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A H A N D BOOK

OF

C RHI S T I A N
S YM BO LS
AN

S T O R I ES OF THE SAI NTS

as Ell nstt atzh in a r t

BY

CL A R A E R S KI N E CL E M E N T

E D IT E D BY

KA T H E R I N E E . CO N WA Y

F I FT H E D I T I O N

B OST ON AN D N E W Y OR K

H O U G H T O N , M I FF L I N A N D C O M PA N Y
E b: m aca w: 18 1 m“ , «
ra m m ing:
1 895
E ch i cate n

BY PE R M I S S I O N

AND WI T H P R O F OU N D RE S P E CT

T O

H IS GR AC E

TH E M OST R E VE R E N D JO H N J.W I LLI A M S

A R C HB I S H O P OF B OST ON

B Y TH E A U T H OR
P R E F A CE .

TH E t i t l e o f t h e pr e s e n t w o r k s uffi c i e n t l y i n d i c a t e s i t s ge n e ra l
s c op e a n d p u rp o s e . I t h a s b e e n u n d e r t a k e n t o s a t i s fy a wa n t
o ft e n fe l t p e r s o n a ll y by t h e w r i t e r a n d o f t e n e x p r e ss e d t o h e r by
o th e r s T h o s e w h o go a b r o a d a n d t ra v e l i n C h r i sti a n l a n d sm e e t
.

at e ve ry s e t p , th r o u gh t o w n o u n t ry i n t h e b r o a d l i g h t o f
an d c ,

da y a n d i n t h e m yst e ri o u s gl oo m o f s a c r e d p l a c e s sy m b oli c ,

f o r m s w h i c h a r e k n o w n i n a ge n e r a l w a y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e m ys
t e r i e s a n d fa c ts o f t h e C h r i st i a n fa i th b u t w h i c h f a i l t o r e c a ll
,

th e m t o t h e u n i n i t i a t e d b e h o l d e r i n a n y th i n g l i k e a d i st i n c t a n d
a c c u r a t e m a nn e r C h u r c h e s a r e d e d i c a t e d t o s a i n ts h i th e r t o u n
.

h e a r d o f ; a n d st r e e ts s o m e ti m e s l a rge c i t i e s b e a r th e i r n a m e s
, , .

Pi ct u re s e ve n o f s a i n ts b e st k n o wn a r e s e e n i n c h u r ch e s a n d
, , ,

a rt ga ll e r i e s c,o u p l e d wi t h i n c i d e n t s a n d s u rr o u n d i n gs th a t
fa i rl y be w i l d e r t h e m i nd .

N or n e e d on ero a d t o fe e l th u s p u zzl e d a n d p e r p l e x e d
g o a b .

Th e v e ry p i ctu r e s a n d p r i n ts c o p i e d fr o m t h e G re a t M a s t e r s
, ,

w h i c h a d o r n ou r o w n h o m e s a ff e ct u s s i m i l a rl y
,
I n t h e b ook s .

wh i c h l ie o n o u r t a b l e s i n t h e c o n t r i b u ti o n s o f t h e a r t c ri ti cs t o
,

o u r n e w s p a p e r s a n d m a ga z i n e s w e a r e c o n st a n t l l i h ti n o n
, y g g
r e fe r e n c e s t o n a m e s a n d fa cts o f w h i c h w e w a n t a m p l e r k n o wl

e dge . T h e y c o m e t o u s i n v e st e d w i th a h a l o o f s a n ct i ty a n d
m y s te ry, a n d w e l o n t o h a v e a t h a n d s o m e bo ok s i m l a n d
g p e ,
P R E F A CE .

a c ce s s i bl e ,
whi ch w i l l te l l us a ll a b ut o th e m ; an d t hi s i s j us t
o ur a i m fo l l o wi n g p a ge s
i n th e .

T h o u gh c o n t a i n i n g m u c h th a t b e l o n gs to h i st o ry p r op e r o ur ,

b ook d o e s n o t p r o fe ss t o b e i n a ll r e s p e cts a t r u e hi s t o r y o f

p e rs on s an d fa cts . I t s p u rp o s e i s r a th e r t o s h o w fo r t h the

c o n c e p t i o n o f th e m w h i c h i s e m b o di e d a n d i ll u st ra t e d i n a rt .

H i s t o r y a n d l e ge n d u n it e i n t h i s c o n c e p ti o n T h e a r t i st s i n d i

.

v i d u a l fa n c y m u s t a l s o b e a l l o w e d fo r I t w o ul d b e e x tre m e l y.

di ffic u l t t o i s o l a t e w h a t i s p u r e l y h i s t o r i c a l I t i s th u s i n a ll
r e c o r ds o f t h e p a s t T h e d i ffi c u l ty i s st i l l gre a t e r i n a ll r e l i gi o u s
.

n a rr a t i v e s s a v e o n l y t h e I n s p i re d Wr i ti ngs o n a c c o u n t o f t h e
, ,

m a r ve ll o u s w h i c h fo r m s a p a r t
,
o f th e m a n d w h i c h c a n b e ,

n e i th e r w h o ll y a c c e p t e d n o r w h o ll y re j e ct e d Wo n d e r s r e l a t e d .

i n t h e li v e s o f t h e s a i n ts w h i c h h a v e u n d o u b t e dl y a b a s i s i n
,

h i s t o r i c a l fa ct h a v e o ft e n c o m e d o w n t h e ye a r s e x a gge ra t e d
, ,

d i st o rt e d o r i n v e s t e d i n
,
s h o wy h u m a n c o l o r s — a s C a r d i n a l

,

N e wm a n w a rn s u s i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f T h e I n t e rn a l C h a r
a c t e r o f E c c l e s i as ti c a l M i ra c l e s e i th e r t h r o u gh t h e i n fir m i ty

,

o f c re d ul o u s o r o v e r z e a l o u s c h r o ni c l e rs o r th r o ugh t h e m a li c e o f
-

t h e e ne m i e s o f t h e C h u rch .

T h a t s o m e o f t h e m i ra c l e s a tt r i b u t e d t o t h e s a i n ts s h o u l d
h a v e be e n m e r e l y fa b l e d n e e d n o t s t a r t l e n or s c a n d a l i z e e v e n
,

t h e C a th o l i c r e a d e r n o r e x c i t e p r e j u di c e a ga i n s t t h e gre a t m a s s
,

w h i ch r e st o n e v i d e n c e a t l e a s t a s fir m a s th a t o n w h i c h w e a o

c e p t t h é r e c o r d s o f p r o fa n e h i st o r y ; fo r t o q u o t e a ga i n fr o m ,

t h e a b o v e n a m e d e m i n e n t a u th o ri ty
-
i t a s l i tt l e d e r oga te s fr o m
,

t h e s u p e r n a tu ra l gi ft r e s i d i n g i n t h e C h u rc h th a t m i ra c l e s s h o u l d

h a v e be e n fa b r i c a t e d o r e x a gge ra te d as i t p r e j u d i c e s h e r h o li n e ss
,

th a t w i th i n h e r p a l e goo d m e n a r e m i x e d w i th ba d .

A n a d d i ti o n a l d i ffi c u l ty a ris e s fr o m t h e fa c t th a t t h e o ri gi n a
to rs o f m a n y st ra n ge st o r i e s s uc h fo r e x a m pl e a s t h o s e w h i c h
, ,
P R E F A CE . ix

a re r e l a t e d o f S t Ch ri st op h e r S t H i l a r i o n S t N i c h o l a s o f M y ra
.
,
.
, .
,

St . G e o rge h
t e S o l d i e r —
S a i n t, etc .
, an d s om e of t h e won d e r -
ta le s
w h i ch h a ve ga th e re d a b o u t t h e r e c o r ds o f S t G re go ry t h e Gre a t .

c h o s e l i k e t h e G r e e k s o f o l d th a t m yth i c a l f o rm
,
o f n a rra t i o n
,

s i m p ly t o i n d i c a t e m o r e st r o n gl y s o m e m o ra l l e ss o n H e nc e .

th e y n e v e r a pp e a l e d t o t h e fa i t h o f t h e i r h e a re r s ; n o r d i d a n y
o f th e s e s a v e o n l y
, the m o st i gn o ra n t , ta ke th e st o ri e s i n th e i r
l i t e ra l se nse . F or th i s th o d o f p op u l a r i n s t ru c ti o n we h a v e
m e

e ve n a di v i ne p r e c e d e n t Ch,
r i s t h i m s e lf i n st r u c t i n g t h e

m u l t i t u d e by p a ra b l e s .

T h e d i ffic u l ti e s o f t h e h i st o r i a n h o w e v e r onc e rn o f , ,
are no c

o u r s We t e ll i n w o r d s t h e st o ry t ol d i n a r t a d d i n g o n l y a s
.
,

m u c h o f r e a l fa c t a s t h e m i n d n a t u r a l l d e s i r e s t o k n o w i n c on
y
n e c t i on w i t h t h e s u b e c t
j I n h e r o e s o f t h e .s u p e r n a t u r a l a s w e l l
a s o f t h e n a t u ra l o r de r ,

O ur e lde r broth e rs , an d of on e blood ,


we fe e l , so t o s p e a k a fa m i ly p ri d e n o t a l o n e f or th e i r a c t u a l
, ,

ac h i e ve m e n ts b u t e v e n f or t h e f o n d e x a gge ra ti o n s o f th e i r
,

d i s c i pl e s an d a d m i re rs .

As to wh a t m u st b e se t d o wn n m i st a k a b l y l e ge n da ry i n
as u ,

d e p e n de n t of its h e l p i ng to e l u c i d a t e t h e gr e a t w o rk s o f a r t i t ,

ha s o ft e n .
an i n t r i n s i c b e a uty of its o wn ,
an d i s d e e p l y i n t e r e st i n g
as i ll u st ra ti v e o f t h e r e l i gi o u s mi n d o f p a s t a ge s a ge s o f f a i t h ,

m o re a r d e n t th a n o u r o wn ,
w h i c h m e ri t e d a n d o ft e n w o n o p e n

an d e x t ra o r d i n a ry r e c o m p e n s e s .
TABL E OF CON T E N T S .

P A GE

L E GE N D S A N D S T OR I E S I L L US T R A T E D IN AR T 37

Q 0 O O 0 O O C O O O O O 0 O 0 O O
S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T .

ST . A U GU S T I N E c a ll s the re
p r e se n

t a t i on of a r t l i br i i d i ota r u m ( the
s

b o ok s of t h e a n d there is no

doubt t h a t t h e first obj e ct o f Chris t i a n


a r t wa s to t e a ch ; a n d t h e a i m of t h e
a rtist wa s t o r e nd e r t h e truth b e d e

si r e d to p r e s e nt without r e g a rd to t h e
b e a uty o f t h e r e p r e s e nt a ti o n : b e a d
h er e d t o t h e a ctu a l a n d ga v e n o p l a y
,
r

t o i m a gin a tion or ae sth e ti cs B ut l a t e r .

i n its h istory th is a r t h a s b e e n i n fl u
,

e n c e d by l e g e nds a n d doctrin e s i n t h e
r q
ch oic e o f subj e cts a n d th e s e h a v e b e e n
,

v a riously r e nd e re d i n a ccord a nc e w ith


,

X
) t h e ch a r a ct e r t h e ae sth e ti c cultiv a tion
,

a n d t h e r e fi n e m e nt o f t h e a rtist Bu t .
,

fro m i t s i nfa ncy to th e p res e nt tim e ,

t h e r e h a v e b e e n c e rt a in ch a r a ct e ristic figur e s a ttribut e s o r symbo l s


, ,

wh ich h a v e m a de a p a rt o f t h e l a ngu a g e o f w h a t m a y b e c a ll e d
C hris t i a n A r t T h e s e a r e m e a n ingless — o r wors e p e rh a ps a de
.


,

formity to t h e e ye o f on e wh o und e rst a nds t h e m not ; b ut th e y


a d d mu ch to t h e p o we r o f a r e pr e s e nt a tion to t h e d e pth of s e nti m e nt
,

a n d e x p r e ssion w h e n righ t ly a ppr e hend e d T h e s e symbo l s a r e u s e d


.

in t wo wa ys — to e x pr e ss a g e n e ra l fa ct o r s e nti m e nt or a s the
, ,

e s p e ci a l a ttrib ut e or ch a r a ct e risti c of t h e p e rson r e p r e s e nt e d My .

p re s e nt l im its a ll o w b ut a n i m p e rfe ct a n d sup e rfi ci a l c onsid e ra tion


of this subj e ct .
2 f;
a
r <

g rag
s s oz rsM I N AR T .

1 . G EN E R A L S Y M B OL S .

T H E GL O R Y , A U R E O LE , AND r e p re s e nt l ight o r brigh t


N m an s ,
a ll

n e ss a n d a r e t h e symbols of sa nctity T h e n i mb us surro unds t h e


,
.

h e a d ; t h e a ure ol e e ncirc l e s t h e who l e body a n d the gl o ry is t h e ,

un ion of t h e n imbus a n d a ur e o l e T h e n i mb us b e l o ngs to a l l holy


.

p ersons a n d s a ints as we l l a s to t h e r e p res e nt a tions o f d ivin ity T h e .

a u reole strict l y sp e a k ing b e l ongs only to t h e p e rsons o f th e G odh e a d ;


, ,

b ut t h e Virgin M a ry i s i nv e st e d wit h i t ( 1 ) w h e n s h e ho l ds the ,

S a viou r in h e r a rms ( 2) i n p i ctur e s o f t h e A ssum p tion ( 3) w h e n


, ,

s h e i s r e pr e sent e d a s t he int e rc e ssor for h um a nity a t t h e l a s t j udg

ment ,
w h e n r e p r e s e nt e d a s th e W om a n o f t h e A p oc a lyps e .

T h e a ure ol e h a s a lso b e e n used a s a symbo l o f t h e a p oth e osis of holy


p ersons ; b ut this i s a d e gen e ra t ion from its origin a l d e sign a n d t h e
u s e a ssign e d it in a n ci e nt tr a d ition s The glory a lso belongs e sp e
.

c i a l l y to Go d a n d t h e Virgin T h e obl o ng a ure ol e is c a ll e d i n L a ti n


.
, ,

ve si c a p i s c i s ; in It a l i a n t h e m a n d o r l a (a l m o nd )
,
T h e cruciform or .

tri a ngul a r n imb us or t h e figu r e of a cross i n t h e n i mbus b e l ongs


, ,

p ro p erl y to t h e p e rsons o f th e T rin ity ; t h e n i mbu s of s a ints a n d


l e ss e r b e ings should b e circ u l a r A squ a r e n i mbu s i s u sed for .

p ersons still l i ving wh e n t h e r e p re s e nta tion wa s m a de ; th e h e x


a gon a l n i mb u s for a ll e gori c a l p e rson a g e s T h e s e symbo l s did not '
.

a pp e a r in Christi a n a r t u ntil t h e fi fth c e nt ury a n d d uring t h e fif ,

t e e n t h a n d sixt e e nth c e nturi e s th e y d is a p p e a re d T h e y a r e h o wever .


, ,

e mploy e d i n th e pres e nt d a y a lthough not w i th th e c a reful d istin o


,

tion i n th e e mp l oym e n t o f t h e v a riou s forms w h ich ch a ra cteri zed


th e ir e a rl i e st u s e T h e color o f th e s e symbo l s in pa in t ing i s go l d e n
.
,

o r th a t w h ich r e p r e s e nts l ight ; i n som e inst a nces i n m ini a t ur e s or ,

on gl a ss th e y a r e o f v a rious co l ors D id r o n bel iev e s th e s e t o b e


,
.

symbol ic a l b ut is not sur e o f t h e sign i fic a tion of t h e col ors


,
.

T H E FISH A fi sh most fre qu e ntly a do l p h in w a s t h e e a rl iest


.
, ,

a n d most u ni v e rs a l of t h e C hristi a n symbo l s I t h a s sev e ra l sigui .

fic a t i o n s T h e G r e e k word for fi sh I X O Y E i s com p osed of t h e


.
, ,

i ni ti a l l e tters of t h e G re e k I no o fic Xp w r o c @ 6 0 53 W69 S um jp t h e
’ ’

, , ,

L a ti n tra nsl a tion of wh ich i s J e su s Christu s D e i fil i u s S a l v a tor

, , ,

- th us fo r m ing t h e in iti a l a n a gr a m of th is title of J esus


; a n d th e s e
ch a ra ct e rs a r e found i n m a ny a ncient inscri ptions a n d u p on works o f
a rt . T h e fish is a n e mb l e m of wa t e r a n d t h e s a c ra m e nt o f b a p tism
S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . 3

o f t h e voc a tion o f t h e Christi a n a postl e or fi sh e r o f m , sp e ci a lly en ,



e

i n th e h a nds of M t e r an d e m in e n t ly —
s ucce ssf u l

%
_ _

in W m e i
-
t is e mb l e m a ti c of Christi a ns g e n e r a lly th ey ,

b e i n g l ik e n e d to fi sh i n t h e c a ll of t h e A postl e s (M a tt i v an d . .

a lso t ypifi e d by t h e m ir a culous dra ugh t of fish e s (John But


it i s not tru e th a t t h e fi sh i s a l wa ys a Christi a n emble m 3 a ccord ing
to D i dr on it is n e v e r m e t a s su ch i n G re e k a r t a n d h e b e l iev e s th a t
,

th is e mbl e m on t h e tombs i n t h e c a t a combs a t R om e signifi e d t h e


o ccup a tion of t h e p e rson b uri e d i n th e m .

T H E 0 3 0 8 8 h a s a d e e p e r m e a ning t h a n t h a t of oth e r symbo l s ;


i t i s i n a c e rt a in s e ns e not m e r e l y t h e instrum e nt o f t h e su ffe rings
o f Christ , but h i ms e l f su ff e rin g — 24 6i c r u x e st m a r tyr In
C hristi a n i con o gr a p hy t h e cross holds a most i mport a nt pl a c e .

A ccord ing t o t h e t ra dition o r l eg e n d of t h e T ru e Cross i t w a s c c ,

e xist e nt w ith th e worl d a n d w ill a pp e a r at t h e


, l a st j u dgment .

Ch os r oe s b e l i e v e d th a t in p oss e ssin gth e cross of Christ h e possesse d


t h e S a viour a n d s o i t wa s e nthron e d a t h is right h a nd
,
T h us i n .

e a rly r e pr e s e nt a tion s o f t h e thre e p e rson s of th e G odh e a d the cross

without t h e figur e wa s consi d e r e d not only to r e c a ll Christ to t h e


m ind ,
b ut a ctu a l ly to sh o w h i m T h e re a r e fo ur di ff e re nt l y fo rm e d
.

cross e s : T h e L a t in or R om a n C ross
, ,

( )
1 is b e l i e v e d to b e l ik e th a t o n
w hi ch Chri st su ff e r e d a n d i s t h e
,

o n e pl a c e d in t h e h a nd of a s a int .

T his cross i s i n t h e form of a m a n


w ith th e a rm s e xtend e d 3 t h e d i s
t a nc e from t h e h e a d to t h e shou l d e rs
b e i n g l e ss th a n from t h e shou l d e rs
t o t h e feet a n d t h e l e ngth o f t h e
,

a rms l e ss th a n th a t of t h e w ho l e

figur e . T h e Gr e e k Cross (2) h a s ( 3 ( 4

f our equ a l br a nch e s . T h e C ross o f


S t A ndre w (3) i s a cross s a l ti e r o r a n X 3 a n d t h e E gyp ti a n or
.
, ,


Tau ”
,
C ross ( 4 ) h a s b ut t hre e bra nch e s l ike th e l e tt e r T T hi s
,
.

l a st is a l so c a ll e d S t A ntho n y s Cross b e c a us e th is s a int i s r e pr e


.

,


s e nted with a crutch i n the sh a p e of the T a n a n d i t i s e m b r o i

,

d e red on his v e stm e nts It i s a lso a ssign e d a s t h e cross o f the Ol d


.

T e st a m e nt a n d t h e bra z e n s e rp e nt is r e p r e s e nt e d o n a po l e with thi s


,
4 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T .

form T h e Pa tri a rch a l Cross is of t h e sa m e sh a p e a s t h e La tin Cro ss


.
,

b ut h a s two hori zont a l b a rs T h e r e a r e n um ero us v a rieti e s of t h e


.

G r e e k a n d L a tin cross e s such a s the M a lt e s e Cross t h e Cross o f


, ,

Dor a t a n d v a rio us others w h ich p e rt a i n i n som e c a s e s to c e rt a in 10


,
.

ca l it ie s T h e cross i s often i nt e rl a c e d or combin e d w ith t h e fi rst two


.

l e tters of th e n a m e o f Christ in G r e e k T his m onogr a m i ts e l f i s c a ll e d


.

t h e L a b a ru m o r t h e Cr o ss of Const a ntin e th i s being t h e form of t h e


, ,

l e g e nd a ry cross w h ich h e s a w i n the sky a n d w h ich wa s inscrib e d a c , ,

cording t o E u s e bi us E N T O Y T Q N I KA ( Conqu er by
,

F re
qu e ntly wh e n t h e cross wa s m a d e o f gold or si l v e r t h e five wounds
, ,

of Christ we re re p re s e nt e d by ins e rting in it a s m a ny c a rbuncl e s or


rubi es th e r e b e ing o n e in t h e c e ntr e a n d o n e at e a ch e xtr e m ity
,
.

T H E L AM B h as b e e n a n e mbl e m of t h e S a v iour from the e a rl i e st


p e riod of C hristi a n a rt It w a s th e t ype of h i m i n th e O ld T est a
.

m ent a n d t h e n a m e giv e n h i m by S t Joh n t h e B a pti st ( J oh u i


,
. .

7 W h e n st a nding b e a ring t h e cross o r a b a nn e r w ith a n imbus a bout


, ,

i th e h e a d it i s t h e L a mb of Go d a n d i s fre qu e nt l y inscri b e d E cce


, ,

A gn u s D e i T h e T wel v e A p ost l es a r e r e p r e s e nt e d by a s m a ny l a mbs ;


.

w h il e t h e t h irt e e n th t h e symbo l o f C hri st b e a rs t h e cross o r h a s a


, ,

, n imbu s a bo ut the h e a d a n d is fre qu e nt l y l a rg e r th a n t h e o th e rs


,
.

) {

l h

e l a mb c a ll e
, d t h e A p oc a lypti c L a mb h a s s e v e n horn s a n d s e v e n
,

e yes ( R e v v T h e l a m b i s a l so a g e n e r a l symbo l o f mod e sty

e
. .
,
\
i t y a n d innoc e n ce a s w h e n m a de t h e a ttrib ut e of S t A gnes
, , . .

T H E L I O N i s a noth e r symbo l of Christ t h e ”


Lion of J ud a h an d
, ,

i s som e ti m e s r e pre s e nt e d w ith a cruciform n i mb us A ccording t o .

a n E a st e rn tr a d ition t h e cu b of t h e l ion is born d e a d a n d i s l ick e d


, ,

by its sire u ntil i t com e s t o l ife on t h e t h s sym


b ol i c a l o f th e r e s urr e ction I t is giv e n . other
.

h e rm i ts a s t h e e mblem o f s ol itud e ; to thos e t he


a m ph ith e a tre a s th e symbo l o f th e ir d e a th 3 a n d is p l a ced a t t h e feet

o f som e to d e not e th e ir coura ge a n d fo rt itud e u nder t h e su ff e rings


o f m a rt r d o m .

T H E P EL IC A N wh o t e a rs o p e n h e r bre a st to fe e d h e r young with


,

h e r b l ood i s t h e e mb l e m of o u r redem ption through t h e su ff erings


,

i s a lso a s ym bo l o f t h e E u ch a rist .

O N i s the symbol o f S a ta n a n d sin I t is re p re se nt e d .

by C hri sti a n ity a s in t h e l e gends o f S t M a rga r e t S t


,
.
, .

r ge a n d S t S y l v e st e r
, I n t h e l e g e nd o f S t M a rth a
. . .
S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T . 5

it r e p re s e nts a fl oo d a n d p e sti l e nc e T h e j a ws o f h e ll a r e r e pr e .
“ ”

s e nt e d by t h e o p e n mouth of a dra gon e m itting fl a m e s .

T H E S E RP EN T a noth e r e mb l e m of sin i s som e ti m e s pl a c e d b e n e a th


, ,

t h e fe et of t h e Virgin ; som e ti m e s t win e d a r o u nd a glob e to i ndi ,

c a t e th e po we r of sin ov e r the e ntir e world In som e symbolic .

p icture s of t h e Cru ci fixion t h e s e rp e nt l i e s d e a d a t t h e foot of th e


cross or i f a l i v e l ook ing im p ot e ntly u p a t the s e cond A d a m upon
, , ,

t h e tree of our s a lv a tion a s befor e a ccording to a r t he look e d tri


, , ,

u m ph a n t l y do wn u pon o ur first p a r e nts from t h e tr e e of our fa ll



, .

" T H E H I N D O R H AR T i s t h e e spe c ia l a ttribut e of E ust ae ]


c
2

t : H u b e i t It w a s m a d e t h e symbol y


ion e s ing e r of Isra e l (Ps a l m
a n d i s a l so an e mbl e m o f sol itud e a n d h e rmit l ife .

T H E U N I C OR N T his fa b ulous cre a tur e w a s s a i d t o b e a bl e to


.

e v a d e a l l p ursuers e xc e p t a v irgin of p e rf e ct purity i n h e a rt m ind , ,

a n d life . It i s giv e n a s a n a ttrib ut e only t o t h e Virgin a n d S t J u s .

t i n a a n d is t h e e mb l e m of fe m a l e ch a stity
,
.

T H E P E A C O C K i s s e e n on tombs s a rc op h a gi a n d a m o ng fun e r e a l
, ,

e mb l e ms . It sym b o l iz e s t h e ch a ng e from l ife to immo rt a l ity I t .

wa s borr o we d from p a ga n a r t w h e re it r e pr e s e nt e d the a p otheosis o f


,

a n e m p r e ss It w a s t h e b ird of Jun o b u t wa s not the symbo l o f


.
,

p rid e until mod e rn ti m e s .

T H E D OV E i s t h e e mb l e m o f t h e s o u l w h e n r e p r e s e n t ed a s i ssu ing
from t h e m outh of t h e dying ; a n e mb l em of p uri ty when given to
t h e V i r gi n a n d c e rt a i n fe m a l e s a i nts ; a lso th e symbo l of t h e Holy
'

Ghost a n d of spiritu a l ins p ir a t i on It symbol iz e s t he d ivine S pirit


.

wh e n it h ov e rs o v e r holy m e n a s t h e e mb l e m of their h e a v e n sent


,
-

inspir a tion ; a n d i s s e e n in p ictur e s o f th e B a p tism o f C hrist t h e ,

P e nt e cost , a n d t h e A nn u nci a t io n .

T H E O L I V E a s t h e e mbl e m of pe a c e
, ,

i s gi v e n to t h e A r ch a n ge l Ga bri e l a n d
t o som e s a ints I t i s s e e n upon th e
.

tombs of m a rtyrs a n d i s someti m e s ,

born e by t h e a nge l s wh o a nn o unc e t h e


n a tivity .

T H E P ALM T h e u s e of t h e p a l m
.

a s th e symbol of m a rtyrdo m is a u
t h or i z e d by S criptur e ( R e v vi i . .
6 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T .

I t is p l a c e d in
“ ”
It b e longs to a l l t h e nobl e a rm y o f m a r tyrs .

their h a nds a n d c a rved on their to mbs I t is som e tim e s brough t t o .

them by a ngels a s if from h e a v e n i t s e lf I t i s v e r y m uc h v a ried f

i n form a n d siz e .

T H E L I L Y w h e r e v e r s e e n h a s b u t o n e sign ific a ti o n w h ich i s


, , ,

ch a stity a n d p urity I t b e l ongs e s pe .

c i a lly to p ictur e s o f t h e A nn unci a tion


a n d to S t J os e p h w hos e rod wa s sa id
.
,

t o h a v e p u t forth l i l i e s .

F RU IT 0 R F L O W E R S a lthough f r a ,

qu e nt l y e m p l oy e d m e r e l y a s o r n a men ts ,

h a v e und e r c e rt a i n circumst a nc e s d if
, ,

f e r e n t s ign i fic a t i o n s A s t h e a p pl e i s .

a n e m b l e m o f t h e fa ll i n P a r a d is e i n m a ny p i ctur e s so wh e n p r e
, ,

sent e d to t h e infa nt S a v iour o r i n h i s h a nd i t sign ifi e s r e d e m p


, ,

t ion . R os e s a r e il l ustr a ti v e o f t h e l e g e nds of S t E liz a beth o f .

H u n g a ry S t C e cil i a a n d S t D oroth e a a n d a typ e o f t h e Virgin


,
.
, .
,

“ ”
as t h e R os e o f S h a ron A b ursting pom e gr a n a t e i s t h e symbol
.

o f a h o p e fu l futur e A n y fruit in t h e h a n d o f S t C a th e rin e i s a


. .

“ ”
sym bo l o f t h e fruit o f th e S p iri t .

T H E L A M P LA N T E R N O R T A P E R is most fr e qu e nt l y t h e symb o l of
, ,

p i e ty B ut t h e l a m p a s t h e a ttribut e of S t Lu ci a sign i fi e s h e a v e n l y
.
,
.
,

w isdom or S piri tu a l l igh t


, .

F I R E A N D F L AM E S a r e e mb l e ms o f z e a l a n d fe r vo r o f s o u l o r o f ,

t h e su fferings of m a rtydom .

T H E F L AM I N G H E A R T i s symb o l ic a l o f fe r v e n t p i e ty a n d s p iritu a l
love .

T H E C R O W N wh e n on t h e h e a d o f t h e M a donn a m a k e s h e r t h e
, ,

Q u e e n of H e a v e n a n d R egin a A n ge l o r u m .

W h e n th e a ttribut e o f a m a rtyr i t signifi e s ,

th e vi ctory ov e r sin a n d d e a th o r d e notes ,

th a t t h e s a in t wa s of roy a l b l ood 3 i n t h e l a t
t e r c a s e i t i s u su a ll y p l a ced a t t h e fe e t A m ong .

: t h e Jews th e crown wa s t h e orn a m en t o f a


bHde a n d to t h e pres e nt ti m e i t is p l a ced on
,

th e h e a d of a n u n w h en con s e cra t e d a s t h e Bri de


of Christ F or th is re a son i t i s m ore frequ ently
.

se e n on t h e h e a ds of fe m al e sa ints w h i l e th ose ,
8 S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T .

T H E A N CHOR is on e of
r l i e st Chri st i a n sym bo l s It i s s e e n
the ea .

i n the c a t a combs a n d o n v e ry a nci e n t ge m s It is t h e e mbl e m o f .

i mmov a bl e ho p e a n d untiring p a tienc e It is a n a ttribut e of som e .

s a ints in ill ustra tion of th e ir l e g e nds a s i n t h e c as e o f S t C l e m e nt , . .

T H E S Y M B O LS O F T HE P A SS I O N A N D C R U C I F I X I O N a r e n u m e rous 3
a n d a lthough r a r e ly s e e n i n t h e c a t a combs a n d i n e a r l y sc ul p tur e ,

th ey a re const a ntly foun d i n ch urch e s T h e y a r e th e t wo swords of .


,

the A p ostl e s t h e e a r o f M a l ch u s S t P e ter s sword t h e p ill a r a n d


, , .

cord t h e scourge t h e cro wn of th o rns t h e thre e d i c e t h e s p e a r t h e


, , , , ,

spong e t h e n a i l s t h e cross t h e th irt y p i e c e s of si l v e r t h e h a m m e r


, , , ,

a n d pincers t h e l a dd e r t h e l a nt e rn t h e box e s o f s p ic e for e mb a l m


, , ,

i n g t h e s e a m l e ss g a rm e nt , t h e p urs e a n d t h e c ook T h e five wo unds


, , .

a r e r e p r e s e nt e d by t h e h a nds a n d fe e t w ith a h e a rt i n t h e c e ntre ,

e a ch p ierc e d with o n e wound 3 or by a h e a rt a l on e W ith five wo unds ,


.

E A RS O F C OR N A N D B U N C HE S O F G RAP E S were symbo l s o f t h e b r e a d ,

a n d w in e o f t h e H o l y E u ch a rist ; w h i l e t h e r e p r e s e nta tions of th e

l a bors o f t h e v i n t a g e we re ty p ic a l o f thos e o f C hristi a ns in t h e v ine


y a rd o f t h e L o rd T h e v i n e o r v in e l e a f wa s a n e mb l e m o f t h e
.

S a vi ou r t h e t ru e vi n e
, .

T H E C A N DE L AB R UM wa s a n e mb l e m o f C hri st a n d h is C h urch t h e ,

l igh t o f t h e wo rl d W i th s e v e n bra nch e s i t r e fe rs t o t h e s e v e n gi fts


.

o f th e S pirit or to t h e s e v e n ch u rch e s
, ( R e v i . .

L ITT LE N A KE D B OD I E S a r e t h e symbo l s of t h e so u l s o f m e n a n d ,

a r e s e e n i n pi c t ur e s of S t M ich a e l wh e n h e i s r e presented a s the I ntro


.

d uctor of sou l s T h e y a r e a l so p l a c e d i n t h e h a nd wh ich symboliz e s


.

G o d t h e F a th e r .

II . S Y MB OL I S M OF CO L OR S .

In a n ci e nt a r t e a ch co l or h a d a mysti c se n s e or symbo l ism ; a n d


its p roper use wa s a n i mport a n t consid e ra tion a n d c a re ful ly s t u d ied , .

W H IT E i s worn by t h e S a v iour a ft e r h i s r e s u rr e ction by the V irgi n ,

in represen t a tion s o f t h e A ssum p tion by wom e n a s the e m bl e m o f ,

ch a stity by rich ,
i ndic a t e h u m i l ity a n d by the j udg e a s t h e ,

s y mbol of integri re pr e s e nted s ometim e s by si l v e r or t h e


d i a mon d ; a n d i ts s e ntim e nt i s p urity vi r gi n i t fl i fin oc e n c e fa ith j oy
M

, , , ,

col or of t h e ruby s p e a k s o f roy a l ty , ,


fir e ,d ivin e l o v e ,

t he Hol y S p ir it cre a ti v e po we r a n d h e a t I n a n
, ,
. O p o s it e s e ns e i t
p
S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . 9

symbolized blpq d wa r a n d R e d a n d bl a c k combin e d we re t h e


, ,

colors of S a t a n purga tory a n d evil spirits R e d a n d w h it e roses a r e


, , .

emblems of lov e a n d innoc e nc e or lov e a n d wisdo m a s i n t h e ga rl a nd , ,

of S t Ceci l i a
. .

B L U E th a t o f t h e s a p ph ire sign i fi e d h e a v e n h e a v e n l y l ov e a n d
, , ,

truth const a ncy a n d fidelity C hris


,
.

bl u e m a ntle 3 S t J ohn a bl u e tun ic .


, .

G R EEN t h e e m e r a l d t h e c o lor o f s p ring e x p r e ss e d ho p e a nd l


, , ,

the e o f Go d ,

m arri a ge a n d f r u i t f u l n e s
,
y e llo w .

Y e llo w h a s a ls o a d ingy h u e ,

such a s the u su a l dr e ss o f J ud a s a n d , th e n sign ifi e s j e a lo usy i n c on ,

st a n c y a n d d e c e it
,
.

V I O LE T O R A M E T H Y S T signifi e d p a ss ion an d su ff e ring o r lov e a n d ,

P e n it e nts a s t h e I M a gdal éhE m tl


'

t ruth .
, T h 5i M a donn a w e a rs

d R AY Is the co l o r o f p e n a nc e , mourn i n g h u mil ity o r


, ,
a ccus e d
innoc e nc e .

B L A C K w i th wh it e sign ifi e d h u mility mo urn ing a n d p urity of l ife , , .

A l on e i t s p o k e o f d a rk n e ss w ick e dn e ss a n d de a th a n d b e longed to
, , , ,

S a ta n In p ictur e s o f t h e T e m p t a tio n J e sus som e tim e s we a rs bl a ck


. , .

III . S Y M B OL S OF GOD T H E F A T H E R .

h H

B e for e t h e t we lft h c e nt ury th e re we re no p o rt ra its o f Go d t h e


F a th er a n d t h e symbo l u s e d t o ind ic a t e h is p res e nc e wa s a h a nd
,

issu ing fro m th e c l ouds T his h a n d wh e n e ntire l y open i s in t h e a c t


.

o f best o w ing a n d h a s ra ys from e a ch fi n ge r I t wa s g e n e ra lly r e pr e


, .

sented i n th e a c t of b e nediction 3 a n d t h e position show e d w hether i t \

belonged to E a st e rn or W estern or to G re e k or L a tin a r t — for t h e , ,


bene d ictory gesture d i ff ers i n th e t wo ch urch e s In t h e G re e k .

C hurch it is p e rform e d w ith t h e forefinger e ntire ly o p e n t h e middle ,

fing e r slightly b e nt t h e th u mb cross e d u pon t h e th ird fing e r a n d t h e


, ,

little finge r bent T h is mov e ment a n d position of th e five finge rs


.


form more or less p e rfect l y th e monogra m of t h e S o n of Go d T he .

L a tin benediction i s gi ven w ith th e th ird a n d l ittle fi ng e rs c l os e d t h e ,

th u m b a n d t h e o th e r t wo fi ng e rs r e m a ining op e n an d stra i gh t T h is .
10 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T .

i s s a id to symbol iz e th e thr e e person s of t h e T rin ity by t h e op e n


fi n ge r s a n d the tw o n a t ures of C hrist by th e clos e d T h e h a nd i s
, .

frequently s urrounded by th e cr u ciform n i mbus w hich i n th e e a rly ,

cent uries wa s gi ven to G o d a lon e T h e h a nd i s most fr equently s e en .

i n pictures of th e B a ptis m o f Ch r is t 3 t h e A gony i n t h e G a rd e n ; i n


'

th e Crucifixion w h e re i t is p l a c e d on the s um m it of t h e cross in th e


,

a c t of benedi ction ; a n d w h e n J esus is represented a s re a sc e nding to

h e a ven a fter h is de a th b e a ring t h e cross i n h is h a n d t h e righ t h a n d


, ,

of th e F a th e r i s e xt e nd e d t o h i m a s i f in a m a nn e r to a ssist h i m t o


rise . I n a noth e r repr e s e nt a tion o f the h a nd of G o d it i s fi ll e d w ith
l ittle n a ked figures w hos e h a nds a r e j oin e d a s if i n pra yer T h e s e .

a r e t h e soul s of th e righ t e o us w ho h a v e r e turned to G o d .

T h e n e xt symbo l o f t h e F a th e r w a s a fa c e i n the clouds th e n a ,

bust ; a n d gr a d u a l ly by th e end o f th e fou rt e e nth c e ntury a figur e


a n d distin ct ch a r a ct e ristics r e p res e nt e d t h e fi rs t person of t h e Go d

h e a d I n t h e b e gi nn ing there wa s l ittl e o r no d istin ction bet w e e n


.

th e r e pr e sent a t ions of t h e F a th er a n d S on 3 b ut gra d u a l ly t h e F a th e r


w a s m a d e old e r W h ile the pl a ce of honor t h e roy a l cro wn o n h is h e a d
, , ,

a n d th e glob e i n h is h a n d indi c a ted a su perior d ignity a n d consid e r


1
a t ion . F ro m th is tim e to th a t of t h e R en a iss a nce h o we ver t h e , ,

repr e s e nt a tion s of G o d w e re b ut l itt l e more than thos e of a p o pe or


ki ng ; t he tri pl e ti a ra wa s inde e d incr e a s e d by t h e a ddition of t w o
m ore cro wn s a n d w h e n i n t h e g a rm e nts o f a k ing a n i mbus e ncircl e d
,

t he cro wn W ith t he ae sth e ti c g e n i u s a n d progr e ss of t h e R e n a is


.

s a n ce w ith M ich a el A ng e lo P e rugino a n d R a ph a el c a m e r e pre s e nt a


, , , ,

tions of G o d th a t m or e s a tisfa ctorily e mbody th a t m ent a l concep t ion


w h ich c a n n e ver b e e mbod i e d t h e con cept ion o f G o d of J eho va h
, , ,

th e Cre a tor a n d A nci e nt of d a ys B ut a t l e ngth i t c a m e t o be re me m


.

bered th at n o p e rson a l r e present a tion of t h e F a ther should e ver be


m a de N o mort a l m a n h a th s een or c a n s e e h i m ; a n d Jesus being
.
,

t h e Word w a s t h e s p e e ch of G o d a n d wa s t h e fi tting r e present a tio n


, ,

of t h e F a th e r W hen e v e r h e h a d s p o k e n S inc e t h e sixteenth cent ury .

the F a th er h a s b e e n symbol ized by th e tri a ngl e w h ich i s h i s l ine a r ,

e mblem or som e other g e om e tric a l fig u re inscribed w ith h is n a m e


, ,

a n d su r rounded w ith r a ys of l ight T h is r a d i a ting c ircl e i s i tsel f a n


.

e mb l e m of eternit y S ometi mes a flood or bl a ze o f l igh t a lone is


.

t h e symbol of th e

a ppe a ra nc e of brightness wh i ch the pro p h e t
1 Ch ris t as G od , e qua l t o t h e Fa he t r as m a n , i n f e r i or t o t h e F a th e r .
S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . 11

d e scrib e s (E ze k v ii i 2 ) 3 but th e tri a ngle bec a m e extrem e ly popul a r


. .

on a cco unt of t h e i de a s or t e a ch ing w hich i t embodied Here th e .

F a th e r represented by h i s n a me i n H e bre w occupi e d t he centre of


, , ,

t h e tri a ngle w hi ch symbol iz e d t h e T rin ity a n d a ll wa s cont a ined i n ,

t h e circle of E ternity .

T h is a bstrus e symbo l i s oft e n s e e n i n t h e decor a tions of th e


ch urch e s o f t h e p re s e nt da y a n d u p on t h e v e stm e nts of bish op s .

IV . S Y M B OL S O F GO D T H E S ON .

T he u su a l symbol s of C hrist h a ve b e e n m e ntioned u n d e r th e h e a d


of gen e ra l symbols 3 for th e y a r e c a p a bl e of v a rious s ign ific a t i on s a n d ,

a r e e mploy e d a s a ttrib utes of s a ints or t o d e not e th e ir ch a r a cteristi cs .

T h e y a r e t h e glory a ur e ol e or n i mbu s th e fi sh cross l a m b a n d


, , , , , ,

l ion T h e tr a dition s of th e e a rl iest p ortra i ts of C hrist w ill b e foun d


.

by r e ferring t o the leg e nds of K ing A h ga r u s a n d S t Veron i c a F rom . .

t h e beginning of Christi a n a r t C hrist h a s been re p resented by por


,

t r a its r a th e r t h a n sy m bols a n d i n such a m a nn e r a s to r e nd e r them


,

qu i t e unmist a k a bl e I n t h e e a rl i e st repr e s e nt a tions of t h e Cruci fixion


.
,

it w a s s urround e d with v a rious symbols 3 a n d t h e a i m of t h e a rtists


w ho p a inted th e m wa s to p ortr a y the myst e rio us de a th w h ich convulsed
N a ture r a ised t h e d e a d
, ,

s e nt e d by th e cl a ssi c figur e s of S o l a n d Lu n a w ith t h e ra ys a n d i


,
H

e I n 1 e 1 r or s s ur r o u n e wi t h clo uds w ith th eir


right b a n 8 r a ised to t h e ch e e a n a n cient si n of sorro w A ga in .
,

t e y ore torc es re v e rs e d F igures a r e s e e n r i s i n from tombs a n d


.
_

rom the w a ter S ho wing th a t th e d e a d sh a ll ris e from s e a a n d l a nd


,
.

E a rth a n d Oce a n a r e a l so symboliz e d In o n e a ncient i vory E a rt h .


,

is h a lf nude a n d sits beside a tr e e ; in o n e h a nd she holds a corn u


copi a t h e symbol of a b und a n c e w h ile a s e rp e nt n urses at her bre a st
, , ,

th e e mbl e m of l ife nourish e d by th e e a rt h T he oc e a n is a s a ri ver .

god rid i n g on a dol ph in or hold ing a s u b ve r t e m


, ,
fif fim
w a ter po urs forth .T h e ch urch a n d th e syn a gog u e a r e t y pifi ed by
fem a les ; t h e o n e on the right or pl a c e of honor th e ch urch holds a , ,

b a nn er a n d g a zes u p a t t h e S a viour w hile on th e left t h e syn a gogu e


,

t u rn s h e r b a c k a s if r e b e ll ious T h e Virgin a n d S t J ohn a r e e v e r


. .
12 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T .

pres e n t a t t h e cruci fi xion from e a rl iest to l a t est tim e T h e ir h a nds


, .

a re often ra i sed to th e cheek i n t ok e n of a ffl iction a n d th e d isci pl e ,

be a rs th e G ospel i n h is h a nd A ngels someti mes h ol d a crown a bove


.

th e he a d of Christ or h a ng fro m the cross i n a tti tudes of a n gu ish


, .

T h e presenc e of the F a ther i s sho wn by t h e h a nd be for e desc r ibed ,

w h ich hold s the crow n or i s i n t h e a c t of b l essing Oth er sy mbol s .

a r e th e s e rpent twined a bout th e foot of th e cross ; t h e p el ic a n te a r

ing her br e a st t o feed h e r young a n e mble m of r e dem ption a l so of


, ,

th e s a cr a ment of t h e E u ch a rist ; a fem a l e figure crown e d with towers


su pposed to r e p resent J erus a l e m ; a sk u l l symbo l iz e s A d a m ; t h e
s a cri fice of a h eifer ty p i fi e s th e J e wish ri tes ; a n d som etimes t h e
E v a ngelists a r e represented wri ting th e ir G ospels w h il e thei r w ing e d ,

sym bols wh i sper in t heir e a rs T hes e a r e t h e m ost im port a n t a cces


.

s o r i e s of the symbol i c a l repr e s e nt a tion s of th e C ruci fix ion ; th e h i s t o r

i c a l e a sil y exp l a i n the msel v e s I n m a ny a n ci ent c r u c i fixi o n s t h e


.

figure of C hri s t is c l othed i n a rob e S om e h a d a dr a pery from t h e


.

h ips to th e k n e e s . T h e dra p e d figures a r e mostly i f n o t a l l of , ,

Byz a ntin e origin 3 a n d th e re is a legend w h ich i s gi ven a s a re a son


for th is mod e of r e pres e n t a tion : “
A p ri e st w ho h a d exh ibited to
t h e p eop l e a figur e o f C hrist only cinctured w ith a c l oth w a s v isited
by a n a pp a rition wh i ch s a id A l l y e go co vered w ith v a ri ous r a i ment
,

,

a n d me ye S ho w n a ked Go forth with a n d cov e r m e w i t h cloth ing



. .

T h e priest n o t u nderst a n ding wh a t wa s m e n t too k no n otice ; a n d


,
a
,

on t h e th ird d a y th e vision a ppe a red a g a in a n d h a ving scourg e d ,

h i m sever e ly w ith rods s a i d ,


H a v e I not tol d yo u to cover th e
,

w i th g a rments ? Go n o w a n d c o v e r w ith c l oth ing t h e p ic t ur e i n


wh ich I a p p e a r cruci fi e d

.

V . S Y M B OL S OF TH E H O L Y G HO S T .

F rom t h e s ixth century to t h e pres e nt ti m e t h e d o v e h a s b e e n ,

t h e cons t a nt a n d u n i v e rs a l symbo l of t h e H oly G host I t a ppe a rs i n .

ill ustra tions of th e S cri pture sc e n es in wh i ch th e Ho l y S pirit i s m e n


,

t i o n e d from the “
moving u pon t h e fa c e of t h e w a ters to t h e D a y o f
Pentecost T here a r e a lso m a ny repres e nt a tions of h i s a ppe a r a nc e i n
.

h istori c a l scenes a n d i n oth ers wh ic h a r e p a rtly or w holly l egend a r y


,
.

T h e dove is oft e n present a t the N a tivi t y a n d t h e A nn unci a t ion : it


i ss u e s fro m t h e rod of J os e p h th u s design a ting h i m to h e t h e spo us e
,
I B OL I S M
S YIV IN AR T . 13

of the Vi rgin ; i t h o v e rs a bov e t h e h e a ds of hol y m e n a n d s a ints ,

sho wing th a t th e ir inspira tion i s he a v e n sent — a mong these a r e -


,

D a vid S t John th e E v a ngel ist S t J e rom e S t T e r e s a a n d oth e rs


, .
, .
,
.
,
.

A noth er r e pr e se nt a tion i n tensely symboli c a l i s th a t of t h e S a viour


, ,

s urrounded by s e v e n dov e s 3 th e y a r e of sno wy w h it e ness a n d h a ve ,

th e crucifor m n i mbus ; th ey a r e e mbl e ms of t h e s e v e n gifts of t h e


S pirit w it h wh ich C hrist w a s e ndo we d —w isdom u nd e rst a nding, , ,

counsel strength kno wl e dg e pi e ty a n d fe a r ( I s a


, , , , T hese dov e s .

a r e frequ ently pl a ced w ith thr e e on e a ch sid e a n d one a t t h e top ,

th u s form ing a k in d of a ur e ol e I t m a y not be out of p l a c e to


.

obs e rv e th a t during th e M iddle A g e s s e v e n wa s e ste e m e d a mystic


n u mber T h e re w e re seven gifts of t h e Holy G host 3 s e v e n s a cra
.

ments ; s e v e n pl a nets ; s e v e n d a ys i n th e w eek ; seven bra nch e s


on the c a ndlesti c k of M oses ; s e v e n l ibera l a rts ; sev e n ch urch e s o f
A si a ; se v e n mysterio u s se a ls ; s e v e n st a rs a n d s e ven symbo l ic tru m
p e ts ; s e ven h e a ds of th e Dra gon ; s e v e n j oys a n d s e v e n sorro ws
of th e Virgi n ; s e ven pen it e nti a l ps a l ms ; sev e n de a d l y sins 3 s e v e n

c a noni c a l hours E v e n M oh a m med s a ys i n t h e Kor a n th at G o d
.
, ,


v isit e d th e skies a n d form ed th e r e s e v e n h e a v e ns
, ( Kor an ii .

S om e c a th e dra ls h a v e seven ch a p e ls a s th os e a t R h e i ms a n d Ch a rtr e s


,
.

D uring t h e ten t h century th e Holy G host w a s som e tim e s r e pr e


s e nted a s a m a n ; b ut thi s r e pr e s e nt a tion wa s n e v e r rec e i v e d w ith a s
m u ch fa vor a s th e oth er H e w a s m a de of e v e ry a g e from t h e
.
,

e a rl i e st to t h e l a t e st y e a rs of l ife A s a litt l e ch ild h e flo a t e d on t h e


.
,

wa ters ; a s a young child h e w a s i n t h e a rm s o f the F a th e r ; h is a ge


,

i s a ccording to the fa ncy o f t h e a rtist o r t h e suppos e d r e qu ir e m e nts ,

of the r e p res e nt a tion A mo n g t h e l e ge nd a ry p ictures in wh ich h e


.

wa s th us r e pr e s e nt e d i s th a t o f th e r e c e pt ion of C hrist in h e a v e n
, ,

a ft e r h is e a rthly m issio n wa s e nd e d ; t h e Ho l y G host i s s e a t e d


by t h e F a th e r a n d h a s a h oo k symb o l i zing w isdom He bl e ss e s
, , .

J e sus a s do e s t h e F a th e r ; h e a l so a ssists a t the coron a tion of th e


,

V irgin . I n som e in st a n c e s th e t wo r e pre s e nt a tion s of th e H oly


G h o st we r e co m bin e d by t h e figure of a m a n w ith a cl ov e on h is h e a d
or h a nd S til l a nother symbo l i s th a t o f a dov e from wh ich e m a
.

n a t e ra ys o f l ight S pr e a ding o ut in e v e ry dire ction forming a ra d i


, ,

a ting a ur e ol e a bo ut it T h e dov e is a lso o n e of t h e g e n e r a l symbo l s


.

of a r t a n d a s such is e mbl e m a tic a l of p urity a n d innoc e nc e w h ich


, ,

sign ifi c a tion wa s m a de m ost e mph a t i c by its u se a s t h e s a crifi c e


14 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T .

f or p urific a tion und e r ,


Je wi sh l a w A s be fore m e ntion e d it
the .
,

is t h e a ttri b ut e of c e r t a i n fe m a l e s a ints d e noting ch a stity a n d


,

p urity .

VI . S Y M B OL S OF T H E T R I N I T Y .

R e p re s e nt a tions o f t hei n O n e w e re e m p l oy e d i n
D i vin e T hr e e
a r t from its e a rl i e st a ges I t w a s symbo l iz e d by t h e combin a tion o f
.

thre e tri a ngl e s thre e circl e s thr e e fi sh e s a n d m a ny oth e r re p re s e nt a


, , ,

tions mor e obscure in th e ir m e a n ings I n l a t e r a r t th e thre e pe rson s .

o f t h e T rinity h a v e b e en r e pr e s e nt e d by t hr e e h um a n figur e s e a ch ,

w ith its s p e ci a l a ttribut e th a t of t h e H oly G h o st b e ing t h e dov e


, .

A noth e r mod e r e pres e nts t h e F a th e r a n d S on w ith the dov e b e tw e e n


th e m 3 i n t h e th irt e e nth a n d fourt e e nth c e nturi e s t h e dov e wa s oft e n
s e en hovering b e tw e e n the first a n d s e cond p e rsons of t h e T rin ity ,

w ith t h e t ips of t h e wings touch ing t h e l i ps of e a ch T h is r e p re se n .

t a t i on i s c a l l e d t h e d o uble p roc e ss i on of t h e S pirit ; il l us t r a tive of th e



w ords of t h e N ic e n e Cr e e d proc e e di n g fro m t h e F a th er a n d th e
,

T h is r e p r e sent a ti o n b e l ongs to t h e L a tin Ch urch



S on . I n th ese .

r e pr e s e nt a t ions wh e n t h e l oc a l ity i s h e a v e n t h e figur e s a r e a l wa ys


, ,

s e a t e d T h e r e is a d e vi c e c a ll e d t h e It a l i a n T rin ity wh ich wa s p o p


.
,

u l a r from t h e t we l fth t o t h e s e v e nt e e nth c e ntury I n th i s t h e F a th e r .

h o l ds a cru cifi x by t h e e nds o f t h e tra nsv e rs e b e a m t h e fi gure of ,

Christ h a nging b e t we en h i s kn e e s ; th e d o v e p roc e e ds dow nw a rd s


from t h e l i p s o f t h e F a th er a n d t o uch e s t h e h e a d of t h e S o n or is
, ,

m e re ly sitting on t h e cross S om e a tt e m pts h a v e b e e n m a de to


.

e mbody th is mystery by t h e r e pres e n t a tion of a body w ith th re e


,

h e a ds or a h e a d with thr e e fa c e s ; bu t th e y a r e only fri ght fu l a n d


,

monstrous .

VI I . S Y M B O L S O F A N GE L S .

A ccording to D i o n ysi us t h e A r e o p a gite th e re a r e t hre e di visions ,

of a ngels a n d th e s e e a c h d ivid e d into thr e e cl a ss e s o r choi rs m a k ing


, ,

n in e i n a l l
I C O U N CI LL O RS o r G o n consi st ing o f
.
,

1 T H E S E RAP H I M represented a s covered with ey e s


.
,
.

2 T H E C HE R U B I M represented w ith six w ings a n d u su a l ly st a n d


.
, ,

i ng on wh e e l s a cc o rding to t h e d escription of E z e k i e l S om e ti m e s
,
.
16 S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T .

the wh o wr e st l e d w ith J a cob a n d a pp e a r e d to C hrist d uring h i s


on e ,

a gony in th e g a rd en ; b ut others bel ieve th a t th is w a s G a brie l .

f J O
. P H I EL (

the be a uty of G o d th e gu a rd i a n of t h e tr e e of
knowledge a n d t h e one w ho drov e A d a m a n d E ve fro m the G a rden
,

o f E den th e prot e ctor of thos e wh o se e k truth the pr e c e ptor of the


, ,

sons of N o a h t h e en emy of a l l wh o p urs ue v a in knowledge


,
.

9 Z
. ADK I EL (

t h e righteou sn e ss of A ccord ing to som e

a uthorities h e st a y e d the h a n d of A br a h a m from s a crifi cing Is a a c ;


b ut oth ers bel i e v e th a t this w a s done by M ich a el .

Th e a ttributes of M i ch a e l a r e t h e s word a n d sc a les ; of G a bri e l ,

t h e l ily ; of R a ph a e l t h e st a ff a n d gou rd of the pilgri m ; of U riel


, ,

a rol l a n d book ; of C h a m uel a cu p a n d st a ff ; of Joph iel a fl a ming , ,

sword 3 a n d of Z a dk iel t h e s a crifi ci a l kn ife W hen r e presented merely


,
.

a s a rch a ngels a n d n ot i n their distin cti v e ch a r a cters they a r e i n ,

com plet e a rmor h old ing their swords w it h p oints u p w a rds a n d


, ,

som e tim e s w ith trum p e ts .

9 A N G E L s — V a rio usly r e p r e s e nted a ccord ing to t h e p ur p os e for


. .

wh ich th ey a r e sen t forth .


T h e G ree k word for a ng e l sign i fi e s l it e ra lly a bring e r of tidings 3
th e refor e t h is t e rm though a ppl i e d to a ll h e a v e nly beings b e lo w t h e
,

Godh e a d belongs most prop e rly to a rch a ngels a n d a ngel s w ho a r e


,

brough t into com m uni c a tion w ith m a n k ind W h e n C hrist i s r e p .


resen t ed w ith w ings i n G re e k a r t i t i s a s the gr e a t a ngel of t h e ,


w ill of Go d John the B a ptist a n d th e E v a ngelists a r e a ngels a l so
.
, ,

i n a sm u ch a s th ey w er e G od s m ess e nge rs a n d they a r e som e ti mes ,

l
r e presented w ith w ings A glory of a ng e ls i s a repre sent a t i on i n
.

wh i ch t h e T rin ity C hrist or t h e Virgi n is surrou nded by circl e s of


, ,

a ngels r e presenting t h e di ffer e n t choirs


,
T h e interior circl es t h e .
,

S e r a ph i m a n d Ch e rub im a r e symbolized by he a d s w ith two four , , ,

or si x w ings a n d a r e u su a lly of a brigh t r e d or bl ue color P roperly


, .

“ ”
the S er a ph w hose n a m e sign i fies to l ove sh ould b e r e d ; a n d t he
, ,

“ ”
C heru b w h os e n a m e sign ifies to kno w shou l d be bl u e
,
A ngel s ,
.

should a l w a ys b e young b e a utiful perfe ct b ut so repre s e nted a s to


, , ,

s e e m im mort a l r a th er th a n et e rn a l S inc e they a r e cre a ted beings , .

I n e a rly a r t th ey were a l w a ys d ra ped ; a n d a lth ough a l l colors a r e


employed in th e dr a pery w h ite sh ould b e the pre v a iling one Win gs,
.

1 S e e t h e A n g e l s , o r B i sh o p s , of th e S e ve n Ch u rc h e s , i n t h e A po c a l y ps e , or

R e v e l a ti o n s , o f S t J o h n . .
S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T . 17

are seldom wa nti n g a n d t h e re pr e s e nt a tio n of th e m a s t h e a ttribut e


,

of c e les t i a l beings d id not origin a t e i n Christi a n a r t T hi s symbol .

of might m aj esty a n d d i vi n e be a uty i s found i n the r e m a ins o f


, ,

E gypt B a bylon a n d N i n e v e h a s we ll a s i n E tr u sc a n a r t
, , , .

VI I I . S Y M B OL S O F TH E VI R GI N .

A mong t h e symbols of t h e Bless e d Virgin th e tit l e s by wh ich ,

S h e is known a n d fro m wh ich cert a in pictur e s a n d e ffig i e s a r e n a med


, ,

a r e by no m e a ns th e l e a s t int e resting show i n g a s th e y do t h e e sti ,

m a tion in wh i ch s h e is h e ld a n d th e t e nd e rn e ss a s we l l a s s a cred
, ,

n e ss of the lov e S h e e ng e nders in t h e h e a rts of her fa ithful cli e nts


, .

A s t h e protector of t h e a ffli ct e d sh e i s repr e sent e d w ith h e r r o b e so


s p re a d o ut a s to cov e r the vot a ries w ho p ra y for h e r gr a cious a i d .

In t h is ch a ra ct e r sh e h a s s e v e r a l ti tles s uch a s ,

S a nt a M a ri a d i M isericordi a O ur L a dy of M e rcy ; a n d by th is ,

title N u e s t r a S e fior a d e l a M erc e d sh e is known a s t h e p a troness


, ,

of t h e S p a nish Order of M e rcy Wh e n p a inted for th e ir inst it utions .


,

sh e fr e quently holds a b a dg e of th e order on a t a bl e t .

S a nt a M a ri a d e l b uon Consil io O ur L a dy o f Good C o uns e l , .

S M dell a Gr a zi a O ur L a dy of Gr a c e
. .
,
.

S M A ux il i u m A ffl i c t o r u m
. . H e l p of th e A ffl i ct e d ,
.

S M del Pi a nto d e l D olor e O ur L a dy of L a men t a tion o r S o rro w


. .
, , ,
.

S M d e l S occorro Our L a dy o f S uccor or of t h e F ors a k e n


. .
, , .

S M de buon C uor e O ur L a dy of G ood H e a rt


. .
, .

S M C ons o l a tric e d e l l a Consol a zione or d e l C onfort o O ur L a dy


. .
, , ,

C
S M R efugi u m P e cc a torum R efug e of S inn e rs
. .
, .

S M . dell a S p era nz a O ur L a dy of Hop e


.
,
.

S h e i s invoked by women in t r a v a il a s
S M del P a rto O ur L a dy of Good D e l i v e ry
. .
,
.

A ga i n by th e p e o ple a s
, ,

S M dell a P a ce O ur L a d y of P e a ce
. .
,
.

S M d e l Popolo O ur L a dy of th e Peopl e
. .
,
.

S M dell a Vittori a O ur L a dy of Victory


. .
,
.

By students s h e i s i n voked a s
S M dell a S a pienz a Our L a dy of W isdom
. .
, .

S M d e ll a P e rs e v e r a nz a O ur L a dy of P e rs e v e r an c e
. .
,
.

2
18 S I ZI I B OL I S M

I N AR T .

When p a int e d for coll e g e s a n d institutions o f l e a rn ing sh e fr e ,


«

qu e ntly holds a book .

By prison e rs s h e i s c a l led ,

S M dell a L ibert a or Liber a tri c e O ur L a dy o f Lib e rty


. .
, , .

S M de l l a C a ten a O ur L a dy of F ett e rs
. .
,
.

T her e a r e a lso m a ny titl e s d e ri ved from t h e circu m st a nc e s o f h e r


l ife or fro m cert a in a cc e ssori e s of t h e repr e s e nt a tion a s
, ,

S M dell a C intol a O ur L a dy of t h e G irdl e w h e n sh e giv e s h e r


. .
, ,

gird l e t o S t T hom a s . .

S M d e l Libro wh en sh e h olds t h e boo k of Wisdom


. .
,
.

S M d e l Presepio O ur L a dy of the C ra dle wh en in a N a tivity


. .
, ,
.

S M d e ll a Lett e ra t h e M a don n a o f t h e L e tt e r w h ich illu stra t e s


. .
, ,

t h e l e gen d th a t s h e w rot e a l e tt e r A D 4 2 fro m J eru s a l e m to th e , . .


,

p e opl e of M essin a T h is is h er titl e a s p rotectre ss of th a t c ity


. .

S M dell a S cod e ll a w h e n w i th a cu p sh e d ips w a t e r from a


. .
,

fount a in .

S M d e ll a R os a O ur L a dy o f th e R os e , w hen sh e h o l d s a ros e
. .
,
.

S M dell a S pi n a
. . T h is is h e r title a s prot e ctre ss of P is a w h e n
.
,

s h e holds th e crow n of thorns .

S M d e B e lem O ur L a dy of B e th l e h e m
. .
, W ith th is titl e sh e i s .

t h e p a troness of th e J eronym it e s .

S M d i Lor e tto O ur L a dy of Lor e tto


. .
, S e e l e g e nd o f th e S a nt a .

C a sa .

S M d e l Pi ll a r
. . T h is i s h e r titl e a s prot e ctr e ss of S a r a goss a
. .

A ccord i n g to th e tr a di tion s h e desc e nded from h e a ven st a nding on , ,

a m a rble p ill a r a n d a pp e a r e d to S t J a m e s w h e n h e w a s pre a ch ing


,
.

i n S p a i n T h is l egend i s oft e n seen i n S p a nish p icture s a n d t h e


.
,

pill a r is preserv e d i n the c a th ed ra l of S a ra goss a .

S M del C a rm ine O ur L a dy of M ount C a rm e l u nd e r w hi ch tit l e


. .
, ,

she i s th e p r otectr e ss of th e C a rm e lit e s .

M d ell a N e v e O ur L a dy of t h e S no w S e e l e g e nd o f S a nt a
.
, .

M a ri a M a ggiore .

S M d e l R os a rio O ur L a dy of t h e R os a ry
. .
, S e e t h e R os a ry . .

S M dell a S tell a O ur L a dy of t h e S t a r when t h e st a r is e m b r o i


. .
, ,

dered on her m a ntl e a s a n a ttribute .

S M del F iore O ur L a dy of t h e F lo we r
. .
,
T h is i s h e r titl e a s .

p rotectress of F lorence .

C e rt a i n p ro p h e ts a r e som e ti mes re pre s e nt e d a s a tt e nd in g o n M a ry


S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T 19

an d the infa nt J e sus T h e y a r e th o s e wh o h a v e r e fe rr e d e s p e ci a ll y t o


.

th e Inc a rn a tion T h e y a r e .

M oses b e c a us e h e beh e ld t h e burn i n g bush


,
.

A a ron whos e rod blossom e d m ir a culou sly


,
.

G id e on w hos e fl e e c e wa s we t with d e w wh e n i t wa s dr y a ll a r o und


,
.

D a ni e l (D a n i i . .

D a vid both proph e t a n d a nc e stor


,
.

Is a i a h wh o proph e si e d th a t a v irgi n sh o u l d c on c e iv e a n d b e a r a s o n
,
.

E z e ki e l (E z e k x l i v . .

F r e qu e ntly t h e figur e s of th e s e p roph e ts a r e o mitt e d a n d symbols ,

o f th e m i ntroduced a s t h e burn ing bush for M os e s t h e d e wy fl e e c e


, ,

for G ideon t h e rod for A a ron e t c


, , .

C e rta in wom e n too a r e r e ga rd e d a s typ e s of M a ry a n d a r e o ft e n


, , ,

s e a t e d a t h e r feet or oth e r wis e re p r e sent e d n e a r h e r a s


, ,

J udith a n d E sth e r wh o we r e e mbl e m s of t h e Virgin i n h a ving , ,

brough t d e l i v e ra n ce to Isr a el .

R uth bec a us e sh e wa s th e a nc e stre ss o f D a vid


,
.

B a thsh e b a b e c a us e sh e s a t on t h e right h a nd of h e r s o n
,
.

“ ”
A b ish a g wh o w a s t h e v irgi n wh o w a s bro ught to t h e k ing
,
.

T h e r e a r e c e rt a in g e n e r a l symb o l s w hi ch a r e a ls o gi v e n t o M a ry ,

w ith p e culi a r s ign i fic a t i o n s .

T H E A PP LE w h e n i n t h e h a nd of t h e in f a nt S a viour sign ifi e s t h e
, ,

sin in P a ra dis e w h ic h m a d e h is com ing n e c e ss a ry ; b u t in t h e h a nd


,

o f th e V irgin it design a t e s h e r a s t h e s e cond E ve


,
.

T H E S E RP EN T t h e g e n e r a l e mbl e m of S a t a n a n d sin h a s a p e c u
, ,

l i a r m e a n ing wh e n p l a c e d b e n e a th t h e fe e t of t h e V irgin a n d is ill us ,

t r a t i ve of t h e p roph e cy I p sa c on t e r e t cap u t t u u m ( S h e sh a l l bruis e



,

thy h e a d
'

T H E G L O BE b e n e a th t h e Virgin a n d e nt w in e d by a s e rp e nt i s t h e
, ,

symbol of h e r tri umph ov e r a w orld fa ll e n t h rough sin .

T H E P OM E G RA N A T E t h e e mb l e m of hop e is fr e qu e ntly gi v e n to
, ,

t h e V irgin by t h e ch i l d J e sus .

B I RD S in a nci e n t p icture s figur e d t h e soul o r th e spiritu a l


, , , ,

a s t h e o pp osit e of t h e m a teri a l T h us t h e dov e i s th e H oly S pirit .

hov e ring a bov e h er ; w h il e th e s e ven doves w h i ch typify t h e gifts ,

of t h e S p irit w h e n surround ing t h e V irgin m a k e h e r t h e M a t e r S a


, ,

p i e n t i,
ae or the M oth e r of Wisdom W h e n dov e s a r e n e a r h e r whi l e .

sh e r e a ds o r wo rk s th e y e x p r e ss h e r g e nt l e n e ss a n d t e nd e r n e ss
, .
20 S Y AI B OL I S M I N AR T .

TH E B OOK i n t h e h a n d of M a ry i f O pen r e p re s e nts t h e boo k o f


, ,

Wi sdom ; i f closed or se a l e d it is a mysti c a l symbo l o f t h e V irgi n


, ,

w h ich w ill be furth e r ex pl a in e d .

F L O W E RS were consecr a ted t o t h e V irgin 3 a n d F R U IT S sign i fy t h e “

fru its of the S pirit ,


j oy p e a c e a n d l ov e
, ,
.

L a stly there a r e m a ny symbols of th e Virgin d e ri v e d fro m t h e Ca n


, ,

t i c l e s a n d t h e Li t a n ies of t h e Virgin a n d w hi ch b e long e s p e ci a l ly to h e r


,

T H E LILY .

I a m t h e ros e of S h a ron a n d t h e l i l y o f t h e v a ll ey
,

( C a nt i i
. .

T H E R O S E i s o n e e mb l e m o f l ov e a n d b e a uty a n d e s p e ci a ll y d e d i ,

c a t e d to M a ry . A pl a nt a tion or ga rd e n of ros e s is o ft e n r e p re s e nt e d .

T H E E N C L O S E D G ARD EN (C a nt i v . .

T H E S T A R i s often e mbroi d e r e d on h er v e i l or m a nt l e W h e n sh e .

h a s a cro wn o f t we l v e st a rs i t i s illu stra ti v e o f th e descript ion in


t h e R e vel a tion S h e i s a lso c a lled S tell a
.

M a ris th e S ta r of the S e a 3 S tell a J a cobi


, ,

t h e S t a r of J a cob ; S tell a non E r r a tic a ,

th e F ix e d S t a r 3 a n d S t e l l a M a t utin a t h e ,

M orn ing S t a r .

T H E S U N A N D M OO N r e fer to h e r a s
t h e wom a n o f t h e A poc a lyps e A
wom a n cloth e d w ith t h e s un h a ving th e ,

m oon und e r h e r fe e t a n d on h e r h e a d ,


a crown of t we l v e st a rs .

T H E S T E M O F J E S S E i s r e p resented a s a
gr e e n bra n ch t win e d wi th flo we r s (I s a .

xi .

T H E P OR T A C L AU S A o r C l os e d G a t e ,

( E zek xl i v . .

T H E W ELL F OU N T A I N C IT Y o r D A
, ,

V I D T E MP LE O F S O L OMO N A N D T O W E R
, ,

O F D AV I D a r e a l l sy mbols borro we d
from t h e C a ntic l e s .

T H E O L I V E T HE C Y PR E SS A N D T H E , ,

P A L M a r e a ll embl ems of t h e Virgin T h e .

first sign ifies p e a c e h o pe a n d a bun , ,

d a nce 3 t h e s e con d p oin ts to h e a v e n a n d ,

T e t a m or ph
r . t h e th i r d s p e a k s o f vict o ry .
S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T .

TH E C E D A R 0 F L EB A N O N by its h e ight its p e r fum e its h e a ling


, , ,

qu a liti e s a n d its incorru p t ible subst a nc e symboliz e s t h e gre a tn e ss


, , ,

goodn ess a n d b e a uty of the Virgin


,
.

T H E S E A LE D B OOK i n t h e h a nds of the Virgin a llud e s to the t ext


, , ,

In th a t book we r e a ll my m e mb e rs writt e n a n d a lso to t h e s e a led ,

b ook d e scribed by Is a i a h (xx ix l l .


,

T H E M I RROR i s borro we d a s an e mb l e m fro m t h e b o o k o f Wi s


dom (vi i 25 ) Sp e c ul ar si n e m a c ul d
. .

The e xpl a n a tion of t h e s e v e n j oys a n d t h e s e v e n sorrow s of t h e


Virgin a s we l l a s th a t of t h e mysteri e s of t h e R os a ry w ill be found
, , ,

by refe re nc e to th e m i n th e ir a l p h a b e tic a l o rd e r i n t h e n e xt di visio n ,

o f th is b oo k .

IX . S Y M B OL S OF T H E E VA N GE L I S T S .

W h e n t h e E v a ng e lists a r e r e p r e s e nt e d tog e th e r it is i n th e ir ch a r ,

a cter of w itnesses u pon wh os e t e st i mony the t r u th of C hristi a nity


,

rests 3 w hen th e y a r e singl e th e y a r e usu a lly pre s e nt e d a s t e a ch e rs o r


,

p a trons The e a rl iest sym


.

bol of the E v a nge l ists wa s


a Gre e k cross w ith a scroll ,

or book i n e a ch a ngl e ,

e mblems o f th e writers o f

t h e four G osp e ls T he s e c .

ond symbo l wa s th at of t h e
four ri vers w hich ris e i n
(M i ) S t M k osa c ar
P a r a dise S om etimes th e
. . .

S a viour w ith a l a mb or th e symbol i c A gnu s D e i wa s repr e s e nt e d on


, ,

an e m in ence w it h t h e fo ur stre a m s symbol izing t h e E v a ngeli s t s


, , ,

flowing from b e n e a th hi m T h e ir next .

Symbol wa s th e fo u r fi e ry cr e a t u res o f
E zek i el s vis ion (E zek i T h e se

. .

w e r e interpre t ed by t h e Jews a s r e p ,

r e senting th e a rch a n gels 3 a lso th e


prophets Is a i a h J e remi a h E zek iel , , ,

a n d D a ni e l ; b ut t h e e a rly Christi a ns

expl a ined th e m a s e mbl e ms of t h e


St M k ar
E v a ngelists
. .

T h e fou r be a st s of t h e A p oc a l yps e r e ce i v e d t h e sa m e e xpl a n a


22 S YM B OL I S M IN AR T .

t ion a n d in t h e s e v e nth c e ntury th ey


,
had b e co m e the distincti v e
sy mbo l s o f th e s e insp ir e d w itn e sses .

J e rome ex p l a ins t h e i n di vi St .

d u a l a p p l ic a tion o f th e s e symbols
th us
I T h e C h e r ub wh ich most r e .
,

3
s e mbl e s a h u m a n b e in g wa s gi ven
2 > ,

to S t M a tth e w b e ca us e he spe a ks .
,

m ore o f the h u m a n than o f t h e


d i vin e n a tur e o f o u r S a vio ur .

2 T h e Lion sym bol iz e s S t M a rk . .

(M s i 5 t h C t y ) S t L k
,
o a c, en ur u e.
for thre e re a son s
. .

a H e comm e nc e s h is e p i stl e w ith the m ission of S t J ohn t h e


. .


B a ptist T h e voi c e of o n e crying i n t h e w ild e rn e ss
, .

b T h e k ing o f b e a sts
.

i s a typ e o f the roy a l dig


n it
y of Christ w hich S,
t .

M a rk m a k es so a pp a r e n t .

.0 A ccord ing to a n
Ori e nt a l tra dition t h e ,

young l ion s a r e born d e a d ,

a n d a ft e r th r e e d a ys a r e

m a d e a l i v e by t h e bre a th
(M i 1 1 th C t y ) S t J h osa c , en ur o n
o r t h e ro a r of t h e sir e ;
. . .

th us th e y a r e a n e mbl e m of t h e R e surre ction o f wh ich S t M a r k is ,


.

c a lled th e h i stori a n .

3 T h e O x w a s gi v e n to S t Luk e b e c a us e b e esp e ci a lly s e ts forth


. .

th e priesth ood of C hrist a n d t h e ox is ,

symbo l i c a l of s a crifi c e .

4 T h e E a gl e w a s gi v e n to S t J oh n . .

as an e mb l e m o f t h e lofty flights o f h is
ins p ir a tion .

“ ”
O thers re g a rd e d th e s e b e a sts a s sh a d
o wing forth t h e Inc a rn a tion P a ssion R e s u r , ,

r e ction a n d A scension o f J esus ; a n d th e y ,

a r e a l so bel ie ved to repr e s e nt th e fo urfo l d

ch a r a cter of Christ a s m an king h igh


(M i A D St L k
, ,
osa c , u e
p riest a n d God
. . . .

.
,

T h e se sy m bo li c c re a t ur e s w er e a l wa y s r e p re s e nt e d a s win ge d Th e .
24 S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T .

symbol —t h e four b e a sts i n th e A p oc a ly p s e w ith o r w ithou t t h e


, ,

a ng e l w ings
-
T h e n th e comb in a tion of the e mblem a ti ca l a n i m a l w it h
.

t h e h um a n form T hen t h e h u m a n p e rson a g e s e a ch o f vener a bl e


. ,

or inspired a sp e ct a s b e com e s t h e t e a ch e r a n d w i tn e ss ; a n d e a c h
,

a ttended by t h e S cri pt u ra l e mbl e m no longer a n e mb l e m bu t a n , ,

a ttribute m a rking h i s indiv idu a l voc a tion a n d ch a r a ct e r A n d l a stly .


,

the e mbl e m a n d a ttribut e b o th d isc a rded we h a v e t h e h um a n being


only ho l d ing h is go sp e l —th a t i s h is v e rsion o f t h e doctrin e o f
,

, , ,

” 1
C hrist .

X . S Y M B O L S O F T H E A P O S T L ES .

The rl i e st p ure l y symbo l i c re p re s e nt a tion o f t h e T w e l v e


ea

A po st l e s wa s th a t of t we l v e sh e e p surrou nding C hrist t he good ,

S h e p h e rd w h il e h e bor e a l a m b i n h i s a rm s ;
a N N O E g. , t

or a g a in Jesu s a s t h e L a mb of G o d i s on a n
, , ,

e m i n e nce from w h ich flow t h e four ri vers o f


,

P a ra di se wh il e on o n e sid e six sh e e p l e a v e
,

J e ru s a l e m a n d on th e oth e r sid e th e s a m e
,

n umb e r l e a v e B e thl e h e m T h e y were v e ry .

r a r e l y r e pre s e nt e d by dov e s T h e n e x t a d .

v a n c e wa s to r e p res e nt them a s m e n a n d a l l ,

b e a ring sh e e p ; o r i n
pl a c e of shee p scrolls , ,

a n d d is t ingu ish e d fro m

e a ch oth e r by t h e in
scri pt ion of th e ir n a m e s
a bov e them .

A ccording to tr a d i
tion t h e A postl e s b e , ,

fore sep a r a ting co m ,


pos e d t h e A postles
Cre e d of wh ich e a ch ,

on e furn ish e d a s e n
St J h . o n .

t e n c e or a rti cl e T h e se .

a r e inscribed on th e ir scrolls a s follow s S t P e te r Cre do i n D e u m .


,

P a t r e m omni p ot e nt e m c r e a t o r e m c m l i e t t e rrae 3 S t A ndre w — E t i n


,
.
,

J e s u m Ch r i s t um F i l i um e j u s un i cu m D om in u m n o stru m ; S t J a m e s ,
.

1 S a c re d and L e ge n d a ry A rt .
S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . 25

Maj or — Q u i concept us est de S pirit u S a n oto n a tu s ex M a ri a Vir


, ,

gine ; S t John — P a ss us sub Pon tio P i l a t e c r uc i fixu s mort u us e t


.
, ,
-
,

se p u l t u s 3 S t P h ilip .Descend it a d inferos t e rti a di e r e s u r r e xi t


, ,

a m or t u i s ; S t J a mes M inor . A sc e n d i t a d c oe l o s se d e t a d d e xt e r a m
, ,

De i P a tris o m n i p o t e n t i s 3 S t T hom a s Inde v e n t u r u s est j udi c a re .


,

v i vc s e t m o r t u o s 3 S t B a rtholomew —Credo i n S pi r i t u m S a n ctu m ;


.
,

S t M a tth e w
. S a n c t a m E c c l e s i a m Ca t h o l i c a m s a nctorum c o m m u
, ,

n i on e m ; S t S imon . R e m i s s i o n e m p e cc
,
a toru m 3 S t M a tth i a s .
,

C a rn is r e s u r r e c t i o n e m 3 S t T h a ddeus — E t V it a m ae ter n a m F rom .


,
.

t h e sixth century ev e ry one of the A postles h a d h is es p e ci a l a t t ribut e ,

w h ich wa s t a ken fro m some circumst a nc e o f h is l ife or d e a th a n d ,

wh ich w ill b e foun d i n th eir r e sp e ct iv e l e g e n d s The se a ttribut e s a r e .

a s follow

S t Peter th e keys or a fi sh
.
, .

S t A ndre w t h e tr a nsverse cross wh i ch b e a rs h is n a m e


.
, .

S t J a m e s M aj or th e pilgri m s st a ff

.
, .

S t John : th e ch a l ic e w ith t h e serpent is t h e p rop e r a ttri but e of


.

th is A p ostl e 3 but th e e a gle wh ich is h is a ttrib ut e a s an E v a nge list , ,

is sometim e s seen w h en h e is w ith th e A postl e s .

S t T hom a s gen e r a lly a bui l d e r s ru l e 3 r a r e l y



.
, , ,

a Sp e a r .

S t J a m e s M inor a c l ub
.
,
.

S t Ph ilip a sm a l l cross on a st a ff or cr o si e r
.
, ,

s urmounted by a cross .

S t B a rtholom e w a kn i fe
.
, .

S t M a tthe w a p urs e
.
, .

S t S imon a s a w
.
, .

S t T h a ddeus a h a lb e rd o r l a n c e
.
, .

S t M a tthi a s a l a n c e
.
, .

S ometi mes S t P a ul S t M a rk a n d S t Lu k e .
, .
,
.

a r e r e presented w ith t h e A postles a n d some oth ers


,

a r e l e ft o ut a s t h e n u mber is a lw a ys t we lv e
, In .

such c a ses S t P a ul b e a rs either o n e or t wo swords


, . .

Th e A postles h a ve a lso b e e n r e pres e nted se a ted (F A g li ) ra n e c o.

on clouds s urrounding th e S a viour a s th e y a r e


, ,

suppos e d to be in h e a ven L a ter a r t h a s not only distingu ish e d e a ch .

o f the A postl e s by h is own a ttribute it h a s a lso a ttempted t o rep ,

resent t h e ch a ra cter o f e a ch in t h e fa c e a n d b e a ring ; a n d t h e ill us o


26 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T .

o f t h e l e ge nds w hich d e velop t h e ch a ra cteri stics dra wn fr o m


t r a t i on
th e S cri pt ure history en a bles th e a rtist to a ccomplish th is obj ect ,

som e times with wonderful e ffect .

XI . S Y M B OL S OF T H E M O N A S TI C O R D E R S .

To a stud e n t or l ov e r of a r t th e re i s a w orl d of int e re st co nn e cted


w ith t h e mon a sti c ord e rs w i th thei r found e rs th e ir a rtists th e ir
, , ,

pictures W h i l e they institut e d sch ools b uilt c a th edr a ls a n d fou nded


.
, ,

lib sp i t a l s th e y w e r e th e most m u n i fic e n t p a trons of a r t t h e world


,

h a s e ve r s e e n To th e m we a r e indebted for m a ny of the r a r e st


.

gem s of p a inting I nt e nd e d for the seclusion of ch urch a n d Cl ois t er


.
,

t h e y n o w be l o n g t o a l l t h e w or l d ; for w ho th a t h a s g a zed on the

M a donn a d i S a n S isto o n t h e S piri t mov ing p ictures of A ngelico


,
-

t h e Blessed a n d m a ny m a ny oth ers does n ot feel that h e h a s a


, , ,

p ossession in th em ; th a t they h a ve i mp a rted som eth ing to h i m th a t


w a s I l i a —som eth ing i nte n d ed for h i m a n d h eld in trust until h e ,
'

c a m e to cl a i m h is o w n I T h e re a r e cert a i n pecul i a riti es in w h a t m a y


be c a lled mon a stic pictures w h ic h were most fitting w hen th ese were
,

in their proper pl a c e s bu t w h ich s e e m in congruo us w hen these pi c


,

tures a ppe a r i n t h e g a lleri es of a r t or on t h e w a lls of p a l a ces I .

refer e sp e ci a lly to the r e p r e s e nt a tion of t h e p e rson a ges a n d t h e ,

pecul i a r h a bi ts a n d symbol s of t h e d i ff er e nt orders for w h ich t h e pi c


t ures w e re p a inted F or inst a n ce i n p ictures of the A nn unci a tion
.
, ,

a n d oth er sc e nes from t h e l ife of t h e V irgin or the S a v io ur w e s e e ,

t h e found e rs of ord e rs a n d institutions i n their distincti ve dress 3 a n d


u nti l w e consid e r th a t t h e pi ctures w er e p a inted for these orders ,

a n d i n h onor of th e s e v e ry fo und e rs a n d s a ints w e wonder a t a n d a r e , ,

d isturbed by th e s e eming in a ppro p ri a t e n e ss of the re p resent a tions .

Th at th e se th ings a r e so m a kes i t a n e c e ssity that som e a tten tion


,

sh ou l d b e giv e n to th e s e symbols a n d h a b its A knowl edge of th em .

e n a bles o n e to d e cide for w h a t ord e r a p icture wa s intend e d a n d ,

e xpl a ins m u ch of i ts i mport a n d p urpos e .

T her e a r e cert a in gen e r a l symbo l s wh i ch h a v e a pe c u l i a r s ig n i fi


ca nc e i n mon a stic pictures
T H E N I M B U S is gi v e n on l y to a c a non ized s a int n ev e r to a be a t o ,

som e tim e s t h e p icture is p a in t e d b e for e c a n o n iz a tion a n d t h e n imb us ,

a dd e d a ft e rwa rd s .
S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . 27

TH E I N F A N T C H R I S T is oft e n pl a ced in th e a rms of a s a int ; or i n ,

som e picture s of the Virgin sh e bends down a n d pl a ces th e ch ild i n ,

the a rms of holy m e n a n d w om e n T hese a r e genera lly repres e nt a .

tion s of v ision s w h ich these s a ints h a ve h a d or have a risen fro m ,

legends l ike th a t of S t A n thony of P a du a w h ich rel a t e s th a t th e


.
,

S a v iour c a m e in th is form a n d stood on h is boo k while h e p r e a che d


,

the G ospel .

T H E S T A N DARD surmounted by t h e cross b e lo n gs esp e ci a lly to


, ,

such a s w ere m ission a ri e s a n d a post l e s a n d c a rried t h e Gosp e l to ,

h e a then n a tion s It i s a lso a n a ttrib ut e of t h e wa rrior s a ints con


.
«

n e c t e d w ith th e mon a stic orders .

T H E C R OW N at th e feet of s a in t s indic a tes that t h ey w ere of roy a l


birth or resign ed their k ingdoms for th e mon a st e ry If th ey r e
,
.

t a i n e d their r a nk until d e a th they w e a r the crown ; a n d fem a l e ,

s a ints of roy a l blood frequ e ntly we a r the d i a dem outside t h e veil .

A S E RAP H d isting u ishes th e s a ints of th e S er a ph i c Order 1


.

T H E S TI G MA T A or S im il itud e of the W o unds of C hrist b e long


, ,

properly to S t C a th erin e of S ien a a n d S t F r a nci s a lone but a r e


. .
,

sometimes gi ven to S t M a ri a M a dd a len a de P a zzi .



.

T H E B OO K i n th e h a n d h a s the gen e ra l sign ific a t ion of t h e Gospel ;


but a ccomp a nied by the pen or ink horn it ind ic a t es th a t th e s a int -

w a s an a uthor a n d t h e book i s someti mes lettered w i th th e proper


,

t itles of h is w orks T h e open book in th e h a nd of a founder is t h e


.

s y mbol of the rule of h is order a n d i s oft e n inscri b e d w ith t h e first ,

sente n c e o f t h e r u le .

T H E CR U CI E I K i n t h e h a nd sign ifi e s a p r e a ch e r ; i t i s a l so a n
e mblem of pen a n c e a n d fa ith .

T H E F L AM I NG H E AR T is an e mblem of d ivine l ov e It i s given .

to S t A ugusti n e T h e he a rt crowned w ith thorns b e lo n gs to S t


. . .

F r a ncis d e S a les Th e he a rt inscribed w ith I H S is given t o


. . . .

Jesu it s a in t s to S t T e re s a S t Bridget of S w e de n a n d S t M a ri a
,
.
,
.
,
.

M a dd a len a d e P a zzi’
.

T H E C RO W N o r T H O R N S on the h e a d or in t h e h a nds i s t h e
symbol of su ff ering for C hrist s s a k e ’
.

T H E P A L M i s not a genera l sy mbo l for t he m on a sti c s a ints but i s ,

giv e n to S t Pl a cid a s S t Bon ifa ce a n d S t Thomas a B e ck e t of t h e


.
,
.
, .
,

1 Th e O r d e r of S t F ra n c i s
. .
28 S Y AI B OL I S M I N AR T .

B e n e dictin e s ; to S t A ngel us a n d S t A l bert of t h e C a r m e l it e s,


. .
, an d
to S t P eter M a rtyr, of th e D ominic a ns a n d bu t fe w others
.
, .

T H E S CO U R GE is the sym bol of self i n fli c t e d pen a n c e -


.

W A L K I NG O N T HE S E A r e pr e s e nts a m ir a cl e a ttri b uted to t h e s a int


wh o is so p a inted .

T H E C ARD I N A L S H A T is gi ven to S t Bon a v e n tur e H e is dis



. .

t i n gu i s h e d fro m S t J erom e by th e F r a n ci sc a n girdl e


. .

T H E M IT R E A N D P AS T ORA L S T A F F b e long to a bbots a n d b is ho p s .

T h e st a ff w ithou t t h e m i tr e i s pro p e r only to a bbesses .

S L A V E s WIT H B ROK EN C H A I N S a s w e ll a s begg a rs ch i l dr e n a n d


, , ,

l epers a t th e fe e t of a s a int sign i fy b e n e fic e n c e, .

R O S E S a r e sign ifi c a n t of t h e n a m e of t h e s a int o r a r e conn e ct e d ,

w ith some circu mst a n c e in th e ir l iv e s a s w ith S t E l iz a bet h of ,


.

H ung a ry a n d S t Doro t h e a
,
. .

T H E L I L Y i s a n e mbl e m of p urity a n d ch a stity a n d of v e ry g e n e ra l ,

u se ; b ut i t belongs e speci a lly to S t Cl a r a S t A nthony of P a du a .


,
.
,

S t C a th erin e of S ien a a s w ell a s to thos e w h o m a de vows of celi


.
,

b a cy l ike S t C a sim ir a n d others T h e crucifi x tw in e d w ith l ili e s


, . .

b e longs to S t N i chol a s of T ol enti n o T h e l ily a lso belongs to s uc h


. .

a s de voted themsel ves especi a lly t o the Blessed Virgin .

T H E S T AR o v e r th e h e a d or br e a st e xpre ss e s th e d iv in e a tt e sta
t ion to t h e s a nct ity of t h e s a i n t .

T H E S U N on th e bre a st is t h e symbo l of t h e l igh t of w isdom .

T H E D OV E is th e e mbl e m o f t h e d ir e ct i nsp ira tion o f t h e Ho l y


G host .

T H E F I S H a s t h e e mbl e m of b a p tism b e longs to some e a rly


, ,

m ission a ries a n d to such a s con verted t h e h e a th en .

T H E L AM B is prop e r t o S t F ra ncis a s th e sym bo l of m e e k n ess


. .

W I LD B EAS T S a t t h e fe et of a s a in t signi fy t h a t h e cle a re d a


w ilderness or founded a con ven t in a sol itud e .

T H E H I N D O R S T A G is the e mbl em of sol itud e .

T H E D RA G O N a t th e fe e t i s sin conq uere d ; b ut ch a in e d to a rock


or l e d b y a ch a in i t is h e resy v a nqu ished
,
.

T h e h a bits a n d speci a l symbols of d i ff eren t or d ers a r e i m port a nt .

F irst th e B e n e d i c t i n e s w ith S t Bened i ct a s t he ir gen e ra l p a tri a rch


, ,
.
,

e mbr a ce ,

T H E C AMA L D O LE S I founded by S t R om u a ldo ;


,
.

T H E V A L L O M B R O S I A N S fo und e d by S t Joh n G u a l b e r to ;
,
.
S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . 29

TH E C A RT H U S I A N S found e d by S t Bru n o ;
,
.

T H E C I S T E R CI A N S founded by S t Bern a rd of C l a irv a ux ;


,
.

T H E O L I V E T A N I found e d by S t B e rn a rdo P t o l o m e i 3
,
.

T H E C L U N I A CS found e d by S t Peter of Clu gny ;


,
.

a n d some oth e r l e ss i m p ort a nt br a nch e s w h i ch are gov e rn e d by t h e

R ul e of S t B e ned ict
. .

T h e color of the h a bit i s n o t e sp e ci a lly d e t e rm in e d in t h e B e n e


d ietine R ul e In th e e a rly picture s of S t B e n e dict h e we a rs bl a ck ;
. .

b ut i n som e p ictures p a int e d for t h e refor m e d Ben e dictin e s h e is i n ,

a w h it e h a bit T h e bl a ck h a b it i s gi v e n to S t S chol a stic a a n d t h e


. .

p upils o f S t Ben e di ct S t M a urus a n d S t Pl a cid a s a n d to S t


.
,
.
, .
, .

F l a vi a ; a lso to S t Bonifa c e the A post l e of Ge rm a ny ; S t B e nn e tt


.
,
.
,

Bishop of D urh a m 3 S t B en e dict of A n i a n ; S t D unst a n of C a nt e r


. .

b ury 3 S t Wa lpurg i s of E ichst a dt ; S t G iles of L a ngu e doc ; S t Ild e


. . .

fo u s e of T ol e do ; S t B a von of G h e nt ; a n d to ne a rly a l l B e n e di ctin e s


.

wh o l iv e d b e for e t h e y e a r 1 020 .

T H E C AMA L DO LE S I a n d th e ir fo und e r w e a r wh it e .

T H E V A L L O M B R OS I A N S gra y or a sh color , .

T H E CL UN I A c s bl a ck ,
.

T H E C I S T E R CI A N S w h it e T h e ir h a bit is l ong a n d l oo s e w ith v e ry


,
.
,

wid e s l e ev e s .

T H E C AR T H U S I A N S w h i t e , .

T H E O L I V E T A N I w h it e , .

These ord e rs furnished t h e e a r l i e st a rtists a n d a rch it e cts of E ur op e .

T h e monastery of M ont e C a ssino wa s found e d by S t B e n e dict Its . .

ch urch a n d cloist e rs cont a in m a ny works of a r t a n d a mong the m ,

th e st a tu e s i n m a rbl e of t h e m ost note d m emb e rs a n d b e n e fa ctors


of t h e comm u n ity Th e c a v e a t S ub i a co t h e S a cro S p e co i s of gr e a t
.
, ,

int e r e st a n d p a i nted w ith v e ry a n ci e nt frescos T h ey w ere don e


,
.

i n 1 2 1 9 a n d a r e i mport a nt in t h e h istory of a r t A mong th e fin e st


,
.

ed ifices of the B e n e dictin e s m a y be m e ntioned t h e B a silic a of S a n


P a ol o (fuori l e m ura ) at R om e S a n S everino at N a pl e s S a n G iustin a
- -
, ,

a t Pa d ua ,
t h e mon a stery of B a mb e rg i n G e rm a ny S t M a u r M a r ,
.
,

moutier a n d F o n t e vr a u l d i n F ra n c e F or t h e ir con vent a t Pi a c e n z a


, .
,

t h e M a donn a d i S a n S isto wa s p a i n t e d ; for th a t a t Gr e t t a F err a t a ,

t h e l ife of S t N ilu s by Domen ich ino ; at S a n S everin o the l ife of


.
,

S t Benedi ct by A nton i o 10 Z ing a ro


. F o r t h e Va l l o m h r o si a n s .
,

P erugino p a inted the A ssum p tion T a dd e o G a ddi p a int e d m a n y .


30 S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T .

p ictur e s for the


C a m a ldo l e si ; a n d for d ifl e r e n t B e n e dictin e o r d e rs,
'

G h irl a nd aj o a n d A ndre a d e l S a rto p a inted some of th e ir fi nest


pi ctures T he C e rtosa d i P a vi a i s u n e qu a ll e d i n m a ny po ints a n d
.
,

h a s w orks of Lu in i Borgognon e a n d m a ny other fa mo us m a sters


, , .

T h is i s a C a rth usi a n m on a stery a s i s a lso t h e C e rtosa a t R om e , ,

b u ilt by M ich a e l A ng e lo Z urb a r a n a n d Ca r d u c h o p a int e d for t h e


.

S p a n ish C a rth usi a ns a n d L e S u e ur t h e l ife o f S t Bruno for t ho se


, .

a t P a ris .

Th e C isterci a ns h a v e m a ny p icture s o f t h e Bl e ss e d Virgin a s ,

they e s p e ci a ll y h o n o r h e r a n d d e d ic a t e th e ir ch urch e s u nd e r h e r
p a tron a ge .

T h e b e a utif u l ch urch o f S a n L o r e nzo i n Cr e mon a a n d th at o f ,

S a nt a M a ri a i n Orga no a t V e ron a b e long to t he O l i ve t a n i w h ose , ,

a rti sts e xc e ll e d i n T a rsi a or Int a rsi a t ura a b e a u tiful sty l e of i n ,

l a id work I n E n gl a nd m a ny of t h e fi ne st c a th e dra ls we r e B e n e
.
«

d ietin e found a tions a n d t h e wo rd “


a bb e y
,

b e longs e s p e ci a l ly t o
th is o rd e r .

TH E A U G U S T IN E S .

T h e se o rd e rs re v e r e nc e S t A ug usti n e
. of H i ppo as t h e ir ge n e ra l
p a tri a rch fo und e r T h e y e mbr a c e
an d .
,

T H E S E RV I fo und e d by S t Ph ilip B e n i z i 3
,
.

T H E O RD E R O F M E R C Y foun d e d by S t P e t e r N ol a s c o ; ,
.

T H E B R I G ITTI N E S fo unded by S t Bridget o f S weden ,


1
. .

T h e A ugustin i a ns r e v e r e nc e S t Joseph th e h usb a n d of t h e Virgin .


,

M a ry a s th e ir p a tri a rch a n d p a tron s a int T h e h a bit of t h e A ngus


, .

t i n i a n s is bl a c k S t A ugu stin e a n d h i s moth e r S t M on ic a a r e t h e


. .
,
.
,

p rin cip a l person a ges i n t h e picture s of t h e ord e r S t Joseph a n d a l l . .

t h e e v e nts of h is life a r e a lso fa vorit e subj ects ; a n d th e e a rliest m a r


tyrs a n d bishops th ough common to a l l orders a r e e speci a lly h onore d
, ,

by t h e A u gustini a ns T h e pri miti v e h e rm its S t A nthony a n d S t


.
, . .

P a ul a l so re ceiv e m u ch v e n e ra tion ; b ut th e ir ch i e f s a i nt is N ich o l a s


,

o f T olentino T h e most i m p o r t a nt ch urch e s of t h e A gostin i in I t a l y


.


a r e t h e S a nt A gostino a t P a vi a w h i ch con t a ins t h e m a gn ifi c e nt shrin e ,

o f th e ir found e r wh ich h a s i n a l l t wo h undr e d a n d n in e ty figur e s


,

work e d in m a rbl e T h e prin ci p a l e vents of t h e l ife o f S t A u gustin e


. .

1 S om e o th e r o r d e rs of m en an d w om en fo ll o w t h e R l
u e , or a m od i fica ti o n
of th e R l
u e , of S t A ug usti n e
. .
32 S YM B OL I S M IN AR T .

1 F ra n cis P a dre S e ra fic o p a tri a rch a n d found e r


. St .
, , .

2 S t Cl a ra M a dre S e r a fic a firs t F r a ncisc a n n u n a n d fo undr e ss


. .
, ,

o f t h e P ov e r e Donne or Poor Cl a r e s ,
.

3 S t Bon a v e nt u ra i 1 D ottor e S e r a fic o t h e gr e a t p r e l a t e o f t h e
. .
, ,

ord er .

4 S t A ntony o f P a du a wh o i s n e xt to S t F ra ncis t h e s a int


. .
, , .
,

most renown e d in t h e ord e r for m ira cl e s .

5 S t Be r n a rd ino of S i e n a th e ir gr e a t p r e a ch e r a n d r e form e r
. .
, .

6 S t Lou is K ing of F ra n ce
. .
, .

7 S t Louis Bishop of T ou l ou s e
. .
, .

8 S t E liz a b e th of Hung a ry
. . .

T hen follo w S t M a rg a ret of Co r t o n a S t R o s a d i Vit e rb o S t F e l ix


.
,
.
,
.

d e Ca n t a l i c i o a n d a h ost of oth e rs , .

T he ch urch e s of th e F ra n cisc a ns h a v e b e e n m a g nifi c e nt l y a dorn e d .

T h e p a r e nt con v e nt a n d ch urch at A ssisi w a s th ree h u ndred y e a rs i n


th e h a nds of t h e gr e a t e st a rtists of I t a ly R a ph a el Pint uricch io .
, ,

G iotto T a ddeo a n d A ng e lo G a ddi G i o t t i n o L uc a dell a R obbi a a n d


, , , ,

Benedetto d a M a i a no a l l contrib ut e d to the d e cora tion of F ra ncisc a n


,

edi fic e s T h e S t A nton io d i P a dov a is fill e d w ith a r t tre a s ure s I t


. .
- -
.

h a s bronzes of Don a tel lo a n d A ndre a R iccio ; pictur e s by m a ny o f


the gre a t p a inters of U p p e r I t a ly a n d m a rbl e s of Lomb a rdi S a n , ,

sovino a n d S a m mich e l e M urillo p a int e d m a ny o f h is wo nd e rfu l


, .

p icture s for th is ord e r i n S p a in .

TH E D OM I N IC A N S .

T he se c a l l e d t h e Pr e a ch i n g F ri a rs a n d h a v e S t Domin ic k a t
a re ,
.

t h eir h e a d T hey w e a r a w h it e wooll e n h a bit fa st e n e d w ith a w hit e


.
,

girdle ; ov e r th is a w h it e sc a pul a r w h i ch h a ngs to t h e feet from t h e ,

n eck both before a n d b e h ind l ik e a long a pron ; over a l l a bl a c k


, ,
.

clo a k w ith a h ood T h e sc a p ul a r of t h e l a y brothers i s bl a ck


. .

T h e D om in ic a ns a l w a ys w e a r shoes T h e ir tra dition s t e a ch th a t .

th i s h a bi t w a s a dop t e d i n a ccord a nce with t h e d ire ction s o f t h e


Bless e d Virgin T h e w h ite symbol iz e s puri ty ; the bl a c k m o r t i fic a
.
,

tion a n d pen a nce T h ei r four prin ci p a l s a ints a r e S t D om in ick


. .
,

S t Peter M a rtyr ; S t T hom a s A qu in a s t h e A ng e l ic Doctor ; a n d


. .
,

S t C a therin e of S ien a
. T he Dom in ic a ns h a v e e mbra c e d som e of t h e
.

m ost s p l endid a rtists a n d p a tr o ns of a r t T h e shrin e o f S t D o m in ic k . .


S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . 33

is i n t h e church of h is order a t Bo l ogn a It i s c a l l e d i n I t a ly t h e


.
, ,

A r e a d i S a n Domen ico N i ccolo P is a no b uil t the ch urch a n d e xe


.
a

o ut e d t h e shri ne b ut th e ch urch h a s be e n r e built i n modern style


, .

A t R om e t h e S a nt a M a ri a S opra M inerv a is t heir most i mport a n t


- -


ch urch 3 a n d h e r e sl e eps A ngelico d a F iesol e I l Be a t o a n d Leo X , ,
.
,

w it h C a rdin a l Ho w a rd C a rd in a l Bembo a n d D u r a n d u s Th is ch urch


, , .

is filled w ith b e a utiful p i ctures a n d h e re is M ich a el A ngelo s statu e


,

of Chri st . A t F loren c e th e D om ini c a ns h a ve the S a nt a M a ri a


N ovell a ; i n t h is ch urc h i s t h e Ch a p e l D e i S p a gn uol i p a inted by ,

T a dd e o G a ddi a n d S i mon e M e m m i 3 t h e S trozzi Ch a pel by A ndr e a ,

Or c a gn a 3 a n d h e r e is the M a donn a a n d Ch i l d by Ci m a b u e , .

I n F lorence is the con vent of S t M a rk in w h ich l i v e d a n d p a inted


.
,

F r a A ngel ico a n d F r a B a rtolomeo T h e first of th ese entered thi s


.

conv e nt w hen tw e nty y e a rs old a n d p a ss e d t h e r e m a inder of h is long


,

l i fe i n p a inting th e spiri t u a l conceptions of h i s devo u t a n d gen t l e


m ind H e bel i e ved t h a t G o d gra nted h i m h is ben e dic t ion on h is
.

l a bors 3 a n d so i mpr e ss e d wa s h e w it h th e r e l igious i mport a nc e o f


th em th a t h e i s s a id to h a ve p a int e d m u ch u p on h is bended kne e s
, ,

as if perform ing an a c t of d e votion H is princi p a l w orks a r e i n h is


.

o w n con vent i n th e ch urch of S a nt a M a ri a N ovell a a n d in t h e


, ,

Ch a pel of N i cho l a s V i n t h e V a tic a n


.
, F r a B a rtolomeo i s a lso .

c a lled B a ccio dell a Port a a n d I l F ra te .

A t S ien a the Domi ni c a ns h a v e t h e M a donn a by G u ido d a S i e n a ,

a n d th e frescos of R a zzi F o r th is order Leon a rdo d a Vinci p a inted


.

h is L a st S upper a n d T iti a n h is S a n P i e tro M a rtir e


,
.

T heir ch urch e s w ere bu ilt w ithou t a isl e s h a ving a n a v e only i n , ,

order that th e pre a ch ing w h ich w a s th eir esp e ci a l duty m ight b e


, ,

h e a rd in e very p a rt ; th i s form of edifi ce w a s ve ry a dv a n t a geou s a lso


for t h e setting forth of t h e ir p i ctur e s .

TH E C ARM EL IT E S .

This ord e r cl a i ms th e prophet E lij a h a s its fo u n der a n d a l so that ,

M t C a rmel h a s bee n inh a bited by a direct su ccession of h ermits


.

ever since t h e t im e of th a t proph et T h e m embers w e a r a brown .

t un i c w it h a wh ite m a ntle a n d a r e a lso c a lled Wh ite F ri a rs


,
T h eir .

most i nteresting church is the C a rmin i a t F lorence in w h ich i s th e ,

B r a n c a c c i Ch a pel w h i ch wa s p a in t ed by M a s a ccio F il ippino Lippi


, , ,

a n d M a so l in o A s a n ord e r th e C a rm e l it e s a r e not i mport a nt i n


.
,
34 S Y AI B OL I S M IN AR T .

TH E J E R O N Y M I T ES .

T hes e monk s c l a i m S t J erome a s th eir found e r a n d a dorn th e ir


.
,

e difi ces l a rgely wi th pict u res of th a t s a int a n d sc e n e s from h is li fe , .

T h e E scuri a l a n d the mon a stery of S t J ust i n S p a i n ; the mon a s tery .


,

o f Belem i n Portug a l ; a n d th a t of S t S igismond n e a r Cremon a in


, .
, ,

It ly
a — a l l belong to t h is ord e r w hich is r e m a r k a b l e for the m a
, , g
n i fic e n c e of its e dific e s .

TH E J ES UI T S .

T he mmb e rs of th i s order a r e n ot e a si l y di st ingu i sh ed i n a r t


e .

T hey we a r the bl a ck frock b utton ed to t h e ch in w h ich is so u nfa vor ,

a bl e for a p ictur e th a t th e y a r e oft e n re p resent e d in the pri estly vest

m e n ts a s i n t h e c a se o f S t Ign a ti u s Loyol a a n d S t F ra ncis Xa vi er ;


, . .

or in c a ssoc k a n d surpl i ce a s i n t he c a se of S t A loysi us a n d S t


,
. .

S t a n is l a u s Ko s tk a I f the h e a d i s cover e d it is by a sq u a re bl a c k
.
,

ca
p . T h e Jesuits d id n ot a ppe a r to v a l ue a r t a s h i g hly a s m a ny o f
th e o ld e r orders T hey l a v ish ed l a rg e su ms of m oney on their
.

ch urches ; b u t i t w a s spent i n brill i a n t d ecor a tions of gold a n d


S il ver r a re m a rbl es a n d even j e wels ra ther th an i n pictures a n d
, , ,

st a tu es ; a n d yet th ey w ere ( a fter som e roy a l p e rson a ges ) th e ch ief


p a tron s of R ubens a n d V a n Dyc k w h o decora t e d t h e splend id ch urch
,

of their order a t A ntw e rp .

XI I . VOT I V E P I CT UR E S , A N A CH R O N I S M S , ETC .

T her e l a rge n umbers of w h a t a r e known a s voti v e p i ctures


a re ,

w h ich a r e p a i n t ed i n fulfil m e n t of a vow i n g r a titude for som e sign a l ,

bl essing or to a vert som e a n ticip a t e d d a nger M a ny com memor a t e


,
.

a recovery or esc a p e from sickness or a ccident T h e donor a n d


,
.
,

so m etimes h is en tire fa mily a r e seen i n t h e picture a n d a r e f r e


, ,

quently represented a s grou ped a bou t t h e M a donn a a n d C h ild In .

e a rly a r t the donor or vot a ry wa s represent e d a s v ery d im inuti v e ,

to express hu mil ity ; bu t i n l a ter times th ey a pp e a r of a n a tur a l si ze .

T h e figure of a bish o p kneel ing w h ile a l l oth ers st a nd s ign ifies th a t


, ,

h e i s th e person who presents the pi cture ; wh en h e st a n d s it i s


d i fficul t t o determ ine w ho h e m a y be for there a r e h undreds o f ,

bishop m a r tyrs a n d p a trons wh o a r e th u s represented


-
.

I n m a ny works of a r t there is a n a ppa rent a n a ch ron ism i n t h e


cho ic e of t h e person s repr e s e nted ; a s for inst a nce wh en t h e Vi rgin , ,
S Y M B OL I S I I I IN AR T . 35

is surround e d by thos e who l ived e ith e r c e nturi e s b e for e or a ft er h er


self I t m ust be borne in m ind th a t s uch pi ctur e s were not i ntended
.

to represent physic a l fa cts b ut a r e d e votion a l i n their ch a r a cter a n d


,

m e a n ing A n d if t h e person s represented a r e not l iving they kno w


. ,

no more of ti me 3 for th e m i t no l ong e r e x ists a n d th a t w hi ch a t a ,

c a reless gl a n ce a pp e a rs to b e th e result of ignor a nce or b a d t a ste i s ,

i n fa ct a spiritu a l conc e p tion of t h e com m un ion of s a ints w ho


,

,

belong no mor e to e a rth When thus considered there a ppe a rs no


. ,

i ncongruity i n these re pre sent a tions of w h ic h th e Correggio a t P a rm a ,

is a good ill ustra tion In it S t Jerom e pr e sents h is tra nsl a tion of


. .

t h e S criptures to th e in f a nt Chri st w hil e an a ngel turns t h e le a ves , ,

a n d M a ry M a gd a l e n e k iss e s t h e fe e t of Jesus N either is the group .

ing i n many pictur e s strictly i n a ccord a n ce w ith w h a t m igh t b e


termed propriety T h e S ibyls d a ncing a ro un d t h e cra dle of J e sus
.
,

a n d t h e represent a tions of Greek poe t s a n d ph ilosoph ers i n e c c l e s i

a s t i c a l a r t a r e expl a ined by t h e fa ct th at every th ing w a s reg a rded


,

i n but a singl e a spect — th a t is in its rel a tion to Chri st a n d h is


, ,

Ch urch A l l thos e w ho preceded h i m foresh a do wed h i m a n d pr o p h e


.
,

sied of hi s com ing T herefore these G reeks som etim e s be a r scrolls


.

inscribed w ith senten ces from t h e ir writings w h ich a r e interpreted


a s rel a ting to th e S a vio ur I n th e ex a min a tion of l a rge n umbers of
.

rel igio us pi ctures ch ronology shoul d be e ntirel y fo rg ott en for tim e


, ,

wa s not though t of in their a rr a ngem e nt a n d m a ny other c o n s i d ,

e r a t i o n s d e term ined th e a rtist i n h i s a ssoci a tion of persons C ert a i n .

s a ints a r e brought together bec a us e th e y a r e j oint p a tron s of t h e


,

pl a ce for w h i c h they w ere p a inted a s i n t h e V en e ti a n picture s of ,

S t M a rk S t G eorg e a n d S t C a th e rin e
.
,
.
,
A ga in th ey a r e con . .
,

n e c t e d by the s a m e a t t ributes or si mil a r ev e nts i n their li v e s a s is , , ,

t h e c a se wi th S t R och a n d S t S e b a s t i a n
. th e first h a ving tended
.
,

the sick wh o su ff ered fro m th e pl a gue a n d t h e l a st being a pro ,

t ector a g a inst it Or th ey w e re fri e nds on e a rth a s S t Cypri a n


.
,
.

a n d S t Cornel ius ; or they rest tog e th er i n de a th a s S t


. S tephen a n d .
,

S t L a u rence
. S ome of th ese or other like re a sons w h ich were good
.
, ,

a n d su fficient to th e m inds of a rtists a n d their p a trons a l wa ys ex ,

pl a ined t h e a pp a r e nt i nconsistencies of these pictures a n d w ere per ,

f e c t l y understood i n t h e a g e to wh ich th e y b e longed A ga in som e .


,

s a ints a r e so m uch more frequ e ntly represented th a n others as to

occ a sion surpris e a n d r e m a rk T h is m a y b e e x p l a in e d in p a rt by


.
36 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T .

the fa ct th a t som e sa ints w ere un i v e rs a l p a trons h onore d t h ro ugh out


Chri stendom w h ile t h e venera tion for others w a s confin ed to S peci a l
,

l oc a lities or to cert a in orders S t Joseph S t G eorge S t S eb a s ti a n . .


,
.
,
.
,

St . Christoph e r S t Cosmo S t D a m i a n S t R och S t N ichol a s


,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,

S t C a therine S t Cecili a S t B a rb a r a S t M a rga r e t a n d S t U rs u l a


.
,
.
,
.
, .
,
.

a r e of the former cl a ss .

I n p a rti cul a r schools of art th is frequ e n t re pre s e nt a t ion of c e r t a in


person a ges is gov e rned by th e loc a l ity i n wh i ch th ey w e re p a inted ,

or that for wh ic h they w er e intended A F lore nt ine a rt ist w ould .

introduc e S t D on a to a n d S t R o m ulo ; a N e a pol it a n S t J a n u a r i u s 3


. .
,
.

a F renchm a n S t D e n is etc 3 or a s in a n ex isting p icture S t Peter


,
.
, .
,
.
,

S t L e on a rd S t M a rth a a n d S t M a ry M a gd a l e n e a r e un ited t o
.
,
.
,
.

i nd ic a te that the soci e ty for w h i ch i t was p a in ted red e e m e d prison ers ,

ra nsomed sl a ves l a bor e d for t h e p oor a n d convert e d t h e fa llen a n d


, ,

S inful.

T h u s it is a p p a r e nt th at it i s for t h e a dv a n t a g e of t h e c a reful
observer to consid e r th a t how e v e r biz a rre a picture m a y a ppe a r ,

th e re is some r e a son for its a rra nge men t w h ich if understood a n d , ,

a ppreci a ted a dds me a n ing to it


, helps to d iscern its int e n tion a n d ,

sentiment a n d show s that w h a t seem s a t fi rst to b e t h e result of


,

ch a nc e or a n ignora nc e of th e fitn e ss of th ings is i n truth th a t of


, ,

deep a n d e a rn e st thought o f del ic a t e a n d poetic conc e ptions a n d


, ,

a lofty d esire to t e a ch gr a nd a n d ho l y truth s a s we ll a s to gi v e


ple a sure a n d d e light the e ye .

B a d ge of th e Od r e r of Me rc y .
L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S

W H I C H H A V E B E E N I LL U S T R ATED I N AR T .

St . A bb o n d i o wa s born a t T h e ss a l on i c a H e wa s t h e fourt h
.

Bish op of Como in t h e ,
tim e of L e e I H e is r e pre s e nted in th e
.

c a th e dr a l of Como a n d ,
is th e a postl e a n d p a tron s a int of th a t p or
t ion of It a ly .

A h ga r u s K i n g,
The a pocryph a l gosp e l s p o k e n of by E n s e
.

“ “ ”
b i u s a n d c a lled
,
Christ a n d A h ga r us b e gins w ith A Copy of ,

a L e tter written by K ing A h g a r u s to J e s us a n d s e nt to H i m by,


A n a n i a s h is F ootm a n to J e rus a lem inv iting H i m to E d e ss a
, , ,
T hi s .

lett e r op e n s w ith gr e etings to the S a v io ur a n d goes on to urge h i m ,

to go to E dess a to cur e th e k ing of a s e rious dis e a s e


,
I t a dds : .

“ ”
M y city i s inde e d sm a ll b ut n e a t a n d l a rg e e nough for u s both
, ,
.

J e sus returned a n a n s we r th a t h e could not go a s h e m ust ful fil h i s ,

m ission at J e rus a l e m b ut p ro m i s e d th at a ft e r h is a sc e nsion he w ou l d


,

sen d a d iscipl e wh o would cur e t h e king a n d gi ve life to h i m a n d


,

to a l l wh o were w ith h i m T his a cco u n t end s h e r e 3 b u t u p to th e


.

tent h c e ntury ther e w e r e a v a ri e ty of a dd itions m a de to it u nt i l ,


t hen i t h a d a ssum ed the follo w ing form A h ga r u s K ing of E dess a , ,

su ffe ring from t h e t wofol d infliction of gout a n d le p rosy w i thdre w ,

from the sight of m en A n a n i a s on e of his serv a nts r e turn ing fro m


.
, ,

a j ourn e y to E gypt t e ll s h i m o f t h e wonderful cur e s by Christ o f


, ,

w h ic h h e h a s h e a rd i n P a l estin e I n t h e h op e of obt a in ing r e l i e f


.
,

A h ga r u s w rit e s to C hrist a n d ch a rges A n a n i a s wh o wa s not on l y a


, ,

good tra ve l l e r b ut a s k ilfu l p a int e r t h a t i f Christ shou l d not b e a b l e


,

t o co m e h e shou l d at a l l e v e nts s e nd h i m hi s p ortr a it


, A na n ia s .
38 L E GE N DS AND S T OR I E S

fi nds Christ a s h e i s i n t h e a c t of p e rform ing m ira c l e s a n d t e a ch ing ,

t h e m ulti tude in t h e o pe n a i r A s h e i s not a ble t o a ppro a ch h i m


.

for the crowd he m oun ts a roc k n e t fa r o ff T h e nc e h e fi x e s h is


,
.

e y e s u pon C hrist a n d b e gins to t a k e h i s l ikeness


,
Jesus wh o s e es .
,

h im a n d a lso kno ws i n spirit t h e cont e nts of t h e l e tt e r sends


, ,

T hom a s to bring h im to h im writ e s h is a nsw e r to A h ga r u s a n d gi ves


, ,

i t to h im B ut seeing th at A n a ni a s still l inge rs J e sus c a lls for


.
,

w a ter a n d h a ving w a sh e d h is fa ce h e w ip e s i t on a cloth on w h ich


, , , ,

by h is d i vin e power th e re re m a in s a perf ect portra i t of h i s fe a t ures ;


,

th is h e gi ves to A n a n i a s ch a rging h i m to tak e it to A h ga r u s so th a t


, ,

h is longing m a y be s a ti sfi ed a n d h is d ise a s e c ured On the w a y


,
.

A n a n i a s p a sses by t he city o f H iera pol is b ut re m a ins outside t h e ,

g a tes a n d h ides th e h oly cloth i n a h e a p of fre shly m a de bri cks


,
.

A t m idnight t h e inh a bit a nts of H i e ra polis percei v e that th is he a p


o f bricks is surrounded w ith fire T hey d iscover A n a ni a s a n d h e
.
,

o wns t h e supern a tura l ch a r a ct e r of th e obj ect h idden a mo n g t h e


bri cks T hey find n ot only t h e m ira culou s cloth but more still ;
.
,

for by a m y sterio us v irtu e a bric k th a t l a y n e a r th e cloth h a s


, ,

recei ved a secon d i m p re ss of the di vine i m a ge A n d a s no fire i s .

d iscovera ble ex cept th e light that proceeds from th e p icture t h e


, ,

inh a bit a nts ke e p t h e bri ck a s a s a cr e d tre a s ure a n d l et A n a n i a s go ,

o n h is w a
y He gi v
. e s K ing A h g a r u s t h e l e tt e r a n d th e cloth w ho ,


i s i m med i a t e ly h e a led T h is l a st l e g e nd w a s e dit e d by t h e E m
.

e r o r Const a nti n e Porph rog e n i tu s a n d in h is time th e origin a l n a


p y , p
k in w a s a t C onst a ntinople 3 two oth e rs a t R om e a n d G e no a w h ile a ,

fa ls e copy h a d b e en sent to t h e K ing of Persi a T h e bri ck too h a d .


, ,

rem a in e d in its first city but h a d furn ish e d i m a ges to other c it ies In
, .

fa ct t h e R om a n o n e sti ll exists in th e ch u rch of S a n S ilvestro B ut


, .

Const a ntine h a s gi v e n a th ird versi on w h i ch i s th a t Christ on t h e , ,

w a y to C a l v a ry w i ped h is fa ce o n a p iec e of l in e n on wh ich t h e i mpre ss


,

o f h is co unten a n ce w a s l e ft a n d g a v e it to T hom a s comm a ndi ng th a t


, ,

a ft e r h is a scen sion T h a dd e us should t a k e i t to A h ga r u s in order to fu l

fil t h e prom is e wh ich J e sus h a d m a d e T h is wa s done ; b ut T h a dd e us


.

fi rst goes to t h e hous e of a J e w i n E dess a d e term ined to d o som e ,

m ira cles w h ich sh a ll a ttr a ct t h e a ttention of t h e k ing A n d h e h e a l s .

t h e sick un til A h ga r u s h e a r s o f h im a n d s e nds for h im h o p ing th a t


, ,

h e i s th e d isciple wh om C hrist h a d p romis e d h i m sho ul d com e A s .

T h a dd e us e nt e rs t h e room h e l i fts u p t h e p icture ; a n d so gre a t a


,
40 L E GE N DS A ND S T OR I E S

A p a rt of he r re l ics a re p re s e rv e d in a shrin e i n H a nov e r . D e ce m


b e r 1 6, A . D . 9 99 .

St A d e l a i d e w a s t h e w ife of S t L u po a n d t h e m oth e r of S t
. .
, .

G r a t a w ho together w ith S t A l e x a nder the m a rtyr a r e s a ints b e


,
.
,

l onging e s p e ci a lly to Berg a mo t h e l a st two b e ing the p a tron sa ints ,

of t h a t city S t G ra t a a ft e r t h e d e a th of h e r h u sb a n d beca m e a
. .
, ,

C hristi a n a n d convert e d h e r fa th e r wh o w a s D u k e of B e rga mo a n d


, , ,

h e r moth e r S t A del a id e to t h e s a m e fa ith


,
. T hrough th e infl u e n ce , .

o f S t Gra t a S t
. L u p o fo und e d th e c a th edra l at B e rg a mo A f ter t h e
,
. .

d e a th of h er p a r e nts G ra t a govern e d Berg a mo a n d found e d t hre e ,

ch urch e s a n d a hospit a l w h e re s h e h e rself m in istered to the si ck ,


.

S t A l e x a nd e r wa s a so l di e r of t h e T heb a n L e gion a n d wa s beh e a d ed


.
,

outsid e B e rga mo Gra t a wra pp e d th e h e a d i n a n a pk in a n d g a v e


.
,

honora bl e b uri a l to t h e r e m a ins S t A del a id e is repres e nt e d w ith a .

cro wn a n d a long v e il S t L upo w ith a roy a l crown S t A l e x a nd e r , .


,
.

a s a R oman wa rrior w ith a p a l m a n d S t G ra t a a s c a rrying t h e h e a d ,


.

o f A l e x a nd e r .

” '
S t A d r i a n ( Gr A Sp t a vo s 3 L a t S A dri a nn e ; F r St

. Ay . . .
. . . .

A dri e n 3 I t a l S a nt A dri a no) w a s a m il it a ry s a int a n d for a g e s wa s



.
,

consid e r e d n e xt to S t G eorg e in N orthern E urop e I n the N orth . .

o f F r a nc e F l a nd e rs a n d Ge rm a ny h e wa s the p a tron s a int of sol


, , ,

d i e rs a n d p r o t e ctor a g a in st the pl a u e H e is a l so th e p a tron o f


,
g .

F l e mish br e we rs H e w a s a nobl e R om a n son o f P rob us A t t h e


.
,
.

ti m e of th e tent h p e rs e cution of t h e C hri sti a ns a t N i c o m e d i a a city ,

of B ithyni a (A D h e s e rv e d i n t h e gu a rd s of th e E m peror
. .

G a l e r i u s M a xi m i a n H e wa s l e ss th a n th i rty y e a rs old a n d w a s
.
,

m a rri e d to N a t a li a wh o w a s a C hristi a n s e cre tly S h e w as e xce e d


, .

i n gly v irt uous a n d b e a utiful T h e i mp e ri a l ed ict wa s torn down by .

S t G e orge w h ich so infu ri a ted t h e e m p eror th a t th irt y four C hri s


.
,
-

ti a ns w e re s e ntenc e d to t h e torture at o n e time I t fel l by lot to .

A dri a n to sup e ri ntend t h e e x e cu tion of t h e s e nt e nc e W h e n h e sa w .

t h e m a nn e r in w h ich t h e C hristi a ns su ff er e d for th e ir fa ith h e wa s ,

suddenly converte d a n d s e a ting h i msel f i n th e ir m idst e xcl a im e d


, , ,

“ ”
Consid e r m e a lso a s o n e of ye 3 for I too w il l b e a C hristi a n He .

wa s i mm e di a t e ly im prison e d N a t a l i a h e a ring th is wa s fu l l of j oy .
, , ,

a n d going to h i m encou ra ged h i m to su ff er for C hrist A dri an wa s .

soon condemned to d ie ; a n d t h e n igh t before h is execu tion b e bri be d ,

h is j a i l e r to pe rm it h i m t o visit N a t a l i a S h e h e a ring th a t h e r .
,
I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . 41

h usb a nd h a d l e ft h is p rison wa s i n gre a t sorrow a n d t e a ring h e r g a r


, ,


ments thr e w h e rs e lf down s a y ing A l a s ! m isera b l e th a t I a m ! I
, ,

h a v e not d e s e rv e d to be t h e w ife of a m a rtyr N ow w il l m e n point


at m e a n d sa y B e h old t h e w ife of t h e cow a rd a n d a p ost a t e w ho for
, ,


fe a r of de a th hath den ied h is G o d B ut A dri a n w ho h a d now come .
, ,

he a ring these words s a id O tho u nobl e a n d strong hearted wom a n


, ,
-

Oh bless Go d that I a m not un wort hy of th e e ! Op e n th e door that


,

I m a y bid thee fa r e w e l l b e fo re I d i e J oyf u l l y sh e opened t h e door .

a n d e mbr a c e d h im a n d r e turn e d to p rison w ith h i m


, T h e n e xt d a y .

A dri a n wa s sco u rg e d a n d tortur e d a n d sent b a ck to prison Th e , .

t yr a nts h e a ring o f t h e devotion of N a t a l i a ordered tha t n o wom a n


, ,

should b e adm itted to t h e prison S h e th en cut o ff h e r b e a u t ifu l .

h a ir and dress e d a s a m a n a n d so g a in e d a dmission to A dri a n S h e


, , .

found h i m torn a n d b l e e ding S h e too k h i m in her a rm s a n d s a i d .


, ,


0 light of m ine e y e s and h usb a nd o f m in e h e a rt ! Bl e ssed a rt

thou w ho a r t c a l l ed t o su ff e r for Christ s s a k e !
, T h us she s o ’

strength e n e d h is h e a rt that h e wa s a b l e to e nd ur e to t h e e n d Th e .

n e xt da y h is l i mbs wer e stru ck o ff on an a nvil a n d h e wa s b e h e a ded , .

N a t a li a s u p p ort e d h i m i n h is su ff e rings a n d he e xpi re d in h e r a rms ,

b e for e the l a st blo w K issing h i m sh e took on e of h is b a n ds w h ich


.
, ,

s h e wr a pp e d i n l in e n w ith spic e s a n d p e rfum e s a n d pl a c e d it at th e ,

h ead of h e r b e d Hi s body wa s t a k e n by Christi a ns to Byz a nti um


.
,

since Const a ntinople There is a tra dition th a t in the n inth c e ntu ry


.

i t wa s removed t o t h e conv e nt w h ich b e a rs h is n a m e a t Gra mmont , ,

i n F l a nders A fter this t h e e mperor thre a t e n e d to m a rry N a t a l i a to


.

a tribune of t h e a rmy S h e fl e d to A r ge p oli s ne a r Byz a nti u m a n d


.
, ,

p a ss e d h e r l ife n e a r t h e tomb of A dr i a n H e often a pp e a re d to h e r .

i n visions a n d a sk e d h e r to f ollo w h im w h ich s h e soon d id 3 a n d


, ,

wh en she di e d A drian w ith rej oicing a ng e ls m et h e r a n d t og e th e r


, ,

they e nt e r e d t h e pre s e nc e of Go d A n a nvil is t h e a ttribute of .

A dri a n a n d i s re p r e s e nt e d at h is fe e t or in hi s h a nd
, H i s sword .

was l ong kept a s a rel i c a t Wa lb e ck i n S a xony 3 but t h e E mp e ror


, ,

Henry I I (S t H e nry ) girded i t on h ims e lf w h e n p re p a ring to go


. .

a g a inst t h e T urks a n d Hung a ri a ns A D 29 0 . . . .

S t A f r a wa s t h e d a ught e r of S t H il a ri a a n d i s t h e p a tro n e ss
. .
,

of A ugsburg S h e wa s for a long ti m e a co urt e s a n i n th a t city a n d


.
,

h a d thr e e m a id e n s a s d issol ut e a s h e r se l fi— Dign a E unom i a a n d , ,

E n trop i a A t l ength N a rcissus a holy m a n fl e e ing from p e rs e cution


.
, ,
42 L E GE N DS AN D S T OR I E S

ca me h ou s e not know ing h e r ch a ra cter When sh e found h e


to he r ,
.

w a s a priest sh e w a s ov e rcome w ith fe a r a n d for th e fi rst t i me w a s


, ,

a sh a med of her li fe of sin He told h e r of C hrist a n d a t len gth sh e.


,

beso ught h i m to a llow her to be b a ptized He kno w ing th a t Christ .


,

d id not rej e ct e ven th e gre a test sinners b a p tized h er a n d a ss ured her ,

of forgiveness By h e r a i d N a rcissu s esc a ped to h is n a ti v e S p a in


. .

T hrough h er influence her moth e r a n d the th re e m a id e ns w e re a lso


conv e r ted A fra w a s s e ized a n d a ccu sed of h a ving a ssisted N a rcissu s
.
,

to esc a pe a n d o f b e ing h e rself a C hristi a n T h e j udge G a i n s wh o .


, ,

h a d known o f h er former l ife w a s a m a zed a t h er m odesty a n d t h e , ,

fi rmn e ss w ith w h ich s h e a cknowl e dg e d h er n e w fa ith a n d a sk e d h er ,

h o w o n e so v i l e co ul d ex pect t o b e r e c e i ved by J e sus T o w h ich she .


r e pl i e d It i s tru e I a m u n worth y to be a r th e n a m e of Christi a n ;
,

n e verth e l e ss H e w ho di d not rej ect M a ry M a gd a l ene w hen sh e


,

w a sh ed h is feet w ith h e r t e a rs w ill not rej ect me S h e wa s b urn ed ,
.

a li ve ; a n d a s sh e pr a y e d i n th e m idst of t h e fire a ngel s bore h er ,

spirit to h e a v e n S hortly a ft e r h e r moth e r a n d the thre e m a idens


.
,

w e r e e x e cuted for th e ir fa ith a n d s u ffe red w it h const a ncy A ugust 5 , .


,

A D 3 04
. . .

S t A f r a p a tron e ss o f Br e sci a is su p po sed to h a v e be e n o f


.
, ,

n oble fa mily S h e w a s con verte d by th e work s of S a n F a usti no


.

a n d S a n G iov it a
( F a ustin us a n d Jo vit a
) a n d su ff ered m a r t yrdom ,

w ith Ca l o c e r u s T h e ch urch ded ic a t e d to h e r is o n e of t h e fi n e st


.

orn a ments of Bre sci a .

S t A ga th a
.
( L a t S a nct a A ga th a 3 F r S t e A g a th e 3 I t a l S a nt a
. . . .

A g a t a 3 Ge r D i e Heilige A ga th a ) v i rgin a n d m a rtyr 3 p a tron ess of


.
,

M a lt a a n d C a t a ni a a lso protectress a ga i n st fire a n d a l l d ise a ses of


,

t h e br e a st Th e E mperor Deci us stra ngled h is predecessor Ph ili p 3


.
,

a n d desiri n g to m a k e i t a ppe a r th a t h e d id th is b e c a u se Ph il ip
w a s a Christi a n a n d n o t for h is own a d v a ncement b e instituted
, ,

gre a t pers e cutions of th e C hristi a ns through out h i s em pire He .

m a d e Qu i n t ia n u s k ing of S icily H ere a t C a t a n i a d wel t A ga th a .


, , ,

a m a id e n of gre a t be a uty w h o m Qu i n t i a n u s tem pted w ith p resents


, ,

fl a ttery a n d prom is e s w ith out success H e th en g a ve h er to F ron


, , .

d i s i a w ho w a s a cou rtes a n w i th n ine d a ught e r s a l l a s w icked a s


, ,

po ssibl e a n d promised h er gre a t rich es i f s h e wo uld s ubd u e A ga th a


,

to h i s w ishes F r o n d is i a a ttempted t o influ e nc e A ga th a by e very


.

m e a ns i n h e r p o we r fo r th irty thre e d a ys ; b ut s h e r e m a ined fi xed -


I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . 43

in her p urity , fa ith i n J e sus A t t h e e n d o f th a t tim e


an d he r .

F r on d i s i a s a id to Qu i n t i a n u s “
S o on e r sh a ll that sword a t thy side
,

b e com e l ike liqu i d le a d a n d th e rocks d issol ve a n d fl o w l ik e w a ter


, ,

th a n the h e a rt of th is d a msel be subdued to thy w ill T he n Q uin .

t i a n u s i n fury com m a nd e d h er to b e brought a n d a tt e mpt e d t o ,


m ove h e r by thre a ts ; but she s a id I f tho u shouldst thro w me,

to th e w ild be a sts th e po wer of Christ would r e nder th em we a k


,

a s l a mbs ; i f tho u sho uldst k in dl e a fir e to consu me m e the a n gels ,

would qu e nch i t w ith th eir d e ws from h e a ven ; i f t ho u shou ldst


te a r me w ith scourges th e Holy S pirit w ith in m e w ould render
,


t h y t ortures h a rmless Th en t h e tyra nt ord e red her to be b e a ten
.
,

a n d h e r bosom to b e torn w i th she a rs A fter th a t sh e w a s thrown


.

into a d a rk dungeon A t m idnight there c a m e a n aged m a n be a ring


.

a v a s e of ointment a n d a yo uth w it h a torch


,
I t wa s S t Pet e r . .

and a n a nge l b ut A gath a d id not k no w th e m 3 a n d t h e l ight w hic h


,

filled t h e d unge on so frightened th e gu a rds tha t they fl e d l e a v ing ,

“ ”
th e door op e n T h e n o n e said to t h e m a iden
. A ris e a n d fl y , .


B ut s h e replied G o d forbid th a t I sh ould fly from my crown o f
,

m a rtyrdom a n d b e th e occ a s ion that my k e e p e rs sho uld su ff er


, ,


for my flight tortur e s and de a th ; I w il l not fly
, , T he n S t . .

Pe t er h e a l e d a l l h e r w o u nds w ith celesti a l oi nt m e nt a n d v a n ish e d ,

from h er sight T h e r a ge of Qu i n t i a n u s not being s a t isfied h e sent


.
,

for her a ga in a n d w a s a ston ished a t t h e wonderfu l cure of her


,

wound s .

Wh o h a t h h e a l ed th e e ? a sked h e ; sh e r epl ied He ” “
, ,

w hom I confess a n d adore w ith m y h eart a n d w ith m y lips h a t h ,



sent hi s a postle a n d he a led m e a n d deli vere d m e
, ,T hen Q ui n .

t i a n u s ordered h er to be b urned ; and a s sh e w a s thrown i n t h e


fire a gre a t e a rt hqu a k e shook t h e city a n d th e people r a n to t h e
, ,


p a l a ce crying
,
T hi s has f a ll e n u pon us b e c a use of t h e su ff erings
,


of thi s C hristi a n d a ms e l 3 a n d they threatened to b urn Qu i n t i a n u s
i f h e d id not desist S o h e ordered her to be t a ken fro m t h e fl a mes
.
,

a n d sh e wa s born e a g a i n to prison scorched a n d in gre a t a gony


, ,
.

H ere she entre a ted G o d to rele a se h er a n d t a k e h er to h e a ven ;


w h ich pr a yer w a s he a rd for i mmedi a tely s h e di ed T h e Christi a ns
,
.

emb a l med h e r body a n d pl a ced i t i n a tomb of p orphyry


,
N ea r .

to C a t a ni a is a volc a no w hich the peopl e c a ll M ongibello ( M t E tn a ) .


,

a n d a bout a ye a r a fter the de a th of A g a th a thi s m o unt a in O pe n ed

a n d s e nt forth str e a ms of fir e W h e n t h e fir e h a d a lmost r e a ch e d


.
44 L E GE N DS AN D S T OR I E S

the city t h e p e opl e to o k t h e ve il o f A ga th a fro m h e r tomb a n d


, ,

pl a cing it on a l a nce bore i t in p rocession tow a r ds the fir e a n d ,

w hen they came to i t th e fir e wa s st a y e d a n d t h e ci ty s a ved Wh e n .

th e h e a then sa w th is m ira cle th e y w er e a l l converted a n d b a ptiz e d , .

T h e re i s i n M a lt a a s ubt e rr a n e a n ch a pe l d e dic a ted to S t A g a th a . .

I t i s cu t o u t o f t h e rock a n d t h e w a lls a r e fr e sco e d T ra dition , .

a ss e rts th a t t h e ground onc e be l o n ged to t h e fa m ily of t h e s a int .

S t A g a th a is u su a lly repr e s e nt e d w ith a p a l m i n o n e h an d a n d a


.

s a l ver i n the other o n wh ich i s t h e fe m a l e br e a st S ometimes t h e


, .

she a rs a r e b e side h e r S h e we a rs a long v e il F ebru a ry 5 A D 25 1


. .
,
. . .

' ”
S t A gl e e
. A y A o us ) wa s a G r e ek by b irth a n d l i ved w ith
.
,

h e r lover Bon ifa ce i n sin a n d l u x ury for m a ny y e a rs


, ,
I n th e tim e .

o f t h e l a st p e rsec ution of th e C hristi a n s th e y w e re both con v e rt e d ,

from their sins a n d b e c a m e fo ll o we rs o f C h rist A gl a e s e nt Bon i fa c e


, .

w ith gre a t t re a sure s to a ssist t h e m a rtyrs a n d to b ury th e ir r e m a ins .

I n h is ze a l b e expos e d h i ms e lf a n d s u ff e r e d m a rtyrdom H is body


, .

w a s brough t to A gl a e S h e bu ilt o n t h e we st e rn side of t h e A ven


.
,

tin e a n ora tory w h e re in s h e pl a ced t h e rem a ins of Bon ifa c e a n d s h e


, , ,

S pent th e rem a inder o f h e r l i fe i n pr a yers a n d p e n iten ce M a y 1 4 . .

Bon i fa ce died a bo ut 3 07 3 A gl a e fi fte e n ye a rs l a t e r


, ,
.

S t A g n e s (L a t S a n ct a A gn us ; I t a l S a n t A gn e s e ; Sp S a nt a

. . . .

In ez ; F r S t e A gn é s) S t A gnes wa s a R om a n m a id e n o f gre a t
. . . .

b e a uty a n d a C hristi a n fro m h er i nfa ncy S h e w a s not mor e th a n


,
.

th irteen ye a rs old wh e n the son of the pre fect S e mpron i us s a w h e r ,

a n d so l oved h e r th a t h e sought h er for h is w ife B ut s h e refused .

h is request s a ying th a t s h e wa s a lre a dy a ffi a nced to a h usb a nd w ho m


,

sh e loved m e a n ing J esus T h e young m a n kn e w not to w hom s h e


, .

referred ; a n d h is j e a lousy a n d d is a ppo int e d lov e m a de h i m sick ,


a l most u nto d e a th T h e n t h e physic i a ns s a id
. T h is youth i s sic k ,

of unre qu ited love a n d ou r a r t c a n a v a il noth ing
,
W hen th e pre .

fe e t qu estioned h i s son h e told h is fa th e r of h is l ov e for A gn e s a n d


, ,

that u nl e ss sh e would b e h is w i fe h e m u st d ie T h e n S e m proni u s .

b egged o f A gnes a n d h er p a re nts th a t s h e should m a rry h is son ; b ut


sh e replied a s before th a t s h e p referr e d h e r b e troth e d to th e son of
, ,

the pre fect W hen h e h a d i nq uired h e r me a n ing a n d found th a t s h e


.
,

w a s a Christi a n h e w a s gl a d 3 for there wa s a n ed ict a g a inst the Chris


,

ti a ns a n d he fel t she wa s i n his power H e th e n told her th a t s i n c e


, .

s h e wo uld h a v e no e a rt hly h u sb a nd s h e m ust becom e a V e sta l V i r gi n , .


IL L US T R A T ED I N AR T . 45

B ut sh e re fused w ith scorn the worsh ip o f v ai n imag es a n d declared ,

that sh e would serve n one b ut Jesus S emproni us then threatened


[
.

h er with th e m ost horri d death and p ut h er in chains and dragged , ,

h er to th e al t ars of the gods B ut she remained firm T hen h e . .

ordered her to be taken to a house of infamy to s u ff er th e m ost fear ,

ful o utrages The soldiers stripped o ff her garmen t s 3 b ut when sh e


.

prayed her h air was length en ed till it was as a cloak abou t h er


, ,

co v ering her whole person and those wh o s a w her were seized w ith ,

fear S o they sh u t her i n a room 3 and when sh e prayed to C hrist


.

that she m igh t not be dish onored she saw before her a sh ining white ,

garment w h ich she p u t on w ith j oy an d the room was fi lled w i th


, ,

great light The son of th e prefect thinking she m ust be subdued


.
, ,

n o w came to h er B u t h e was struck blind an d fell i n convulsions


.
, .

Agnes m o v ed by h is su ff erings and the tears of h is friends praye d


, ,

for h is reco v ery a n d h e w as h ealed When S empron i us saw this h e


, .
,

w ished to sa v e her 3 b u t the peopl e said S h e is a sorceress 3 let her ,



d ie
. S o sh e was condem ned to be burned 3 b u t th e flames harmed
h er not wh ile her executi oners were cons umed by them T hen they
, .

“ ”
cried out the m ore S h e i s a sorceress : she m ust die ,
Th en a n .

executioner was com manded to ascend the pile a n d kill h er w ith th e ,

sword Th i s h e d id 3 and gazing steadfastly towards hea v en sh e fell


.
,

dead u p on th e pile S h e was b uried on the V ia N o m e n t a n a an d t he


.
,

Christians were accustomed to v isit her tomb to weep B u t sh e a p .

e a r e d to th em and forbade that th ey sho uld sorro w for one wh o was


p ,

happy i n heaven S t Agnes is a fa v orite saint of th e R oman and


. .
, ,

i n gener a l of young Ca t hol i c wom en There is one ch urch dedi ca t ed


, .

t o h er o n the Piazz a N avona o n th e spot where stood th e house of


, ,

infamy to wh ich sh e was carried 3 and another of great i nterest b e


yond the Porta Pia said to have been b uilt by Constantin e a t th e , ,

request of hi s daughter C onstan t ina to comm emora t e th e b urial , ,

place of S t Agn es N ext to the E vangel ists and A p os t les th ere is


. .
,

n o saint w hose i m ages are older than t h ose of S t Agnes She is . .

m ost freq uently represen ted with a lamb January 21 A D 3 04 .


, . . .

S h e is one of the fou r grea t v irgin martyrs of th e L a t in C hurch .

S t A gn e s o f M o n t e P u l c i a n o
. T h i s saint was remarkable .

for her pie t y from h er very infancy At n ine years of age sh e was .

placed i n a n unnery and at fi ft een was m ade pri oress of a new con ,

v ent at P r o c i n o of t h e D om in ican O rder S h e slept on th e gro und


, .
46 L EGEND S AN D S TOR IE S

w i t h a ston e pillo w and l i ved o n bread a n d wate r for fi ft een years


, ,

u n t il sh e was obliged t o d im inish her au s t eri t ies on accoun t of h er


h eal t h A t lengt h t h e people of M onte P ulcian o being desirous t hat
.
,

sh e should re t urn to her na t i ve town bu ilt a con vent on a spot w here ,

t hey had destroyed a lewd h ou se 3 of whi ch con v ent S t Agnes becam e .

the superior S h e ha d the gifts o f m iracles and prophecy an d was


.
,

grea t ly belo v ed S t Cath erine of S i ena m ade a pilgri mage to the


. .

t omb of S t Agn es w ith t wo o f h e r n ieces wh o took th e veil on t h at


.
,

occasio n S h e i s grea t ly v e n erated i n T uscany April 20 A D 1 3 1 7


. .
, . . .

S t A l b a n wa s th e fi rst saint and martyr i n E ngland on wh ich


.
,

account th e Abbot of S t Alban s had precedence over all others .



.

Th is saint was a n ati v e of V erulam H e li ved i n t h e ti me o f Aure .

l ia n and wen t to Ro m e Wh i l e s t ill a n idolater h e was n oted for h is


, .
, ,

h ospitali ty charity an d m a n y v i rtu es as well as for h i s great learn


, , ,

ing Wh e n the persec u tion o f D iocletia n in v aded Britain S t Alban


.
,
.

gave sh elter to a priest w h o was th e m eans of h i s con version an d , ,

baptized h im Whe n th e priest was pu rs ued to h i s ho use S t A lba n


.
,
.

p ut on h is long robe an d ga v e h imse l f to th e sold iers to save h is


guest H e was condemned to death as h e wo u l d n either worshi p idols
.
,

n or surrender t he priest He w as fi rst tort ured and t hen led out .


,

for execu tio n I t was n ecessary to cross th e river Col n to reach t h e


.

place wh ere h e was to s u ff er Th e crowd was great and the bridge .


,

so n arrow that th ey coul d n ot pass 3 b ut w hen the saint said a short


prayer th e waters were d i vided and a l l went over dry sh od W he n
, ,
-
.

on t h e h ill of execution h e prayed for water to q uench h is t h irst an d ,

a spring gush ed out a t h is fee t H e was beheaded H is burial place . .


-

was forgo tt en b ut d iscl osed i n 7 9 3 by a m i racle A n angel com


,
.

.
~

m a n d e d K ing O ffa i n a v ision that he sh ould fi nd t h e rem ains o f t h is

saint an d secure to them th e v enerat ion of t h e people H e foun d


,
.

the m at V erulam and b uilt a ch urch for t h em near wh ich a rose a


, ,

great Ben edi ctine monastery and th e town of S t Al ban s in Her t ford .

sh ire H i s at t ributes are the sword and a fountai n springing at h is


.

feet J une 2 2 A D 3 05
.
, . . .

S t A l b e rt ( L a t S Al bertus 3 I t a l S an t Alberto ) was Bish op o f



. . . .

V ercell i and Patriarch o f Jerusal em He i s reverenced as th e found er .

of t he O rder of t he C armel ites He was m urdered at Ac re wh e n .


,

e mbark ing to at t end a council at R om e A t t h e cath ed ral at Cr e .

m ona is a v esse l i n w h ich tradition says S t Albert kneaded bre a d , ,


.
48 L EGEND S A N D S T OR IES

m ust die The n h e aske d for pe n and ink a n d wrote a n acco u nt o f


.
,

all h is li fe and pu t i t i n h is bosom N o w on a feas t day a s Pope


,
.
, ,

I nnocen t was singing h igh mass t he E mperor Honori us presen t an d , ,

E uphemian was stand ing by t he la tt er a v oice cried out S eek t he “


, ,

servan t of Go d w ho i s abou t to depart from th is l ife an d wh o shall


, ,


pray for R ome And th e people fell on the ir faces and another v oice
.
,


said ,
Wh ere shall we seek hi m ? A nd the an swer was “
I n th e ,

h ouse of E uph em ian the patrician S o th ey all went instan t l y an d .



,

E uphem ian led t h e wa y ; and as h e cam e n ear h om e t h ey told h i m ,

t hat the beggar h ad d ied an d th ey ha d laid h i m on th e s t eps before


,

the door Wh en he un co v ered the face it was as the face of an angel


.
, ,

and a great glory o f l igh t sh o n e from i t Then h e said Th is i s t h e .


,

ser v a n t o f Go d of w h om th e v o ice spok e j ust


, An d the pope
took th e letter fro m t h e d ea d han d of Alex is an d read i t alo ud , .

The father was o v erwhel med w ith grief T h e w ife and th e m oth er .

rushed o u t and thre w themsel v es on the dead body S even d ays th ey .

watched beside i t and many sick and i nfirm were h ealed b y to uch ing
,

the h oly remains of Alex is He is th e patron of p ilgri m s and beg .


gars an d on th e spot where stood h is fa t her s h o use is n o w th e
,

ch urch of S t Alexis Th e marble steps beneath wh ich h e l ived and


. .

d ied are preserved i n th e ch urch ; and a statue of t h e saint i n th e ,

dress of a pilgri m w i t h a staff beside h im an d a letter i n h is hand , ,

is ex t ended beneat h t hem C ard inal Wiseman wrote a charm ing .

“ ”
drama on th e story of S t Alex is en ti t led Th e H idden G em .
,
.

J uly 2 4 A D 4 00
,
. . .

S t A l p h e ge was an E ngl ish n obleman


. He was a m ost h oly .

man and was made Archbish op of Can terb u ry in 1 006 S ix years


, .

later th e D anes took th e c ity an d cathedral of Canterbury T h ey .

put the p eople to death and burn ed th e city S t A l p h e g e was ke p t . .

seven months i n prison an d th en stoned to death because h e refused


,

to pay a large ransom for h is l ife T h e place w here h e m e t h is dea t h .

w as at G reenwich and th e sam e as t hat on w h i ch th e parish ch urch


,

n ow stan d s I t is said th at ten years aft er death h i s body was fo und


.

entire and incorrupt I t was re moved fro m S t Paul s to t he C anter


. .

b ury C a t hedral and enshrined near t h e h i g h al t ar H e i s represented


, .

w i t h h is c h a s u b l o full o f stones April 1 9 A D 1 01 2 .


,
. . .

S t A m b r o s e ( L a t S Am brosi us ; I l a l S ant A m brogio ; F r



. . . . .

S t Am b rose ; Ge r D er Heilige Ambrosi us)


. . S t Am brose is one . .

of th e F athers of t h e Ch u rch H e was bor n at Tre v es A D 3 4 0 . , . . .


IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 49

and was a s on o f a prefect of Gaul of th e sam e n am e H e st udie d .

at R ome and being at length appoi nted prefect of [E m il ia and L igu


,

ria (Piedmont an d G enoa) h e resided at M ilan H e was very elo


, .

quent 3 and the sam e story that is tol d of Plato an d Archiloch us i s


told of h im namely that w hen an infant i n h is cradle a swar m of
, ,

bees alighted on h is m o n t h w itho ut inj uring h i m T h is was th ought .

to ind icate h is futu re eloq uen ce S h ortly aft er h is going to M ilan


.

th e bishop d ied 3 and a great d is p ute arose b etween th e C athol ics and
Arians concern ing th e s uccession wh en A mbrose by h i s eloquence ,

qu ieted t hem I n th e m idst of i t a v oi ce l ike that of a child cried


.

“ ”
o ut Ambrose shall be b ishop
,
To th is h e greatly obj ected es p e
.
,

c i a l l y as h e was only a catech u me n B ut th e people wo uld no t lis t e n


.

to th is refu sal 3 an d being bap t ized i n d ue ti me h e was consecrated ,

B ishop of M ilan H e first gav e all h is property to th e poor and the n


.
,

devoted h i mself to such stud ies as wo uld fi t h i m for h i s o ffice S t . .

Ambrose was an eloquent ad vocate of t he ad v antages of cel ibacy for


bo t h sexes a n d of th e supre m acy of the Ch u rch abo v e all other po w
,

ers He h ad n o fear of man forbidding eve n t h e E mperor T heodosi u s


.
,

to enter th e Chu rch u ntil h e had atoned for h is sin i n perm i t ting the
m assacre of se v en thousan d m e n at Thessalonica by p u bli c penance , .

He founded th e Basil ica of S ant Ambrogio M a ggiore at M ilan i n 3 8 7



,

a n d dedicated it to all the saints H e i s the patro n sai n t of M ilan


. .

T here are m any wonderful and m irac u lous circu msta n ces rel a t ed i n
h is l ife 3 and at h is death it was sai d that Chri st v i site d h im and that ,

h e ascended to h eaven i n th e arms of angels H e is represen t ed as .

a m itred bishop w ith th e cros ier ; someti m es w ith a beeh ive a t h is


feet 3 b ut h is usual a t trib u te is a k n ot t ed scou rge w i th three thongs .

April 4 A D 3 9 7
, . . .

S t A n a s t a s i a (F r S t e An astasi e 3 G7 A y A va a r a a fn)
e ’
. . . J ust "
.
'
. .

u n der the Palatin e H ill i s th e ch urch dedi cated to th is saint who , ,

w h ile she has great fam e among G reek Christians was a R oma n lady ,
.

S h e was condemned to th e flames i n the persecution of D iocletian .

S h e s u ffered greatly at the hands of h er h usband and family because


sh e o p enly professed C hristian ity S t Ch r ys o go n u s (Gr i sogo n o ) i s
. .

ch i efly celebrated for h is influence over Anas t asi a and for th e courage
w i t h w hi ch he inspire d her H e was slai n by t he s word and t h row n
.

i nto th e sea They are said to have su ffered at I llyria ; but Anastasia
.

w as b u ried by A p ol l i n a i n her garden near th e C ircus M axim us wh ere , ,


50 L E GE ND S AN D S T OR IES

her ch urch n o w stands I t i s sai d th at S t J erome once celebrate d . .

ma s s i n t h is ch urch T here is also a b eau t i ful ch urch a t V erona


.

ded ica t ed t o S t Anas t asia The ch urch of Ch r y s o g o n u s i n t he T ras


. .

t evere b u il t i n 5 9 9 was rebuil t i n 1 6 2 3 by S cip i o Borgh ese C ard in al


, , ,

of S a n G r is o go n o D e cember 2 5 A D 3 04 .
,
. . .

S t A n d r e a o f Co r s i n i was born in 1 3 02
. H e was of th e Co r .

sin i fam ily of F lorence H e was ex t remely w ild un t il h e was s i x t ee n .

years old w hen h is m other i n despair t old h i m of a d ream w h i ch


, , ,

sh e had before h i s bir t h in w h ich sh e dream ed of gi ving b ir t h to ,

a wol f ; b u t t h is wolf on entering a ch urch was changed to a l a mb .

T hi s grea t ly a ff ec t ed Andrea and he went t o a C armeli t e ch urch to ,

pray where such a ch ange was begun in h i m th a t a t seven t een h e


,

becam e a friar H e w as B ish op of F iesole T h e F lorentines a tt r i b


. .

u t e d t o t h e protecti on of th is saint th ei r v i ctory of the bat t l e of

Angh iari F ebruary 4 A D 1 3 73 .


,
. . .


S t A n d r e w (L a t S Andreas ; I t a l S an t Andrea ; F r S t And r é ;
. . . . . .

"
Gr A y . S t Andre w was th e first called to be an A p os t l e
. . .

H e was th e bro t h er of S i mon Pe t er V ery l i tt le i s s aid of h i m .

i n S crip t ure L egends tell t hat h e travelled i n t o S cy t h ia C a pp a


.
,

docia an d Bi t hynia a n d con verted m ul t i t udes b y h i s preach ing


, , .

T h e R ussians bel ie v e th at h e preached to t h e M u scovi t es i n S arma t ia .

H e re t ur ned to Jerusal em and aft er v i siting G reece cam e to Pa t ra s , ,

a ci ty of Achai a Here am ong many o t h ers b e conv erted M a xi m i l l a


.
, , ,

w ife of I E g e u s t h e proco n s ul H e also persuaded her to m ak e a


,
.

pu b l ic con fession wh ich so enra ged h er h usband tha t b e condem ned


,

S t Andre w to be sco u rged and crucifi ed


. Th ere i s a varie t y of o p in .

ions as to t h e form of th e cross on wh ich h e s u ffered ; bu t t h e on e


called by h is n am e i s ge n er a lly bel i eved to be l ik e t h a t on wh ich h e
d ied I t i s said t hat he was fastened wi th cords ra t h er t han n ails
. .

W h en h e a pproach ed h is cross he v enerated i t as h a v ing b een san c ,

t i fie d by J esus He was gl oriou sly tri u mph ant i n h i s d eath I n th e


. .

four t h cen t ury a par t of th e rel ics of S t Andre w w ere t aken to S cot .

lan d since w hi ch t i me h e h as bee n the patron s a in t of t hat coun t ry


,

and of i t s fi rs t order of kn i g h t h ood H e i s t h e patron of th e O rder .

of t h e G olden F leece of Bur g undy as well a s of R ussia and o f i t s , ,

great order of th e C ross of S t Andre w H e i s re p resen t ed le a n in g . .

on h is cross t h e G os p el i n h is h a n d 3 h is h ai r and h e a r d are si l v ery


,

w h i t e a n d h is beard d i v ided N ovember 30 A D 70


, .
,
. . .
IL L US T R A TE D IN A R T . 51

St . A n m e fro m th e E ast an d preach ed


ge l u s , th e Carmel ite ,
Ga ,

i n Palermo and M essina T here was a cer t ai n Cou nt Beren g er wh o .


,

led an o p enly shameful l ife w i t h h is own sis t er Being rebuked b y .

Angelo h e com manded h i m to be h ung u p on a tree and shot wi t h


,

arrows The l egend a n d in fact the v ery ex istence of this sain t have
.
, ,

been d isp uted 3 but p ict u res said to represent h i m are seen at Bologna .

M a y 5 , A D 1 2 25 . . .

St . or A n n i a n u s
A n ia n us,
I n th e Acts of S t M ark we are . .

told that thi s saint was a shoemaker whom S t M ark healed whe n .

h e first entered the city of Alexandria H e becam e so zealous a .

convert an d learned so ra p i dly tha t S t M ark m ade h i m bish op


, ,
.

during h is absence He go v erned t he ch urch at Alexandria fo ur .

years wi t h S t M ark and eighteen years aft er h is dea t h There was


.
,
.

a church i n that ci t y ded icate d to hi m April 2 5 A D 8 6 .


,
. . .

S t A n n a th e m other of th e Blessed V irgin wh ose name sigu i


.
, ,

“ ”
fi es gracio us i s m u ch honored in the C h urch and n umerou s m iracles
, ,

have b een attribu t ed to h er in t ercessio n About 5 5 0 J ustin ian I . .

bu ilt a ch urch at C onstan t inople and dedicated it to S t Anna Her , . .

body was rem o v e d from Palesti n e t o Constanti n ople i n 7 1 0 J uly 26 . .

S e e S t Joach i m . .

S t A n sa n o o f S ie n a
. Th is saint was a R om an A n s a n u s Tran .
,

q u i l l i n us His n u rse a C
. hristian w oman n am ed M ax i ma h ad h i m , , ,

secretly ba p tized His faith was not disclose d until h e was nineteen.

years old when he began to p reach w i t h great success He s u ffered


, .

m uc h during t he p ersecution of D iocletian and was at last beheaded ,

on the banks of t h e ri v er Arbia S t An sano was u n t i l the end o f . .


,

th e t h irteen t h cent u ry th e great patron of S iena ; and there i s i n the , ,

D uom o of that ci t y a fine stat ue represen t ing h i m as ba p tizing the ,

S ienese converts .

S t A n t h o n y (I t a l S a n t Anton i o Abbate or 1 E rem i ta 3 F r


’ ’
.
,
. .

S t Antoin e l A b b é ; Ge r D er Heil ige A n ton or Anton i us )



. St .
,
. .

A nt h ony an E gyp t ian was born at Alexandria


,
At eighteen ,
.

years of age h e was left an or p han , w ith one sister H e had great .

ran k and weal t h Thoughtful from childhood , h e feared th e t e m p t a


.

ti ons of the worl d E n tering a ch urch one day , he heard these .

words : “
E very one that hath forsaken ho uses or bre t hren or , ,

sisters or fa t h er, or m oth er or w ife or ch ildren or lands for my


, , , , ,

name s sak e shall recei v e a h undred fold , a n d shall inh eri t e ver

,
-
52 L E GE ND S AND S T OR IES
” “
l asting l ife ; a n d at ano t her ti me, I f th o u wilt be pe rfect go , ,

sell all tho u h a st and give it t o the poor an d th ou shal t h ave


, ,


treasure i n h eaven He was so impressed by these th ings t hat
.

h e t ook them as a warning fro m G o d H e d i v ided h is wealt h .

w ith h is s ister gave a l l h is share to th e poor and j oined a


, ,

company of herm i t s in the desert H ere h e li ved so pure a l ife .

as t o arouse t he h atred of S atan wh o sent demons to tempt and ,

t orment h im T hey wh ispered to h i m o f all h e h ad le f t h e


.

h ind an d p ictured before h is m in d the at t rac t ions of th e world


, .

But he prayed u ntil great drops stood o n h is brow and the ,

dem ons despair ed They th en p laced del icio us food before h im


.
,

an d assu m ing th e forms of lo v ely w om en t empted hi m to si n


, , .

Aga in b e resisted all th eir arts w ith prayer ; b ut h e su ff ered so


m uch that b e determ ined to go yet farther into th e deser t an d ,

h e fo und a ca v e w here h e thought S atan co uld not discover h im .

But h ere th e demons cam e and tort ured h i m w ith all k inds of
,

h o rr ible pains and tore h i m w ith th eir claws till a h erm i t wh o


, ,

carri ed h i m food found h i m lying as i f dead He bore h i m to h i s .

cell ; b ut as soon as An t hony rev i v ed h e insisted u pon return ing ,

t o h is cave and when there h e cried o ut


,
Ha ! t h ou arch temp t er ! ,

d idst thou thi nk I had fled ? L o here I a m agai n 3 I Anth ony ! , ,


I hav e strengt h to combat still ! Then was S atan fu rious an d ,

h e set h is dem ons to try all th eir powers to overco me h i m They .

surro und ed h i m w ith l ions tigers serpents scor p i ons an d all t h e


, , , ,

h orri b le sha p es th ey co uld conce i ve , and th ey were roaring and h iss


ing all aro und h i m B u t i n th e m idst of all th is came a great l igh t
.

from h eaven and t he beasts van ished ; wh ile An t h ony l ook ing u p
, , ,

cried o ut ,

O L ord J esus Christ ! w h ere wert th o u i n th ose m o

m en t s of ang u ish ? An d Christ sai d gently Anthony I wa s h ere , ,

b eside t h ee and rej oiced to see thee contend and overcom e B e of


,
.


good heart 3 for I will m ake thy nam e famous t hrough all the world .

Then h e resol ved to go even farther i nto the desert As h e trav .

c l l e d h e saw h ea p s of gold an d sil ver but h e knew they were t h e ,

tem p t ati ons of S atan ; an d wh en h e looked away t h ey disap p e a red ,

i n t he air H e was n ow th ir ty five years old , w h en h e sh ut hi msel f


.
-

i n a cav ern for twenty years and s a w n o one neith er w as h e seen


, ,

of any ; b ut wh en h e cam e forth all could see th at he h ad bee n ,

m iraculo usly s u stained for h e wa s n o t waste d or changed ex cept


, ,
IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 53

th a t h is h air was wh i te an d hi s beard long An d no w h e preach ed .

the love of Go d to all m en ; comforted th e sick and a fll ic t e d and ,

expelled dem ons o v er whom he h ad gained great po wer M ul t itudes


,
.

were con v erted and cam e to the deser t u ntil there were fi v e tho u ,

sa n d herm its i n the caves and ancient tombs and S t Anthony di d , .

m any m iracles A t length , when he had l i ved i n the desert seventy


.

five years he began to be proud of h i s life of self den ial and a v oice
,
-
,


sai d to h i m i n a v is ion There is one holier than tho u art, for Paul
,

the herm it has served Go d i n sol itude and penance for nine ty years ”
.

S o he resol ved to seek Paul ; an d as he j ourneyed he m et a centa ur ,

w h o poi nted t h e way to h i m 3 and agai n a satyr wh o besought h i m ,

to pray for h i m and h is people T h e th ird day h e came to t he ca v e


.

of P aul At first Paul woul d not receive h i m 3 b ut at leng t h m o v ed


.
,

by h is p rayers and tears h e adm i t ted h im Then t h ey held com


,
.

m union together 3 and as th ey sat a rave n brought them a loaf of ,


bread when Paul blessed G o d an d said
,
F o r sixty years every , ,

day hat h th is raven brough t m e half a loaf ; but because thou art
,

come my brother 10 ! th e port ion i s do u bled and we are fed as


, , ,

E l ij ah was fed i n the w ilderness ”


A n d they ate and returne d .


thanks The n Paul said
. M y bro t h er ! G o d hat h sen t thee here
,

that tho u m ightest rece i v e my last breath an d b ury m e Go .


,

return to thy dwell ing ; bring here th e cloak wh ich was gi v en to


thee by th at h oly Bishop Athanasi us wrap me i n it an d lay m e i n , ,


the earth T hen Anthony wond ered for the gift of the cloak w a s
.
,

unknown to all B u t h e ki ssed Paul an d hastened to bring th e


.
,

c l oak 3 for h e feare d h e sh ould not reach h i m agai n before h is death .

R eturning when h e was about three hours from h is ca v e h e heard


,

heavenly m usi c an d looking u p s a w th e s p irit of Paul , as a star


, ,

borne b y pro p h ets apostles an d angels to hea v en Then Anthony


, , .

lamented an d went w ith haste to th e cave where Paul was dead


, ,

i n th e a tt itude of p rayer T hen h e we p t o ver h i m and recited the


.

o ffice for th e dead and h e though t how h e could bury h im for h e


, ,

h ad not s t rengt h to dig a grave T hen cam e two l ions across th e


.

d esert roaring as if i n sym p athy an d w ith their paws they dug a


, ,

grave i n wh ich A nthony laid Paul wrapped in th e cloak of A t ha


, ,

n a siu s .When h e had return ed to th e con vent he told all these ,

thi ngs whi ch w ere belie v ed by th e w hole Church an d Paul was


, ,

ca n on ize d F ourteen years after A n t hony being one h u n dred and


.
, ,
54 L E GEND S AND S T OR IE S

four years old fel t tha t h e m ust soo n d ie ; and a ft er going t o a


,

lonely p lace wi t h a fe w bre t h ren h e charged t he m t h a t t hey should ,

kee p secre t t he place of h is b urial G en t ly h i s sp irit passed away .


,

and angels conveyed i t to h eaven S t An t hony is represen t ed . .

wi t h various a t t ri b utes H e wears a m onk s h abit as t h e found er .


of M onach ism I n G reek p ictures th e letter O i s o n th e cope on


.

the left shoulder and al ways i n bl ue I t i s the fi rst letter of


, .

God The crutch is a symbol o f h is age and feebleness The b ell


. .

sign i fies h is p o wer to exorcise ev il spiri t s as a bell wh ich has been ,

blessed is used i n exorcisms T h e asperges or rod for sprinkl ing .


,

h oly wa t er i s a sym b ol of t he sam e id ea The hog represen t s t h e


,
.

sensuali ty and a pp eti t es wh ich b e conquered F lames of fi re under .

h is fee t or a ci t y or h ouse burn ing signi fy th a t h e i s a pro t ec t or


, ,

against fi re i n th is world an d t he nex t also Paul i s represented as .

, ,

old m eagre half clo t hed n pal m leaves h is hair long and w h i te
i , ,

sea t ed o n a rock i n m ed itation an d a pal m tree n ear h im S t ,


-
. .

An thony Jan uary 1 7 A D 3 5 7


, ,
. . .

S t A n t o n i o Archbishop of F lorence was a native o f F l orence


.
, , .

H e was born about 1 38 4 H is though t fuln ess and stud io usn ess .

caused h is frie n ds to regard h i m as fi tted for a rel igio us l ife H e .

wen t to F iesole a n d ask ed ad m iss i on t o t he D om in ican C on vent at


,

fift een Th e prior aft er talking w i t h h im told h i m that wh en h e


.
, ,

h ad learned perfectly t h e Book of D ecrees h e would recei ve h i m , .

T h i s h e d id i n on e year and then was sen t to C orton a to pass h is ,

n ovi t iate i n study He took h is v ows at F iesole an d t h ere formed a


.
,

tender at t achm e n t to th e wonderful pain ter m onk F r a G iovanni -


, ,

called 1 1 Beato a n d Angel ico I t i s bel ieve d that t h e great l earning .

of An t onio was of ad vantage to the h eavenly m in d of Angel i co a n d ,

tha t their com m un ion was n ot w i t hout i t s effects u pon th e la tt er s ’

pic t ures The Archbisho p of F lorence dying the p ope w ish ed t o


.
,

give th e o ffi ce to Angel ico ; b ut h e begged that An t on io sh ould


h ave i t i ns t ead wh ich t h e p o p e granted Thi s grea t ly pl eas ed t h e
,
.

F loren t ines as h e was n ot only m uch belo v ed but a nati ve of t h ei r


, ,

city He died at t h e age of se v en ty th i rteen years aft er h e wa s


.
,

m ade arch b isho p d uring wh i ch t i me h e wa s d is t inguish ed for h is


,

w isdo m and h ol iness He is al ways represented as an archbish op.


,

and wears the palli u m o v er the habit of th e D o m i n ica n s M ay 1 0 .


,

A . D . l 4 61 .
56 L E G E ND S AND S TOR I E S

m agistrate At leng t h t h ere cam e three p il grim s to Alexan d ria


.
,

b e gg ing i n the name of Jes us and th e Blessed V i rgi n The w ife of .

t he ma g is t ra t e h earin g t hem asked if t h e V i rgin co uld g ran t h er


.

, ,

prayer for a ch ild Being t old of h er grea t power sh e gave t h e pil .


,

g rims food an d money and full of fai t h i nvoked M ary s i n t ercessi o n , , ,


w ho answered t h e prayer by t he bi rt h of Apollonia S h e was v ery .

beau t iful 3 and as h er m o t her constantly told h er the s t ory of her b ir t h ,

she gre w up a Chris t ian and sought S t L eontine that h e m igh t bap t ize , .

h er As soon as h e did so an angel appeared w i t h a garm en t d az


.
,


z l i n gl wh i t e wh ich h e th re w o ver her say ing Thi s i s Apollon ia
y , , , ,

the ser v ant of G o d ! Go n ow to Alex andria and announce t h e fai t h


of Chris t S h e obeyed and converted m any ; b u t oth ers accused her
.

,

to her fa t her wh o gave h er to th e hea t h en governor He com manded


,
.

h er to worsh i p t h e idol of t he c ity B u t s h e made the sign of the .

cross before th e idol and com m anded its demon to d e p art T h e de ,


.


m on broke th e statue and fled crying Th e h oly v irgi n Apollonia , ,


drives m e for t h T hen t h ey bound h er to a col u mn an d dre w h er
.
,

t ee t h o ut one by on e w i t h p in cers and t hen kindling a fire t h ey , , ,

bu rn ed h er S h e is th e pro t ec t or a gain st too t hache and a ll d iseases


.
,

of t he tee t h Her a t tribu t es are a pair of pin cers w i t h a too t h and


.
,

th e p al m ; som eti mes a golden tooth suspended on h er neck chai n -


.

F ebruary 9 A D 25 0 ,
. . .

" ’ ’
S t A t h a n a s i u s ( Gr A y A fla va m o ;
. L a t S A th anasi us Pater . . . .
,

O r t h o d o xi ae ; I t a l S an t Atanasio ; F r S t A t hanase )

.
Th is sain t
. . . .
,

b es t kno wn by th e creed wh ich bears h is nam e was an Alexan d rian , ,

and a p u p il of S t An t hony He first s t ud ied science and l i t era . .

t ure ; and being con v er t ed h e was ordained d eacon


, H is o pp o , .

s i t i o n t o Arius at th e C oun cil of N ice gain ed for h i m th e t i t le of t h e



F a t h er of O rth odoxy H e becam e Bish op of Alexandria and d ur .
,

ing the great h eresy of his a ge m aterially aided by his perse veran ce
i n t he v i ctory of the Cath oli c C h urch H e was bi sh o p fort y six .
-

years but h e was i n ex ile d uring twenty years of t hat t ime M ay


, .

2, A D 3 73
. . .

St A or S t A u s t i n (L a t S A ugustinus ; I t a l S ant ’
. u gu s tin e ,
. . . .

A g ostino ; F r S t A u g ustin ) T h e fa t h er of S t A u g us t i ne wa s a
. . . .

h ea t h en ; h is m o t her M on ica was a C hris t ian He was born i n , , .

T a g a s t e N u m idia I n h is you t h h e was so devo t ed t o p leasure t hat


, .

h is mother feared the destruction o f h is character, and in her s orro w


IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 57

so u ght ad v i ce o f the B ishop of Carthage He com f ort e d her w ith .

t h e ass u rance that h er prayers would be answered at last At length .

Augustine wen t to R ome an d becam e famou s as a lawyer B ut h e


, .

was res t less and u nhap p y He went to M ilan and was there con
.
,

v erted by th e preach ing of S t Ambrose who bapt ized h im i n th e .


,

presence of h is m other The T e D eum i t is thought was com
.
, ,

posed for th is occasion S t Augustin e and S t Ambrose recited it


. . .

as they approached th e altar H e was B ishop o f H ippo ; an d after


.

thirty five years H ippo w as besieged by th e V andals and S t Augustine


-
, .

e r fs h e d at th e age of se v enty five I t is said tha t h is remains were


p
-
.

remo v ed to Pav ia He was the th ird doctor of the C h urch and h is


.
,

w ritings are celebrated O n e of th e scenes i n h is life most f r e


.

quen t ly illustrated i n art is that of a v ision related by h imself an d , ,

wh ich h e saw wh ile wri t ing h is D iscourse on th e T rinity H e was .

walking on the sea sh ore lost i n med itation on h is great theme w he n


-
, ,

h e saw a l ittle ch ild bringing w ater and endea v oring to fill a hole
whi ch he had d ug i n the sand Aug u stin e asked h i m t h e m oti v e o f.

h is labors The ch ild sai d h e intended to empty all the water o f th e


.

sea i nto th is cavi t y “


I m p ossi b le exclaim ed S t Augustine
.

Not
,

. .

” “
m ore i m p ossi b le answered th e ch ild
,
than for thee, O Augustine , ,

to ex p lain th e mystery on wh i ch thou a r t n o w m editating He i s .

the pa t ron of theologians and learned m en August 2 8 A D 4 3 0 .


,
. . .

S t A u g u s t i n e o f Ca n t e r b u r y i s beli e v ed to have i ntrod uced th e


.

Benedic t ine O rder i nto E ngland He was sent from R om e as m ission .

ary to Britain by S t G regory F earin g th e dangers represented to


, . .

exist in E nglan d at t hat t im e h e and h is com p an ions were seized wit h


,

dread and Augustin e went to beg th e pope to recall h is comma n d


, .

Th is G regory refused to do He m ade Augu stine bisho p over t hose


.

wh o should be con v erted They lan ded i n K ent where t h ere was
.
,

great h atred of Christian ity ; b ut Quee n B erth a was a Chris t ian and ,

for her sake K ing E t hel b ert perm it t ed the m to enter C an t erbury ,

wh ich they did singing p rai ses and carrying th e image of C hrist
, ,
.

E t helbert a n d h is peo p l e becam e Christians and were ba pt ized i n a ,

l it t le cha p el wh ic h Berth a had built n ear C anterbury and being a , ,

F rench princess had dedi cated t o M ar t i n of T ours


,
S t Augus t ine . .

desired greatly to see th e ancient Britons C hr i s t ians wh om th e E ng ,

lish had dri v en into the m ou ntai n region s of Wales re clai med from ,

certai n abu s es w h ich h ad crept i n a mo n g t h em H e al so w anted the i r .


58 L E GE ND S A N D S T OR I ES

as sistan ce i n h is m issionary w ork am on g th e E ngl i sh B u t th e B ri t .

ons ha t red of t heir oppressors sadly obs t ructed S t A u gustin e s p iou s



.

and pacifi c w ishes I n v i rt ue of h is a uthori ty as Papal L egat e h e


.
,

v isi t ed all th e British bish ops 3 and these w ill ingly responded to h is
inv i t a t ion to a conference at A u s r i c on th e edge o f Worcestersh ire , ,

n ear Herefordsh ire a place later called A ugu stine s O ak


,
A ugus ’
.

t ine requ ired o f them aid i n con v e rt i ng th e pagan E ngl ish ; con
form i ty to th e c usto m of th e U n i v ersal C h u rch as to th e t i me o f
celebrating E aster and as to th e man ner of adm inistering bap t ism
, .

Th ese th ings they refused because of their h atred of the ir n ational ,


enemies Whereu pon S t Augusti ne proph esied that i f th ey w o u l d
. .

n o t preach to th e E ngl ish the w ay of l ife th ey w oul d fall by th eir ,



h a nds u nder the j udgment of death T h is prediction w as ful .

filled aft er the deat h of S t A u gusti ne w h e n E t h il fr i d king of th e .


, ,

pagan N orth ern E ngl ish m ightily o v erth re w the Britons at C hes t er
, ,

an d slew twenty two h undred of th e B ritish monks of B angor wh o


-
,

prayed i n sight of the battle fie l d for th e v ictory of th eir coun t rymen -


.

Those w h o account S t Augustine i nstigator of th i s m ass a cre wh ich


.
,

took place years after h is d ea t h kno w not h is t ender chari t y w hose , ,

only weapon s against sinners were prayers for their conversion H e .


-

s ho u ld be represented in th e Ben ed ictine h abit w ith th e s t a fl and th e


G ospel or as b ishop w ith p a l li um cope and m itre


, A D 604 , , . . . .

S t B a l b i n a was th e da ugh ter of the prefect Qu iri nu s an d d is


.
,

co v ered th e lost ch ains of S t Peter Th e church dedica t ed to h er . .

at R ome is v ery ancient S h e is represented v eiled wi t h chai ns i n


.
,

h er h an d or n ear h er .

S t B a r b a r a ( I t a l S anta Barbara 3 F r S t e Barbe )


. . Th i s . . .

saint was of t h e E as t an d daugh ter of D i o s c o r u s wh o d wel t i n Hel i


, ,

O p ol is . He was rich and n o b l e and lo v ed h is only daugh t er so fondly ,

that b e sh ut h er u p i n a h igh t ower lest sh e shou l d a tt ra c t s ui t ors


by h er beauty Here sh e p assed h er tim e in study and wh il e wa t ch
.
,

ing the wonders and beau t ies of th e h eavens fel t th a t t h e id ols coul d ,

n o t be gods or th e creators of th e world


,
B u t sh e h ad h eard of n o .

o t h er G od A t l engt h th e fam e of O rigen reach ed h er fro m Alexa n


.

dria and sh e sen t h i m a l etter by a tru s ty servant a sking th a t h e


, ,

s h oul d teach h e r H e s e n t a d i sciple d is g uised as a physi cian who


.
,

instruc t ed h er and aft er h er con versi on bapti zed h e r Her father


, , ,
.

h a d set w orkm e n to m ake a bathr o om i n h er to wer ; a n d w h e n t h ey


IL L US T R A T ED IN AR T . 59

had made two wi ndows sh e desired the m to add another ,


T hey .

were afraid to do th is b u t she insis t ed ; and whe n h er fa t her asked


,


the cause sh e said ,
K no w my father tha t t hrough t hree w indows
, , ,

doth th e soul recei v e l ight — t h e F a t her the S o n and t he Holy , , ,


G host 3 an d t h e three are one T h en h er father would have k illed .

h er with h i s sword 3 b ut she fled to the t Op of the to wer and an gels ,

concealed h e r and bore her away to a place of safety A she p herd .

be t rayed where sh e was h idden and h er fa t her dragged her by t he ,

hair and p ut h er i n a d ungeon He then deli vered her t o the pro .

consul M arcian wh o scourged and t ort ured her b ut she d id not


, ,

yield 3 and at last h er father carried her to a mountain near th e city ,

an d h i mself beheaded her I mm ediately a great te m pest arose and .


,

th e lightn ing entirely consu med the father S t Barbara is t h e . .

patroness of F errara M an t ua and G u a st a l a 3 also of for t ifi ca t ions


, ,

and fir e arm s as well as of arm orers and gunsm iths S h e is also


-
,
.

i n v oked as a protector against lightn i n g a n d the explosion s of


gun p owder A tower wi t h three w i ndows i s her p ec u liar at t rib u te
. .

S h e also has t h e book palm and sword S h e is fur t her in v oke d by


, ,
.

all w ho desire th e sacra m ents o f the Ch urch i n their dy ing hours .

D ecember 4 A D 303 ,
. . .

S t B a r n a b a s ( I t a l S a n Barnab a 3 F r S t
. The
. . .

n ame of A p os t le is also gi v en th is saint ; and if n ot fully enti t led

to it h e is at least next i n holin ess to the Apostles wi t h wh om h e


,

labored .He was a nat i v e of Cy p rus — a L e vite and a cousin of , ,

S t M ark
. He labored wi t h Paul at Antioch and L ystra ; and t h e
.

legends t ell us t h a t he was of so noble a p resence t hat he was called


J u p iter w h ile Paul was s tyled M ercuri us At le n g t h on account of
, .
,

a d i fie r e n c e concerning M ark th ey se p arated 3 an d Ba rnabas p reach ed ,

i n It aly as well as i n Asia M inor and Greece and i t i s said h e was ,

the firs t Bisho p of M ilan T rad ition says h e preach ed from t h e .

G os p el of S t M at t h e w written by the E vangel is t h im self wh ich h e


.
, ,

carried always wi t h h i m and that it had p ower t o heal t h e si ck ,

when laid upon their bosoms He was a t las t se ized by t h e Jews .

and cruelly m artyred wh ile p reach ing i n J u d ae a M ark a n d o t h er


,
.

Chris t ians buri e d h im and i n th e t i m e of t h e E mperor Z eno h is


,

resting p lace was rev ealed in a vision to A n t e m i u s He was foun d


-
.

w i t h the G ospel in h is bosom T h is was t aken to C ons t antino p le .


,

and a ch u rch w as b u ilt u n der the i n v ocation of the saint J une 1 1 . .


60 L E GE ND S AND S T OR IES

St . B a rt h o l o m
Bar t holo me us ; I t a l S a n Bartolomeo ;
e w (L a t . S . .

F T S t B a r t h t l e m i)
. . T h e origi n of t his sain t is do u b t ful i t being
.
,

d is p u t ed w he t her h e were t he son of a pri nce P t o l o m e u s or of a , ,

h us bandman Aft er t he ascens ion of our L ord h e t ravelled t hro ugh


.
,

I nd ia carry ing t he G os p el of S t M a tt he w H e preach ed in A rm en i a


, . .

and Cilicia He su ff ered a h orri b le dea t h a t A l b a n o p o l i s bein g fi rs t


.
,

flayed and t h en crucified H i s a tt ribu t e is a large k nife S om e


, .
.

t imes he has h is o wn sk in hanging over h i s arm A ugus t 2 4 . .

S t B a s i l t h e G r e a t (Gr A 7 B a o fAe t o s 3 L a t S Basil i us M agn us ;


"
. . . .
, .

I t a l S a n Bas ilio M a g no ; F r S t Basile )


. T h is sain t i s t h e second . . .

i n h onor i n t he G reek Ch urch as we l l as t h e founder of t he Bas ilians , ,

alm os t t h e only mon as t ic order k nown in t h a t ch urch 3 for the O rder


of S t A n t hony h as b ut a fe w h ouses a t S in ai an d L e b anon and b y
.
,

t he shores of th e R ed S e a H e was born at C aesarea in C ap p adocia .


, ,

i n 3 2 8 a n d was of a fam ily of great sanc t ity


, h is grand mo t her , ,

father mo t h er two bro t hers and a sis t er all being sain t s H e w rote
, , ,
.

m any t heological works He at t ribu t es h is early ed ucation t o h i s


.

grand mo t h er S t M acrina H e studied at C ons t an t ino p l e and at


, . .

A t hens w h ere h e was associated wi t h both S t G regory of N a z i a n z e n


,
.

and w i t h J uli an aft erwards th e A p os t ate H is great t al ents a t one


, .

t i me so arou sed h i s pride tha t bu t for th e i nfl uence of S t M acrina .


,

h is sis t er h e w ould h ave perilled h is sal va t ion H e was t hen a b out


,
.

twent y eigh t an d aft er th i s gave h i m self en t irely t o rel igion


-
,
pass ,

ing som e years in th e desert as a herm i t where he lost h is h eal t h , ,

from t h e austeri ty of h i s li vi ng H e was m ade a p riest i n 3 62 and .


,

ei ght years after Bish o p of Caesarea T h e 1 4 t h of J un e t h e day o f .


,

h i s ord ina t i on i s a grea t feast in th e Gr e e k C h urch H e l i ved wi t h


,
.

the sam e a b s t in e n ce on t h e th ron e as i n t h e d esert H e vigoro u sly .

o pp osed t h e Arian heresy 3 and when t h e E m p eror V alens req ui red


h i m to comm u n ica t e rel i g iously w i t h th e Arians h e refused T h e ,
.

em p eror t h re a t ened h i m e ven w i t h death w i t h ou t effec t A t len g t h , ,


.

h e t h ou gh t t o awe Basil by com i ng t o ch urch in g reat s t ate wi t h a l l ,

h i s cour t and sold iers I t was on th e day of th e E p i p hany I ns t e a d


. .

of overawing t h e sai n t h e was h i msel f ov erawed by t he pie t y of t h e ,

con gre g a t i on a n d t he an g el ic d evo t ion of the grea t b ish o p T h e c m .

e r o r aft erwards conferred w i t h B a sil and t hou g h h e remain ed


p ; u n

con ver t ed h e m ade some concessions t o t h e C a t hol ics I t i s rela t ed


, .

of Basil as of two o t h er saints that w h ile h e preached t h e H oly


, , ,
IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 61

Ghost , i n th e form of a wh ite do v e reste d on h is sho u l d er to inspire , ,

h is words J une 1 4 A D 38 0
.
, . . .

S t B a v o n (E l e m
. S t Ba v o or S t B a f 3 I t a l S a n B a von e )
. He.
,
. . .

w as born a nobl e man 3 som e authorities claim D uke of Braban t He , .

was converted fro m idola t ry by S t Amand of Belgium fi rst Bish op .


,

of M aestricht Ba v on was then n early fift y years old a wido wer an d


.
, ,

h a d led a d i ssipated life H e ga v e all h i s ri ches i n chari t y and was


.
,

placed by S t A mand i n a m onastery i n G hent 3 b ut h e left that an d


.
,

l i ved a h erm it i n th e forest of M a l m e d un H is shelter was a h ollo w .

tree an d he subsi sted on h erbs I t is rela t ed of h i m that aft er


, .
,

becom ing a Christian h e m et on e wh o had b een h is sla v e and cruelly


trea t ed Bavon besough t h i m to bin d and beat h im an d cast h i m
.
,

i n p rison as h e h ad formerly done to h i m Th is w as of co urse r e


,
.

f used 3 b ut th e saint so i nsiste d that fi nally i t was done an d while ,

i n prison h e p assed h i s ti m e i n doing penance for h is form er sins .

H e is the patron of G hent and H a e r l e m H is attribute i s a fal con ; .

he is someti mes represen t ed as a h ermit and som eti mes i n h is d u cal ,

robes O ctober 1 A D 65 7
.
,
. . .

S t B e d e t h e V e n e r a b l e was born at J arro w i n N o r t h u m b e r


.
,

land i n 6 7 3 H e was em inent for h is lear ning and piety and som e
,
.
,

even thought h i m s u p erior i n eloquence to S t G regory He d ied . .

d ic t ating th e last words of a translation of the G ospel of S t John . .

“ ”
He was called t h e V enerable an d was known by thi s nam e at a ,

C ouncil a t Aix la Cha p elle Th ere i s a legendary account of t he way


- -
.

i n wh i ch h e received th is titl e I t says tha t h is sch olars wish ing t o .


,

put an inscriptio n on h is tombstone one of them wrote ,

H a c su n t in f os sa

B e d ae o ssa ,

leav ing th e blank as abo v e becau se no s u itable word occurred to hi m , .

H e fell aslee p th inking of it 3 an d wh en h e awoke v enerabili s had ,

been inserted by an angel s hand There are other ways of a ccoun t ’


.

ing for the title b ut th is i s the favorite one Bede s works are ex t an t
,
.

,

and h is E c c l e si a s t i a l History i s th e only auth entic record we ha v e
of t h e early E ngl i sh C h urch M ay 2 7 A D 73 5 .
, . . .

B e l a n d t h e D r a go n W hen Cyrus was K ing of B abylon an d .


,

D an iel was hi s friend and greatly honored by him th e Babylon ians, ,


had an idol called Bel to whom were gi v en every day twel ve great ,

measures of fi n e flour and forty sheep and six v essels of wine ,
And , .
62 L E GE ND S A N D S T OR IE S

th e number of th e p riests wh o attended h i m were th ree s core and ten ,

and t hey had w i v es an d ch ildren N o w Cyrus worsh ip pe d Bel b ut .


,

D an iel worsh ip p ed h is own Go d ; and wh en Cyrus demanded th e


reason of t h is D an iel replied t hat he could not worsh i p ido l s m a d e
,


w i t h hands b ut the li ving Go d w ho had created all m e n and th e
, ,

world i n wh ich they li ved T hen Cyrus ask ed D an iel if Bel were not
.

l iv ing and reminded h i m of ho w m uch he ate and drank e very day


, .


Then sa id D an iel 0 king be not decei ved ; for th is i s but clay
, ,


w ith in and brass wi t ho ut and d i d ne v er eat nor drink a n ything
, So .


th e k ing was wroth and said to th e priests I f ye tell m e not who
, ,

th is i s t hat de voureth th ese expe n ses ye sh all d ie B u t if ye can , .

cer t ify m e that Bel devoureth them th e n D an iel sh all d ie : for he ,

” “
h ath S poken blasph emy against B e l A n d D an iel re p lie d L e t it .
,

” “
be according to thy word Then t h e priests said to the k ing L o
.
,

w e go ou t b ut thou 0 king set on th e m eat and make ready the


, , , ,

w ine an d sh ut th e door fast and seal i t w ith th ine o wn signe t ; an d


, ,

to morro w wh en th o u comest in if tho u fin d e s t n ot that B e l hat h


-
,

eaten u p all we w ill suffer death ; or else D ani el that s p eake t h


, ,

falsely against us ”
N o w they d id thi s because t hey h ad an entrance
.

whi ch w as h idden u n d er th e table an d by th at they could go o ut ,

and i n as th ey liked Then th e king set th e food before Bel as t h e


.
,

priests had sai d 3 and D an iel com manded th e servan ts to bring ashes ,

an d h e stre wed th em upon th e floor 3 an d when all was ready they


closed the temple and the k ing sealed i t w i t h h is own seal T hen i n
,
.

th e n igh t the priests cam e w ith th eir w ives and ch ildren as th ey ,

were accustom ed to do and consu med all th a t h ad been p rovided


,
.

N o w i n th e m orn i n g t h e king cam e w i t h D an iel and th ey foun d t he ,

seal s wh ole and th ey broke the m an d went in And w h en t h e king


,
.


saw t h at th e food was gone h e cri ed out G reat ar t thou O Bel and , , , ,


w i t h thee is n o d eceit at al l ! Then D a n iel lau gh ed and said t o t he ,

k in g “
,
Behold n o w t h e p ave ment an d mark w ell w hose foo t s t e p s are ,


th ese S o whe n th e k ing s a w th e foo t ste p s of men w om en and
.
, ,

ch ildren h e was angry and took th e priests wi t h their w i ves an d


, ,

c h ild ren and th ese showed h i m th e door wh ere t h ey had gone in an d


,

ou t . Then t he k in g sle w th em an d gave th e idol Bel t o D an iel an d , ,

h e d es t royed b o t h the g od and h is t em pl e N o w i n t he sam e place .

was a g rea t dra g on wh ich was also worsh i pp ed b y the Ba bylon ians ;
,

and the king sa i d to D anie l W i l t tho u al so say t hat thi s i s of bras s ?



,
64 L E GEND S A N D S T OR IES

p erfect hol iness fled fro m h e r to S ubiaco a wilderness forty m iles


, ,

from R ome Here he l i ved for three years entirely u nkno wn ex c e pt


.
, ,

t o R omano ano t her herm i t who shared w i t h h i m h is brea d and


, ,

wa t er .H ere h e was grea t ly t em pt ed b y t he recoll ec t ions of t h e


world he had left a n d es p ecially a t on e t im e by the remem b rance of
, , ,

a beau t ifu l woma n h e h ad seen at R ome w hen to o vercome h is great , ,

desire to re t urn t o h er h e fl ung h imself into a th icket of brie r s and


,

t horns and rolled h imself t here in u ntil h e w a s t orn and bleed ing
, .

A t t he monas t ery of S ubiaco th ey sho w roses said to h ave been pro ,

p ga a t e d from these briers T h e fame of h is san c t i t y.a t last brought


grea t crowds to h im w ho begged h i s p rayers and t hat h e wo uld h eal
, ,

t heir d iseases ; and a com pany of hermits n ear by reques t ed that h e


w ould be their h ead B ut wh en th ey saw th e severi t y of his l ife
.
,

t h ey attem pt ed to poison h i m W he n h e m ade the sign of the cross .

before t h e p oisoned cu p it fell to th e ground in fragments He t hen


,
.

returned t o h is cave a n d a gai n d welt al one B u t so many h erm i t s .

came to S ub i aco an d l i ved i n h u ts and ca v es that a t leng t h for th e , ,

sake of order Bened ict com manded the m to build twel ve m onas t eries
, ,

and h e placed t wel ve monks i n each T wo senators of R om e brought .

to h i m the ir sons M aurus and Pl a c i d u s to be ed uca t ed as C hristian s


, ,
.

They w ere but t wel ve and fi ve years of age an d th ey becam e th e ,

s p ecial charge of B enedi ct B u t S atan m uc h tro ubled at all th is .


, ,

put it i n t o th e h eart of a priest F lorentins to trad uce the character , ,

of S t Bened ict and t o poison h i m wi t h a loaf of bread T hese plans


.
,
.

failing h e at last brough t seven young wom en i nto on e of t he m onas


,

t e r i e s to try t he ch as t i t y of t h e monks Then Benedi c t left S u b iaco .


,

an d i mm ediately F lorenti n s was cr u sh ed to death ben eat h a falling


gallery in h is ow n h o use B enedict even w e pt for h is fa t e and i m
. ,

posed a p enance on M aurus when h e rej oiced a t i t T h ere s t ill r e .

m ained at t h is time on M onte C assino a tem p le of Apollo T hi t her


, ,
.

Benedi ct w en t and b y h is m iracles an d p reach in g conver t ed t he


,

i dola t ers so th at t h ey broke th e statu e and al t ar and burn t the


, ,

grove T h e saint then b uil t u p two ch a p el s and d ed ica t ed t he m to


.
,

S t Joh n t h e Bap t is t an d S t M ar t i n of To urs


. O n t h e sum m it of t h is
. .

m oun t ain h e founded t he m onas t ery wh ich has al ways b een regarded
as t h e p aren t of all o t hers o f t he Bened ic t ine O rder H en c e b e .

p rom ul g a t ed t h e rules of his ord er H is sis t er S ch olas t ica followed .

h i m to M onte C assi no an d h e v isi t e d her o n ce a year d uring th e last


,
IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 65

years o f h is life I n 5 4 0 Totila K ing of th e G oth s v isited Benedict


.
, , ,

and entrea t ed h is b lessing T h e saint reproved h im for h is p ast life .


,

and i t was thought that aft er t his the G oth wa s less ferocious B e .

fore h is death m onasteri es o f h is order were i ns t i t u ted i n all p ar t s of


E urope H e was a t las t seized w i t h fever and on the sixth day h e
.
,

ordered h i s gra v e to be dug and after standing upon th e edge of it , ,

s upported by h is di sciples an d i n silent contem p l ation h e was born e , ,

to the altar of the church and recei v ing the last sacramen t s there ,

died . M a rch 2 1 A D 5 4 3 , . . .

S t B e n e d i c t o f A n i a n (F r S t Benoi t d A n i a n e )

. Th is saint . . .

was p age an d c u p bearer at t he court of Pepin l e —-


Bref an d a d istin -
,

g u i s h e d com mander i n th e army of C harlemagne H e was b orn at .

M aguel onne i n L anguedoc and h i s original nam e i s unknown H e


, ,
.

h ad an ex t rem ely narro w esca p e from dro wning aft er wh ich h e e n ,

t e r e d on a religi o us l ife H e went first to the abbey of S t S eine ; but


. .

d isa p prov ing of th e habits of th e m onks h e d welt a h erm it on the ,

banks of th e A h ian At length a n u mber of h erm its h aving j oi ned


.
,

h im h e fou nded a B en ed ictine m onastery w ith great severi ty of rule


, , .

H e was called to A ix la C hapell e b y L o uis l e D ebonnaire -


Here h e
- - -
.

fou nded an oth er monastery He presided at a coun cil for the r e fo r .

m ation of t h e monasti c orders William D u k e of Aquitain e w as a .


, ,

great warrior an d had vanqu ish ed th e S aracen s in th e south of


,

F ran ce H e was con verted by S t Ben edict and b uilt a monastery


. .
, ,

i n wh ich h e l i ved and died a monk S t B en ed ict conferred u pon . .


William the m onk s habi t F ebruary 1 2 A D 8 2 1 .
, . . .

B e n e d i c t B e n n e t B i s c o p or S t B e n n e t o f W e a r m o u t h
, , .
,

d id mu ch for art as well as for piety i n E ngland He was of a noble .

N o r t h u m br i a n fam ily H e foun ded th e m onasterie s of S t Pe t er s a t


. .

We a r m o u t h an d S t Paul s at Jarrow He had a cul t ivated tas t e


.

.
,

an d went fi ve ti mes to F rance and I taly He brough t to E nglan d .

s tone w o rk ers and glaziers to i ntrod uce a new style of b uild ing
-
He .

brough t too m any books and p ictures a n d also a certai n John


, , , ,

Abbot of S a n M artino w h o was a teacher of m usic and wh o in t ro , ,

d u c e d ch anting into E ngl is h cath edrals S t Bennet wrote many . .

books of instruction for m onks and died at an advanced age cele , ,

b r a t e d for p iety and m u n i fic e n c e J a n u a r y 1 2 A D 703 .


,
. . .

S t B e n n o is noted es p ecially for h is co n nection w ith th e E m


.

p e r o r Henry I V He was a G erman


. B enedictine and B ishop o f ,

5
66 L E GE ND S AND S T OR IES

M e is se n ; and whe n Hen ry after being excom m un i cated at t em pted , ,

t o en t er t he ca t hedral Benno locked t h e doors an d t hre w t h e k ey


,

into t he river E lbe H e t hen wen t to R om e O n h is re t urn t o M e is


. .

sen he ordered a fisherman to cas t h is n et into th e ri ver an d a


, ,

fish was t aken i n wh ich was fo und the key H is proper a t trib ute i s
,
.

a fish wi t h a key i n i t s m outh .

S t B e r n a r d o f Cl a i r v a u x (L a t S Bernard us D octor m ell i


. . .
,

fl u u s ; I t a l S a n Bernardo d i C h iara v alle Abbate 3 Ge r D er H eil ige


.
, .

Bernhard ; F r S t Bernard ) was a m an of great power an d im p or


. .

tance H e was born i n 1 1 9 0 at F ontaine near D ij o n H e w as t h e


.
, , .

son of a n oble ; and h is m oth er Al ice was a remarkable woman , , .

S h e h ad a large n umber of ch ildren a l l of whom sh e n urse d at h er ,

own breas t as she bel ieved that i nfants i mbibe w i t h th e m ilk t h e


,

tem p erament of the n urse According to all au t h ori t ies sh e gave


.

h er son h is early ed ucation F rom the age of fi ft een h e prac t ised .

great self deni al an d from it h is heal t h su ffered H e had grea t p er


-
,
.

sonal beau t y Aft er studying at the U n i vers ity of Paris he en t ered


.
, ,

a t twenty th e Benedi ctin e m onas t ery of Citeaux H e resi s t ed a l l


,
.

temp t a t ions ; and i t i s related of h i m that fi nding h imsel f gaz ing o n ,

a beau t iful woman w i t h a feel ing of p l easure h e rush ed in t o a h al f ,

frozen pool an d remained there u n t il nearly frozen h i mself T h e .

abbey of C i t eaux becam e so crowded that Bernard was sent at


twen ty five t o foun d an o t h er m onas t ery H e w ent wi t h twelve com
-
.

“ ”
pan ions to wh a t was then called th e V alley of Worm wood and ,

t h ere founded t h e abbey of Clair v aux I n a few years Bernard .

b ecame fam o us and h is ab b ey very m uch crowded H e was con


,
.

s id e r e d an au t h ori t y i n m at t ers of law as well as of rel i g ion He .

was j u d g e b e t ween Anacletus and I nn ocen t I I decid in g i n favor of .


,

t h e la tt er to t he sa t isfac t ion of the whole C h urch He also reconciled


,
.

t he d is p u t es b e t ween the clergy of M ilan and R om e He preached .

a second C rusade succee d ed i n rousing th e peo p l e to grea t e n t h u


,

s ia s m ,
and was i n vited to assum e th e comm and H e was also t h e .

a d versary of A b elard an d Arnold de Brescia S t Be rn ard i s one of . .

t he F a t h ers of t h e C h urch I n h is writings he sets forth w ith great .

p ower t he p erfections of th e Blessed V irg in es pe c ially i n the M issu s ,

E s t 3 and i t was b el ieved that sh e a pp eared to h i m t w ice : once w h e n



,

ill an d unabl e t o wri t e sh e restored h im b y h er p resen ce ; and agai n


,

she m oiste n ed h is lips w ith the m ilk of h er bosom s o that h i s ,


IL L US T R A T E D I N AR T . 67

e loquence w as irresistible H is h ealth suffered greatly from h is labors


.

and fas t s and h e d ied at six ty three H i s at t ri butes are the demon
,
-
.

fettered beh ind h im 3 three m i t res on h is book or at h is feet emble m s ,

o f three bish o p rics w h i ch h e refused 3 the beeh i ve a symbol of elo ,

q ue n ce The . m itre an d crosier as Abbot of Clair v aux are gi v e n h im , ,

but rarely A u gust 2 0 A D 1 1 5 3


.
,
. . .

S t B e r n a r d o f M e n t h o n was by birth a noble S a v oyard


. In .

h is youth he was serio us and st ud ious showing s u ch traits o f charac ,

ter as indicated a religious v ocation H is fa t her wi shed h i m to marry ; .

but h e p referred to study a n d p ut h i mself under th e teach ing of ,

Peter Archdeaco n o f A o u s t
, I n 9 6 6 B ernard was made archdeacon .
,

w hich was at that t i me a responsible and laborious o fli c e as its d u ties ,

comprised the w hole go v ernm ent o f th e d iocese B y great devotio n .

and constant preach ing for forty t wo years h e di d mu ch good i n t h e -


,

dioceses o f A c a st S ion G en e v a T a r a n t a i s e M ilan and N ovara He


, , , , ,
.

destroyed an i dol o n a m ountai n i n th e Wa l a i s and exposed th e ,

deception of the heathen p riests He founded t wo roads and two .

m onastic hospitals the G reat and L i t tle S t Bern ard th e form er of


, .
,

w h ich was n ear the site of the hea t hen idol before spoken of At t hese .

hos p i t als the m onks assisted b y their dogs searc h out an d care for
, ,

travellers wh o are l ost i n t h e passes of t he m ou ntains where th e ,

storm s are se v ere and the cold intense S t Bernard d ied at N o v ara . .
,

at eighty five years of age His body i s i n the m onastery at N ovara


-
.
,

and his h ead i s sh own i n a rich case at t h e mo n astery o f M on t e J oye o

i n th e diocese of A o u s t M ay 2 8 A D 1 008 .
,
. . .

S t B e r n a r d i n o d a F e l t r i shares th e honor of ha v ing founded


.

“ ”
th e M on t s de Pi é t é H e was a most eloquent man and p reache d
- -
.
,

at the church of S anta C roce i n F lorence against Jews and usurers , ,

an d on t he n ecessi ty that th e poor shoul d be protected from them .

I t is certai n t hat th e t wo Bernardi nos labored i n this m atter b ut no t ,

easy to decide to wh i ch b elongs the greater h onor .

S t B e r n a r d P t o l o m e i (I t a l S a n Bernardo dei T olome i )


. He . .

w a s of an illus t rio us fam ily of S iena ; born i n 1 2 72 He d istinguished .

h i mself as a la wyer 3 bu t at length seized with th e religiou s p assion ,

of the age h e went i nto a m ountain called th e M ount of O l ives


, , ,

abo u t ten m iles from S iena Here he formed the order called O l i .


ve t a n i T hey followed th e R u le of S t Benedict and w ore a w h ite
. .
,

h abit. Augu st 2 1 A D 1 3 4 8 , . . .
68 L EGEND S AN D S T OR IES

St rn a rd in o o f S ie n a
. B e Th is saint w as of the fam ily o f .

A l b i z e sc h i H e w as born a t M assa a S ienese town i n 1 3 8 0 H is


.
, , .

m o t her dying h e was ed uca t ed b y a n aun t whose i nfl uence devel


, ,

o p ed n o t only h is t alen t s bu t grea t p urity of charac t er also A t , .

seven t ee n h e j oined a bro t h erhood whose m em bers were devo t ed to


t he service of th e hospi t als A pestile nce soon broke o ut w h ich .
,

d es t roy ed great n umbers and among t he m physicians and pries t s , .

F o r four m onths B ernardino w ith t wel v e others cared for t h e inma t es


of the plagu e h ospital H is health su ff ered greatly from h i s labor . .

H e became a F rancisca n at t wenty t hree He was a celebra t ed -


.

preacher and went all o ver I taly He end eavored to reconc ile the
, .

G uelphs and G h ibell ines H e was o ffered three bishoprics w h ich .


,

h e refu sed Th e D uke o f M ilan o ffended at h i s preachi ng threat


.
, ,

ened h i m i n v ain ; he then sent h i m m oney w i t h wh i ch h e went to ,

the prisons and l ibera t ed poor d eb t ors H e founded the order called .


i n It aly O sservan t i and i n F ra n ce F r eres d e l Ob se r v a n c e b e ,
” ’
,

cause they obser v e strictly th e R ule of S t F ran cis goi ng barefoot an d .


,

k eeping stri ctly the v o w of p over t y W hen p reach ing h e h eld i n .


,

h is hand a tablet o n wh ich was t h e nam e of Jesus in a circle of golden


rays A m a n w ho had li ved by m aking cards and dice complai ned to
.

th e saint that on accou nt of th e reform s i n religion h i s occupation ,

w a s gone Bern ardin o advised h im to carve table t s l ike h is to sell


.
,

to th e people He d id so 3 and a peculiar blessing be ing at t ache d


.

t o th em h e sold large n umbers an d m ade a fortune i n th is way


, ,
.

S t Bernardino i s said to h a v e founded t h ose i nsti t ution s called still


.

i n F rance M onts de P i ét é wh ere m oney is loan ed o n pledges I n


“ ” - -
,
.

th e com m encem ent th ey were e n tirely charitable an d for th e benefi t


of the poor He died at Aquila i n th e Abruzzi wh ere h is remains
.
, ,

are preserved i n a sil v er shrin e i n th e ch urch o f S a n F rancisco .

M a y 20, A D 1 4 4 4 . . .

St . was a R om a n lady wh o togeth er w ith h er fa t h er


B ib i a n a , , ,

m other and sister su ff ered m artyrdom i n the reign of J ul ian t h e


, ,

A posta t e S h e was scourged an d then pi erced w i t h a d a gger


. Th e .

ch urch dedicated to h er i s be t ween t h e S anta C roce and t h e Porte


M a ggiore T h e col u mn t o wh i ch she was bo un d i s sh own wi th i n the
.

ch urch D ecem b er 2 A D 3 6 2 .
, . . .

S t B l a i s e o f S e b a s t e (Gr A y B Aa t a 69 3 I t a l S a n B i a gio ;

.
. . .

F r S t B l aise ; Ge r D er He i lige B la s i u s : s i gn i fication


. . . ,
IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 69

Th i s holy man was b ishop o v er th e C h r istians at S ebaste i n Cappa ,

docia and i n the ti me w hen A gr i c ol a u s was governor was o b li ged to


, ,

flee to th e m oun t ains to escape persecu t ion T here were grea t n um .


bers of w ild beas t s there but instead of harm ing the saint they came , ,

to h i m i n n u mbers every m orn ing to recei ve h is blessing 3 and wh en


A gr i c ol a u s sent to ob t ai n beasts for th e am p h itheatres the h un t ers ,

fou n d S t Blaise surrounded with them H e n ursed th e sick ones


. .
,

reproved the ferocious and ga v e h is benediction to all The h u nters , .


,

amazed at th is seized h i m an d took h i m to t h e go v ern or As they


,
.

w en t th ey m et a woman whose ch il d was choking from a bo n e stuck


,

i n its t h r e a t Th e m oth er cried o ut O ser v ant of Christ have m ercy


.
, ,

on m e H e laid h is han d on the throat of the ch ild and prayed and ,

it was heal ed Again they m e t a woman whose p ig h ad been carried


.
,

o ff by a wolf 3 and as it was all sh e had of worldly goods she was i n ,

m u ch distress S t B laise com manded the wolf to bring back th e


. .

pig unharm ed w h ic h was don e T h e go v ernor sentenced h im to be


, .

scourged an d i mprisone d w ith ou t food 3 b ut th e poor w oman had


killed h er p ig and brought a part w i th bread and fr u it to th e holy
, , ,

man A secon d ti me th e g ov e r n dr tortured h i m by tearing h is flesh


.

w ith iron combs such as are used to card wool ; w hen as h e still
, ,

remaine d firm i n h is faith h e was beheaded H e is the p atro n o f ,


.

B agusa also th e p atron of wool combers of those w h o su ffer from


,
-
,

throat d iseases and of wild an i mals H e is a po p ular sai nt i n F rance


,
.

and E ngland an d es p ecially i n Y orksh ire w h ere once i n seven years


, ,

a festival i s held in h is h onor The iron wool comb is hi s proper .


-

attrib ute F ebruary 3 A D 3 1 6


.
, . . .

S t B o n a v e n t u r a was the great prelate of th e S eraph i c O rder


.
,

“ ”
and was styled i 1 D ottore S e r a fic o H i s fame is not confined to .

h is order as h e i s considered one o f th e brightest lights of the


,

w hol e Ch urch H is nam e was G io v anni F i d a n ga and h e was born


.
,

at B a gn a r e a i n T uscany i n 1 22 1
, I n h is infancy h e was so ill , .

th at h is life was despaired of and h is m oth er took h i m to S t ,


.


F ran ci s to be healed W hen the saint saw h i m h e exclai med
. O , ,


b uona v en t ura ! w hereu p on h is m other dedicated h i m to G od by th e
n am e of Bon aventura H is p rogress i n study was amazing ; an d at
.

t wenty t wo h e became a F ran ciscan and went to Paris to study


-
,

th eology H e soon becam e celebrated 3 but h is h umil ity was so great


.

that h e fe l t u n wort hy to recei v e th e Holy Comm u n io n a n d l egends ,


7O L E GE ND S A ND S T OR IE S

tell th at th e Host w a s pre sented to h i m by a n gel s L ou is I X


us . .

( S t L
. ouis ) g r eatly honored h i m wh ile at Paris and he was chose n ,

G eneral of h is order a t t h i rt y five H e w a s ap po in t ed Ar ch bish op of -


.

Y ork but decl ined the h onor


,
At lengt h h e was m a de C ardinal an d .

Bish o p of Albano W hen th e pope s n uncios carri ed h i m th e card i


.

n a l s h a t they foun d h i m i n th e garden of a con v en t near F loren ce


, , ,

w as h ing th e plate from w h ich h e had j u st eaten 3 an d h e req u e st e d


them to h ang the h at o n a tree until h e co ul d tak e i t I n 1 2 74 .
,

w hen a coun cil was h eld a t L yons to reconcile t he Greek and L a t i n


'

ch urch es h e being one of th e m ost d istingu i shed of preachers fi rst


, , ,

addressed the assembly Th e fatigues of h is labo rs h ere brough t o n .

a fever of w h ich h e d ied b e ih g fif t y three years old H e was buri ed


, ,
-
.

i n th e ch urch of the F ran cisca n s at L yons 3 b ut th e Cal vinis t s i n ,

1 5 62 broke O pen h is shr i ne an d thre w h is ash es i nto th e S a li ne


, .

J uly 1 4 A D 1 2 7 4 , . . .

S t B o n i fa c e m artyr (L a l an d Ger S B onifacius I ta l S a n


.
, . . . . .

B on i fa c c i o ) The h istory of S t Boniface i s one of th e m ost a u t h e n


. .

t ic as well as beau t iful of the legends of h is age J us t ice can b y


, , .

n o m eans h e d one t o h is ch aracter i n the space allo tt ed h i m here .

H is nam e was Wi nfred and h e was born of a n oble fam ily a t C red i ,

ton i n D evo n sh ire H e taught l itera t ure and th e H oly S cri pt ures
,

.

at t h e B e n e d i c t i n e a b b e y of N u t sa l l or N u s c e ll a n ear Win ch es t er , , ,

u ntil h e was th irty si x years old F o r some years h e h ad n o t been


-
.

hap py in h i s qu ie t voca t ion b ut was constan t ly haun t ed b y a desire ,

to p reach t h e G os pel i n G ermany H e w en t first to F riesland b ut i t .


,

was in t h e days of Charl es M artel and a t i me w hen h e co u ld h o p e ,

for no resul t s from h is labors ; so h e re t urned to N u t s a l l b u t soon ,

l eft E ngl and for the las t t i m e and wen t to R ome to en t rea t t h e ,

aid of t he pope i n h is German labors I t i s sai d to have been at .

t h is t im e t ha t h e changed h is n am e R eceiving a com m i ss ion from .

t he p o p e h e n o w t ravelled through Ba v aria Th uringia S axony


, , , ,

and F riesland p reach ing w ith great su ccess I n 73 2 h e wa s m ad e


, .

Arch b isho p and Pri mate of all G ermany ; an d soon aft er K ing P epin ,

l e Bref whom Boniface had anointed n am ed h i m th e fi rst Bishop


-
, ,

of M ayence Bu t wh en seventy four years old h e ga v e u p a l l h i s


.
-
,

h onors and g ird in g on t h e p lai n ha b it of a Bened ic t ine m onk de


, ,

v o t ed him self a g ai n to m issionary la b ors At lengt h wh il e in h is .


,

te n t on t h e ba n k s of a s m a l l ri v e r i n F rie sl an d w here h e a wa i t e d a
, ,
72 L E G E ND S AND S TOR IE S

U l ph o was v ery de vo ut and i nfl uenced h e r h us band and t he i r


. She ,

eigh t ch ildren t o l ive rel igio usly Aft er the d ea t h of U l p h o she built .

m onas t eries at Wa s t e i n for monks and n un s respect i v ely and hand , ,

somely endowed bo t h T heir rule was princi p ally t hat of S t Augus t ine
. .
,

though m odified by d irections Bridge t rece i ved i n v i sions of wh i ch ,

sh e had many Her order was appro v ed by the pope u nder t h e


.
,

title of the R ule of the O rder of our S a v io ur

S h e m ad e m an y .

pi l gri mages to Ro m e and Co m po s t e l l a .

S t B r u n o was th e fo under and first abbot o f the Carth usian


.

O rder H e was of a noble family of C ol ogne and o n account of h is


.
,

great talents was sent to Paris to study t heology u nder R ay m ond .

H e aft er wards taugh t in th e school at R h ei ms 3 but after long r e fl e c ,

t ion de t ermined on a m onasti c l ife W ith six com pan ion s h e w en t t o


,
.

G renoble whe n H ugo the bish op ha v ing been warn ed i n a dream of


, , ,

t heir coming ga v e them som e barren lan d at C hartre u x Here Bruno


,
.

founded h is fi rst m onastery a n d h i s order was confirmed by th e po p e ,


.

Th e robes and hoods of the C arth usians are wh ite and their whole ,

h eads sha v en U rba n I I ha d been a pupil of Bruno at R heim s and


. .
,

wh en h e became p e pe sent for h i m to aid h im i n h is great cares an d


, ,

desired to make h i m Archbishop of R eggio B ut th is B runo refused .


,

and n ot l ik ing t h e li fe at co u rt retired to Calabria wh ere h e fo u nded , ,

another monastery He d ied i n 1 200 Th e order wh ich h e establish ed


. .

is of great interes t I t i s am ong th e m ost severe i n its rule of all


.

th e m onastic orders a n d adds al most perpet ual silence to th e u sual


,

v o ws O nly once a week can these m onks talk together They never
. .

taste flesh a n d make b ut o n e m eal a day of pul se bread and wa t er


, , , ,

an d th is i s eaten separately They labor too w ith great d iligen ce .


, , ,

an d t h eir d iscipline has been d escribed as m ost fearful i n its se v eri t y .

I n spite of all th is th ey h a v e an extrem e love of t h e beautiful an d


, ,

have done m u ch for art T heir ch urches and garden s w ere wondrou s .

i n their perfec t io n 3 a n d th eir p i ct ures at th e C hartreuse of Paris

( n o w i n the L o u v re
) i n th e Chartre use of S anta M aria de las Cu e vas
,

near S e v ille at Paular and other places possess a world of i n teres t


, , , .

J uly 1 8 .

Ca d m o n t h e P o e t l i v e d i n th e m onastery o f th e Abbess Hilda ,

as a servan t u ntil past m iddle l ife H e knew n oth ing of l i t erature


, .

or poetry ; and when it cam e h is t urn to sing at ta b le h e went away , .

O n ce as h e d i d th i s and w e n t to the stable to care for the h orse s


, ,
IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 73

h e f ell asleep, a n d an angel cam e in a dream an d tol d h im to sing .

H e answered that he co uld not sing and for that reason had left ,

“ ”
th e table But th e angel said Y o u shall sing notwithstand ing 3
.
, ,


and wh en h e ask ed wh at h e sh ould sing the reply was S ing th e , ,


begin ning of created beings T h en Caedmo n began to sing praises
.

to G o d ; an d when h e awoke h e rem em bere d al l h e had sung and ,

was abl e t o add more also When he told this to H ilda sh e believed
.
,

h i m to be inspired and recei v ed h i m into a m onastery wh ose m onks


,

were under her j urisdi ction H e was instructed i n S cri p ture ; and as
.

h e read he con v erted it i nto v erse H is paraphrase of S cripture i s


,
.

still p reserved in the B odleian L ibrary at O xford He d ied peacefully .


,

w h ile making th e sig n of th e cross .

S t Ca s i m i r patron saint of Poland wa s the s on of Casi m ir I V o f


.
, , .

Poland and E lizabeth of A u str ia F rom h is ch ildhood h e par t ici p ated .

i n n bn e of th e pleasures of h i s fath er s co urt 3 an d as h e gre w u p h e


com p osed many hym ns He refu sed th e crown of H ungary and l i v ed


.
,

m ore an d m ore secl ude d d e v oti n g h i mself to religious p u rsu its u ntil
, ,

h is death in 1 4 8 3 M arch 4 . .

S t Ca s s i a n (I t a l S a n Cascia n o ) w as a sch oolm aster of I m ola ;


. .

and being deno unced as a Christian th e j udge wh o condemn ed h i m ,

to death allowed h is scholars to be h is executi oners Th ey hated .

h i m on account of h is severe discipl ine an d they tort ured h im m ost ,

cruelly by pierci ng h i m w ith th e iron styles u sed i n w ri ti ng H e i s


, .

the p atron sai nt of I mola August 1 3 . .

S t Ca t h e r i n e o f A l e xa n d r i a v irgin a n d martyr (L a t S ancta


.
, .

Catharina ; I t a l S anta Catarina d e i S t u d i e n t i or S anta Catarina


.
,

de lle R u ote 3 F r M adam e S t e Catherine 3 Sp S anta Catalina ; Ger


. . . .

D ie Heilige K atharin a v on Alexandrien ) T his sai nt was th e daughter .

of Costis (half brother to Constantine the G reat ) an d S a b i n e l l a


-
,

Queen of Egypt Before th e birth of Cath erine her m other was


.

prepared by a dream to fi nd her a remarkable child 3 and at th e


m oment of her birth a h alo of l ight played about h er h ead Her .

acqu irem ents and her w isdom were most wonderful a n d the ph i ,

l o s o ph y of Plato was h er fa v orite study w hile a ch ild S h e ha d .

se v en learned m asters and chambers fitted with e v eryth ing to ai d


,

h er i n h er studies Her father died when sh e was fourtee n lea v ing


.
,

her heiress to th e kingdom S h e gave herself up to study an d.

r etireme n t wh ich d ispleased her subj ects and they begged her to
,
74 L E GENDS AND S T OR IE S

m arry They said sh e was possessed of four n otable gifts — that


.
,

she was of t he m os t no b le blood i n t he world and t ha t she sur p a ssed ,

a l l o t hers in weal t h knowledge and beau t y ; and t h ey desired t ha t


, ,

she should give t he m an h eir S h e repl ied tha t as she h ad fo ur.

gift s so he whom she wo uld marry m ust l ike wi se b e of su ch n o b l e


,

blood that all wo uld worsh ip h i m ; and so great as n ot to be inde b t ed


t o her for being made a k ing ri cher than a n y o t her ; so b eau t iful
,

tha t angels sh ould desire to see h im ; and so beni gn a s t o forgi ve


all o ff ences S uch an one only could she m arry T hen S a b i n e ll a
. .

a n d the peopl e were sorrowful for they kne w of no such man ,


B ut .

Catheri ne would m arry n o oth er N o w a h erm it who dwel t i n a.

deser t not far from Alexandri a was sent b y th e Blessed V irgin wh o ,

ap p eared to h im to tell Catherin e th at h er S o n was t h e h usband s h e


,

desired to have for h e possessed a l l t h e req uirem ents and m ore 3


, ,

an d t he herm it ga v e Cath erine a p ict ure of M ary and Jesu s When .

sh e gazed on h is face she loved h i m and co uld t hi nk of no t hing el se , ,

and her st udies became d ull to h er That nigh t sh e h ad a dream i n .

wh ich she went w i t h the old hermi t to a sanc t uary o n a h igh m ou n


tai n 3 and w hen s h e approach ed i t angels came to m ee t h er and sh e ,


fell on her face B u t an angel said . S t and u p o ur dear sister , ,

Ca t herine ; for thee h ath the K ing of glory d eligh ted to honor ”
.

Then sh e stood up and followed t h em an d t hey led h er t o a chamber ,

where the queen was surro unded by angels sain t s an d mar tyrs an d
, , , ,

h er beauty n one could descri be The angels p resen t ed C atherine to


.

h er and besought h er to recei v e her as h er daugh t er Th e q ueen


, .

bad e h er welcome a n d led h er to o ur L ord B ut the L ord t urned


, .

“ ”
away saying S h e is not fair and beauti ful enough for m e
, ,
At .

th ese words C atherine awoke and wept till m orn ing S h e called th e
,
.

h erm i t and demanded what would make her wor t hy of her celestial
,

B ridegroom H e percei v ing th e darkness of her m ind ins t ruc t ed


.
, ,

h er i n t h e true faith 3 an d she and also S a b i n e ll a were ba pt ized


, , .

That n ight as C a t herine slept th e V i rgin and her S o n attended b y


, , ,

m any angels a p peared to her ; an d M ary a gain presented h er t o J esus


, ,


say in g ,
L o she h a t h been ba p tized and I mysel f h ave b een h er
, ,

godmo t her ”
Then Christ sm iled o n h er an d p ligh ted h is tro t h to
.
,

h er and p u t a rin g on h er fi nger An d when she awok e th e rin g was


, .

still t here ; and from t hat ti me sh e des pised all ear t hly t hings and ,

thought only of the ti me w he n she should go to h e r hea v e n ly Brid e


I L L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 75

gr oom At lengt h th e good S a b i n e l l a died At th is t ime M axi m i n


. .

came to Alexandria and declared a great p ersecu t ion against t hose


,

w ho d id not worsh i p idols T he n C a t herine cam e forth to t he tem p le


.
,

and held an argument w i t h t he tyrant and con founded h im H e .

t hen ordered fi ft y learned m en to com e fro m all parts of t he e mp ire


to d is p ute w ith her ; but sh e pray ing to Go d overcam e them all , , ,

so that t h ey too decl ared t hem sel v es Christians Then M ax im i n .


,

enraged com manded the m to be b urned ; and C a t h eri n e com for t ed


,

them wh en t h ey could n o t be bap t ized saying t ha t their blood should ,

be t heir ba pt ism an d th e flam es glori ous crowns for them T hen t he


,
.

em p eror adm iring her beauty tried to o v ercom e h er v irt ue ; and


, ,

when h e coul d n o t do t h is and was abo u t to go to war h e com


, ,

m a n d e d Por p hyry h is ser v ant to cast her into a dungeon and s t arve
, ,

her But angels came to feed h er ; an d when aft er twel ve days


.
, ,

they opened the dungeon a bright l ight a n d a fragrance filled all th e


,

place T h en the empress an d Porphyry w ith two h undred others


.
, ,

fell at the feet of C ath erin e an d declared th emsel ves C hris t i an s,


.

W hen M axi min returned h e put th e empress and all to death , ,

and adm iring C a t herine s bea u ty still m ore t h an at fi rst o ffered h er


to be m istress of the worl d if sh e wo uld l isten to h im When sh e .

still rej ected h is o ffers h e or d ered th e m os t dreadful tortures for


,

h er
,
— wheels revol ving i n d i ff erent d irections that sh ould t ear h er ,

in many p ieces When t h ey h ad bound h er to th ese an angel cam e


.
,

and cons umed th e wh eels in fi re an d th e fragments flew arou nd , ,

and killed th e executioners an d three th ousand p eople B ut agai n .

M axim in ordered h er to be sco u rged a n d beh eaded T hen angels .

came and bore her body to th e t op of M t S inai and th ere i t res t ed .


,

i n a m a rble sarco p hagus I n t h e eighth century a m onastery w as


.

b uil t over her burial p lace an d h er re mains are still grea t ly v ener
-
,

ated It i s said by som e that M ax im in was cons u med by an i n ward


.

fi re 3 by others th a t w ild beasts d evoured him C a t h erin e is p atron


, .

ess of educa t ion science an d p h iloso p hy of all students and of


, , , ,

colleges As p a t roness of eloquence sh e was invoked f or all d is


.
,

eases of t h e t o n gue S h e i s al so p a t r o n e s s o f V en ice and a favorite


. _
,

saint of ladies of royal b ir t h S h e i s re p resen t ed as richly dressed ;


.

and h er p eculiar a tt ri bu t e is t h e wheel ei t her whol e or broken S h e ,


.

has also t h e m artyr s p al m the crown of royal t y the b ook whi ch



, ,

expresses her learning 3 an d frequen t ly she t ramples on the head o f


76 L E GE NDS AND S T OR IES

M axi m in th us symbolizing th e tri umph of h er C hristian fai t h over


,

pagan ism and cruel t y T h e m arriage of S t C a t herine to th e S avio ur . .

i s a favori t e and ex t remely bea u t ifu l subj ect of art N ovem b er 2 5 .


,

A D
. . 3 07 .

St . Ca t h e r i n e o f B
or S anta C aterin a de V i gr i has l
o o gn a ,

been grea tly ven era t ed i n her own city for abo ut four cent uries S h e .

was of noble fam ily and for a ti me a m aid of h onor at t he co u rt ,

of F errara S h e entered a con vent of Poor Clares and bec a m e d is


.
,

t i n g u i s h e d as a painter There are sai d to be several pic t ures of .

hers in Bologna H er remains dressed i n brocade an d j ewels are


.
, ,

to be seen in her con ven t at Bologn a M arch 9 A D 1 4 6 3 .


,
. . .

S t Ca t h e r i n e o f S i e n a (L a t S an cta C atharina S en ese V irgo


. .
,

a d m i ra b i l i s et gloriosa S ponsa Ch ri sti 3 I t a l S anta C a t erina d i


, .

S iena la S anti ssima V ergine )


, S h e was th e da u ghter of a dyer .

who d welt n ear th e F onte B randa at S iena ; h is d well ing i s n o w -


,

th e O ra t ory of S t Cath erine S h e dedicated h ersel f to a rel igi o u s


. .

l ife as early as i n her ei g h t h year an d prayed Chr i st to be h er ,

Bridegroom , as h e was t h at of C atheri ne of Al exandria Her .

fa t her and m oth er were angry at h er refu sal to marry and g rea t ly ,

persecuted h er putting t h e m ost m en ial labors u pon h er and treat


,

i ng h er wi t h great h arsh ness But at length h er fath er saw h er at .

prayer with a wh ite dove resting upon h er h ead of wh ose presence ,

sh e seemed u nconscious F rom th i s tim e sh e was allo wed t o ch oose .

h er o wn cou rse in l ife S h e ne ver entered a convent as a professed .

n un ,
b u t sh e m ade a vo w of silen ce for th ree years an d led a l ife of ,

t h e grea t est sel f denial S h e went e v ery day to th e conve n t of S t


-
. .

D om in ick to p ray and th ere sh e h ad m any wonderful v isions S h e


,
.

was grea t ly temp t ed of S atan 3 sh e inflicted upon h ersel f the m ost


severe penan ces an d Ch rist cam e to h er i n v i si b le presence to con
,

sole her S h e n ursed t h e sick e ve n th ose wh o had the mos t loath


.
,

som e diseases H er fam e s pread through all Tuscany and to M ilan


.

a n d N a p les At leng t h the F loren t ines h a v ing re b elled a gains t the


.
,

H oly S e e were ex com m uni ca t ed by th e po p e and th ey sen t C a t h


, ,

erine t o h i m as their m ed ia t or The p ope th en a t A vi g non was so .


, ,

m uch p leased w i t h C a t herin e that h e left her t o d ecide t h e t erms o f

pe ace b e t w een h i msel f and t h e F l o r e n t i n e s l


C a t h erine fel t i t t o b e a .

1 St . Ca th e r i n e re c o n c il de t he F l o re n t i n e s to t h e H o ly S e e , i n 1 3 78 , d u ri n g
t h e P on t ifica te of Urb a n V I .
ILL US TR A TE D IN AR T . 77

g re a t cause of m isrule i n the C h urch that th e popes w ere absent ,

from R om e an d sh e used all her p owers to persuade G regory X I to


,
.

return to th e L ateran wh i ch h e did I n th e great sch ism wh ich fol


,
.

l owed the death o f G regory C atheri ne took the p art of U r b an V I ,


.
,

w ho appointed her ambassadress w ith S t C atherine of S weden , to ,


.

the court of J oa n n a I I of S icily w ho had sided wi t h the an t i pope


.
,
-
,

C lement But h er failing heal t h p re v ented her from fu lfill ing the
.

m ission C atheri ne died at thirty three after great physical s u ff er


.
-
,

i n g — still full of zeal and faith


,
S h e was one of th e most noted of .

“ ”
female saints and is know n at S iena as la S anta
,
T h e facts of her .

h istory render h er l ife i nteresting in m any ways S h e is represented .

i n p ictures i n th e hab it of th e D om ini can O rder w ith th e stigmata , ,

w h ich s h e is said to h a v e recei v ed April 3 0 A D 1 38 0 .


,
. . .

S t Ce c i l i a ( F r S t e C e cile )
. S h e i s suppose d to ha v e l i v e d
. . .

i n the t h ird century and th e honor p a id to h er can be traced to


,

that ti me S h e w as th e daughter of a noble R oma n wh o w ith h is


.
, ,

w ife had secretly becom e Chri stian s


, Cecilia was i n ch ildhood r e .

m a r ka bl
y serious and p ious S h e early m ade a v o w of chastity and
.
,

devoted hers elf to a rel igious l ife S h e al ways carried a copy of t he .

Gos p els i n h er robe S h e especially excelled i n m usic and compose d


.
,

and sung hy m ns so s w eet that angels cam e to l iste n to h er B ut .

the instruments employed i n secular m usic were i nsu ffi cient to ex


press th e m usic o f her soul an d she i nvented th e organ an d couse , ,

crate d it to G od s service Her parents desired her when sixtee n .
,

years old to m arry V alerian a rich yo ung noble S h e did so 3 b ut


, , .

beneath her bridal robes sh e wore a garment of penance and rem em ,

beri n g her v o w prayed G o d to h elp h er to preserve her ch astity .

H e so ans wered her prayer that when sh e told V alerian of her faith ,

h e became con verted an d was ba p ti zed and respected her vow


, , .

C ecil ia h ad tol d Valeria n that she had a guard ian angel 3 and w hen
h e returned fro m h is baptism h e h eard sweet m usic and saw th e , ,

angel standing n ear h er w ith t wo cro wns m ade of t he i mmorta l ,

roses w h ich bloom i n Parad ise C ecilia an d V alerian knelt an d .


,

th e angel crowned them w ith t h e flo wers and tol d V alerian th at ,

because he had listened to Cecilia and respected h er vow w hatever ,


h e most desired sho uld be granted h i m T hen V alerian said I .
,

have a broth er n am ed T i b u r t i u s w h o m I love as my own soul ;


, ,


gran t that h is eyes also may be opened to the truth Th is request .
78 L E G E ND S AND S TOR IE S

wa s pleasing to Go d 3 and wh en T i b u r t i u s entered s o o n aft er and pe r


c e i ve d t h e fragrance of t he roses, h e was s urprised for i t was not t h e ,

t ime of flowers T hen C ec i lia t old h i m of t h eir fai t h and h e t oo w as


.
,

conve rt ed and baptized T hey t hen gave th em sel ves u p to a religiou s


.

l i fe and d id m uch good to th e poor and persec uted C h r is t ians B u t


,
.

th e p refec t A l m a c h i u s com m anded them to w orsh ip J upi t er ; and


, ,

w hen t hey wo ul d not , b e cast th e brothers in t o prison and gave ,

th e m a keeper called M ax im us an d h e al so becam e a Chris t ian


, , .

T his so enraged t he prefect that h e com manded t h e three to be


beheaded Cecilia cared for and b uried thei r rem ains i n the cem e
.
,

t e r y of C al ix t u s D esiri ng to h ave h er great weal t h th e prefect t hen


.
,

comm anded Cecil ia to w orsh ip J up iter an d th reatened h er w i t h fear ,

ful tort ures S h e only sm iled h er scorn H e t h en com m anded h er


. .

to be throw n i nto her bath filled w ith boil ing w ater T h is di d not , .

h urt her at all ; so h e then sent an executi oner to slay h er w ith th e


s word H i s h and trembled so th at he inflic t ed t h ree wo unds on h er
.
,

neck and breast and yet d id n ot k ill h er S h e lingered t hree days


, . .

S h e ga v e h er money to th e poor an d desired th at her h ouse should ,

be made a church S h e d ied swee t ly singing and was buri ed beside


.
,

h er h u sband I n the n i nth century w h en Paschal r e paire d her


.
,

ch urch h e h ad a v ision of S t C ecilia i n w h ich sh e told h im h er


, .
,

b urial p lace Her body was found an d al so th e bod ies of V al erian


-
.
, ,

T i b u r t i us an d M axi m us
,
T hey were placed in h er ch urch n o w .
,

called S t Cecilia i n T raste v ere


. Her bath room i s a chapel and
- -
.
,

th e stones and p ipes for h ea t ing the bath still re main I n the six .

t e e n t h century th e ch urch was agai n repaired and h er co ffin o p ened , ,

w hen the cel ebra t ed statue of S t Cecil i a ly ing dead was m ade
“ ”
.
,

wh ich represents her as sh e appeared i n the co ffi n S h e i s the pa t ron .

ess of m usi c and m usicians Her proper attri b ute i s the organ an d .

a roll of m usi c S h e also h as the cro wn of roses an d a n a t tendant


.
,

angel S h e i s ri chly dressed an d often has j ewels N o v ember 22


.
,
.
,

A D 28 0
. . .

St . Ce l s u s (I Th i s was a young d isci ple of S t


ta l . S a n Cel so ) . .

N azari us wh o was a conver t ed J e w Togeth er t hey travelled t h rou g h


, .

G aul as m issionary preach ers At G enoa the people threw them into .

th e sea ; b ut t h e y were m iraculou sly saved and came at las t to M ilan , ,

w here P r o t a s i u s a n d G c r va s i u s h ad b ecome Chris t ians wh om t hey ,

s t rengthened Bo t h C elsus and N az a r i us were beh eaded a t M ilan


.
,
80 L EGE ND S A N D S T OR IES

h er with them ; b ut sh e re mained fi rm i n her d eterm ination At t h e .

t im e of h er death i n 1 6 4 1 t h ere were seven t y five houses of h er


, ,
-

order i n F rance and S avoy S h e was canon ized i n 1 76 9 A ugu st . .

1
St . Ch a r l e wh ose h istory as C harlem a gn e th e G reat
m a n
g e .

E m p eror of F rance It aly and G ermany is so fam il iar to all — stands at


, , ,

th e head of royal saints i n the countries o ver w hic h h e ruled although ,

if a s t rict ch ronology were observe d S t C lo t ilda and S t S igismon d , . .

would precede h i m H e i s frequently represented w ith a b ook i n


.
,

remembrance of h is h a v ing caused the S crip t ures to be correctly


translated and widely prom ulgated January 28 A D 8 1 4 .
,
. . .

S t Ch a r l e s B o r r o m e o (I t a l S a n C arlo )
. T his saint was of one . .

of t he nobl est fam il ies of L ombardy Bei ng the s econd son h e w as .


,

early dedicated t o the Ch urch At t wel ve years of age he recei v ed .

the reven ues of a rich Benedictine m onastery b ut wo uld only re ser v e ,

a mere p it t an ce for h imself de v oting t he rem aind er to chari t y A t , .

twen ty three h e was m ade card inal and Archbish op of M ilan by h i s


-

,
°

u ncle Pi us IV H is elder brother d i e d wh e n Charl es was t wen t y six


.
-
.

H e went at once to take possession of h is d iocese and esta t e H is .

i ncomes h e dedicated to p ubli c u ses only spending for h i mself enoug h ,

to buy h is b read an d w ater and straw on wh ich to sleep H e sent , .

m issionaries to preach i n e very p art of h is d iocese an d went al so ,

h i m sel f to see th at his p eople were cared for I n p ubl ic b e l i v ed as .

becam e h is rank and ga v e feasts of wh ich h e n ever par t ook Hi s


,
.

chari t ies were m ost m u n i fic e n t At th e tim e of t h e p lague at M ilan .


,

h e went into the city wh en all oth ers fled and tended t he sick an d
, ,

p erformed all th e d uties per t ai ning to h is o ffi ce H is exam pl e i ns p ired .

twenty eigh t priests to j oin h im a l l of whom w i t h S t C harl es esca p ed


s

,
.

u nh u rt H e l ived i n a ti m e wh en th e cl ergy had fallen i nto great


.

laxi t y of d iscipl ine and h e m ay be regarded as a powerful instru men t


,

i n res t or i ng the m to zeal for th e d uties of the ir v ocation H e was .

h ated by those p riests w h o had been i n th e habi t of using the reve


n ues of t h e C h urc h for t hei r own ind ulgen ce ; and one F r a F arin a , ,

a tt em p ted to k ill h i m b y fi ring u pon h i m wh ile h e was cele b ra t ing


t he e vening service H e fi n i sh ed th e prayer al t ho u g h h e bel iev ed
.
,

h imself m ortally wounded and t he people considered h im to be m i rac ,

1 H e is n ot m e n ti on e d i n t h e Ca th o l i c Ca l e n d a r of Sain t v e a s B l e ss e d
s , sa . H is
f e a st, J a n ua ry 28 , h as b e e n k e p t b y t h e Ge rm a n s an d F re n c h o n l y s i n c e 1 4 8 6 .
IL L US T R A T E D IN A R T . 81

u o u sl y
l h eale d H e die d N o v ember 4 1 5 8 4 an d w i th h is last breat h
.
, ,

exclai med “
E cce v en i c
,

H is remai n s repose i n a rich shrine at
.

M ilan H e is represented i n card inal s robes and barefooted a rope


.

,

a bout h is neck and one hand raised i n benediction w ith a book i n th e ,

o t h er N ovember 4 A D 1 5 8 4
.
,
. . .

S t Ch e r o n was a d isciple of S t D enis an d was Bisho p of


. .
,

C hartres H e was attacked by robbers and h is head was struck o ff


. , ,

when on h is way from C h artres to Paris to v isit S t D enis Taking . .

h is head i n h is hand he contin ued h is j ourn ey O ne of t h e w indow s


,
.

i n th e cathedral of C hartres represen t s the h istory of S t C heron . .

St C h r.
i s t i n a (I t a l S anta Cristina ; F T S t e C h ristine
.
) S h e is . . .

supposed to hav e been born at T i r e a town on the borders of L ake ,

B olsena wh i ch h as sin ce been swallowed u p i n th e lake


,
Th e legend .

of th is saint h as been rej ected by the Ch u rch but she is celebra t ed i n ,

central a n d northern I taly S h e was the ch ild of a R oman patricia n .

wh o go v erned th e city S h e called h erself C hristina because sh e had


.

been converted to th e doctri nes of C hrist As she stood one day .


, ,

wa t ch ing t hose wh o begged al m s and had nothi ng to gi ve sh e th ough t , ,

of t h e golden idols of h er father an d she broke the m i n p ieces and ,

gave the m to th e p oor H er fath er was furious and ordered h i s .


,

servan t s to beat her an d thro w her into a d ungeon H ere angels .

cam e and healed her wounds H er father th en comm anded her t o be .

throw n i nto the lak e with a m ill stone t i ed t o h e r n eck But angels -
.

bore h er u p and Go d c l o t hed her w ith a w h ite robe and led h er


,

safely to land S h e was then thrown into a fi ery furnace wh erei n sh e


.
,

remained unharm ed five days an d s ung G od s p raises H er f a t her the n ’


.

ordere d her head to be shaved an d tha t sh e sh ould b e taken to the ,

tem p le of Apollo to sacrifice 3 b ut w hen she came th ere t h e idol fell


do w n before her w h ic h so frightened h er father that h e di ed B ut
, .

J ulian h earing that she sang i n her p rison sent orders that h er
, ,

tongue sh oul d be c ut o ut wh en sh e s t ill contin u ed to sin g to th e , ,

amazement of all S h e was n ext sh ut up w i t h p oisonous re pt iles b u t


.
,

sh e was not harm ed At last i n des p ai r h e comm anded her to be


.
, ,

bound t o a p ost and sh ot w ith arrows till sh e d ied T h us was sh e .

m artyred and angel s bore h er soul to h eaven O n an island i n th e


, .

lake of Bolsena wh ich f e w travellers visit i s a chu rch ded icated t o


, ,

S t C hri s t ina t h e p ai ntings in wh ich are attrib uted to the C aracci


.
,
.

T h e cathedral o f Bolsena i s consecrated to h er —patroness of B olsen a ,

6
82 L E GEND S A ND S T O R IES

and th e V enetian S t ates Her proper attrib u t e i s the m ill s t on e ; .


-

b u t sh e som e t imes has arrows alone w hen sh e m igh t be m is t aken for ,

S t U rs ula
. S h e h as also t he m ar ty r s pal m a n d crown
. J uly 24 .
,

A D
. . 29 5 .

St . Ch r i s t o p h
r (L a t S t C hri sto p horus ; I t a l S a n C ri stofero
e . . .
,

or C ris t ofano ; F r S t C hri sto p he or Cr i s t o fl e ; Ge r D er H eilige


. .
, .

C hris t o p h ) S t C hristopher m igh t well be cal led t h e gian t saint


. . .

H e was of the lan d of Canaan and before p erforming th e d eed s ,

w h ich won h im sai ntly reno w n was called O ff e r o wh ich si g n ifi es , ,

“ ”
t he bearer H e was proud o f h is v ast size and streng t h 3 bu t i n
.

sp i t e of thi s h i s poverty com pelled h im to become a servan t S o b e


,
.

resol ved th at the m ost po werful m onarch of t h e earth alone shoul d


be h is mas t er an d h e went to seek h im At length aft er m any days
,
.
,

of wandering h e cam e to th e co u rt of a k ing sai d to excel all o t hers


,

i n power an d weal t h an d to h i m h e o ffered h is serv ices T h e king ,


.

acce pt ed h im gladly for no o t her m onarch of all th e eart h co uld ,

boas t of such a servant N o w O ff e r o kne w n o t h ing of th e po wer of .

C hrist or S a t an and su pp osed h is m as t er to be afraid of no one sin ce


, ,

h e was th e grea t est monarch of th e earth 3 b ut on e day as h e stood ,

beside h im a m instrel w ho was si nging m en t ioned frequ en tly t h e


,

n ame of S atan and e v ery ti me h e d id so the k ing trembled an d


,

crossed h i msel f O ff e r o ask ed th e m ean i ng of th is ; an d when t h e


.


k ing d id not a n swer h e said I f th ou dost n ot an swer m e th is I
, , ,


leave t hee T h en th e ki ng said
. I make t h is si g n t ha t S a t an m a y ,

h av e n o power o ver m e ; for h e i s very m ighty and as wicked as ,

stron g and I fear lest h e shall ov erco m e m e


,
Then O ff er o fel t .


h imself d ecei ved and said S in ce th ere is one wh om t ho u fearest
, , ,

h i m w ill I seek a n d serve ; for my m as t er m us t fear n o one So he .

wandered a gain seek ing S atan ; a n d crossing a great d esert h e s a w


, ,

a t erri b le b eing w i t h th e a pp earan ce of great po wer m arch in g a t t h e ,

h ead of an arm ed l egion He did not see m to noti ce th e g reat si ze .


of O ff e r o and w ith an ai r of authority said
,
Wh ith er goes t th ou , ,

and for what dost th ou seek ? Then sai d O ff e r o “
I w ish to fi nd ,

S atan ; for I hav e h eard h e i s the m ost po werful of a l l t h e e a rth and I ,


would have h i m for m y m aster S atan w ell p lease d r e p l ie d “
I am .
, , ,

h e and your serv ice shall be a n easy an d pl e asant one


, O ff c r o th en .

b o wed before h i m and j oi ned h is followers Aft er a ti me a s they


, .
,

j ourneyed on th ey came to a cross erecte d by the w ayside w here


, , ,
IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T .
83

fo u r r oa d s met W hen the D e v il s a w th i s h e t ur n e d w i th gr eat


.

haste an d fear an d went a long d istance o u t o f h is way to avoi d th e


,

cross . Then sai d O ff e r o “


Why is th is ? W hat i s th i s c r oss and
, ,


w herefore dost tho u avo i d i t ? But S atan spoke n ot T hen sai d .

O ff e r o “
E xce p t tho u tellest m e I must lea v e thee Being compe l led
,

.
,

the w icked one re p lied I fear the cross beca use u p on it Jesus d ied 3
, ,


and w hen I behol d i t I fly lest h e sh ould o v e r come me T hen sai d
,
.


O ff e r o Te l l me w ho is this Jesus ; for since t ho u fearest hi m h e is
, ,

more p owerful than thou an d h i m w ill I seek and ser v e ,
S o he left .

S atan a n d wandered m an y days i n sear ch o f C hrist


,
At length h e .

came to a her m it w hom he entr eated to tell h i m w here Christ could


,

be foun d Then the he r m i t seei ng that h e kne w noth i ng of Jesus


.
, ,

began to teach h im and sai d T h o u art r ight i n bel ie v ing that C h r is t


, ,

i s the gr eatest k ing ; for h i s pow er extends o v er both hea v en a n d


earth and w il l endure th r oughout eter n i ty B ut tho u canst not ser v e
,
.

h im lightly ; an d i f he acce p ts thee h e w i ll i m p ose great d uties u p o n ,

“ ”
thee a n d w ill r equi r e that th ou fast o f ten
,
The n sai d O ff e ro I .
,

w ill not fast for i t i s m y strength that makes m e a good serv ant
,

“ ” ”
w hy should I waste i t by fasti ng ? An d besides tho u must p ray , ,


sai d the herm i t I kno w not h o w to p r ay neither w i ll I learn
.
,
.


S uch a ser v i ce i s for weak ones b u t not for me sa i d the proud gi ant , , .

Then sa i d the he r mit I f tho u w ilt u s e thy strength kno w est thou a
, ,

deep w i de r i v er that i s o ften s w ollen w i th rai ns a n d swee p s away i n


, , ,


i t s s wi ft cur rent many o f th ose wh o would cross i t ? O ff e r o said I ,

“ ” “ ”
kno w such a str eam T he n go the r e sai d th e h er m i t an d a i d
.
, ,

th ose w h o str uggle w i th i t s w a v es ; and the weak a n d th e l ittle ones


b ear tho u from sho r e to sho r e on thy b roa d shoulders T his i s a good , .

work 3 and if Ch r i st w il l ha v e thee f o r th i s serv i ce he w i ll assure thee ,



of h is acce p tance T hen was O ff er e glad for this was a task w h ich
.
,

suited h i m well S o h e w ent to the r i ver and b uilt upon i t s b ank a


.

b u t o f the boughs of trees An d h e aided a ll w ho came 3 an d many he .

bo r e u p o n h i s sho u lders and was n e v er weary by day or n ight i n ,

assisting those w h o c r ossed the r i ver An d after h e began h is work .


,

not one pe r ish ed w h er e befor e so m an y had been s we p t away F o r


, .

a sta ff he used a p alm tree w h ich h e p ulled up i n the for est an d i t was
-
,

not too lar ge for h i s great h eight and strength As Jes us beheld this .

h e was w ell p leased w i th Off e r o and h is labor 3 for though he woul d


n e i ther f ast nor pray yet had he fo u nd a w ay to ser v e h i m
,
At length .
,
84 L E GE ND S AND S T OR IE S
'

aft er Ofl e ro h a d spent a long time an d d i d n ot w eary o f h i s t oil as h e ,

rested one nigh t i n h is b u t he heard a v oice l ik e tha t of a w eak ch ild , ,


“ ”
and it said O ff e r o w i lt tho u carry m e o v er ?
, , A n d h e w ent out
quickly b ut he coul d fin d no o n e B ut w h en he h a d aga i n la in do w n
,
.
,

the sa me v oice call ed a s before an d at the th ird call h e arose an d ,

sought w ith a lantern At last he foun d a l ittle ch il d w h o besought


.


h im Offe r o O ff e r o carr y m e o v er to n i ght
, ,
H e l i fted h i m u p an d
,
-
.
,

carryi ng h is sta ff began to cross th e stream I mmedia t ely the wi nds


, .

ble w t h e wa v es were tossed and t h e roar o f th e waters was as m any


, ,

th unders and the l ittle ch i ld gre w h ea v y an d more h ea v y u ntil


, ,

Offe r o feared he should h i msel f si nk an d both be lost B ut w ith the , .

aid of h is pal m sta ff at length h e crossed and p ut h is b urde n safely


,

dow n upon the other s ide Then h e cried out W hom have I born e ?
.
,


Had it been th e w hole w orld i t could n o t ha v e been more h eavy ! ,


Then th e ch i ld r e p l i ed M e tho u hast desi r ed to se r v e and I ha v e
, ,

acce p ted thee Thou hast borne not only th e w hole w orld b ut H i m
.
,

w ho m ade i t o n thy shoulders As a sign o f my p o wer an d of m y


,
.

a pp r obati on of th ee fix tho u thy sta ff i n the earth and i t shal l gro w


, ,


and bear fruit O ff e r o d i d so 3 an d th e staff was soo n co v ered w ith
.

lea v es an d t h e dates h u ng i n h uge clusters upon i t But the w onder


,
.

ful ch ild was gone Then O ffe r o k ne w that i t w a s Chri st w h om h e


.

had borne and h e fell do w n a n d w orsh i pped h i m After that O fl e r o


,
.
,

w ent to S amos w here there was a great persec u t i on o f Chri stians an d


, ,

i n s p ite o f h is great strength s h e a t h e n struck h i m w hen he said , ,

“ ”
W ere I n ot a Christian I woul d take v engeance o n thee He
,
.

p ermitted h i msel f to be bou nd and take n to D a gn u s t he K i ng of ,

L ycia i n w h ich country was S amos


,
At the sight o f th e giant the .

k ing fa i nted W hen h e was h imsel f agai n h e said


. W h o art th ou ? , ,


an d the giant ans w ered M y first name was O ff e r o the B e arer b ut , , ,

n o w I ser v e Chris t and ha v e borne h i m ,


o n m y shoul ders ; for th is I

am no w called Christ Off e ro the bearer o f Chri st D a g n u s sent h i m,
.

to p rison an d tried to seduce h im to i dolatry by sending beauti ful


,

w omen to h im w h o urged h i m to si n B ut C hristo p her w as faith fu l


,
.
,

and by h is i nfluence the women became C hristia n s and su ff ered d eath , ,

beca u se they too w orsh i pp ed Jesus , ,


T he n D a g n us tortured h i m .

greatly a n d commanded hi m to be beheaded When they led h i m


, .

to ex ecution h e kneeled do w n an d p rayed that all w h o beh eld h i m


,

a n d bel ie v e d i n Ch ri st sho ul d be de l i v ered from ear thq u ake fi re an d , ,


I LL U S T R A T E D IN AR T . 85

tem pest I t was belie v ed that h i s prayer w as e ff ect u al a n d that a ll


.
,

w ho p iously i nvoke S t Ch r istopher are safe f o r that day from a ll dan


.
o

ger s o f earth quake flood or fire The sight o f h i m i s thought also


, , .

to i mpart strength to the w eak an d w eary w h i ch i dea i s expressed ,

i n many i nsc r i p tions mo r e or less s i m il ar to the fo l lo w i ng on e w h i ch ,

acco m pan y h i s p i ctur es


Ch r i st oph or i S a n c ti s p e c i e m qu i c um qu e t ue t ur ,
I ll o n a m qu e di e nu ll o l a n gu or e t e n e tur .

(

W hoe v er shall behol d th e i mage o f S t C hr i stopher s h a ll n o t .

fa i nt or fai l on that July 2 5 , A D 3 64 . . .

S t Ch r y s a n t h u s (I t a l S a n G risante )
. T hi s saint cam e to
. .

R o me from Alexandria an d S t D aria cam e from Athens T hey , . .

w ere betrothed b ut Ch r ysa n t h u s persuaded D aria t h at a state o f


,

v irgin ity was m ore favorabl e to a religious l ife than that of mar
r i a ge . T h ey were remarkable for their d e votion to th e F ai t h ,

T hey were at length acc u sed and m ar t yred — i n th e reign of N u ,


m

m erian according t o som e 3 b ut Baillet bel ie v es i n th e persecu t io n


, ,

of V alerian I t i s said that soon aft er th eir b uri al a large number


.

of C hristians who were prayi ng at their tomb were walled up i n the


cav e and th u s buried ali ve The part of the catacombs where they
, .

w ere interred was long called the cemetery of S S Ch r ys a n t h u s and .

D aria Th e Greek C hurch h onors the m on M arch 1 9 and O ctober 1 7 3


.

th e L atins O ctober 2 5 A D 2 3 7,
. . . .

S t Ch r y s o g o n u s (I t a l S a n Gr i so gon o )
. S e e S t A nastasia
. . . .

S t Cl a i r (L a t S C larus ) is one of the beheaded saints


. . . He .

was an E nglish man o f noble ex t raction and l i v ed and labore d in ,

the cou n ty of V exin , i n F rance H e preached wi t h great faithful .


n ess and was m urdered at a v illage wh ich bears h is name by r u fli a n s
,

h ired by a lewd wom an wh o coul d not overcom e h is chastity Th is .

v illage i s between R ouen and Pontoise H is shrine is greatly v en .

c rated an d vi si ted by pil rims He i s represented on a w indo w at


g .

S t M aclo u in R ouen
. N o vember 4 . .

S t Cl a r a ( L a t S an cta C lara ; I t a l S anta Ch iara ; F r S t e


. . . . .

C laire) C lara (1 Assisi was the daughter of a n obleman F avorino


.

,

S e i ff o ; her mother was named O rtolana Her beauty and the great .

w ealth of h er f am ily caused her to recei v e many offers of marriage .

S h e had early dedicated herself to a rel igious l ife and went to ,


86 L E GE ND S A N D S T OR IES

S t F rancis. to ask h is advice He encouraged h er to reno u nce the .

world and appoi n t ed Pal m S unday as t he day for her to make h er


,

profession S h e went t o ch urc h wi th a ll her fam ily richly at t ired


.
,

as was t he custom o n t h a t d ay Whe n the o t hers approached the .

al t ar sh e remained afar o ff ; and S t F rancis ad m iring her h um ili t y .


, ,

cam e down from t he al t ar t o gi ve her t he pal m branch A t e veni ng -


.

she concealed herself i n a v eil and escaped to the P o r z i o n c u l a w here , ,

S t F rancis d welt
. S h e was con d u cted to the al t ar w h ere S t F rancis
.
, .

c u t o ff her hair w i t h h is o wn h ands and she p ut t ing o ff her ri ch , ,

garmen t s was covered w i t h t he personal p en iten t ial ro b es of F rancis


, ,

wh ich h e t hre w o ver her Th us she became h is disci p le a n d t h e


.
,

M adre S e r a fic a or t h e foundress of t h e O rder of F ranciscan N uns


,

,

or as t hey are be t t er kno wn t he Poor Clares


,

The rules of her
,
.

order were severe i n the ex t reme C lara wen t by t he w ish of S t .


, .

F rancis t o the con vent of S t Paolo


, H er fam ily an d friends tried . .

every m eans to i nduce h er to re t urn to them w itho ut e fl e c t 3 and i n


a shor t tim e she was followed by her sister Agnes only fo ur t een ,

years o l d ; by m any ladies of rank among wh om were three of th e ,

h ouse of U ba ld i n i ; and at leng t h by h er mo t her C lara so s t rictly


, ,
.

adhered to th e r u les of her order as to i nj u re her heal t h and for a ,

l ong t im e she was bedridden O n one occasi on wh en th e S aracens .


,

to wh om F rederick had gi ven th e for t ress of N ocera cam e to rav ,

age her convent o f S a n D am iano sh e arose fro m h er b ed wh ere sh e , ,

h ad so long been confi ned and placing the Pyx wh i ch contained t he ,

Hos t u p on t he t h resh old sh e kneeled down an d be gan t o sing w hen


, ,

the i n fid e l s t h re w down t he ir arms and fled I nnocent I V v isi t ed . .

h er and confi rmed h er order ; and before h er d ea t h i t had s p read


throu g hou t Chris t endom and m any noble l ad ies had j oined i t S h e
,
.

d ied a t six t y i n a rap t uro us t rance b el ieving h erself called t o ,

heaven by angel ic voices H er sis t er Agnes su cceeded h er as a h.

bess When t h e n uns rem oved from S a n D am iano t o S a n G iorg io


.
,

t hey b ore h er remain s wi t h th em T h e lat t er is no w t h e ch urch of .

S an t a C hiara d Assisi and i s t h e m os t fam o us one of h er order



,
.

S t C lara is a favorite sain t all over E uro p e but es p ecially so i n


.
,

S p ain Her p ro p er a tt ri b ute is t he Pyx con t aining the H os t S h e


. .

wears a gray t un ic and t he cord of S t F rancis w i t h a black v eil


,
.
,
.

S h e also bears t he lily the cro s s and the pal m ,


A ugust 1 2 ,
.
,

A . D . l 25 3 .
88 L E GE N D S AND S TOR IE S

St . Cl o t i l d a Clotilde ) (
S t Clotilda w as a B urg
F r . Ste . . .

d ian princess and th e w ife of Clov is S h e i s famed a s hav ing


,
.

C hristianized F ran ce Her h usban d after long resisting h er a t .


,

tempts for h is conversion c a lled u pon the G o d of Clotilda i n th e ,

m id st of an unfortunate battle I mmediately th e fo r tunes of h is .

arm s w ere changed ; and by th is h e was con verted an d w as bap ,


~

t i z e d by S t R em i .A t h is baptism i t i s said that the o il w as


.

brought from h eaven by a dove 3 and tradition says th at an angel


came down bearing three l il ies w h ich h e gave to S t R em i and he , .
,

i n turn gave th e m to Clotilda and at th is ti me th e arm s of F rance ,

were ch anged fro m the three toads (crapau ds ) of earl ier days to ,

th e fl e u r s de lys the e mble m s of p u ri ty an d regeneration J un e 3


- -
, .
,

A D 5 45
. . .

S t Cl o u d was a grandson of S t Clotilda w ho w hen h i s broth


. .
,

ers were m urdered e scaped to a convent an d becam e a monk of t h e ,

B enedictine Order S eptember 7 A D 5 60 .


, . . .

Co n s t a n t i n e E m p e r o r Constantine w h il e still an idolater


, .
,

and a persecutor of the C hristians w as affl icted w ith a leprosy ,


.

T he priests of t h e idols prescribed th at h e sho uld bath e i n ch ildren s ’

bl ood Thre e thou sand ch ildren w ere collected to be slain 3 b ut a s


.

th e em peror rode to th e pl ace w h er e they w ere th e moth ers of th e ,

ch ildren so entreated h i m that h e stopped h is chariot an d said F ar ,

better is it that I shoul d d ie th an cause t he death of these i nno ,


cents . He then comm anded the ch ildren to be restored to th e ir
m others to w h om h e gave l arge gifts to compensate for their s u ff erings
, .

Th at n ight i n hi s sl eep S t Peter an d S t Paul appeared to h i m and , . .


,

told h i m th at C hrist had sent them to h i m because he had spared


the innocents They told h im to send for S yl vester w ho woul d sho w
.
,

h im a pool in wh i c h he could wash a n d be cl ean and that from that ,

tim e h e sho uld cease to persecute th e C hristians and h imself wor ,

sh i p their G od N o w S yl vester was th e Bishop of R ome wh o h ad


.
,

h id aw a y fro m th e cruel ties of Constanti ne and was i n a cave near


M onte C a l vo T h e e mper o r sent for h i m ; an d w hen th e sold iers
.

found h i m a n d led h i m a way h e thought i t w as to h is ex ecut ion , .

They took h i m to th e em peror w ho asked h i m w ho th e two god s ,

w ere wh o h ad appe a red to h i m the pre viou s n ight S yl vester r e .

pl ied t h a t th ey were n ot gods b ut th e apostles of J es us Cons t an , .

t i ne then desire d to s e e the e ffig i e s of these apo s t l es S yl v e st e r .


I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . 89

sho wed h i m som e p i ctures of Peter an d Paul and Constantine saw ,

th at they were l ik e those w hom he h ad seen in the v ision S y lves .

ter then baptized h i m and h e came o ut fro m h is baptism cured of


,

h is d isease Th e n ext d ay Constantine commanded that Christ


.
,

sho u l d b e worsh ipped i n a l l R ome as th e only Go d ; th e next day ,

th at those wh o blasphemed against Hi m shoul d lose the ir l i ves ; th e


th ird day that any on e wh o ins u lted a C hristian should forfei t half
,

h is goods ; th e fourth day th at the Bishop of R ome should be th e


,

first bishop of th e world ; th e n ext day h e gave the pri vilege of ,

sanctuary to the C hri stian ch urches ; the sixth h e ordered that no ,

ch u rch es shou ld be b uilt w itho ut th e con sent of th e b ishop ; th e


seventh th at th e tithes of the dom ains of R om e should belong to
,

th e Ch urch an d the eighth day h e founded th e L ateran by d iggi n g


, ,

h i mself and carrying on h is shoulders t wel ve h o df ul s of eart h and


l a ying th e first stone A nother acco unt of th e manner of h is con
.

v ersion to C hristian ity and one frequently ill ustrated i n a r t i s that


, ,

duri n g th e campaign of 3 1 2 w h il e on h is m arch to R ome h e saw a


, ,

“ ”
l um ino us cross i n th e sky w ith the inscription By this conqu er
, , ,

an d that on t he nigh t before h is last battle w ith M a xe n t i u s h e was ,

com manded in a v ision to i nscribe th e sacred monogram of th e n ame


of C hrist u po n th e sh ields of h is soldiers Three di ff erent localities .

cl ai m th e honor of hav ing been the place w h ere Constantin e behel d


th e cross ; th ese are A u tun A ndernach an d V erona B ut to these
, , .

m iraculous directions a n d the s u ccess w h ich follo wed h is obed ience


to them is a ttribu ted h is belief i n C hristian ity Th e E mpress .

Helena t old h i m that i t would have been b e tter to become a J e w


than a Christian S o h e wrote h er to bring to disp ute w ith S ylves
.

ter th e m ost learned of the Je ws S h e cam e to R om e w ith on e


.

h undred a n d forty doctors of th e l a w A day was appoi n ted for .

the discu ssion ; and Z eno and Crato Greek ph ilosoph ers were a p
, ,

po inted arbitrators Then S ylvester praying for w isdom utterly


.
, ,

defeated th ese learn ed R abbi s Then on e of th em Z a m br i w ho


.
, ,

was a m agician desired that a fi erce bull should be brought and


, ,

sai d that when h e sh o u ld speak i n h is ear th e n ame of h is Go d h e ,

should fall dead The bull was brought ; and as th e m agician had
.

said he fell dead at h i s feet as soon as h e had w h ispered to h im


,
.

Then S yl vester was attacked w ith fury ; th e arb itrators were as


t o n i sh e d an d Constantine was shaken in h is faith but S ylves t er sai d
, ,
90 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S


that th e n a m e h e h ad spok en was S atan s for C hri st d id not d estroy ,

b ut g a ve l ife He desired that Z a m b r i should restore the b ull to


.

life Th is h e could not do ; b ut S yl vester made th e sign o f th e


.

cross a n d com man ded h i m to ri se w h en the bu ll obeyed a n d rose u p


, ,

as gentle as before he h ad been fierce T hen all w ho saw th is b e .

l i e ve d and w e re baptized A w h ile after th is it w as told t h e emperor


.
,

th at sin ce h is conv ersion th e d ragon w h ich d w elt in th e m o a t h ad


,

killed three h undred persons dail y by h is poisonous breath Th en , .

S yl vester went down to the dragon an d exorci sed h i m i n th e n a me ,

of C hrist and bound u p h is mo u th w i th a thread and sealed i t w ith


, ,

the sign of the cross S yl vester al so ga ve aid in h i s h ou se to a C hris


.

tian wh o w as afterward slain for h is faith Th e governor believed .

th at S yl vester had riches wh ich belonged to th e martyr an d t hreat ,

ened h i m w ith tort ures if h e d id n ot give the m u p S yl vester told .

th e governor that h is soul sho uld be in torments that n ight a n d as


h e ate h i s d i n n er h e wa s ch oked to death There i s n o n eed to re m i n d .

one th at h istory and th e legends greatl y d i ff er reg a rd i n g Co n stantin e .

A s for S yl vester he was at the great N icen e Council a n d after go v


, ,

ern i n g the C h u rch for n early twe n ty fo ur years h e died a n d was -


,

b uried i n th e cemetery of Priscilla at R ome The proper attri bute .

of S t S yl vester is th e bull som etimes th e portrai ts of S t Peter and


. .

S t Paul H is f e s va l i s D ecember 3 1 a n d h e d ied i n 3 3 5


'

g.
,
.

S t Co s m o and S t D a m i a n ( L a t S S C osm us e t D a m i a n u s ;
. . . .

I t a l S S Cosimo e D a m iano gl i sa u ti m edi ci A rabi ; F r S S Cé m e e t


. . . .

D a m ien ) These brother sai n ts are seldo m separated i n tho u gh t or


.

rep r esentation Th ey were A rabi ans b ut d w el t at A l gae i n Cil ici a


.
, , .

Their father d ied e arly ; an d th e ir moth er Th eodora trai n ed the m i n , ,

C hris t ian v irtue Th eir ch ari ties w ere extensive ; and th ey studied
.

med ici n e for t h e purpose of relieving su ffering and refused all com ,

p e n sa t io n for th eir labors Th ey d id n ot refuse to rel ie


. ve even an i
m als wh en in their po wer T hey became most sk ilful physician s
,
. .

I n th e time of D iocleti an th ey were seized by th e pro c onsul L yc i a s ,

and th row n i nto th e sea b ut were saved by an angel They were ,


.

also p ut i n th e fi re w h ich wou ld not burn the m and bound to


, ,

crosses a n d sto n ed ; b ut n one of th e stones reached them so th at ,

at last they w ere beh eaded They w ere patrons of med icin e an d.
,

su cceeded to th e h onors of [E sc u l a p i u s am ong th e G reek s Th ey .


h av e also th e title of A n a r gyr e s ( w ithout They w ere patron s
92 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S

on the coast of N orth u m berl a nd called afterwards H oly I sland i n , ,

m e m ory of h is s a ncti t y Here he supported h i mself u pon wh at h e


.

rai s ed by h is o wn l abor a n d i t is said that angels bro ught h i m bread


,

fro m Pa rad ise H e w as afterwards Bishop of L indisfarn e M i r a c u


. .

lous things are told of h im d uring h is l ife and of h is rel ics after ,

h is d t a t h H is shrine bec a me a place of pilgrim a ge


. H is rel ics .

are n o w i n th e cathedral of D urh a m H is a t t ribute is th e h ead .

of S t O s wa ld buried i n t he tomb of S t C uthbert w h en th e former


.
,
.
,

w a s sl a i n i n battle H e also h as th e otter w h ich w as sai d to h av e


.
,

l i c ked h i m into life when h e had al most perished from cold and expo
sure M arch 20 A D 6 8 7
.
,
. . .

S t Cy p r i a n and S t Ju s t i n a o f A n t i o c h ( I t a l S a n C ipriano
.
,
. .

i l M a go 8 S a n ta G i ustin a ; F r S t Cyprien l e M agicien e t S t e . . .

J usti n e ) T he h i stories of th ese sai nts can n ot be sep a rated S ai n t


. .

J ustin a was a n exceed i n gly lovel y and v ir t uous Chri stian m aiden of
A n tio c h H er fa ther w as a priest of the idol s bu t sh e co n verted bo t h
.
,

h i m a n d h e r mother to h er o w n fai t h A n obl eman named A g l a i d e s


so ugh t h er love in vai n and at length h e appl ied to th e f a mou s ,

m a gician Cypri a n for h i s aid in w in n ing h er heart N o w Cyprian


,
.

was very l ea rn ed in astrology a n d n ecroman cy a n d do ubted not h is ,

po w er to o verco m e all obstacles B u t w hen h e s a w J usti n a h e al so .


,

loved her a n d determined to w in her for h i mself H e se n t demons .

to her to fi ll her m in d w ith unchaste a n d vol uptuou s i mages but s h e ,

rem a ined u n a ffe c ted A t le n gth h e sent th e pri n ce of ev il spirits to


.

te m pt her but all w itho ut success Th e n Cypri an was so a sto n i sh ed


,
.

a t the power of h er v irt ue that h e resol ved to serve th e G o d of t h is

p u re m a ide n S o h e w en t to her filled w ith repentan ce and confessed


.
,

h imsel f a Chri sti a n J usti n a i n h er j oy at so great a victory for


.
,

C hrist c u t off her beau tiful h air and made of it an o ff eri n g to th e


, ,

Virgin Cypri a n w as soon baptized and becam e as famous for h is


'

.
,

p ie t y as h e h ad before been for h i s w i ck ed n ess W h e n the l ast pe rse .

c u t i o n of th e C hristi ans broke out th e G overnor of A n tio c h com ,

m a n d e d th e se sai n ts to be thrown in to boil ing pit c h w h ich by a , ,

m ira cle h a d n o po w er to harm them


,
H e th en se n t th em to D i o c l e .

ti a n at N ic o m edi a w ho ordered the m to be instantly beh eaded


, .

S ep t e m ber 26 A I ) 3 04 , . . .

S t Cy p r i a n o f Ca r t h a g e and archbi sh op of t h a t place per


.

, ,

i sh e d i n t h e persecu tion of Valerian H is m artyrdo m i s one of t h e .


I L L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 93

most authentic in h istory H e is very rarely repre sent e d in w orks of .

a r t ; and perh aps th e picture by Paul Veronese i n the Brera at M ilan , ,

i s th e o n ly on e l ikely to come w ithi n th e observation of the traveller .

S e ptember 1 6 A D 25 8 ,
. . .

S t Cy r i l (L a t S Cyrill us ; I t a l S a n C irillo ; F r S t Cyri l le )


. . . . . . .

Th is sai n t w as Patriarch of A lexandria from th e ye a r 4 1 2 to 4 4 4 H e .

w rote m u ch u pon th eology an d w as earn estly engaged i n t he co n tests ,

of th e early C h urch S ome n on Cathol ic writers h ave sough t to


.
-

connect h i m w it h t he terribly cruel m urde r of Hypatia the femal e ,

1
m athem ati cian and ph ilosopher H e is as h ighly ve n erated i n th e .

G reek as i n th e L atin C h urch and is the only bish op w ho m they ,

represent w i th h i s head covered Jan uary 2 8 A D 4 4 4 .


,
. . .

S t Cy r i l and S t M e t h o d i u s
. S t Cyril was a ph ilosoph er . . .
,

an d S t M ethod ius an artist T hey w ere of th e Order of S t Basil a n d


. . .
,

w ere sen t by th e Patriarch of Co n stantinople as m issionaries to th e


people wh o l ived on the borders of th e D an ube B oga r i s th e K i n g .
,

of Bulgaria desired M ethodi us to paint a p icture in the h all of h is


,

palace that should impress h i s subj ects w ith awe M eth odi us painted .


the L ast J udgment w ith C hrist enthroned and surrounded w it h

,

angels also the h app iness of th e blessed and th e m iseries of the l ost .

When fi nished th e k ing des ired an explanation of th is terribl e pi cture


,

an d Cyril gave i t w ith su ch po wer that t h e monarch and all wh o ,

l istened w ere converted S o t hey labored among t h e neighboring


,
.

nations w ith s u ccess M ethod i us p ainted and Cyril so explai n ed h i s


.
,

pi ctures as to convin ce large n u mbers of th e truth of th e Christian


f aith S t Cyril also learned their languages m ad e an al ph abet for
. .
,

th em and translated a part of th e G ospels H e obtained too th e


,
.
, ,

1 Th e R Al b a n B u t l e r i n h i s s k e t c h o f S t C yr il s l i fe t ou c h i n g o n t h e
ev .
, .

d e pl or a b l e m ur d e r o f H y p a t i a sa y s : S h e w a s m u c h r e s p e c t e d a n d c o n si d e r e d
,

b y t h e g o ve r n o r a n d o f t e n v i s i t e d h i m
, T h e m o b w h i c h w a s n ow h e r e m or e.
,

u n ru l y or m or e f o n d o f r i o t s a n d t u m u l t s t h a n i n t h a t p o p u l ou s c i t y t h e s e c o n d ,

i n t h e wor l d f o r e x t e n t u p o n a s u s p i c i o n t h a t sh e i n c e n se d t h e go ve r n or a ga i n st
,

t h e i r b i sh o p se d i t i ou sl y ro se p u l l e d h e r ou t o f h e r c h a r i o t c u t a n d m a n gl e d h e r
, , ,

fl e sh a n d t or e h e r b ody i n p i e c e s i n t h e s t r e e t s t o t h e g r e a t gr i e f a n d s c a n d a l o f
, ,

a l l goo d m e n e s p e c i a l ly o f t h e p iou s b i s h o p C yr i l A n d t h e s a m e a u th ori t y



, , .

a d ds I t i s v e ry u n j u s t i n s o m e m o d e r n s t o c h a rg e h i m [Cyri l ] a s c o n sc i o u s o f
s o h orr i b l e a c r i m e w h i c h sh o c k s h u m a n n a t u re
, T h e si l e n c e o f O r e s t e s a n d .

o f t h e h i s t o r i a n So c ra te s bo t h h i s d e c l a r e d e n e m i e s su ffic e s t o a c u i t h i m

, q , .
94 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S

privilege of celebrating m ass in th e S c l a vo n i c to n gu e Th ese sa ints .

a re ge n erally represe n ted together ; S t Cyri l w ith a book and S t . .

M ethodi us w i th a ta b let on w hich i s a pi cture Th e G reeks h onor .

S t Cyril M a rch 9 a n d S t M ethod iu s M ay 1 1 ; th e L atins bot h


.
,
.
,

o n M arch 9 T hey are ho n ored as th e apo s t les of the S c l a vos


.
The ir .

m illenary w as l a tely celebrated w i th great splendor .

D a l e A b b e y the l egend o f Th is l egend i s represented in five


,
.

p ictures I n the fi rst the abbot shoots th e deer w ith a cross b o w


.
-
,

because it had eaten h is w heat I n th e second th e foresters com .

l a i n of h im and th e k ing comm ands h i m to be brought before h i m


p ,
.

I n t he third and fourth h e i s i n the presence of the k ing w h o grants ,

h i m as m u ch land as h e can encircle by a furro w from sun to sun ;


the plough to be drawn by tw o w i ld stags fro m the fore st I n the .

fi fth he plough s w ith th e stags .

S t D a m ia n
. S e e S t Cosmo . . .

S t D a ria
. S e e S t Ch r ys a n t h u s
. . .

D e a d N u n s th e l egend of There w ere two noble lad ies wh o


, .

j oined th e sisterhood of S t S ch olasti ca They w ere fon d of scandal . .

and vain talk S t Bened ict h earing of this reproved th em and sent
. .
, , ,

them word that unless they reformed he would p un ish them F o r .

a w h ile th ey re membered t h e admonition b ut relapsed again and so , ,

d ied They w ere buried in th e ch urch n ear the altar On e day as


. .
,


B enedict cel ebrated mass wh en th e deacon said L e t th ose w ho are
, ,


i n pe n an ce and forbidden to partake d epart a n d leave u s thes e n uns , ,

arose from their graves and w ith sad appearance left the ch urch Th is
,
.

occu rred every time the m ass was celebrated th ere until S t B enedict ,
.
,

pitying them prayed for th eir souls and they rested peacefully
, ,
.

S t D e lph i n e
. S e e S t E leaz ar d e S a b r an
. . .

S t D e n i s o f F r a n c e (L a t S D ionysiu s ; I t a l S a n D ion isio


. . . .

or D ionigi ; F r S t D e n is ) The truth of th e l egend w hich m akes


. . .

S t D en is the same w ith D ionysius the A reopagite w il l not be con


.

fi rmed u pon a cri tical examination of facts ; bu t as th ey are th us


represe n ted i n w orks of art i t m ust be gi ven to make t h e r e pr e ,

scu tations of th em u n derstood D i onysi us w as an A thenian phi .

l o so ph c r H e w as a j u dg e of th e A reopagus and for h is w i sdom in


.
,

h eavenly th ings was called T h e o sO ph u s H e w e n t to E gypt .

to study astrol o gy and wa s at Heliopol is at the ti me of the c r u c i l i xio n


,

o f o ur L ord H e was greatly tro ubled at the darkn e ss w h ich en d ured


.
96 L E GE N D S AN D S T OR I E S

bal C aracc i an d A l bano wh o wa s then h is pup il The se fres c os were ,


.

transferred to can vas There are also p ictures o f S t D iego by


.
.

M urillo th e most importan t being in the L ou vr e


,
.

S t D i gn a
. S e e S t A f ra of .
A ugsb urg w hose .h andmaiden s h e ,

was .

S D ominicus P ater Ord in is P d i t


S t D om i c n.i k (L a t .
r ae c.
a oru m
,

I ta l S . a n D omeni co S a n D omenico Ca l a r o
,g a F r S t D om in ique . .
,

F n o date ur des F r e res P r é c h e u r s S p S a n D om ingo ) T h is saint . .

1
w as a Castil ian of noble descent o f the house of G u zman H is ,
.

mother dreamed before h is birth th at sh e had brough t forth a dog


, ,

w ith a torch in h is m o n t h A t h is baptism a star descended fro m .

heaven to crown h i s brow He stud ied at Valencia a n d be c ame at .


, ,

the instance of the B ishop of O sma a regular canon of S t A ugus ,


.

ti n e a t th e age of t wenty e igh t years When th irty years old h e -


.

w ent to F rance and being shocked at the heresies of the A lbigenses


, ,

h e preached w ith su ch e ff ect as to conver t m a n y He w ent t he .

second t ime to F rance w ith hi s bi shop to condu ct t o Castil e th e


young princess w ho was to espo use Prince F erdinand H e r death .
,

j ust a s he arri ved w as a great shock to h i m and thencefort h h i s zeal


,

and religiou s d e votion were great e ned He obtained perm ission fro m .

th e pope i n 1 207 to pre ach to t h e A lbigenses in th e V audois H e .

w rote out th e arti cles of faith ; and i t is said that w hen th is book
w a s thro w n i n th e fi re it wo uld not remain bu t leaped o ut uninj ured ,
.

A s the h eretical books w ere burned this m iracle had th e e ffect to ,

conv i n ce a n d convert man y A s to th e persecution of th e A lbigenses .


,

it is certain th at he was extremely earnes t i n h is prayers a n d e n d e a v


2
o r s to secure th e trium ph of th e C h urch H e un ited w ith several .

priests w ho w ent abou t to preach barefoot


,
F rom th is arose h i s .

order w h ich w as con firmed i n 1 2 1 6 S t D om in ick by h eavenly


, . .
,

i n spiration ins t ituted th e devotion o f t h e rosary A rosary sh o uld


, .

h a ve fi ftee n large an d on e h und r ed and fi ft y sm a ll be a ds The l arge


, .

represent th e Paternosters and the sm all th e A ve M arias Th is use ,


-
.

of the rosary w as a great assi stan ce to S t D om in ick i n h is l abors . .

1 T he e x
t- E m p re s s E uge n i e
F ra n c e i s a c i o n o f t h e h o u s e o f G u z m a n
o f s .

2
S t D o m i n i c k m a i n t i n d t h a t t o l a bor w i t h s u c c e s s a m o n g th se h e re t i cs
. a e e ,

e rs u a s i o n a n d good e xa m p l s h ou l d b m p l oy e d a n d by n o m e a n s t e rror
p e e e , .

H i m s l f k n w n o o th e r r m s th n t h o s e o f i n s t ru t i o n p a t i e n c
e e a
p e n a n ce
a fas t i n g c ,
e , , ,

w a t c h i n g t e a r s a n d p ra y e r H e was a z e a l o us a d v o c a t e o f p o p u l a r e d uca t i on
, ,
. .
I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . 97

I n 1 2 1 8 S t D omi nick .was commiss i o n ed by th e p ope to reform th e


nunneries at R ome F rom th is origi n ated the Order of the D om in i
.

can N uns for w hom h e m ade a rule w hich they adopted


, He .
, .

fou n ded m any con vents i n the pri n cipal cities of E urope none of ,

w h ich are m ore famou s than the splend id one of h is o r der i n the
R u e S t J acques at Paris
. I t i s from the si t uation of th is conve n t
.

that the D omi nicans w ere called J a c o b i n s in F rance A t le n gth h e .

ret urned to h is con vent at Bologn a w here h e died of a fever brough t , ,

on by h is ard uous labors Two years after h i s death h e w as canon .

i z e d and h is remains placed i n th e magni ficent A r e a d i S a n D o


,

m enico at Bologna I t i s sai d h i s tru e portrai t was brought from


.

h eaven by S t Catherine and S t M ary M agdalen to a convent of D o


. .

m i n i c a n n uns H is attributes are the dog by h is side ; th e star on


.
, ,

or abo ve h is head ; a l ily i n one h an d an d a book in the other There .

are m a n y i n teresti n g legends of his wonderful miracles A t on e time .


,

i t is said b e restored to life th e you n g L ord N apoleon nephe w of


, ,

Cardin al S teph ano d i F ossa N ova w hen h e h ad been k illed by a fall -


,

from h is horse When at the convent of S t S abi n a they h ad not


.
,
.
,

s u fficient food S t D omin ick pronou n ced t h e blessing upon th e l ittle


, .

they had and i m medi ately two angels appeared with bread and w ine
, ,

wh i ch w as celestial food and sweeter th an any of earth S t D om i


,
. .

nick had a vision i n w h ich h e saw th e S avio ur w ith th e arro w s of


,

d i vine wrath in h i s hand Th e Virgi n asked hi m wh at h e woul d do ; .

and w hen h e repl ied th at h e w oul d destroy the earth on account


of its w i ck edness sh e besough t h i m to w ait and prese n ted to h i m S t
, ,
.

F ran cis an d S t D o m i n i ck s a ying th at th ey wo ul d traverse the w hole


.
,

earth a n d su bd u e i t to C hrist A ugust 4 A D 1 22 1 .


,
. . .

S t D o n a t o o f A r e z z o ( L a t S D onat us ; F r S t D o n at )
. Th i s . . . . .

saint was of noble b irth a n d i n ch ildhood a com pa n io n of the E m ,

e r o r J ul ia n J ul i a af t er h is apostasy p ut m any Christians to


p n .
, ,

death an d among them th e fath er of D onatu s D o n atus then fled


,
.

from R o m e to A rezzo an d had for h is co m pan io n the h oly m o n k ,

Hilarion T h ey preached and perfor m ed m an y m ira cles


.
A t on e ,
.

time a tax g atherer of th e provi n ce wen t on a j ourn ey and left the


-
,

mon ey whi ch h e had w ith h is w i fe E u p h r o s i n a S h e d ied s u d d e n ly ,


.
,

a n d told no o n e where sh e h ad h idde n th e t reasure Whe n h e r .

h u sban d retur n ed h e w as i n great d ist r e ss ; a n d fe a r i n g to be p u n


i sh e d as a defaulter h e appealed to D onatus w ho went t o th e tomb , ,
98 L E GE N D S A N D S T OR I E S

and called u pon E u ph r o s i u a to tell h i m wh ere th e m oney wa s S h e .

ans w ered h i m a n d thi s was heard by m any


,
D onatus w as made .

Bishop of A rezzo ; a n d as h e celebrated th e Holy M ass the cu p ,

w h i c h h eld t he w i n e a n d w h ich was o f glass was broken by som e


, ,

i d olaters When D on a tus prayed i t w as made w hole an d n o t a


.
, ,

d rop of w i n e spilled Thi s miracle w as th e cause o f t h e con ve rs ion


.

of so m any th a t th e pagans i n th eir rage tort ured and beheaded , ,

h im . H ilario n was scourged to death and w ith D onatu s i s i n t e rre d ,

bene a th the h igh altar of the cath edral of A rezzo A ugust 7 . .

S t D o r o t h e a o f Ca p p a d o c i a v irgin a n d martyr (I t a l S anta


.
,
.

D or o tea ; F r S t e D oroth e e ) . S h e was a nobl e v irgi n and th e


. .
,

m ost be a utiful of the ci ty of C aesarea S h e was a C hristi an and .