndentor

Fig.Dl. Schematic of common hardness tests. ln all cases,


the hardness measurement is a measure of the resistance to Fig. D2. Hypoeutectic, sand-cast, white cast iron showing an
plastic flow. Lp indentation.

Abrasion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


.:=:!-IrF--

the indentation crater has a diameter of


2550 mm. The size of this A way to view this problem is shown in Fig.
crater is far greater than that of the microstructural
features found in .
the correlation equation used to fit HRC
D3 . This frgure shows
white castirons, where thecarbides are from
10 to 50mmin diameter
¿aá to fn ¿ata; it is not a
perfect fit to the experimental data.
and the austenite grains are from 25 to
100 mm in diameter.
Another hidden problem with converting
In contrast, the Equotip measurement only hardness numbers is in
samples a very small recognizing the limitations of each hardness=technique.
region of üe sample. Figure D2 shows an This is most
Equotip ádentation crater apparent between HB and the Equotip.
made in a high-Cr AR iron. The size of the At hardnesses in excess of
indentation crater covers 700 HB, the HB measurement is still
just a few eutectic colonies. As accurate (although it does not
would be expected, for
an accurate meet the ASTM specification, it stilt gives
F,quotip measurement, many readings valid, accurate hardness
must be madeand statistically numbers!), while the Equotip, L¡ measurement
analyzed. gives meaningless
This is clearly shown in Fig. D4. As the
1umlers ñardness of the AR
iron increases, the LD measurement does
Conversion Guidelines not eff*,t""ü;.;;;;;;;
between irons ofhigher hardness.
When working within any one hardness
measurement system, ques_
tions arise as to how comparable the measurement With these caveats, conversion equations are
errors to other introduced in Table
hardness techniques are. In work done by D2. In all cases, the end user should have
the AFS 5_D committee, it access to the original
was discovered that, under conholled conditions, measurement hardness measurement and the converted
hardness nr¡mUer, and both
errors between the three common hardness should be reported. Tabulated conversions
techniqoe, 1Tabl" D 1 ¡
virtually equivalent across a broad spectrum
* «ta¡f" O¡l are also
ár an presented for convenience.
i.oo..
measurements"*t
Nonetheless, when one converts hardness
from one Since Vickers hardness measurements
system to another system, the measurement are prevalent, conversions
error has just doubled by in Table D3 are presented to convert between
using a conversion equation (Table D2). Brinell, Rockwell C
and Vickers hardness values (parks, 1979).

Tabte Dl
Genera I ized Co m pa ri so n ot
Errorc in Hardness Measurementdt)

Example Typical Conversion Approximations for


Tech- Measurement
nique Value Meaéurement
Error
Typical Measurement Error in
Other Hardness Un¡ts
*Lo tHB IHRC
Le 7so t6.6 t6.6 *10 t0.66
HB S91 19.6 *6.0 tg.6 +0.60
HRC SS.Z t0.62 +S.9 +11 $.62
(1) For more details, see Laird. 1995.

Tabte D2
Hardness Conversion Equations

Equation
Range 12lErroft)
Equotip (Lp):
L¡{z) -396.U+0.626.HB 340-700 HB 0.976 & +9.5 Lo
Lp{z) = 499.6 + 0.0848 . HRC(s)
34.H1.1 HRC 0.967 & 11 1.0 Lo
Brinell (tO/3000):
I

HB(2) =-579.1 + l.56.Lp 593-819 LD


i 0.976 & +1S HB
HB(3) = 717.8 -22.515. HRC + 0.363 . HRC(s) 38.0-66.8 HRC 0.992 and +12.S HB
Rockwett (C):
HHc(2)- -129.7+0.39s. Lp-1.97x10r.
Lo(s) 593_6.,n,_o 0.97s&t1.2 HRC
HRC(3)- - 12.0 + 0.167. HB - 8.82x10-s . HB(3) 385-848 HB
0.992 & +0.56 HRC
(1) squared muttipte correration
/
coefficient standard error of the estimate
(i.e., the
o*'ution of the actuat data against thi-iata generated
z'Ílx?'o Írom the regress¡on

(2) Equations from Laird et at. (tgg5).

(3) Equations from parks

(Continued on next page.)


Appendices
195
(
fup endix D, H ardne s s M e as urement s, c ontinued )

I I I
f 4Éf'
i ¡

55 I
I
-'j-
I

t
'.
.:

r
I
¿
¡
I
I

J
800

rso
o .d
Íso t I I
I o
-l- J. -!
r 700
ul
v/
I

45 I
65(t

I
I
/ f,
4
/a(¡
_ _¡_ -t- I
I I

35 t

300 350 ¡¡00 ¡rg, 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 300 350 400 450 500 550 6{¡0 650 700 750 800

HB HB

Ftg. Its- Comparison oi curue-fitting errors between HB and Fig. D4. Comparison of curue-fitting errors between HB and Lp
,lRC &ta. data.

Table D3
Approximate Hardness Conversion Data ior AR White Cast lrons

Eqwtip Lo to B¡inell and Rocl<well C Hardness Numbers: Brinell Hardness to EquotiP Lo and
Rocl<well C Hardness Numbers:
Equo- HB Rock- Equo- HB Rock-
üp Lo 10/3000 well C tip Lo 10/3000 well C HB Equo- Rock- HB Equo- Bock-
10/3000 tiP, Le well C 10/3000 tiP, Lp well G
820 700 61.7 700 513 50.3
700 819 61 .1 500 694 49.3
810 685 61.0 690 497 49.1
680 806 60.2 480 681 47.7
800 669 60.2 680 482 47.8
660 794 59.2 460 669 46.1
790 653 59.4 670 466 46.5
640 781 58.2 440 656 44.4
780 638 58.5 660 451 45.2
620 769 57.2 420 644 42.6
T?O 622 57.7 650 435 43.8
600 756 s6.0 400 631 40.8
760 607 56.7 640 419 42.4
580 744 54.8 380 618 38.9
750 591 55.7 630 404 41 .0

388
s6o 731 53.s 360 606 36.9
740 575 54.7 620 39.5
593
540 719 52.2 340 34.9
730 560 53.7 610 373 37.9
520 706 50.7
720 544 52.6 600 357 36.4

710 529 51 .4 590 341 34.8

Rockrell to Brinell and Equotip Lo Hardness Numbers:


Rock- HB Equo- Rock- HB Equo-
C 10/3000
well tip' Lo C
wel! 10/3000 tiP' Lp

61.5 701 81 1 46.5 463 673

60 672 795 45 444 662

58.5 645 780 43.5 427 650

57 619 765 42 410 639

55.5 594 751 40.5 395 629

54 570 737 39 380 619

52.5 546 724 37.5 367 609

s'f 524 710 36 354 600

49.5 503 698 34.5 342 591

48 482 685

r96 Abras¡on-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


( App endix D, Hardne s s Me asurements, Rocl«well C to Brinell and Vickers (Parks, 1980):
Table D3, continued) Rock- HB Vick. Rock- HB Vick.
c 10/3000
well Hv50 c 10/3000
weil Hv50

68 865(1) 948 51 514 563


Brinell to Vlckers and Rockwell C (Parks, 1980):
67 839 920 50 500 546
HB Vick. Rock- HB Vick. Rock-
66 813 892 49 486 530
10/3000 HV50 well C 10/3000 HV50 well C
65 748 866 48 473 515
900(1) 996 69 560 610 54
64 764 840 47 461 501
880 973 69 550 599 53
63 740 814 46 450 487
860 951 68 540 587 53
62 717 789 45 440 474
840 928 67 530 576 52
61 695 765 44 430 461
820 905 66 520 565 51
60 674 742 43 421 450
800 882 65 510 553 51
59 653 719 42 412 439
780 860 65 500 542 50
58 633 697 41 405 428
760 837 64 490 530 49 I
57 614 676 40 398 419 I
740 814 63 480 519 49
56 595 655 39 392 410 ii
720 792 62 470 508 48
55 578 635 38 386 401 i,
700 769 61 460 496 47
54 560 616 37 382 394 ril

680 746 60 450 485 46


53 544 598 36 378 387
660 723 59 440 474 45
52 s29 580 35 374 381
640 701 58 430 462 44
(1) Brinell numbers above 630 are not recommended by ASTM.
620 678 57 420 451 43
Neveñheless, Binell numbers up to 700 HB are industrially
610 667 57 410 440 42 accepted.

600 655 56 400 428 40

590 644 56 390 417 39


Vickers to Brinell and Rocl<well C (Parks, 1980):
580 632 55 380 406 37
Vick. HB Rock- Vick. HB Rock-
570 621 55 370 394 33 HV50 10/3000 well C HV50 10/3000 well C

(1) Brinell numbers above 630 are not recommended by ASTM. 1000 857(1) 70 680 576 57
Neveñheless, Brinell numbers up to 700 HB are industrially
accepted.
980 840 69 660 558 56

960 822 68 640 541 55

940 804 68 620 523 54


References/Bibliography for Appendix D 920 787 67 600 505 53
ASTM, Standard Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals, 8140, (1988).
900 769 66 580 488 52
ASTM, Standard Test Method fo¡ Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials,
ElO, (1984). 880 752 66 560 470 51
ASTM, Standard Test Method for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell Super-
ficial Hardness of Metallic Materials, El8, (1989).
860 734 65 540 452 s0
Behrens, H., Tia¡r, H., Pattyn, R.L., Influence of Composition and Micro- 840 717 64 520 435 48
structure of White I¡ons on the Correlation Between Rockwell C and
Equotip Hardness Measurements, AFS Transactions, vol. 1O2, pp. 87 -92
820 699 63 500 417 47
(tee4). 800 681 62 480 400 45
Johnson, K.L., Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, New York,
NY ( r 985). 780 664 62 460 382 44
Lafud II, G., Schleiden, R.F., Belding, P., Dowell, R.4.. O'Donnell, R.P., 760 646 61 440 364 42
Round-Robin Study on the Behavior ofEquotip (L¡) Hardness Measure-
ments on White Cast Irons of Varying Hardnesses, AFS Transactions, 740 629 60 420 347 40
vol. 103, pp. 171-182 (1995).
Leeb, D., Dynamic Hardness Testing of Metallic Matenals, Non-Destructive
720 611 59 400 329 38

Testins Int., vol 12, pp. 274-278 (1979). 700 593 58 380 312 35
Parks, J.L., Relationships Between Brinell, Rockwell C and Vicke¡s Hard-
ness Values for AlloyedWhite Irons, AFS Transactions, vo1. 81, pp. 195- (1) Brinell numbers above 630 are not recommended by ASTM.
202 (1979). Nevertheless, Brinell numbers up to 700 HB are industrially
Tabo¡, D., The Hardness of Metals, Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K. (1952).

Appendices 197
Appendix E
Standards Table E8 presents the specifications for the new European Stan-
dard EN I 2 5 1 3, which has been issued and will probably be effecüve
Worldwide specifications are presented in Tables El through E7 from 2001 onward. From then on, all national standards of the EU
(currentas of 1999). These tables shouldbeviewed as agood starting member countries will not be officially valid anymore. Table E9 is
point and not the final word. a synoptic table, showing the comparisons of EN and ASTM grades.

Table E1
National Standard Designations Correlatlng Nearest Equivalent Gndes

lnternat¡ona! France W. Germany U.K. lndia Sweden U.S.A.


Trade Name NF A 32-401 DIN 1695 BS 4844 ¡s 7925 sls 14 04 ASTM A532
xx
as 4771
S¡S 14 05
xx

1A 1

1B 2

1C 3

Ni-Hard Type 2 FB Ni4 Cr2 BC G-X 260 NiCr 4 2 2A Type 1a. NiLCr 30/500 05 12 Class l, Type B
Ni-Hard Type 1 FB Ni4 Cr2 HC G-X 330 NiCr 4 2 2B Type 1a. NiLCr 341550 05 13 Class l, Type A
Ni-Hard Type 3 FBA Class l, Type C
Ni-Hard Type 4 FB Crg Nis G-X 300 CrNiSi 9 5 2 2C +2D +2E Type 1b. NiHCr 04 57 Class l, Type D

FB Crt2 Mo Ni Class ll. Type A

FB Cr15 Mo Ni c-X 300 CrMo 15 3 3A Type2. CTMoLC 281500 Class ll. Type B
G-X 300 CrMoNi 15 2 'l 3B Type2. GTMoHC 34/500 Class ll. Type C

FB Cr20 Mo Ni c-X 260 CrMoNi 20 2 1 3C Class ll.


Types D + E

FB Cr26 Mo Ni G-X26OC¡27 3D Type 3. HCr + HCrNi 04 66 Class lll. Type A


G-X 300 CrMo27 1 3E

Abrasion-Res¡stant Cast lron Handbook


Table E2
Fran cc Speci¡ication s
-
Specification
Compos¡t¡on, v-
]T
Hardness
No. Grade CS¡ Mn N¡ Cr HB(1)
NFA32-401- FB O 2.7-3.9 0.4-1 .5 0.2-0.8 350-500
April 1980 FB A 2.7-3.9 0.4-1.5 0.2-0.8 0.3_3.0(2) 0.2_2.0e\ 0.3_2.0(2) 0.1_1 .0(2) 40H00
FB N¡4 Cr2 BC 2.7-3.2 0.2-0.8 0.3-0.7 3.0'-5.5(3) 1.5-2.5 0.0-1.0 45H50
FB Ni4 Cr2 HC 3.2-3.6 0.2-0.8 0.3-0.7 3.0!5.5(3) 1.5-2.s 0.0-1.0 500-700
FB Crg N¡5 2.5-3.6 1.5-2.2 s 0.3-0.7 4.0-6.0
-hem¡cal 5.0 11.0 0.5 max 550-750
FB Cr12 Mo Ni 2.0-3.6 0.2-0.8 0.5-1.0 0.0-2.0 .0-14.0 11 0.5-3.0 500-800
FB Cr15 Mo Ni 2.0-3.6 0.2-0.8 0.5-1.0 0.0-2.5 14.0-170 0.5-3.0 50H00
FB Cr20 Mo Ni 2.G-3.6 0.2-1 .2 0.5-1.5 0.0-2.5 17.0-22.0 0.0-1.5 0.5-3.0 50H00
FB Cr26 Mo Ni 1.5-3.5 0.2-1.2 0.S_1 .5(4) 0.0-2.5 22.0-28.0 0.0-1.5 0.5-3.0 45H50
(Hardness is specified white compositional values are for guidance)

(1) The highest hardness vatues appty to thin-section cast¡ngs


and/or shelt-motded.
(2) Optional or, if necessary, as a combination.

(3) For these alloys, the Ni may be partly replaced by Cu.

ln order to obtain a hard austen¡tic structure, the of Mn may be 4.0 max

Table E3
Germa ny Speclfi catio n s
-

Special Heat Hardened


Speci- Treatment and Soft
Composition, 7- or¡s_6¡s¡(r)Tempered Annealed
fication -Hardhess_
Min
No. Grade c S¡ Mn Cr N¡ Mo HV3O(HB) Hv3o(HB)
M¡n Max
HV30 (HB)
DIN- G-X 300 NiMo 3 Mg 2.8-g.S 2.0_2.6 1.5-4.5 0.H.8 400 (380) 550 (5OO)
t
I
-{hemical 0.2_0.5
300 (2e0)
i
1695 c-X 260 NiCr 4 2 2.O-2.9 0.2_0.8 0.H.7 1.4_2.4 3.3-5.0 0.s 4s0 (430) 520 (480)
Sept. G-X 330 NiCr 4 2 9.0-3.6 0.2_0.8 0.3_0.7 .t.4_2.4 3.3-5.0 0.5 450 (430) 550 (5OO)
1981 G-X 300 CrNiSi 9 5 2 2.s-3.s 1 .S_2.2 O.S_-0.7 8.0_1 O.O 4.5--6.5 0.5 450 (430) 600 (535)
G-X 300 CrMo i5 3 2.34.6 0.2_0.8 O.S_t.O 14.0_17.0 0.72 .t.0-3.0 450 (430) 600 (535) 400 (380) (3)
c-X 300 CrMoNi 15 2 1 2.9_0.6 0.2_{.8 O.S_1 .O 14.0_17.0 0.8*1.2(2\ 1.&-2.2 (430) 600 (535)
450 400 (380)(3)
c-X 260 CrMoNi 20 2 1 Z.y2.g 0.2_0.8 O.S_i.O 1B.O_ZZ.O 0.8-1.2(2',t 1.4-2.2 450 (430) 600 (535) 420 (4OO)
G-X260 Cr 27 2.9-2.9 0.5-1.s 0.5-1.5 24.0_28.0 1.2 1.0 450 (430) 550 (5OO) 400 (380)
G-X 300 C¡Mo27 1 3.G-9.5 0.2-1.0 O.S_l.O 2}.O_ZB.O 1.2 1.0-2.0 450 (430) 600 (535) 400 (380)
(1) These materials shatt be supplied in the as-cast state onty
when no requirements are made about impact strength
(2) Can also be produced as a copper-containing ailoy.

(3) Up to a max carbon content of g.lo/o.

(Continued on next page.)

Appendices
199
(Appendix E, Standards, continued)

Table E4
United Kingdom Specifications
-
Speci-
fication compos¡t¡on |l¿¡d¡sss(t)
No. Grade c Si Mn --chemical
N¡ Cr Mo Cu P."t S.", HB, min

BS 4844 1A 2.4-3.4 0.5-1 .5 0.2-0.8 2.0 max 0.15 400


Part 1: 1B 2.4-3.4 0.5-1.5 0.2-0.8 2.0 max 0.5 400
1974 1C 2.4-3.0 0.5-1 .5 0.2-0.8 2.0 max 0.15 250

BS 4844 2A 2.7-3.2 0.3-0.8 0.2-0.8 3.0-5.5 1.5-2.5 0.5 max 0.3 0.15 500
Part2-. 28 3.2-3.6 0.3-0.8 0.2-0.8 3.0-5.5 1.5-2.5 0.5 max 0.3 0.15 550
1972 2C 2.4-2.8 1.5-2.2 0.2-0.8 4.M.0 8.0-10.0 0.5 max 0.3 0.15 500
2D 2.8-3.2 1.5-2.2 0.2-0.8 4.H.0 8.0-t 0.0 0.5 max 0.3 0.15 550
2E 3.2-3.6 1.5-2.2 0.2-0.8 4.H.0 8.0-10.0 0.5 max 0.3 0.15 600

BS 4844 3A 2.4-3.0 1.0 max 0.5-1 .5 0.-1.0 14.0-17.0 0.0-2.5 0.0-1 .2 0.1 450 (as-cast)
Part 3: 3B 3.0-3.6 1.0 max 0.5-1 .5 0.-1 .0 14.0-17.O 1.0-3.0 0.0-t.2 0.1 500 (as-cast)
1974 3C 2.2-3.0 1.0 max 0.5-l.5 0.-1.0 17.0-22.0 0.0-3.0 0.0-1.2 0.1 450 (as-cast)
3D 2.4-2.8 1.0 max 0.5-1 .5 0.-1.0 22.0-28.0 0.0-t.5 0.0-1 .2 0.1 400 (as-cast)
3E 2.8-3.2 1.0 max 0.5-1 .5 0.-1.0 22.0-28.0 0.0-1 .5 0.0-1 .2 0.1 450 (as-cast)

(1) Part 1 : ln castings with a section thickness of greater than 50 mm (2.0 in.), HB may be 50 less than spec¡f¡ed.
Part 2: ln cast¡ngs with a section thickness of greater than 125 mm (5.0 in.), HB may be 50 less than spec¡f¡ed.

Table E5
lndia Specifications
-
Specifica- Chemical Gomposition, o/- HB, mi¡(t)-
tion No. Grade s¡ Mn Ni Cr Mo Sr", P.r, As-Cast
-Hardness,
Hardened Annealed

ls 7925 - 1 2.4-3.4 0.5-1.5 0.2-0.8 2.0 max 0.15 400


197612\ 2 2.4-3.4 0.5-1.5 0.2-0.8 2.0 max 0.15 400
3 2.+-3.0 0.5-1 .5 0.2-0.8 2.0 max 0.15 250

-
154771 Type la
1972 NiLCr 30/500 2.7-3.3 0.3-0.6 0.3-0.6 3.0-5.5 1 .5-2.5 0.5 max 0.1 5 0.3 500
NiLCr 34i550 3.2-3.6 0.3-0.6 0.3-{.6 3.0 -5.5 1 .5-2.5 0.5 max 0.15 0.3 550

Type lb
NiHCr 271500 2.5-2.9 1.5-2.2 0.3-0.6 4.H.0 8.0-10.0 0.5 max 0.15 0.3 500
NiHCr 30/550'- 2.8-3.3 1.5-2.2 0.3-0.6 4.0-6.0 8.0-10.0 0.5 max 0.15 0.3 550
NiHCr 34/600 3.2-3.6 1.5-2.2 0.3-0.6 4.0-6.0 7.5-9.5 0.5 max 0.15 0.3 600

Type2
CTMoHC 341500 3.'l-3.6 0.3-0.8 0.4-0.9 0.5 max 14.0-18.0 2.5-3.5 0.15 0.3 500 600 380 max
CTMoLC 28/500 2.4-3.1 0.3-0.8 0.4-0.9 0.5 max 14.0-18.0 2.5-3.5 0.15 0.3 500 550 380 max

Type 3
HCrNi2T/400 2.3-3.0 0.2-1.5 1.5 max 1.2 max 24.O-28.O 0.6 max 0.15 0.3 400 550
HCt 27l4OO 2.3-3.0 0.2-1.5 1.5 max 0.5 max 24.0-28.0 0.6 max 0.15 0.3 400 550 380 max
(1 ) lS 4771 - 972 for castings with a sect¡on thickness greater than
1 125 mm (5 in.), HB may be 50 less than specified.
(2) lS 7925 - 1976 composition is specified; purchaser can request specified hardness vatues.

200 Abrasion-Res¡stant Cast lron Handbook


Table E6
Swede n S pec iÍi catio ns
-
Hardness
Specif¡cat¡on Comoosition, .rm (As-Cast)
No. Grade ñChemical HB, min
sts 14 05 12 1971 05 12 2.7-3.3 0.3-0.6 0.3-0.6 1.5-2.5 3.0-5.5 0.3 0.15 500
sls 14 05 13 1971 05 13 3.2-3.6 0.3-0.6 0.3-0.6 1.5-2.5 3.0-s.5 0.3 0.'15 550
sls 14 04 57 1971 04 57 2.8-3.3 1.5-2.2 0.3-0.6 8.G-10.0 4.0-6.0 0.3 0.15 s50
sls 14 04 66 1971 04 66 2.5 min 1.0 0.5 24.G-30.0 550

Table E7a
U.S.A. - ASTM A 532 / A S32M - l99g Compositionat Specificat¡ons

Composition, ol
class Type llesignation c Mn s¡ Ni cr Mo cu p s
I A Ni-Cr-HC 2.8-9.6 2.0 max 0.8 max 3.3_S.O 1.44.0 1.0 max 0.3 max 0.15 max
-Chemical
I B Ni-cr-LC z.r-3.0 2.0 max 0.8 max 3.3-5.0 1.H.0 .r.0 max 0.3 max 0.15 max
I C N¡-Cr-GB 2.5-g.Z 2.0 max O.g max 4.0 max .O_2.5 .O max 0.3 max 0.1 5 max
1 1

I D Ni-HiCr 2.5-3.6 2.0 max 2.0 max 4.5_7.0 7.0_1 1.0 1.S max O.1O max 0.15 max
ll A 127" Ct 2.0-3.3 2'0 max 1.5 max 2.5 max 11.0-14.0 3.0 max 1.2 max o.1o max 0.06 max
ll B 15olo Cr-Mo 2.0-3.3 2.0 max 1.5 max 2.5 max 14.0-18.0 3.0 max 1.2 max 0.10 max 0.06 max
ll D 20o/" cr-Mo 2.0-3'3 2'o max .o-2.2 2.5 max 18.0-23.0 3.0 max .2 max 0.10 max 0.06 max
1 1

lll A 25o/o cr 2.0-3.3 2.0 max 1.5 max 2.5 max 23.0-30.0 3.0 max 1.2 max 0.10 max 0.06 max
Designation: HC = high carbon; LC = low carbon; GB Great Britain
=

Table E7b
U.S.A. - ASTM A 532 / A gg2w - t99J Hardness Requirements

Sand Cast, mín(l)


As-Cast or Hardened or
As-Cast and Hardened and Stress Relieved chiil Softened,
Relieved Level 1 Level 2 Cast, min{e) max
I Class Type Designation HB HRC HV HB HRC HV HB HRC HV HB HRC HV HB HRC HV
i
IA N¡-Ci-Hc 550 53 600 600 56 660 650 59 715 600 56 660
i
IB Ni-Cr-Lc 550 53 600 600 56 660 650 59 715 600 56 660
rc Ni-Cr-GB 550 53 600 600 56 660 650 59 715 600 56 660 400 41 430
ID Ni-HiCr 500 50 540 600 56 660 650 59 715 550 53 600
ll A 12o/" Cr 550 53 600 600, 56 660 650 59 550 53
715 600 400 41 430
ilB 15% Cr-Mo 450 46 485 600 56 660 650 59 715 400 41 430
ilD 2Oo/" Cr-Mo 450 46 485 600 56 660 650 59 715 400 41 430
ilt A 25"/" Cr 450 46 485 600 56 660 650 59 715 400 41 430
Designation: HC = high carbon; LC = low carbon; GB Great Brita.n
=
(1) g0% of the minimum surtace hardness level shatt be maintained to
a depth of 40% of the cast¡ng section, with any softer material being
the thermal center of the casting. A sampting procedure shoutd be estábtished at
by agreement ietween íhe suppt¡er and the purchaser.
(2) Non-chilled areas of casting shall meet minimum hardness or sand-cast requirements.

Appendices
201
Table E8
AR White Cast lrons According to European Standard 12 513

of
Designation ChemicalComposition % (Mass Fraction) Vickers
(r)
Mat'|. Gracles (Contents are max. unless range is indicated) Hardness
Symbol Number C S¡ Mn P S Cr N¡ Mo Cu HVm¡n

High-Chromium: (2,a,+)

EN-GJN- EN-JN
HV600(XCr11) 3019 1.8-3.6 1.0 0.5-1.5 0.08 0.08 11.0-14.0 2.0 3.0 1.2 600

EN-GJN. EN-JN
HV600(XCr14) 3029 1.8-3.6 1.0 0.5-1.5 0.08 0.08 14.0-18.0 2.0 3.0 1.2 600

EN-GJN- EN.JN
HV600(XCr18) 3039 1.8-3.6 1.0 0.5-1.5 0.08 0.08 18.0-23.0 2.0 3.0 1.2 600

EN-GJN- EN.JN
HV600(XCr23) 3049 1.8-€.6 1.0 0.5-1.5 0.08 0.08 23.0-26.0 2.0 3.0 1.2 600

NickeFChromium: (2,+)

EN-GJN- EN.JN
HV520 2029 2.5-3.0 0.8 0.8 0.10 0.10 1.H.0 3.0-5.5 520

EN-GJN. EN-JN
HV550 2039 3.0-3.6 0.8 0.8 0.10 0.10 1.5-3.0 3.0-5.5 550

EN-GJN- EN-JN
HV600 2049 2.5-3.5 1.5-2.5 0.3-0.8 0.08 0.08 8.0-10.0 4.ffi.5 600

(z)
Unalloved o¡ Low-Alloy Chilled lron:
EN-GJN- EN-JN
HV350 20 tg 2.+-3.9 0.¿t-1 .5 0.2-1 .0 2.0 350

(1) The material designation by symbol is in accordance with EN 1560 with additional information in brackets regarding their chemical
composition. The material designation by number is in accordance with EN 1560
(2) Both toughness and resistance to repeated impact increase as the catbon content decreases.

(3) The microstructure of high-Cr AR cast irons depends on the cool¡ng rate and is therefore sensitive to the casting thickness. To obtain
specific properties (within the ranges in this table) some adjustments to the percentage contents of the alloying elements given may
be necessary, depending on the casting dimensional variations.
(4) ln the case of castings with low alloy contents supplied in the as-cast condition and castings with greater thicknesses, it can be difficuft
to obtain the minimum hardness. The requirementsfor such castings should be agreed on between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

Table Eg
Comparison ol EN and ASTM Grades
and Common Tradenames

Trade-
EN 12 513 Number ASTM A532 name

EN-GJN-HV35O EN-JN2O19

EN-GJN-HVs2O EN-JN2O29 Class lType B Ni-Cr-LC Ni-Hard 2

EN.GJN-HV55O EN-JN2O39 Class lType B Ni-Cr-HC Ni-Hard 2

EN-GJN-HV6OO EN.JN2O49 Class lType D Ni-Hi-Cr Ni-Hard 2

EN-GJN-HV600(xCr11) EN-JN2019 Class ll Type A 12"/" Cr


EN-GJN-HV600(xCr14) EN-JN2O29 Class ll Type B 15% CrMo 15-3

EN-GJN-HV600(xCr18) EN-JN2O39 Class ll Type D 2oo/oCr-Mo 15-2-1


EN-GJN-HV360(XCr23) EN.JN2O49 Class ll Type A 251" Cr 20-2-1

202 Abrasion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


Appendix F
Sample Preparation for Metallography The utility of mounting a sample in this configuration is üat
orthogonal planes ofthe alloy's microstructure are prese[ted wirhin
Metallography involves sectioning and polishing a metal sample, one mount. For AR cast irons, this type of metallographic approach
erching its surface to reveal its crystalline structure, and then analyz- can prevent the metallographer from making false assumptions about
ing the nature of this structure. Tables F1 atdF2 should help in the alloy's microstructure (e.g., spherical ca¡bides).
choosing the proper etchant.
Grinding and Polishing
Abrasion-resistant irons are usually some of the easiest materials
Abrasion-resistant cast irons present some of the easiest ferrous
to metallographically polish, but some of the most difficult to cut and
materials to metallographically prepare. If only a quick and dirty
section for metallography. This latter problem has slowly receded
metallographic analysis is required, grinding and polishing can be
with the use of slow-speed tungsten-tipped band saw blades to
accomplished in four steps:
section larger castings down to size, and then the use of electro-
üscharge-machining (EDM) to prepare plugs for subsequent mount- I . Coarse grind, using I 50-mesh paper (see Table F3 for matching mesh

ing and potishing. to abrasive particle size classifications).


2. Subsequent grinding operation using 280- or 320-mesh papers.
Samplc Preparafion and Mounting 3. Final grind using 600-mesh paper.
It is difficult to surpass üe efficiency of EDM for the preparation of 4. Simple polish using 6 ¡rm diamond paste on rotating cloth wheel.
metallographic samples from hard, carbide-containing materials. In This quick sequence produces acceptable metallographic sur-
most cases, a section of the casting can be broken or "torched', into faces in a matter of minutes. If high-resolution microscopy (above
a small enough chunk to fit within a standard EDM tank. From this 500X) is desired, additional polishing steps are required. For ex-
point forward, a number of EDM technologies are available, from ample, the last 6 ¡rm polish stage is followed by I ¡rm and then 0.25
simple drill press configurations to S-axis computernumeric control pm polishing stages. Altematively, vibratory polishing produces
(CNC) machines. scratch-free surfaces if time is not of essence.

For metallographic purposes, our preference is to EDM a small- It should be kept in mind that there is no one . right, way to
diameter cylinder (i.e., 5 mm/0.25 in. dia by 25 mm/1.0 in. long) metallographically grind and polish samples. This brief section is
using a graphite/copper thin-wall tube electrode. This small cylinder merely meantto illustrate one popular technique thathas been shown
can then easily be sectioned using a high-speed abrasive wheel, and to be effective for AR cast irons.
mounted in BakeliterM orepoxy for subsequentpolishing. Figure Fl
shows a photograph of how such a sample would be mounted.

Table Fl
General Metallographlc Etchants to Reveal WhiE lron Microstructures

Etchant Chemical Composltion Remarks Itsgs(t)


Vilella's reagent 5 ml HCl, 1 ml picric acid, Swab or immerse High-Cr ¡rons: stains austen¡te
100 ml ethyl or methyl alcohol from a few to 30 a l¡ght yellow color and darkens martensite.
(95ol" or absolute) seconds to reveal Reveals Mo2C carbides along austenite grain
structure boundaries.

2o/" nilal 2 ml HNOg,98 ml ethyl Swab from a few Good general etchant for
or methyl alcohol (95o/o or to 1 5 seconds Ni-Hard 1, 2 and4 alloys.
absolute; also amyl alcohol) to reveal structure. Gives maximum contrast between pearlite
and other phases. ls not recommended for
as-cast high-Cr irons or other austenitic or
ferritic grades of AR cast irons.
(1) Any of these etchants can be used to reveal m¡crostructure.

Appendices
203
( App endix F, c ontinue d )

Table F2
Specific Metattographic Etchants to Reveal Various Carbide Structurcs

Etchant Chemical Compos¡tion MsC MzCg MzsGo MsC MzC

Alkaline picrate picric acid 2g A NA(1) NA(l) NA(1) A


sodium hydroxide 259
water 100 cms

[1¡lu¡¿k¿¡i(z) potassium ferricyanide 1o g NA


potassium hydroxide 1og
water 100 cm3

Chromic acid chromic acid lgNA NA NA


electrolytic etch water 100 cms

Sodium hydroxide 4% sodium hydroxide NAANAAA


saturated with potas- solution saturated with
s¡umpermanganate potassiumpermanganate

A = attacked; NA = not attacked.


(1) Lower chromium carb¡des are pre'ierent¡ally attached.

(2) This stain does a superb job differentiating between the various carb¡des, especially the MsC and MTCa

types.

Table Fg
Mesh and Grit Sizes for Abrasive Particles

size (RMS, pm)-


Grit No. u.s.A.
(mesh) Sieve Series Commercial F-Series P-Series
50 -Particle
350 324

60 270 -FEFPA(í)--
274

80 190 194

120 115 115

150 80 97

180 70 81

220 62 58

240 54 49 49.3 58.5

280 35 41 41 .5 52.2

320 29 34 34.4 46.2

400 23 29 23.0 35.0

Fig. Fl. Photograph showing a prcferred method for 600 17 20 14.3 22.8
sectioning and mounting a 5x25 mm (0-25x1.0 in-) pin (1) Federat¡on Europeane des Fabriacants des Produits Abrasifs.
in Bakelite or epory.

204 Abras¡on-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


E
t;

Appendix G
Calculating Superheat for AR Cast Irons Table Gl gives the applicable chemiskies and base equations
used to generate the subsequent superheat tables. Tables G1 andG2
The purpose of this section is provide quick reference tables for are specified by the iron's base chromium content. For irons that fall
calculation of liquidus start temperatures for standard commercial outside of this Cr content, liquidus temperatures can be direct§
grades ofAR cast irons. All equations were derived from the data calculated based on the Fe-Cr-C ternary phase diagram provided in
provided in A¡nold and Sare, "A Thermal Analysis Study of Alloy Chapter 2, Solidification. Table G2 will provide the austenite liquidus
White Cast kots," The Foundryman, vol. 80, pp. 330-335 (1987). temperatures.

Table Gl
Applicable Chemistries and Superheat Equatlons for Typical AR Cast lrondt)

ApplicableChemistry LiquidusTemperature(z) EutecticTemperature(3)


Alloy Type Ranges (Wt"/") .C "C (.F)
Lj
Ni-Hard 1 & 2 2.54.3 1.5-2.5 1556 - 94.4 . %C 11sO (2100)
Ni-Hard 4 2.0-3.7 7.5-9.0 1486 - 8s.3 . %C 1170 (2138)
ASTM ll B-15% Cr 2.0-3.5 14.0-16.0 lso0 - BO.O .%C 1220 (222s)
ASTM ll D-20Y" Cr 2.0-3.4 18.0-20.0 1446 - 60.7 . yo) 1240 (2264)
ASTM lll A-25o/o ct 2.0-2.8 24.0-26.0 1485 -75.0 .o/"c 127s (2927]l@t
(1) Data courtesy of B.K. Arnold and l.R. 1are, "A Thermal Anatysis Study Of Altoy White Cast lrons," The
Foundryman, vol. 80, pp. 330-335 (1987).
(2) Accuracy of equations is estimated to be within l1"c of the equitibrium temperature.
(3) The temary Fe-Cr-C liquidus suñace (W.R. Thorpe and B. Chicco, '"The Fe-Rich Corner of the Metastabte C-
Cr-FeLiquidusSuiace,"Metall.Trans. A.,vol. 16A, pp. 1541-49, 1985) shouldbeconsultedformoreaccurate
data.

@) The 25% Cr iron has a very broad eutectic valley. According to Arnotd and Sare (1987), the eutectic valley
stretches from 2.8 to

Tabte G2
Approximate Austenite Liquidus Temperatures in "C (F)
carbon Ni-Hard 1 & 2
o/o Ni-Hard 4 ASTM !l B, 15yo ct cr
ASTM ll D,2oo/o ASTM lll A,25o/o Ct
1.*2.5o/o C¡ .H.oo/o c¡
7 14.0-16.0ol" Cr Cr
, l 8.0-20.0% 24.É26.,0o/o ct
2..... ....1315(2400) . ..1340(2444). ...1325(24't6) . ..1335(2435)
2.1 .....1s07(238s) . ..1332(2430). ...1319(2405) . ..1328(2422)
2.2... ....1298(2369). ..1324(2415). ...1s12(23e5). ..1320(2408)
2.3 ... . "..1290(2354) . .. 1316 (2401) . ...1306(2384) . .. 1313(239s)
2.4......:..- ....1281(2339). ..1308(2386). ...1300(2s73). ..1305(2381)
2.5... 1320(2408) .1273(2323) ....t300(2372). ...12s4(2s62). ..1298(2368)
2.6... 1311(2391) .1264(2308) ...12s2(2358). ...1288(2351). ..1290(2s54)
2.7... 1301(2374) .1256(2293) ...1284(2343). ...1282(2340). ..1283(2341)
2.8 ... 1292(2357) .1247(2277) ...1276(2329). ...1276(232e). ..1275(2327)
2.e... 1282(2340) .1239(2262) ...1268(2314). ...1270(2s18)
3..... 1273(2323) .1230(2247) ...1260(2300). ...1264(2307)
3.1 ...1263 (2306) . 1222(2231) ... 1252(2286) . .. . 1258 (22e6)
3.2... 1254(2285) .121s(2216) ...1244(2271). ...1252(2285)
3.3... 1244(2272) .1205(2200) ...1236(22s7). .._1246(2274)
3.4... 1235(2255) .11e6(2185) ...1228(2242). ...1240(226s)
3.5 ... 1226(2238) .1187(2170) ...1220(2228)
3.6 . . . 1216 (2221) .117s (2154)
3.7 . . . 1207 (2204) .1170 (213s)
3.8 ... 1197(2187)
3.s ... 1188(2170)
4..._. 1178(2153)
4.',1 ...1169(2136)
4.2 ... 1160(21 19) t
4.3 ... 1150(2102)

Appendices 205
Appendix H Multiple-linear regression analysis was used to describe correlation
between chemistry, pouring temperature and fluidity. When datawas
Fluidity Measurements grouped into sufficiently narrow ranges ofcomposiúon, the resulting
equations showed outstanding predictive capability. For ease ofuse,
This appendix was developed from work authored by B. T Hodge of
these equations are presented in a format that allows the calculation
the Durametal Corporation in Muncy, Pennsylvania in cooperation
of fluidity based on pouring temperature and chemistry.
with the AFS 5-D Technical Committee. The complete work can be
found in AFS Trans actions, vol. 107, pp. 7 43-7 49, 1999. Table Hl gives a list of the raw data collected during this
experiment. A total of 41 spirals were poured. Chromium content of
An alloy's fluidity is often thought of as a physical property,
these alloys ranged from lVo to 39Vo. For brevity, phosphorus and
much akin to its liquidus and solidus temperatures. In foundry
practice, fluidity has no simple clean definition. Over the years, an
sulfur are not included in the report. However, in all samples,
phosphorus was below 0.057o. Sulfur was not reported for all
alloy's fluidity has come to denote its ability to flow within the
samples, but is assumed to be below the limits specified in ASTM
confines of a narrow horizontal channel. This foundry definition has
4532.
little to do with the more classical definiüon of fluidity as the
reciprocal of viscosity. For example, molten steel's viscosity varies The information in this Appendix should be useful to foundrymen
only slightly with temperahfe yet its fluidity is known to vary who must make castings with abrasion resistant i¡ons. It would be
significantly with temperature (SCRATA). most desirable to predict the fluidity of an al1oy in the simplest
possible way. An initial attempt was made to correlate fluidity to
When foundrymen ask about an alloy's fluidity, they want know
superheat and freezing range, because they have an intuitiverelation-
how the alloy will flow or, more directly, whether or not it will fill
ship to fluidity. Superheat (temperature above freezing point) would
their mold. To address these concerns, the concept of maximum
seem more directly related to fluidity than absolute pouring tempera-
fluidity length (Feliu etal.,1962) was developed to quantitatively
ture. Freezing range (liquidus minus solidus temperatures) would
indicate the maximum distance the metal can flow within a channel.
seem to be a good indicator of how close the composition is to a
In the tests described in this report a standard fluidity spiral (AFS,
eutectic "spike" in the fluidity curve. This approach also helps solve
1989) is used to measure this maúmum fluidity length (Fig. H1).
the rather messy problem one has to deal with by having so many
This length is then reported as üe fluidity of a specific abrasion
elements of significance in AR iron compositions; they are all
resistant cast i¡on.
factored in to the liquidus and solidus temperatures.
Fluidity measurements were made on a wide range of abrasion
There remains the problem, however, of determining liquidus and
resistant irons. Most of the samples have compositions which fall
solidus temperatures. Few, if any, production foundries have DTA
within the range of the grades listed in ASTM 532 (1993). However,
equipment to determine liquidus and solidus temperatures. Litera-
some samples were nonstandard compositions. Measureme[ts were
ture is available that can be used to determine liquidus and solidus
made at participating foundries under foundry conditions using sand
temperatures from C and Cr composition (Arnold and Sare, 1987).
molds created from the same fluidity spiral pattern that was passed
However, many of the 4532 grades contain significant amounts of
from foundry to foundry.
elements other than C and Cr. This approach would also require a
Foundries participating in üe project include: Durametal Corpo- three-step process for üe foundryman to determine fluidity: (1)
ration, Muncy, PA, Eagle Foundry Co., Eagle Creek, OR, Columbia determine liquidus and solidus temperatures from composition; (2)
Steel, Portland, OR, Weatherly Casting and Machine Co., Weatherly, determine freezing range and superheat; and (3) determine fluidity.
PA, Texaloy Foundry, Floresville, TX, and GIW Industries, Inc.,
Grovetown, GA. Additional technical and analytic support was After additional analysis, it was determined üat correlation as good
provided by the National Research Council, Albany, OR, Climax or better could be obtained directly by using chemis§ and pour
Research Services, Farmington Hills, MI, and Predictive Engineer-
temperature as independent variables, and fluidity as the dependent

ing, Inc. Corvallis, OR.


variable. Chemistry and pour temperature a¡e the variables most
easily and directly measured by the foundry, and thus, presenting the
relationships in this way seems to be most useful from a user point of
view.
As previously suggested, multiple variable, linear regression
analysis was used to determine the relationships between composi-
tion, pour temperature and fluidity. The speciñc software package
Désagn ol used was Microsoft Excel '97. Empirically, it was determined that
Fluidity the best correlation could be obtained by splitting the data set into
Spiral three subgroups: l4Vo Cr,7-157o Cr and2V397o Cr. Empirically,
Mo and Cu appea¡ed to have very little effect on fluiüty, so the final
regression analysis was made using pouring temperature, C, Cr, Si,
Mn and Ni as the independent variables, and spiral length the
dependent variable.

Calculations showed a correlation (R2) of betweet95%o and,987o


for each of the th¡ee data groups. However, given the limited number
ofdata sets in each group, the 957o confidence interval for each ofthe
§eciion A'A coefficients is quite large. In fact, the number ofdata points in the 7-
l57o Cr group was only seven. This is only one larger than the
minimum number needed to calculate an'txact" solution. (Recall
Fig. Hl. Design of fluidity spirul and gating system. from basic linear algebra that the minimum number of data sets

Abrasion-Res¡stant Cast lron Handbook


(App endix H, c ontinue d)

oflinear simultaneous equations is equal to


needed to solve a system points available for analysis. It is suggested üat additional data
the number ofindependent variables.) For this set ofdata, a conñ- would help improve the accuracy of the coefficients in the equations.
dence interval could not even be calculated due to the minimal
number of data sets. Probably the most difficult part of collecting accurate data is in
obtaining reliable temperature readings . As experienced foundrymen
Results of the regression analyses are shown in Tables H2-H4. know, ladle transfer and pouring must occur quicHy in order to
Figures IiZ-II4 show plots of spiral length versus pour temperature prevent significant heat loss. Moreover, the thermal gradients wirhin
for both the actual spiral length and the spiral length predicted by the a ladle of iron can be significant, on the order of 25-50"C especially
,
regression equations. if teapotladles are used. Furthermore, fluidity lengthis very sensitive
The relationships in Table H5 are offered for fluidity of white to pouring temperature. Given all this, it is important to take pains
irons within the range of chemistries shown. Caution should be used, that accurate temperature measurements are taken when pouring
however, given the limited amount of data used in calculating these spirals. It is suspected that temperature measurement technique is
coefficients, especially for the 7-l5%o Cr compositions. probably a major source of what variations üere are in the data. This
might be an area for further investigation. For instance a Gage R&R
As has been emphasized, ¡he 957o confidence interval of the co- study might be devised to determine the repeatability of temperature
efficients in Table H5 is largely due to the limited number of sample and spiral length at each foundry.

Table Hl
Expefimental Raw Data

SL
Fdy. Alloy c Si Mn Cr Mo N¡ Cu PT LT ST (inJ
1 A iltA (1) 2.52 0.74 0.72 28.18 0.650 0.770 0.070 1498 1283 1272 30.0
2 A iltA (1) 2.52 0.74 0.72 28.18 0.650 0.770 0.070 1509 1283 1272 35.5
3AIIE 3.09 0.64 0.66 20.05 1 .980 0.1 80 0.970 1461 1255 1238 33.5
4AIIE 3.09 0.64 0.66 20.05 1 .980 0.180 0.970 1462 1255 1238 34.0
sAIIE 3.09 0.64 0.66 20.05 1.980 0.180 0.970 1472 1255 1238 35.5
6 A iltA (2) 2.85 0.68 0.66 25.69 0.210 0.300 0.100 1468 1285 1268 30.0
7 A iltA (2) 2.85 0.68 0.66 25.69 0.2't0 0.300 0.100 1492 1285 1268 30.0
sAIA 3.28 0.64 o.41 2.11 0.190 4.420 0.044 1426 1240 1120 29.0
9AIA 3.28 0.64 0.41 2.11 0.190 4.420 0.044 1445 1240 1120 30.5
10 B iltA 2.59 0.86 0.96 26.21 0.260 1.060 0.120 1452 1268 1260 32.5
11 B iltA 2.59 0.86 0.96 26.21 0.260 1.060 0.120 1443 1268 1260 28.5
12 B iltA 2.59 0.86 0.96 26.21 0.260 1.060 0.120 1375 1268 1260 22.5
13 B iltA 2.59 0.86 0.96 26.21 0.260 1.060 0.120 1333 1268 1260 17.5
14 B Non-Std. 3.96 0.6 2.63 39.09 0.330 0.500 0.044 1518 1399 1269 10.0
15 B Non-Std. 3.96 0.6 2.63 39.09 0.330 0.500 0.044 1474 1399 1269 6.0
16 B Non-Std. 3.96 0.6 2.63 39.09 0.330 0.500 o.0M 1401 1399 1269 3.5
17BID 3.24 1.92 0.59 9.15 0.270 5.520 0.260 376 1203 1168 35.5
18BID 3.24 1.92 0.59 9.15 0.270 5.520 0.260
1

1244 1203 1168 12.5


19BID 3.24 1.92 0.59 9.15 0.270 5.s20 0.260 1228 1203 168 9.51

20c IA 3.74 0.57 0.45 1.85 0.320 3.350 0.046 1383 1200 1110 29.0
21 C IA 3.74 0.57 0.45 1.85 0.320 3.350 0.046 1 509 1200 1110 42.5
22C IA 3.74 0.57 0.45 1.85 0.320 3.350 0.046 1489 1200 1110 41 .0
23C IA 3.64 0.53 o.M 1.86 0.280 3.440 0.055 1431 112s 1066 32.0
24C IA 3.64 0.53 0.44 1.86 0.280 3.440 0.055 1424 125 066 31 .5
25C IA 3.64 0.53 0.44 1.86 0.280 3.440 0.055 1297
1 1

112s 1066 12.0


26C IA 3.64 0.53 o.44 1.86 0.280 3.440 0.055 '1291 1125 1066 12.0
27C IA 3.55 0.56 0.43 1.79 0.300 3.360 0.057 1497 1166 1067 32.5
28C IA 3.55 0.56 0.43 1.79 0.300 3.360 0.057 1490 166 1067 29.0
29C IA 3.55 0.56 0.43 1.79 0.300 3.360 0.057 1354
1
166 1067 17 .O
30c IA 3.55 0.56 0.43 1.79 0.300 3.360 0.057 1347
1
1166 1067 16.5
31 D Non-Std. 3.38 1.32 0.49 3.40 0.040 4.410 0.110 14r',8 1212 1088 31.5
32D Non-Std. 3.38 1.32 0.49 3.40 0.040 4.410 0.1 10 360 1212 1088 27.0
33D Non-Std. 1.79 1.46 0.8 35.02 0.740 1.460 0.430
1

1487 1337 1285 16.5


34D Non-Std. 1.79 1.46 0.8 35.02 0.740 1.460 0.430 1432 1337 1285 11.0
35D IA 3.37 0.67 0.54 2.88 0.020 4.180 0.110 1448 1219 1095 26.0
36D IA 3.37 0.67 0.54 2.88 0.020 4.180 0.110 1368 1219 f095 20.5
37D IA 3.37 0.67 0.54 2.88 0.020 4.180 0.1 10 1324 1219 1095 18.5
38D ID 3.11 1.68 0.61 7.12 0.200 5.380 0.160 1484 1227 1 t50 30.0
39D ID 3.11 1.68 0.61 7.12 0.200 5.380 0.160 1365 1227 1150 16.0
40D ilB 3.14 0.66 0.98 15.32 0.810 .030 0.860 1434 1222 1216 29.0
41 D ilB 3.14 0.66 0.98 15.32 0.810 .030
1

1 0.860 1354 1222 1216 8.0


All temperatures are Celsius. PT = psu¡ Temperature; LT Liquidus Temperature; ST g6lj6us Temperature. SL Sp¡rr¡
= = = ¡rrn*.

Appendiccs
207
Bibliography 45.0
40.0
Arnol( B.K., Sa¡e, I.R., 'AThermal Analysis Study of Alloy White Cast 35.0
ko¡s," The Foundryman, vol. 80, pp. 330-335 (1987). 30.0
ASTM A532-93, Standard Specifications for Abrasion- Re sistant Cast lrons, =
E 25.0
Arerican Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA (1993). o 20.0
J
Feliu S., Graphs of Flow, AFS Transactio¿s, vol. 70, pp. 838-844, 1962. E 15.0
Fluidity of Ste€l, SCRATATech. Bull. No. 5, p.3. o
o
1o.o
Metalcaster's Reference and Guide, American Foundrymen's Society, Inc.,
Des Plaines, tr-, p. 407, 1989. 5.0
oo
1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550
Pour Témp {C)
Fig. H2. Line ftt plot of spiral length vs. pour temperature fot
14o/o Cr irons.

Table H2
Regression Analysis for 14% Chromlum lrons

Regression Stat¡stics:
MultipleR..... 0.975406901
RSquare .....0.951418623
Adjusted RSquare .....0.924919691
Standard Error .. ......2.422201474
Observations . .. .. .. ... 18

ANOVA:
df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 6 1263.906785 210.651 1 35.90404 1.33687E-06
Residual 11 64.53765981 5.86706
Toial 17 1328.M4444

CoefficientsStandard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95o/o Upper 95%


lntercept -381 .2112442 53.74314735 -7.09321 2.01E-05 -499.4991738 -262.9233
Mn 93.36435486 161.2915209 0.578855 0.574349 -261.6360686 448.36478
Ni 21.44902999 6.95930093 3.082067 0.010433 6.131704168 36.766356
si 16.69373903 25.04360801 0.666587 0.518773 -38.42689844 71.814377
c 47.6417703 10.50663311 4.534447 0.000852 24.51681505 70.766726
Cr -15.4'1612408 22.05887485 -0.69886 0.499148 -63.96740482 33.135157
PT (C) 0.106609928 0.009911325 10.75637 3.55E-07 0.084795238 0.1284246

RESIDUAL OUTPUT: {*i


Predicted Actual
Observation Length (in.) Length (in.) Difference i,l

1 31.7 32.s 0.8


2 31.0 29.0 -2.0
3 16.6 17.0 0.4
4 15.7 16.5 0.8
5 29.2 29.0 4.2
6 42.7 42.5 4.2
7 40.6 41.0 0.4
8 29.4 32.0 2.6 *rh
9 28.7 31.5 2.8
10 15.0 12.0 -3.0
11 14.4 12.0 irfl
-2.4
12 28.7 29.0 0.3 ;

13 30.8 30.5 -{.3 ,

14 29.0 26.0 -3.0


15 20.4 20.5 0.1
16 15.7 18.5 2.8
17 34.0 3't.5 -2.5
18 24.5 27.0 2.5 (Continued on next page.) {ii
'ltr

'Íl
t;l
llr
,.
.'ii
ili
208 Ab¡asion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook 'tt
1i

l

tli
( App endix H, c ontinue d )

Table H3
Regression Analysis for 7-15% Ch¡omium

Regression Statistics:
MultipleR.... 0.967534544
R Square 0.9361 23093
Adjusted R Square 65535
Standard Error . .

Observations

ANOVA:
df ss MS F Significance F
Regression 6 699.9526098 1 16.6588 0 #NUM!
Residual O 47.76167599 65535
Total 6 747.7142857

Coefficients StandardError t Stat P-value Lower 95o/o Upper 95olo


lntercept -161 .0945519 O 65535 #NUM! -1 61.094551 I -1 61.094552
Mn -4.513060057 O 6s535 #NUM! -4.513060057 -4.51306006
Ni -14.25149167 0 6553s #NUM! -14.25149167 -14.2514917
si 82.24',t}4235 0 65535 #NUM! 82.24104235 82.2410423
c -48.801 18561 o 65535 #NUM! -48.80118561 -48.8011856
Cr 4.800048584 O 65535 #NUM! 4.800048584 4.80004858
PT (C) 0.169853857 O 65535 #NUM! 0.1 69853857 0.1 6985386

RESIDUAL OUTPUT:
Predicted Actual
Observation Length (in.) Length (in.) Difference
1 33.1 30.0 -3.1
2 12.9 16.0 3.1
3 35.0 35.5 0.5
4 12.6 12.5 -0.1
5 9.9 9.5 -0.4
6 25.2 29.0 3.8
7 11.8 8.0 -3.8

Line Fit Plot


7-15%Chromimum hons Line Fit Plot + LG (lN)
40.0
?AVtSVlo Chromimun ¡ Predicted LG (lN)
35.0 40.0
30;0
z
z .q 30_0
= 25.0 {-¡
E'
E
I
L
J
zo.o
o 20.0
E J
E
o
15.0

¡- 10.0
10.0
o.
5.0
a 0.0
0.0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
1 300 1400 1500 1,600
pour Tenp (Cl
Pour Temp (C)
Fig. H3. Line fit plot of spiral length vs. pou temperature for Fig. H4. Line fit plot of spiral length vs. pour tempe¡atute ¡or
7-l5o/" Cr irons. 20-,?9o/o Cr lrons.

Appendices
209
Table H4
Begresslon Analysts lor 20-39% Chromlum

Regression Statlst¡cs:
MultipleR.... .0.990691769
RSquare .....0.981470182
AdjustedRSquare ......0.96911697
Standard Error .. ......1.957821908
Observations ".........16
ANOVA:
df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 6 1827.236775 304.5395 79.4506'f 2.78228E-07
Residual I 34.49759962 3.833067
Total 15 '1861.734375

Coeffic¡ents Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower95% Upper 95%


lntercept 44.3507223 460.3151644 -0.18325 0.858667 -1125.656762 956.95532
Mn -1 1.09¿l{}3998 109.5800039 4.10124 0.921576 -258.9817196 236.79304
I
N¡ 14.6372801 79.061096 0.185139 0.857225 -164.2114808 193.48604
I
si -17.37965317 28.98845112 -0.59954 0.563601 -82.95613549 48.196829
c 6.8966554 133.2il5095 0.051752 0.959857 -294.5688391 308.36215
t Cr 4.908973242 4.004658811 {.22698 0.825512 -9.96814776 8.1502013
PT (C) 0.089710204 0.014Í132594 6.259174 0.000148 0.0572876 0.1221328

I
t
I RES¡DUAL OUTPUT:
* Pred¡cted Aqtual
ü Observation (in.) !.€ngth (in.)
Length Diflercnc€
1 11 .4 10.0 -1 .4
2 7.4 6.0 -1.4
3 0.8 3.5 2.7
4 16.2 16.5 0.3
5 11.3 11.0 -{.3
6 32.3 30.0 -2.3
7 33.2 35.5 2.3
8 29.8 32.5 2.7
9 29.0 28.5 -{.5
10 23.0 22.5 4.5
11 19.2 17.5 -1.7
12 28.9 30.0 1.1
13 31.1 30.0 -1 .1

14 34.0 33.s -o.5


't5 34.1 34.0 {.1
16 35.0 35.5 0.5

Teble H5
Relationshtps lor Flutdtty

FluldtU +96lln x +o,6Nl x +oÁSi x +ohCx +Cr x +PT(C)x


(in.) = lntercept Coefficlent Coefficient Coefliclent Coefficient Coefflclent Coefficlent
'l-4% Cr alloys -381.2 93.4 21.4 't6.7 47.60 -15.4 0.107

fl 7-l5olo Cr alloys -161.1 -4.5 -14.2 82.2 -48.80 4.8 0.170

I
20-390/" Cr alloys -84.3 -11.1 14.6 -17.4 6.90 -{.909 0.090

fi 210 Abrasion-Resastant Cast ¡ron Handboot


il

b
a
,,fur.Qff.+$k:gir"r
Glossary
Terms in Glossary

(Firct, and sometimes second, cifing in parentheses)

Alpha Ferrite (s¿¿.' Delta Ferrite) Hypoeutectic (Ch. 2)

Ball and Tumbling Mi[s (Ch. 5) Ledeburite (Ch. 1)

Carbon Equivalent (Ch. 2) Malleable kon (Ch. 5)

Cementire (Ch. 1) Metastable Phase Diagrams (No citing exactly) (see Ch. 5 under
Transformation Diagrams; only says'Metastable Phase")
Columnar or Equiaxed Growth (Ch. 2)
Oxidizing and Reducing Environments (Ch. 9)
Constituents andPhases (Ch. 1)
Pearhte (Ch. 1)
Corrosion (Ch. 1 and Ch. 9)
Peritecüc Reactions (Ch. 2)
Delta and Alpha Ferrite (Ch. 2, Ch. 3)
Phase Diagram (Ch. 2)
Differential Thermal Analysis (see: DTA Thermogram)
Plastic Strain (sae.' Dislocation Movement)
Dislocation Movement (Ch. 5)
Potentiostat (Ch. 9)
DTA Thermogram (Ch. 2)
Primary Carbides (see.' hoeutectic Austenite)
Elastic Strain (see.' Dislocation Movement)
hoeutectic Austenite and himary Carbides (Ch. 2)
Electron Microprobe (Ch. 2)
Scanning Electron Microscopy (Ch. 1)
Epsilon Carbide (Ch. 5)
Stainless Steels (Ch. 1, Ch. 5)
Equiaxed Growth(see: Columnar or Equiaxed Growth)
Stoichiometry (Ch. 2)
Equilibrium Phase Diagram (see Metastable Phase Diagram)
Superheat (Ch. 1)
Eutecüc (Ch. l)
Transformation Diagram (see.. Phase Diagram)
Eutectic Colony (Ch. 2)
,l
Tumbtng Mills (see.' Ball and Tumbling Mills) i!i
Gibbs Free Energy t:

Wavelength Dispersive Spectrome§ (WDS) Analysis (see: Ele*- i

Hypereutectic (see.' Hypoeutectic) (Ch. 2) tron Microprobe)

See page 213Ío¡ complete Glossary ->


Glossary Cementitc: This is the common metallurgical
name tbr the eutectic
Alpha Ferrite (see.. Delta Ferrite) M3C carbide that forms in low_ailoy AR
cast irons, as a
product of the eutectic solidification
Ball and Tumbüng Mills: A rumbling mill ieaction of L + yFe +
is essentially a large M3C. peartitic, chill_cast and Ni_Hards
barrel, rotating on ahorizontal axis. Ballmins I and 2 irons all
use themomen- contain this carbide. Some sources give
tum of steel grinding balls (up to 14 kg) to the fbrmula for this
crush the ore. In carbide as FerC. However, common
autogenous (AG) mills, size reduction is alloying elements (e.g.,
achieved by the Cr, Mo and Mn) are soluble within the
momentum of the largerpieces of ore, while carbide crystalline
in semiautogenous structure and, therefore, the correct formula
(sAG) mills, this action is assisted by indicates a mixture of Fe and the oüer
is M3C, where M
a smafl volume fraction
of balls. AG and SAG mills tend to be soluble alloying
very large, commonly elements.
10 m in diameter. In grinding moisture_sensiive
materials, Columnar or Equiaxed Growth: Using Fig.
such as cement, grinding is performed 2, we can take a quick
dry, butin mostmineral
operations, the ore is introduced as a slurry. look at how the macrostructure is formed
during solidifica_
tion. As the hot metal flows into the mold,
Carbon Equivalent (CE): Metallurgists have solidification
long known that occurs almost immediately along the
cold sand. If the flow is
certain alloying elements can mimic the effeci brisk, üese growing dendrites will breakoff
of carbon in andmoveinto üe
graphitic irons. This effect can be seen graphically melt as '.seeds,'for later growth. If the melt
in Fig. l, is somewhat cool,
provided by Neumann (196g), showing tlese detached small chunks of frozen
the effect of various metal, will stay frozen
elements on the change in C solubility.
As the p or Si content and initiate the growth ofeutectic colonies
is increased, the solubility of C in thé or other dendrites.
molten iron decreases. Since these new growths are not constrained,
Conversely, the exact opposite effect occurs they can grow
when V and Cr pretty much anyway they want to. In
the case of eutectic cell
are added. (We could also say that p and growth, the equiaxed growth will result
Si increase the in many ñne eutectic
activity coefficient of C in iron while V and grains that are actually more cylindrical
Cr decrease its than spherical (see
activity coefficient.) In shof, the effect of p e.g., Fig. 2.4). It rhere is high superheat,
and Si can be rhe linle frozen
taken into account for graphitic irons by chunks will remelr and the initial giowü
the simple formula: from the mold wall
CE = VoC + ll3%o Si + ll4To p. for Ée_C will continue inward, toward the center of üe
iron alloys rhat casting. This
solidify white or carburiric: CE VoC + l/9% type of unidirectional growth is called
= Si + l/3.5Lop columnar growth,
(A. Moore, '.Carbon Equivalent of White while unconstrained free growth is calTed
Cast lrons,,,AF,! equiaxed growth.
Cast Metals Research Joumad vol. g, pp. Besides superheat, alloy composition
15_19, 1972.)We and thá use of tiny bits
can also give anotherequation forthe of solid particles (e.g., inoculates) can hinder
effectof v and cr.In this
case, the equation is: CE VoC _ l/lTToy _ or promote
= ll2o%o Cr. The columnar or equiaxed growth in a casting.
whole point is that the CE formula must be
used carefully and
appropriately. For example, due to solidification Constituents andphases: Classically, constituent ..an
dynamics, means essen_
the CE formula for the effect of Si is not tial part"' and this is a good place to start
applicable to low_ the deflnition.
alloy AR cast irons (basically mixtures oflon Metallurgically, constituent is used to denote
an¿ carbon) a structure
and, at high Cr content, the effect of Si within a material that has a distinct morphology, l

is completely masked crystal l

by Cr's countereffect. structure and chemistry. It is a rigorous


definition that is rarely rr,i

met in many alloys. For example, the presence


of ferrite grains i
+?.o within an austenitic matrix does not impty
that tire ferrite is a
separate constituent. That is, ferrite lii
does not have a distinct
morphology or distinct chemical differences
over that of
austenite. In this case, ferrite is noted
to be a different phase
within the i¡on but not as a distinct constituent;
whereas,
carbides are classed as distinct constituents
within the iron

tf,

ffi
ba¿iry phsé
*2.0
E
()
.g
q
E
ti6
()

.l¡is"c
oC
'I69S
-§.0
Iut. % of allsying ¿lémÉnt

Flg. l. lnfluence oÍ varlous alloying etements


on the sotubitity Fig.2. Columnar vs. equiaxecl growth mechanisms.
ot carbon in tiquict iron.
¡Courtásy-of lteiiái,-ieás) of SpringenVerlag)
(Courtesy

Glossary
213
since they are of distinct morphology, crystal structure and compounds) melt and solidify. It is called dffirentialbecatse
chemistry. This is analogous to composite terminology, where temperatures are measured simultaneously from two small
the fiber reinforcement is considered a distinct constituent crucibles. One crucible will contain the alloy of interest and
from the epoxy matrix. This deñnition may seem a little üe other crucible will be empty or contain a material of known
pedantic, but it helps to clarify the importance of having thermophysical properties. Both crucibles are placed within a
distinct constituents versus distinct phases within your iron. programmable, radiant fumace and heated or cooled at a
controlled rate. The differential temperature between the two
Corrosion: Corrosion is t}te process of gradual wearing away of a crucibles is then plotted as the alloy undergoes melting or
material by chemical means. For ferrous-based materials, it is freezing. With some care, one can measure the heat of fusion
the disassociation of the metallic bonds between the Fe atoms, that is released during üe liquid <+ solid phase change. More
allowing the release of free Fe atoms into the chemical importantly, we can determine the exact start and stop tem-
solution. A by-product ofthis reaction is the chemical reaction peratures of all phase change reactions (cooling curve data,
of these free Fe atoms with O, to form rust. Rust is a complex which simply measures the temperature of the metal as it cools
compound of Fe*O, atoms in non-stoichiometric parts. from liquid + solid, does not typically yield such good
numbers). For example, using a DTA instrument we can
Delta (5) and Alpha (o) Ferrite: When pure iron solidifi es at I 5 39C
create a graphical record ofthe iron as it solidifies, pinpointing
(2802F), it forms as a ferrite body centered cubic (BCC)
the austenite start temperature and the start of the eutectic
crystalline structure. As the pure iron cools, it remains ferritic
reaction. Such data allows a quick determination of whether
down to 1400C (2552F). At this temperature, it transforms to
the iron is a short or long freezing alloy.
austenite (y) (i.e., 6Fe + yFe), which remains stable down to
910C (1670F), whereittransformsbackto ferrite (i.e., yFe + Elastic Strain (see.' Dislocation Movement)
aFe). Historically, when these transformations where de-
tected, it was not known that the crystalline structure between
Electron Microprobe: This is another very useful form ofelectron
1539 and 1400C was the same as the one below 910C. Hence,
microscopy that is similar to SEM but with enhanced capabili-
they got two different names: 6Fe for the high temperature ties. The electron microprobe allows the direct chemical
form (liquid =+ 6Fe) and qFe for the low temperature form analysis of micron-sized phases with extremely good accu-
(Tfe + oFe). When the composition of the alloy is such that racy. The electron beam is focused through a series of electro-
the initial solidification reaction of liquid =+ 6Fe is all that magnetic lenses (ust like the SEM) onto the phase under
analysis. X-rays then cascade from the bombarded phase and
occurs as the alloy cools to room temperature, üen üe correct
name for the ferrite phase is delta (6Fe) and not alpha (oFe) are filtered and measured via wavelength dispersive spec-
ferrite. trometers (WDS). Hence, electron microprobe analysis is also
known as WDS analysis. Quantitative work is performed by
Differential Thermal Analysis (see.' DTA Thermogram) analyzing known standards (e.9., CrzC: carbide or NBS
standards) and then hitüng your unknown phase with the
Dislocation Movement: There are many fine metallurgy books that
electron probe.
provide extensive information about dislocations and disloca-
tion movement (e.g., R.E. Reed-Hill, 1973). In üe meantime, Epsilon (e) Carbide: This carbideis extremely small and onlyforms
thfuk of dislocations as small movements within the crystal during the tempering (below 200C/392Í) of medium- to high-
lattice that allow the accommodaüon of plastic strain. For C martensite (C content in excess of 0.27o).It has an unusual
example, when a load or force is applied to a material, the carbide structure of hexagonal close-packed and an unusual
material can behave elastical$ or plastically. Ifloaded elas- chemistry of Fez.¿C (it is not cementite). It can only be seen by
tically, themateial will rebound or revert to its original shape using very high-resolution electron microscopy. In fact, for
after the load is applied. If loadedplastically, the material will many years there existed some controversy over its structure
"plastically" flow and will not revert to its original shape. This and chemical composition. As mentioned, during martensitic
mechanism ofplastic flow is seen in every hardness measure- decomposition at low temperatures, epsilon carbide will form.
ment. For plastic flow to occur, there must be dislocation This process allows the body-centered tetragonal (BCT) crys-
movement. Dislocations can be defined in many üfferent tal lattice to relax or become less distorted. The end result of
ways. One way to view a dislocation is to think of one atom this process is thatmedium- andhigh-C martensite is replaced
slipping over another atom within the crystal lattice. That is, with amixture of epsilon carbide and lowercarbonmartensite
there is no such thing as a dislocation; it is only a name given that is of lower hardness but much tougher.
to the physical process of one atom slipping past another atom.
Equiaxed Growth (see.' Columnar or F,quiaxed Growth)
Naturally enough, depending on the crystal structure of the
material, it is easier for an atom to slip in some directions than Equilibrium Phase Diagram (see.' Metastable Phase Diagram)
in others. How easily atoms slip past each otherdetermines the
yield strength and, of course, the hardness of the material. If Eutectic Colony: One deñnition of a colony is a group of things
having a common characteristic. In this case, a coÍrmon
the crystal lattice is highly strained, as it is in high-C marten-
characteristic of aeutectic colonyis its growthdirection. Once
site, it becomes exceedingly difficult for dislocation move-
solidi{ication has started (whether near the wall of the mold or
ment (i.e., for atoms to slip). Since the crystal structure is more
resistant to plastic flow, the indenter will create a smaller
on some small fragment of solid) growth will occur in a
preferred direction, determined, in part, by the üermal gradi-
crater for any given load and a higher hardness will be
ent and, in part, by the nature of the carbide crystal. All carbide
measured. For more detailed information on hardness mea-
crystals grow faster along some directions than along other
surements, see Appendix D.
directions. In the case of a eutectic colony, we have coopera-
DTA Thermogram: Differential thermal analysis (DTA) is a very tive or coupled growth between the austenite and the carbide
effective tool for understanding how metals (and organic phase in one preferred direction. Each colony originates from

214 Abrasion-Res¡stant Cast lron Handbook


a single nucleus and is typically comprised of only a few
about malleable iron is that a ferritic outer layer can be formed
carbide and austenite crystals. The size ofeutectic colony is
a by heat treating the i¡on in a decarburizing atmosphere.
influenced by the number of colonies competing for the tn üis
process (called a combined decarburization and graphitiza_
available liquid. ff we have many, many nucleation sites (and
tion heat treatment), the carbides are decomposed into graph_
hence, many small growing eutectic colonies), the i¡on
will ite and the outer layer of the iron is decarburizeO. Upon
have a network of fine eutectic carbides. Conversely, if only
cooling to room temperature, it will have a microstructure
a few eutectic colonies form (e.g., slow cooling of
favors growth soft ferrite on the surface and a mixture of austenite, pearlite
over nucleation), they will be large, resulting in large eutectic
and martensite within the core (all depending on the
carbides. iron,s
alloy content). The main reasons for selecting malleable
irons
Eutectic: When an alloy solidifies through a eutectic reaction, it goes are low cost and ease of machining. As can be expected,
from aliquid to two solids. [n the case of AR irons, one oithe malleable irons have limitations in section size, damping
solids is alwaysmetallic carbide, while the otfier solid is the
a capacity, impact resistance and hot and cold cracking-aná
iron phase (austenite or ferrite). warpage. For more information, see Elliott (l9gg).
A nice characteristic of
eutectic alloys is that solidification occurs over a very tight
Metastable Phase Diagrams: Scientists enjoy equilibrium,
temperature range (giving good fluidity) and, for any given i.e., a
constant unchanging reference state. To obtain a true equüb_
alloy family, at the lowest temperature. This is why the word
rium state is often nearly impossible for many materials. For
eutectic---<oming from the Greek word meaning most
fusible example, at equilibrium, all Fe_C alloys should be composed
or most liquid-was chosen to represent this type of metallur_
offerrite and graphite. This can happen over a geological time
gical behavior. That is, eutectic alloys are extremely fluid
or scale but, typically, üe steel or iron rusts into nothingness
most liquid during the casting process.
frst. [n the construction ofthe metastable liquidus surface, the
Gibbs Free Enerry: This is a thermodynamic term roferring irons were cooled at a fixed rate. This fixld rate is several
to the
energy that is released when chemical compounds react and orders of magnitude faster than what true equilibrium
would
form other compounds. A concise deñnition is: ..For any require and hen ce, the term metastable is tsed,to describe
the
spontaneous process in which the products and reactants surface. All in all, üis suits the need, since all castings
are are
at constant temperature and pressure and, in which cooled at some dynamic, non_equilibrium rate. The obvious
no work is
done other than against pressure, the Gibbs free energy question is: How does the metastable phase diagram
will differ
decrease, G<0.,' Thermodynamically, this implies that, as from üe equilibrium diagram? A good example of where
the Gibbs free energy becomes more and more negative, metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams do differ
a is in the
higher potential exists that the reaction will occur spontane_ binary Fe-C system. That is, the metastable diagram predicts
ously. Additionally, the products ofhigh negative Gibbs free ca¡bide fonnation (fast cooling rate) while the equilibrium
energy reactions are more thermodynamically stable. diagram predicts the formation of graphite (slow cooling).
In
the case of the ternary Fe-Cr_C system, there exists
an equilib_
Hypoeutectic and Hypereutectic: The prefix es hypo and hyper rium liquidus surface and a metastable liquidus surface.
are We
Greek, meaning under and over, respectively. In chemistry, prefer to use only the metastable surface, since
the equilibrium
hypo means the lowest while hyper means the highest. phase diagram is not applicable to castings.
Con_ A good review of
sequently, hypoeutectic irons and hypereutectic i¡ons have the ternary Fe-Cr-C sysrem is given by Rivlin(19g4).
compositions that are respectively, under and overthe eutectic
composition. If we base our definition on just the carbon Oxidizing and Reducing Environments: When an element
is
content of the iron and assume that other alloying elements oxidized, it loses electrons and when it is reduced, gains
are it
being held constant (e.g., Cr), a hypoeutectic i¡on will electrons. Most acids, by their very nature, will
have a oxidize
lowercarbon content than the eutectic and a hypereutectic metals. When the term oxidization is used, itis referringto
iron the
will have ahighercarbon content. Besides these differences disassociation ofmetal atoms from the parent substf,ate.
in From
chemistry, a hypoeutectic iron starts solidification a corrosion viewpoint, acids can be further
with rhe defined as oxidiz_
formation offerrous dendrites, followed by a eutectic reaction ing or reducing in nature. When an oxidizing acid
is added to
while ahypereutectic iron starts solidification withthe forma_ an envi¡onment, it tends to promote oddization
of the metal
tion of large, primary metallic carbides and ends by solidify_ while increasing the availability of free oxygen within
the
ing as a eutectic. Iiquid. Conversely, when a reducing acid is usel<I,
there is little
change or sometimes a decrease in the availability
Ledeburite: A metallurgical term for the eutectic mixture of free
of auste_ oxygen. Forphases andconstituents containing large
amounts
nite and M3C carbide found in low_alloy AR cast irons. of Cr, an oidizing envi¡onment will cause Cr atoms (and
likewise, other metallic atoms, e.g., Fe, Mn, Si,
Malleable Iron: The key requirement in the manufacturing etc. ) to
of disassociate from the parent substrate and become
malleable cast iron is keeping the chromium contert positively
low. charged (it loses electrons). The positively charged
Typically, it is recommended that the Cr content never Cr atoms
exceed are now highly reactive and
0.17o. Nevertheless, the iron must be induced to solidify via
will eagerly bond with the
available oxygen. This reaction forms a protective
the carbide eutectic and end up with a microstructure layer of
that is Cr2O3 over the surface of the parent material
composed of M3C (-FerC) carbide and austenite. Upon and hinders
cool_ fruther oxidization or, in corrosion parlance, the material
ing to room temperature, the austenite will readily hansform
becomes passivated. Examples of strong oxidizing
into pearlite, due to the iron's low hardenability (typically acids are
HNO3 and H2O2. The addition of theseLids to
alloy contents are l%o Si, 0 .5Vo Mn and a broad range of an environ_
S and ment has little effect on high_Cr ferrous materials, since
P). Since the carbide is very unstable (low Cr content), the
üe oxidized material will readily passivate. In more natural
M¡C carbide will decompose into graphite upon heating to
environments, Cr atoms arc naturally oxidized through
temperatures above 900C (1652F). One of the nice elec_
things trochemical means or through the presence of salts
or other

Glossary
215
simple oxidizing chemicals and, since free O is readily avail- tell us what phase the iron is in at any temperature or at any
able in most environments, a protective Cr2O3 film can easily composition. The diagrams are constructed on thebasis of the
form. With reducing acids such as HC1 or H2SOa, metallic (Fe, metallurgical analysis of dozens arid dozens of alloys. For
Cr, etc.) atoms are still disassociated from the matrix, but example, to determine the various phases that are present in
without the oxygen component, the protective film never the iron as a function of temperature, one procedure is to melt
forms, and the phase or constituent continues to dissolve a small sample and cool it very slowly to the desired tempera-

away. ture and üen quench it in water. The sample is then metallur-
gically examined to determine the phases present and their
Pearlite: A eutectoid mixture of alpha ferrite (cx,Fe) and M3C. relative volume fractions. This procedure is repeated for
Pearlite is a decomposition product of iron that has been different temperatures and many compositions until enough
alloyed with some fraction of carbon. After solidification, as data is gathered to construct the phase diagram. So why guess?
üe iron cools through the eutectoid temperature, pearlite is If you really want to know what your iron is doing, during
formed via the following reaction: yFe + aFe and M¡C. Its solidification or heat treating, consult a phase diagram. You
morphology is often characterized as a lamina¡ structure of will avoid doing a lot of work that others have already done.
alternating plates offerrite and carbide. Optically it has the (See also: Equilibrium and Metastable Phase Diagrams)
appearance of mother-of-Pear1.
Plastic Strain (see.' Dislocation Movement)
Peritectic Reactions: The Fe-Cr-C system has two peritectic reac-
liquid and a solid phase combine
tions . In peritectic reactions a Potentiostat: This is an electrical deüce used to determine the
to solidify as two solid phases. A method to locate these corrosion characteristics of metals. A schematic of a simple
peritectic reactions is to look for the meeting point of three potentiostat is shown in Fig. 3. By maintaining an electrical
liquidus surfaces. One such intersection is formed by the 6, 1, bridge to a neutral potential, the electrometer can then mea-
and MzC¡ liquidus surfaces. This peritectic point (fixed in sure anychanges inthe flow of electrons, fromthe sampleinto
composition and temperature) is reached by ferritic irons, for the liquid or vice versa. More advanced units can vary the
example, corrosion-resistant irons having a base composition potential between the sample and the neutral cell, while
of 2Vo C,307o Cr. As this iron solidifies, initially 6 forms. The measuring the current flow. In such a fashion, the onset of
remaining liquid then moves toward the peritectic point at passivation can be measured. That is, once the material has
2.87o C and 327o Cr at 1289C (2352F). Since this is the passivated the curent flow will drop appreciably due to the
intersection of three liquidus surfaces, all three phases will formation of the protective and insulating passive film. The
ii coexist in the solid form. The actual reaction is: L + cr6Fe + potential at which this film forms determines whether the
yFe + M7C3. At the other end of the phase diagram, we find a material will passivate or corrode under oxidation conditions.
tl
low-Cr peritectic point being the intersection of the g, MrC¡, Data from such experiments are plotted as potential (mV)
and M3C liquidus surfaces. If the iron is a Ni-Hard 4 contain- versus current density (nA/cm2) and are known as
ing3%o C,9Vo Cr, and anSi <1.57o, then it will undergo the potentiodynamic plots. More general information can be
peritectic reaction located at 4.27o C,9.77o Cr at 1183C found in corrosion textbooks or in ASTM G-3, Conventions
(2161F), where L + M7C3 + yFe + MrC. Peritectic reactions Applicable to Electrochemical Measurements in Corrosion
are often incomplete because a solid phase must transform Testing.
into another solid phase via a diffusion-dependent route. Primary Carbides (see.' Proeutectic Austenite)
Typically, as the iron conúnues to cool, it drops through the
peritectic point into the eutectic valley. Proeutectic Austenite and Primary Carbides: Metallurgical ter-
minology is sometimes not as straightforward as it may
Phase Diagram: Understanding phase diagrams is not that difficult.
appear. In hyp oeutectic irons, p roe uf e cti c au ste¡oire is the flrst
Think of phase diagrams as simple maps to describe the iron phase to solidify and it occurs before üe eutectic, hence the
or alloy behavior in terms of temperature and composition' prefrx pro. ln hypercutectic irons, primary carbides arc the
We generally check anÜor measure the properties of an iron
first phase to solidify and their formation occurs before the
at room-temperature properties; phase diagrams, however,
eutectic. It would seem logical that primary carbides might
also be known as proeutectic carbides. However, the terminol-
ogy proeutectic austenite and primary carbides prevails.
ELECfRO[IETEE
Reducing Enüronment (s¿¿r Oridizing and Éeducing Environ-
ments)

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM): A wonderful tool that has


brought material science (what used to be calledmetallurgy)
NEFERET¡CE
sPECIX€T¡ ELECÍRODE
HALF CELL out of the dark ages. If one thinks of how an optical micro-
scope works-bending and focusing optical waves (which are
made up of photons) through a series of glass lenses-we can
use the same process for other wave forms. The electron
microscope simply uses electrons instead of photons as their
light source, and uses magnetic lenses to bend and focus the
electron waves. Electrons are quite a bit larger than photons
and their characteristic wavelength is much, much smaller;
Fig.3. Schematic of a simple potentiostat. consequently, electrons make much smaller waves than pho-

Abrasion-Resistant Cast lron Handbook


tons. The smaller wavelengths yield greater resolution (i.e., Superheat: It is impossible to cast an alloy without some superheat.
magnifications in excess of 100,000X), whereas optical mi- To be exact, the difference between the alloy's pouring
croscopes have a hard time resolving images above 2000x. temperature and the temperature at which solidif,rcation starts
The SEM is completely electronic (the frst commercial is termed the superheat. For example, if a hypoeutectic alloy
models did not reach the marketplace until around 1965) and starts to solidify at 137 lC (2500F) and finishes some 1 I 1C
imaging output can be electronically processed in anumber of (200F) later at I260C (2300F), rhe superheat calcularion
ways, yielding many different types of microstructural infor- would be based onthe 137 LC (2500F) temperature and not the
mation. lower temperature. Hence, given a pouring temperature of
Stainless Steels: Stainless steels were so named at the time of their 1538C (2800F), the superheat would be calculated as: 2g00 _
discovery in 1912, when Ha¡ry Brearly, aBritish metallurgist, 2500 = l67C (300F).
found that he was unable to etch steel alloys cortainngl2Vo Transformation Diagram (see.. phase Diagram)
Cr using a conventional dilute nitric acid etchant (e.g., a
solution of 27o HNO3 in an alcoholbase). Atthattime, etching Tumbling Mills (see: Ball and Tumbling Mills)
was more commonly referred to as "staining,,, and so he Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry (WDS) Analysis (se e: Elec-
named the steels stainless because of their resistance to tron Microprobe)
staining.

Stoichiometry: This is the statement of the quantitative chemical


composition of a substance. In general, stoichiometry implies Ref erences/Bibl iog raphy
a law of definite proportions. This is very applicable to the
Elliott, R., Cast lronTechnology, Butterworths, London, U.K. (l9gg).
carbides found in ARirons. Forexample, theM3C carbide will
unvaryingly be composed of three metal atoms to one carbon Neumann, F., The Influence of Additional Elements on the physical Chemi_
atom. Likewise, for the higher alloyed irons containing large cal Behavior of Carbon in Ca¡bon-saturated Molte nhon, ASM Seminar,
amounts of chromium (say gre ater than B7o Cr) , the carbide is Recent Research in Cast lron, Gordon and Breach (1964).

composed of seven metal atoms to three carbon atoms, yield_ Reed-Hill, R.8., Physical Metallurgy Principles,2¡d p. van Nostrand
ed.,
ing a stoichiometry of M7C3. Hence, the use of the word Co., New York, NY (1973).
"stoichiometry" to help us describe the chemical composition
Rivlin, V.G., Critical Review of Constitution of Carbon-Chromium-I¡on and
of the various carbides found in AR irons is accurate and Carbon-kon Manganese Systems, International Metals Review, vol.29,
illuminating. pp.299-327 11984y.

Glossary