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# Lecture 4

3.2 DESIGN OF
COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Re-cap
n It should be noted that the actual
buckling load is a function of:

## 1. The Euler Load appropriate to the

length, support conditions, cross
section and material of the member

## 2. Initial deformations of the member

n The Critical Stress is given by:
Pcr  2 EI  2 E
 cr   
A AL 2
AL2
I
But

I
 r2 where r  radius of gyration
A
 2E
Therefore  cr  2
 Leff 
 
 r 
Or
 E
2
Leff
 cr  2 where    Slenderness ratio
 r

## Thus the critical stress in a column is

dependent only on the Young’s
modulus of elasticity and the
slenderness ratio  = (Leff/r)
Because of the phenomenon of buckling, one can
differentiate two types of columns namely:

## 1. short columns: These are columns, which have

little or no tendency to buckle. A short
column will fail due to material failure
2. slender columns: These are columns, which
are prone to buckle at compressive
stresses that are below the compressive
strength of the material.
Short and Slender Columns

## A Short Column will

fail due to material A Slender Column will
failure fail due to buckling
Measures to prevent buckling of a slender column:

## 1. Providing lateral restraints

2. Limiting the load which is to be carried by the
column
4. DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
(see section 4.7)

## n Load carrying capacity of a compression

member is determined by:
1. Slenderness of the member
2. Strength of the Material
4. DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
(Cont.)

## n The Design Strength is as given in section

3.1.1 and table 9 BS5950

 Le

## n Where: Le= effective Length

r
4. DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
(Cont.)

## n The guidelines for determining the

effective length are given in 4.7.3

## n Effective lengths for standard conditions

of restraint are given in table 24 in BS
5950
Table 22 of BS 5950 :Part1 :2000
Compression Resistance 4.7.4
Ø The applied compressive force should not exceed
the compression resistance Pc which is given by:

## (a) For class 1 plastic, class 2 compact or class 3

semi compact sections: Pc = Ag.pc

## (b) For class 4 slender sections: Pc = Aeff.pcs

Compression Resistance 4.7.4 (cont.)

where:
Aeff is the effective cross sectional area from 3.6
Ag is the gross sectional Area (see 3.4.1)
pc is the compressive Strength (see 4.7.5)
pcs is the value of pc for a reduced slenderness of
(Aeff/Ag)0.5 in which  is based on the radius of
gyration r of the gross section.
On Classification of cross sections (see 3.5)

## n Note that the class of a cross sections determines

compressive strength.
n Classification of cross sections is done in accordance
with section 3.5
n Elements and cross sections are classified as CLASS 1
PLASTIC, CLASS 2 COMPACT, CLASS 3 SEMI
COMPACT or CLASS 4 SLENDER
n Cross sections may be made of elements of different
classes.
Classification of cross sections (see 3.5.2)

## n Classification is based on Table 11 or Table 12 and

Figure 5 of the code:
n CLASS 1 Plastic: All elements subject to compression
comply with the values given in Table 11 or Table
12 for plastic Elements
n CLASS 2 Compact: All elements subject to
compression comply with the values given in Table
11 or Table 12 for Compact Elements
n CLASS 3 Semi compact: All elements subject to
compression comply with the values given in Table
11 or Table 12 for semi compact Elements
Fig. 5: BS5950
Fig. 5: BS5950
Table 11
BS 5950
Table 12
BS 5950
Figure 6
BS 5950
Outstand and Internal Elements
n Outstand Element: one edge is free the other is
n Internal Element: Both longitudinal Edges are
attached to other elements or longitudinal stiffeners
The Compressive Strength pc (see 4.7.5)

## n Depends on the slenderness  and the design

strength py
n May be established first by reference to tables 23
and Figure 14. The table and the figure indicate
which of the four tables 24(a) to (d) is relevant to
the case.
n For sections fabricated from plate by welding, the
value of py should be reduced by 20N/mm2
Fig.14 BS 5950
Table 23
BS 5950
Table 24
BS 5950
Battened Struts (see 4.7.9)
n It consists of two or more main components
n The maximum slenderness, c, of a main
component (based on its minimum radius of
gyration) between end fasteners of adjacent
battens should not exceed 50.
n The slenderness of the battened strut, b,
about the axis perpendicular to the plane of
the battens should be calculated from:
Battened Struts (see 4.7.9)

2 2
b  m  c
n Where m is the ratio LE / r of a whole