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Welcome to Unity Hardware Fundamentals.

Copyright ©2016 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Published in the USA. EMC believes
the information in this publication is accurate as of its publication date. The information is
subject to change without notice.

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parties. Nothing contained in this publication should be construed as granting any license or
right to use any Trademark without the prior written permission of the party that owns the
Trademark.

EMC, EMC² AccessAnywhere Access Logix, AdvantEdge, AlphaStor, AppSync


ApplicationXtender, ArchiveXtender, Atmos, Authentica, Authentic Problems, Automated
Resource Manager, AutoStart, AutoSwap, AVALONidm, Avamar, Bus-Tech, Captiva, Catalog
Solution, C-Clip, Celerra, Celerra Replicator, Centera, CenterStage, CentraStar, EMC
CertTracker. CIO Connect, ClaimPack, ClaimsEditor, Claralert ,cLARiiON, ClientPak,
CloudArray, Codebook Correlation Technology, Common Information Model, Compuset,
Compute Anywhere, Configuration Intelligence, Configuresoft, Connectrix, Constellation
Computing, EMC ControlCenter, CopyCross, CopyPoint, CX, DataBridge , Data Protection
Suite. Data Protection Advisor, DBClassify, DD Boost, Dantz, DatabaseXtender, Data
Domain, Direct Matrix Architecture, DiskXtender, DiskXtender 2000, DLS ECO, Document
Sciences, Documentum, DR Anywhere, ECS, elnput, E-Lab, Elastic Cloud Storage,

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 1
EmailXaminer, EmailXtender , EMC Centera, EMC ControlCenter, EMC LifeLine,
EMCTV, Enginuity, EPFM. eRoom, Event Explorer, FAST, FarPoint, FirstPass,
FLARE, FormWare, Geosynchrony, Global File Virtualization, Graphic Visualization,
Greenplum, HighRoad, HomeBase, Illuminator , InfoArchive, InfoMover,
Infoscape, Infra, InputAccel, InputAccel Express, Invista, Ionix, ISIS,Kazeon, EMC
LifeLine, Mainframe Appliance for Storage, Mainframe Data Library, Max
Retriever, MCx, MediaStor , Metro, MetroPoint, MirrorView, Multi-Band
Deduplication,Navisphere, Netstorage, NetWorker, nLayers, EMC OnCourse,
OnAlert, OpenScale, Petrocloud, PixTools, Powerlink, PowerPath, PowerSnap,
ProSphere, ProtectEverywhere, ProtectPoint, EMC Proven, EMC Proven
Professional, QuickScan, RAPIDPath, EMC RecoverPoint, Rainfinity, RepliCare,
RepliStor, ResourcePak, Retrospect, RSA, the RSA logo, SafeLine, SAN Advisor,
SAN Copy, SAN Manager, ScaleIO Smarts, EMC Snap, SnapImage, SnapSure,
SnapView, SourceOne, SRDF, EMC Storage Administrator, StorageScope,
SupportMate, SymmAPI, SymmEnabler, Symmetrix, Symmetrix DMX, Symmetrix
VMAX, TimeFinder, TwinStrata, UltraFlex, UltraPoint, UltraScale, Unisphere,
Universal Data Consistency, Vblock, Velocity, Viewlets, ViPR, Virtual Matrix,
Virtual Matrix Architecture, Virtual Provisioning, Virtualize Everything,
Compromise Nothing, Virtuent, VMAX, VMAXe, VNX, VNXe, Voyence, VPLEX,
VSAM-Assist, VSAM I/O PLUS, VSET, VSPEX, Watch4net, WebXtender, xPression,
xPresso, Xtrem, XtremCache, XtremSF, XtremSW, XtremIO, YottaYotta, Zero-
Friction Enterprise Storage.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals ‹#›
This course provides an introduction to the Unity platform of mid-range products and
includes topics on product positioning, but more specifically an in-depth review of the Unity
hardware and special functions related to the hardware.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 2
This module focuses on a brief overview of the Unity models and their fit into the EMC
storage product offerings.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 3
Unity is available in all models in an All Flash version. The bezel has a slightly different
appearance to help identify the optimal performance All Flash models. Unity models will
directly integrate with the current VNX portfolio of products. The virtualized Unity models
up to the Unity 600 will replace the current VNXe1600 up through and including the
VNX5800. VNX7600 and VNX8000 will continue to be the top tier of the Unity/VNX family
of products.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 4
All Unity Disk Processor Enclosures (DPEs) are a 2U form factor. Each has two Storage
Processor suitcases, each with a single, multi-core processor with six to twelve cores.
Memory per Storage Processor (SP) ranges from 24GB to 128GB. Drive count maximums
range from 150 disk drives to 500 disk drives with a minimum of four drives for any model.
All DPEs support two additional IO Modules. The Operating Environment (OE) is SUSE Linux
SLES12 Based.

All Flash models maximum capacity will vary from the chart shown in this slide.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 5
This module focuses on the individual components that make up the Unity Storage
Processor. We will discuss the physical attributes, special functions, and who the key
individual is to replace each component.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 6
The Unity DPE is available in both a 12 Disk and a 25 Disk configuration. Standard power
& enclosure fault LED’s are located on the front of the DPE.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Fundamentals 7


The Unity DPE supports 12 Gb/s transfer speeds for both 12 and 25 disk configurations.
The Unity DPE can be expanded by connecting the built in 12 Gb/s SAS ports (2 ports) to
a 15 or 25 disk Unity DAE.

Older VNX DAE and disk versions operating at 6Gb/s are not supported in Unity.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Fundamentals 8


The Storage Processors (SPs) are the core of the Unity platform. They deliver the block and
file components and services, as well as managing the multicore optimization. The two
Storage Processors, SPA and SPB, provide block and file data access via IO module
technology that supports Fibre Channel and iSCSI protocols, providing access for all
external hosts and multi-protocol support for NFS and SMB.

The Unity Storage Processors operate in Asymmetric Active/Active mode, in that both
controllers are active/on-line and receiving host IO simultaneously for the back-end
storage.

The large orange knob is part of a torque-limiting system for engaging and dis-engaging the
storage processor from the DPE chassis. Note the multiple back-plane contact points and
the actual engagement screw for the SP to chassis fitment.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 9
The SPA and SPB power supplies are highlighted. Storage Processor power supplies are
Customer Replaceable Units (CRUs).

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 10
The IO Modules for SPA and SPB are shown here. Slot 0 is highlighted in red and Slot 1 is
highlighted in yellow. IO modules are Customer Replaceable Units.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 11
The Ethernet Management ports (shown in red) and the Ethernet Service ports (shown in
yellow) are identified for SPA and SPB.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 12
The USB ports for each SP are identified here. USB ports can be used to supply initial
configuration information to the array using a USB thumb drive.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 13
Onboard Storage Processor Ethernet ports 2 (shown in red) and 3 (shown in yellow) are
identified for SPA and SPB. These ports can be used for block or file Ethernet traffic.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 14
This slide shows a detailed view of the 12Gb/s SAS DAE connectors on each Storage
Processor. Move the mouse to each of the areas referenced by the red circle to see an
enlarged detailed view.

Onboard dual-port back-end 12Gb/s SAS 4-lane ports are provided for each Storage
Processor to facilitate storage expansion. The PMC Sierra PM8071 SPCve 8x12G SAS
Controller is used internally to the Storage Processor. Each port has an LED indicator to
signal link activity, an eight-lane PCI Express Gen 3.0 internal interface to the SP, and a
quad x4 lane mini-SAS HD (High Density) connector to cable to an external DAE.
Encryption is FIPS 140 certifiable.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 15
The Storage Processor onboard Converged Network Adapter (CNA) ports utilize a Qlogic
Hilda EP8324 PCI-E GEN-3 dual-personality controller and support both Ethernet and Fibre
Channel protocols. There are two CNA ports for each Storage Processor and they use SFP+
optical connectors.

Fibre channel topologies and speed supported include 4/8/16 Gbps (Auto Negotiable), two-
node Loop topology support with 4/8 Gbps configurations, and Point-to-Point topology
support in two-node or switched configurations for all speeds.

Sync/Replication is supported when the lowest numbered port is enabled as a


Sync/Replication port. All ports are available for RecoverPoint.

iSCSI CNA ports are front-end, onboard ports, supporting switched or direct attachment.
Each port can operate at 10 Gbps, support VLAN tagging, and can have 32 virtual ports per
physical port. Multiple iSCSI sessions per initiator connection is available at 10 Gbps only.
Optical SFP or Twin-Ax copper are supported. Ports will also be available for File/Network
features.

Once a protocol has been committed in the configuration, it cannot be changed. As an


example, one would not be able to configure ports as FC, commit the ports and then later,
change them to Ethernet. Both ports should be configured to the same protocol, either FC
or Ethernet, but NOT one of each.

Note:

Supported CNA SFPs include: EMC PN# 019-078-042, which is 2/4/8 Gbps (Note: 2 Gbps
not supported by the ASIC), EMC PN# 019-078-045, for 4/8/16 Gbps. SFPs are hot
swappable.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 16
This graphic identifies each of the LEDs located in the rear of the Unity DPE. We will be
focused on the zoomed-in middle area of the Storage Processor.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 17
This slide discusses the individual LED indicators and their meaning for the rear of the Disk
Processor Enclosure. There are duplicate, but SP-independent, LED indicators for SPA &
SPB.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 18
The Memory/Boot Fault LED is normally off. When a Memory or Boot Fault occurs, this
indicator will light up amber and glow solid.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 19
If the SP Power LED is off, DC power is not present to the Storage Processor. When the
LED indicator is green and glows solid, power is present. When the Indicator is blinking
green at a rate of 1Hz, (one cycle per second), the SP is in Standby Mode.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 20
The SP Fault LED has six different states. Off indicates there is no fault on the Storage
Processor. This is the desired, normal state.

The SP Fault LED will blink amber at a rate of once every 4 seconds, once per second, or
four times per second, depending on the step of BIOS / POST execution.

The SP Fault LED will blink blue at a rate of once every 4 seconds, once per second, or four
times per second, indicating the Standard OE blink codes.

The SP Fault LED will blink amber to blue once per second, indicating the SP is in Rescue
Mode.

The SP Fault LED will blink amber for one second, then blue for three seconds to indicate No
Mgmt IP is set.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 21
SAS port activity will be off to indicate a fault, blink blue at a one-second interval to indicate
the port is marked, and illuminate solid blue to indicate the SAS port is up.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 22
The Ethernet port Link LED will blink once per second to indicate the port is marked.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 23
The Ethernet Link port activity LED will illuminate blue to indicate the port is active. When
the LED is off, the Ethernet Link port is faulted.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 24
Do not remove the Storage Processor from the DPE chassis if the ‘Unsafe to Remove’ LED is
illuminated white. There is a huge potential for Data Loss and Data Unavailability when this
LED is lit.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 25
Mounting rails are shipped with every Disk Processor Enclosure. DPEs ordered in an EMC
cabinet will use fixed rails, and DPEs ordered separately will include adjustable snap-in rails.

The main Unity chassis or Storage Processor Enclosure contains two Storage Processors.
Each is removable via a torque-limiting thumbscrew.

The Disk Processor Enclosure component locator chart is visible when a Storage Processor
has been removed from the Storage Processor Enclosure, and shows instructions to remove
the SP cover and locate components within the SP suitcase.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 26
With the cover removed, key components are visible for identification and replacement if
necessary. The clear plastic air baffle will need to be removed to access some of the
components.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 27
All Unity models have a single, multi-core Haswell CPU and chipset per Storage Processor
with two Storage Processors per Disk Processor Enclosure. DDR4 is a larger, faster memory
subsystem providing four-channel memory access to each SP. Each SP has PCIe Gen 3
internal busses with 40 lanes for improved IO bandwidth from the two IO module slots. A
total of four IO modules are available per DPE. Unity is available in a dual Storage
Processor configuration only; there are no single SP configurations offered in any DPE
enclosures. Each SP also has its own M.2 SSD drive used for OE boot and as a Vault Drive,
providing increased performance. A larger internal Backup Battery Unit (BBU) provides
each SP with more power for vaulting.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 28
There are four DIMM slots on each Unity Storage Processor. Different DIMM slots and
different capacity DIMMs are used based on individual Unity models. DIMMs are Customer
Replaceable Units.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 29
There are two Battery Backup Units (BBUs), one located in each of the Storage Processor
suitcases. The BBU provides power to each SP if the AC power fails or an SP is removed
from the enclosure. Disk Drives are not part of the power zone. Each BBU powers only one
SP and does not provide power for the peer SP. Cache is enabled as long as the
supporting BBU is ‘ready’. The BBU is sized to allow two back-to-back vault cycles allowing
cache to be enabled after a power failure without waiting on recharge. Battery life depends
on usage and operating temps. Back-to-back cycles will operate for 3.5 – 7 years. Single
outage cycles will operate for 6 – 9 years. The BBU is a Customer Replaceable Unit.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 30
The Unity SSD is an internal, non-volatile SSD used as an OE and vaulting device. The M.2
is a new form factor SSD which is similar in function to the mSATA on the VNXe 3200. The
M.2 is a larger capacity device to support increased cache sizes. Sizing varies to meet the
vaulting bandwidth requirements of the various Unity models. There is an M.2 SSD located
in each Storage Processor suitcase. PMP (Power-fail Memory Persistence) firmware and
mirrored copies of the other Storage Processor’s SSD area are part of the SSD’s functions,
in addition to serving as a vaulting device.

There are multiple vendors supporting EMC, to avoid single vendor lock-in. Two vendors,
SmartMod and Intel, supply the SSD to EMC. Boot device and vaulted dirty cache data is
stored on the SSD during a power outage.

At a very high level, the M.2 SSD module will have two main tasks to perform. The first is
to move a defined subset of memory contents from Storage Processor memory to the non-
volatile device during an AC power fail event. The second is the movement of those same
memory contents from the non-volatile device back into SP memory when AC power has
returned. The M.2 SSD is a Customer Replaceable Unit.

There can be two error states for the M.2 SSD: Degraded, which indicates that only a few
spare blocks are remaining. The SSD should be replaced in the near future. And , Faulted,
which means that there are no spare blocks remaining, and it should be replaced
immediately. If not attended to, it could result in bringing the SP down or not being able to
save the cache vault on a power failure.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 31
When the hardware detects an AC power failure, the power subsystem switches over to
battery power and resets the Storage Processors. At this point, the power subsystem
stops providing power to any non-essential systems such as the back-end disk array. The
shedding of non-critical pieces of hardware allows the system to require a smaller amount
of battery power. Once the Storage Processor resets, the BIOS forces the Storage
Processor into a low-power mode, further increasing the time that the processors can run
on battery. BIOS then loads the PMP (Power-fail Memory Persistence) firmware which
moves registered areas of memory onto the SSD. After a successful vault-to-flash
operation has taken place, the storage system is powered down and waits for the AC power
to return.

Once power returns, the Unity system begins resumption of its normal processing. During
power-up, the PMP firmware restores memory contents previously saved to the SSD. Once
reconstruction and checksums have been verified upon reconstruction of the cache pages,
the SPs can begin to service host IOs once more.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 32
When power is applied to the system, the BIOS on each Storage Processor begins to execute. This
starts the lowest levels of the system for device access and runs some device card manufacturing
tests. The POST (Power On Self Test) will run checks on the system hardware and software
components. If any problems are detected, they are reported on the serial console. Note that on a
customer system, the serial console is not normally visible.

The Bootflash will run next, which provides the initial LINUX boot and does more checking of the
software environment. If a problem is detected at this stage, the SP enters service mode. The
Bootflash will start up enough of the database to mount the back-end mirrors on the system. The
database is used to repair any software detected missing during the boot. Next, the LINUX system
stored on the SSD begins to bring up the stack of the storage system.

The storage system is started in phases; each successful phase will begin the start of the next phase.
A phase failure will shut down the system. Too many failures will place the Storage Processor into
service mode. A set of watchdogs will monitor the phases and shut down the system if a component
fails.

The first phase establishes a basic platform environment in which the data path components will run.
Logging services, memory services and interrupt services will start up, and Kernel level drivers will
load. The CMI (Common Management Interface) network between the two SPs is started. Once the
basic operating environment for the data path is established, the next phase is launched.

The data path stack is brought up next. This is a set of libraries that are loaded serially in order to
build up the software stack needed to support the data path. Once the device state has been
established, the more abstract layers of the data path can be started up in sequence. At the end of
this process, the system is ready to provide data services. The front-end ports of the system are
opened for access by external hosts and to commit any software from an NDU (Non Disruptive
Upgrade).

The last phase of initialization involves the start up of HA (High Availability) components, the software

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 33
that handles the failover/failback of various components in the system. The HA
components will contact the peer SP to form a cluster quorum and begin to start other
components necessary to run the system beyond the basic data path. Some components
only run on one SP in the array. Primarily, this is the control path stack. The admin layers
will start on both SPs. Once the control path has started, the system is fully operational. A
single cluster address is exported as the management IP address from the Storage
Processor that started up the management components.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals ‹#›
The Bootflash can be best described as an enhanced SUSE LINUX boot used to initialize the
system and populate or validate critical Unity system components. The Bootflash uses an
enhanced version of the standard SUSE init program at startup. This modified version of
init calls an ordered list of individual bash scripts to perform the Unity system initialization.

This process on a Unity Storage Processor is initiated by BIOS after POST is complete, a
boot loader is executed on the boot partition, and the kernel/initramfs (pronounced init ram
fs) is loaded into memory. The init process is called, which has the ability to access the
internal M.2 SSD and external back-end mirror drives. Based on the current state of the
Unity system, initialization may include creating partitions and populating them, or
validating existing content on those particular partitions. Once all of the scripts have
completed, the root directory for Unity is changed from an in-memory filesystem to a
designated root partition on the M.2 SSD. Following the pivot root process, the container
framework is started and stack bring up begins. The Unity system is now in Normal mode.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 34
Unity Disk Processor Enclosures are powered by two power supplies. Each power supply
can provide power to the DPE if the peer PS has been removed or is faulted. Power supplies
are located in the back of the DPE, one per Storage Processor. Unity will also operate in a
Telco/DC environment with DC equivalent power supplies. Power supplies are a Customer
Replaceable Unit.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 35
Five cooling fan packs are located in each Storage Processor suitcase. The fans are simple,
without firmware or resume’ PROMs. Each fan pack has 1 set of counter rotating fans. A
single fan fault is tolerable and system firmware increases the speed of the remaining fan
packs to maintain cooling. If one or both fans in a pack fail or cannot reach target RPM, the
pack is considered faulted. Multiple fan pack failures trigger an SP shutdown. Zone 1
contains fan packs 0, 1, and 2, and provides cooling for CPU, DIMMs, BBU, HDD, and
onboard IO. Zone 2 uses fan packs 3 and 4 for cooling the IO modules.

The Auto Shutdown behavior for High Temp Shutdown with No HW fault is, if the system is
otherwise without any HW faults, at 52 degrees C (122 F) ambient, system cache will
disable (this is considered the Upper non-critical ambient temperature flag). Between NEBS
temperatures (55-58 C), CPU throttling will occur to reduce the load on the CPU. If the
temp continues to climb to 62 C (this is considered the Upper critical thermal shutdown
flag), the system will vault cache to the back-end LUNs and perform a shutdown after the
300-second timer expires.

For High Temp Shutdown with a Single Fan Fault on an SP, if the system temp reaches 50
degrees C, it will shutdown the array.

For Multiple Fan Fault Shutdown (Multiple fan faults on the same SP), the system will begin
shutdown without regard to actual system temp.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 36
Above are the maximum configurable capacities for the Unity product models.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 37
This table shows the available IO modules for use in Unity storage arrays. Currently, there
is no upgrade path for existing IO modules or addition of new IO modules outside of initial
configuration and installation. IO modules used in the Unity platforms utilize the new “SLIC
2.0” connectors and are therefore not compatible with older VNX IO modules.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 38
The 12Gb/s SAS BE I/O module is a quad-port, 4-lane-interface-per-port module designed
to accommodate DAE expansion. This I/O module uses a PMC Sierra PM8073 SPCve
16x12G SAS Controller. Common Characteristics include a per-port LED indicator to signal
an active link, an eight-lane PCI Express Gen 3.0 interface, quad x4 lane mini -SAS HD (High
Density) connector, and encryption that is FIPS 140 certifiable. The 12Gb SAS I/O module is
only available on Unity 500 and 600 modules for DAE expansion.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 39
The 16gb FC I/O module will be used to serve FC block protocol in a direct connect
configuration or via a switch. The quad-port QX I/O modules are offered as an array option
in pairs (one for each SP), and have a different connector (X-connector) from the 16G FC
I/O module that ships on VNX2. They are not interchangeable. Each of the 4 ports uses an
optical 16G capable SFP+ and are hot swappable. Port LEDs are normally solid blue when
operating correctly, and blink blue when faulted. The handle LED is Green during normal
operations and changes to amber when the I/O module is faulted. Ports can be marked and
flash rates set with UEMCLI. Faulted 16G FC I/O modules are a Customer Replaceable Unit
(CRU).

Note:

Supported SFPs include EMC PN# 019-078-042 for 2/4/8 Gbps (Note: 2Gbps not supported
by the ASIC), and EMC PN# 019-078-045 for 4/8/16 Gbps.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 40
The 1GbE Base-T front-end I/O module provides iSCSI block connectivity and NAS file
connections to be configured at the same time. Each port can operate at speeds up to
1Gb/sec. The controller chip is a Broadcom BCM5719 device. Each of the four ports uses an
RJ45 copper Ethernet plug.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 41
The 10GbE Base-T front end I/O module allows iSCSI block connectivity and NAS file
connections to be configured at the same time. Each port can operate at speeds up to 10
Gb/sec. The controller chip is a Broadcom BCM57840S device. Each of the four ports uses
an RJ45 copper Ethernet plug.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 42
The 10GbE Optical front-end I/O module has two ports and can be configured for fiber optic
or Twin-Ax iSCSI cables. This /IO module has a full iSCSI offload engine, supports VLAN
tagging, and supports 32 virtual ports per physical port. Each port can operate at 10Gbps.
All Host Operating Systems supported by EMC 10GbE iSCSI array connections are
supported. Removing a powered on I/O Module will cause the SP to immediately reboot.
Alerts will inform the customer of a missing module. The interface to the Storage Processor
is via a PCIe Gen3 x4 interface. A Qlogic Hilda 8300 ASIC provides controller functions.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 43
This module focuses on an overview of the Unity Disk Array Enclosure specifications.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 44
The 25-drive Disk Array Enclosure (DAE) is 2U high and holds up to 25 disk drives. Front
side LED indicators include Power On and DAE Fault, as well as a disk active and a disk
fault indicator on each installed disk drive in the DAE.

The rear of the DAE has two power supplies . Each power supply can supply power to both
LCCs and the peer power supply fans. The DAE chassis contains the midplane, connecting
power supplies to the LCCs and disk drives. The 25-drive DAE can support operation in a DC
environment when equipped with the DC version of the power supplies.

There are two LCCs installed in the middle of the rear panel. As with the Disk Processor
Enclosure, the DAE components relating to Storage Processor A are located on the bottom
half and the DAE components relating to Storage Processor B are located in the top half and
inverted from the bottom half. Care should be taken when plugging the mini -SAS HD
connectors as they are not keyed. Port 0 of the lower LCC connects to the SPA 12 Gb/s
SAS port, while Port 1 of the LCC daisy chains to the next DAE chassis. Cabling is the same
for the top LCC with the exception that is inverted and the port locations are reversed.

Software will detect cabling issues such as crossed cables or asymmetric cabling and also
provides Energy Star statistics like input power and air inlet temperature.

Mounting rails are shipped with every DAE. DAEs ordered in an EMC cabinet use fixed rails.
DAEs ordered separately will include adjustable snap-in rails.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 45
The 15-drive DAE is 3U high and holds up to 15 disk drives. Front side LED indicators
include Power On and DAE Fault, as well as a disk active and a disk fault indicator on each
installed disk drive in the DAE.

The rear of the DAE has two power supplies . Each power supply can supply power to both
LCCs and the peer power supply fans. The DAE chassis contains the midplane, connecting
power supplies to the LCCs and disk drives.

There are two LCCs installed in the middle of the rear panel. Again, as with the Disk
Processor Enclosure, the DAE components relating to Storage Processor A are located on
the bottom half, and the DAE components relating to Storage Processor B are located in the
top half and inverted from the bottom half. Care should be taken when plugging the mini -
SAS HD connectors as they are not keyed. Port 0 of the lower LCC connects to the SPA 12
Gb/s SAS port, while Port 1 of the LCC daisy chains to the next DAE chassis. Cabling is the
same for the top LCC with the exception that is inverted and the port locations are
reversed.

Software will detect cabling issues such as crossed cables or asymmetric cabling and also
provides Energy Star statistics like input power and air inlet temperature.

Mounting rails are shipped with every DAE. DAEs ordered in an EMC cabinet use fixed rails.
DAEs ordered separately will include adjustable snap-in rails.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 46
Only one type of SAS Cable is used for all DAE connections. Cables have the same
connector on both ends, a “mini-SAS HD” connector, and the cables are NOT keyed.
Available cable lengths range from 1 to 8 meters. Please note that the 12Gb SAS cables
are different from 6G SAS cables and are not interchangeable.

All Unity DPEs support 12Gb/s transfer speeds and use enclosure model CDES-2 FW. Older
6Gb/s DAEs are not supported with the Unity release. Unity DAEs can be connected to the
Unity DPE via built in SAS ports (2 ports per Storage Processor) or via the 12Gb SAS IO
Module with 4 ports per IO module on the Unity 500 and 600 models.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 47
Disk drives supported for the Unity DPEs and DAEs include SAS Flash-2, SAS Flash-3, and
rotating disk at 15,000 RPM, 10,000 RPM, and 7,200 RPM. All drives leverage 12Gb/s SAS
backend connections. 6Gb/s drives are not supported in Unity arrays. The Unity Drive
Matrix displayed in this slide gives available capacities for each class of disk drive.

Please note that the SAS and NL-SAS drives will use the new 4K block size. This is due to
an industry trend towards larger sector sizes for drives. The use of 4K block sizes better
aligns with typical I/O patterns and can lead to greater efficiency. SSDs will continue to use
the 520 block size in order to remain optimized within the OE software.

Please note that the first release of Unity code will support All Flash models. The OE will
reject any HDD that might be installed into a Unity All Flash (AF) model. The default RAID
configuration for the Flash tier in an All Flash or Hybrid Flash (HF) is RAID5 (4+1) but other
RAID types are supported.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 48
SAS Flash- 2 drives are rated to 10 WPD (Writes Per Day), are referred to as ‘FLASH 2’ in
Unisphere, have a 2.5” form factor, and are available in capacities of 200, 400, and 800 GB,
and 1.6 TB. The 1.6 TB Flash drive cannot be used in FAST Cache. The 800 GB Flash drive
can only be used for FAST Cache in the Unity 600 array so that more than one pair of drives
is used in FAST Cache in the smaller arrays.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 49
SAS Flash-3 drives are rated to 3 WPD, are referred to as ‘FLASH 3’ in Unisphere, have a
2.5” form factor, and are available in capacities of 400 and 800 GB, and 1.6TB. TThe SAS
Flash-3 drives can only be used in an all-flash pool and not intermixed with other drive
types. SAS Flash-3 drives are not suitable for use with FAST Cache or FAST VP.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 50
The 3.2 TB drive is a recent addition to the SAS Flash-3 drive group.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 51
The SAS 15K RPM drive is a 2.5” form factor, uses a 4K block size, and is available in a 600
GB capacity.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 52
The SAS 10K RPM drive is a 2.5” form factor, uses a 4K block size, and is available in a 600
GB, 1.2 and 1.8 TB capacities. The drive can be placed in a 3.5” carrier and used in the 12-
drive DPE or the 15-drive DAE.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 53
The NL-SAS 7.2K RPM drive is a 3.5” form factor, uses a 4K block size, and is available in 2,
4, or 6 TB capacities.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 54
To increase capacity and efficiency, drive vendors are moving to larger physical block sizes
of 4K. Unity will ship with 4K spindle drives only, both in system and user slots. As part of
larger sector size implementations, drive vendors must provide spliced write protection to
prevent losing or corrupting data within a 4K sector that is not being updated during a write
at the time of a power loss. Note that SSD drives will continue to present a 520 byte sector
size.

The ‘logical’ block size used and observed by OE software will remain 520-bytes per block
with 512 bytes of user data followed by 8 bytes of metadata. The major change required is
to align all RAID write requests to a multiple of 8 logical blocks when writing to a 4K drive.
All disk operations will be done on a 4K boundary. The 4K sectors are 4160 bytes in length.

For parity RAID types there are two write request types: partial and full stripe. Full stripe
writes are aligned to the 4K block size so no changes are required to support 4K drives.
Partial stripe writes already perform a pre-read for each affected position. The only change
required when the drive is 4K is to align the pre-read, merge the new data and then write.

For non-parity RAID types, an additional pre-read will be required for a 4K RAID group
where the write request is unaligned or small.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 55
The table shown here lists the common features for FAST Cache and FAST VP with VNX2
and Unity. New features to Unity will be discussed in more detail.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 56
This table shows the system limits for Unity Pools and LUNs.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 57
This course covered the different Unity models and their capacities. The components that
make up the storage array were discussed individually. An overview of the Boot process and
Vault to Flash during a power failure were discussed.

Copyright 2016 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Unity Hardware Fundamentals 58