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1A.Space organisation and volume.

The complex includes an art gallery of Indian painting and sculpture, a
fine art workshop, an open-air Amphitheatre (Bahiran), a studio
4theatre (Abhirang), an auditorium (Antarang), a museum tribal and
folk art, libraries of Indian poetry, classical music as well as folk music.

Entrance - There are two entrances to the site. The first is the main
entrance for visitors and administrative staff etc.

Entrance to the courtyard is made just by extending a horizontal band

across two built masses, which gives a sense of entering.

Circulation - No vehicular movement. Parking is outside the side. 100%

pedestrian movement.

Courtyard planning

For the consideration of climate, a series of terrace gardens are designed

which could be seen cascading down the lake.

The visitors enter at highest level and walk down a pedestrian path
flanked by pattern of courtyards to reach various parts of the complex.

1B.light and ventilation

Lighting and ventilation within the building are provided by the top
lights (from the concrete shells and slots along the terrace parapets).
The openings to the courtyard and terraces have two sets of shutters:
inner one consisting of a combination of a fixed glass and operable
panel for light and ventilation: outer one consisting of large wooden
doors for security.

The open to sky pathway is structured around three courtyards from

which one enters the various activities.

The feeling of open space is an essential part of experience of visiting

Bharat Bhavan. Progressing through the terrace gardens and
courtyards, one comes across exhibition spaces, workshops and dance
theatres, in an easy and casual manner, making them accessible to the
citizens of Bhopal.

1C.structural system
The sunken built form is influenced by subterranean architecture seen
in western part of India

Different elements like Skylight follows the same form used in the
Salvacao Church. These low lightening respond to the domes across the
water as well as being rustic descendants of Le Corbusier’s light funnel
at Chandigarh.

The organization is in the form of clusters group.The enclosed areas are

grouped around the sunken courtyards and sits on varied plinths
respecting the site contours and terraces above.
The building is organized on regular formal square modules. The
organization follows the gradual slope of site and the functions are
interlocked by joining the different levels.

The approach to the art centre from the main road on the north-west
side, being on higher level from the site.

Nature of space - The plan generates two different kinds of
spaces: open to sky and enclosed.

The movement leads to the lake through activities where space

penetrates into each other and has a visual transparency from
within and outside.

Movement - No vehicular movement. 100% pedestrian


Upon entering, the visitor has the choice of following the path of
terraces cascading down to the lake, or descending to the three
courtyards which provide access to the majority of the cultural
 These include contemporary art galleries, a museum of tribal art,
an auditorium, a library of Indian poetry, a print shop, and a
studio for an artist-in-residence.
 From the courtyards, wide glass-paneled openings to the buildings
ensure the arts program is both literally and figuratively accessible
to all. At the bottom of the site sits an amphitheater, where open-
air performances take place with the lake forming a natural
 The courtyards providing tranquil spaces for rest and relaxation.
 The dialogue between these two components creates an ebb and
flow of energy around the complex, in what Correa described as a
“Ritualistic Pathway”.
 The ritual of following a sacred pathway is, he claims, “a universal
impulse, found in all cultures and religions.” Correa emphasized
the spirituality of his own pathways by drawing parallels with
those found in religious architecture, including “the sun temples
of Mexico” and the Hindu temples of Bali “with their ritualistic
pathways up the hillside.”

 The flights of stairs between the terraces reference traditional

Indian architecture while implying the sanctity of the pathway.
 The stairs are reminiscent of ghats; steps found in Indian cities
which lead down to a body of holy water, just as Correa’s steps
guide the pedestrian to the lakeside. Indeed, Correa cited the
bathing ghats on the bank of the River Ganges at Varanasi as a
stylistic influence. the steps guide the pedestrian to the lakeside;
the religious connotations emphasizing the sacred nature of this

 Rather than importing the “sealed boxes” of European

architecture, necessitated by the colder Western climate, instead
Correa created “open-to-sky spaces.”

2.Contextual study
2A.Geograpjical setting & natural features

The site is on a gently sloping hill overlooking the lake in Bhopal.

The natural contours of the site have been used to create a series of
terrace gardens and sunken courtyards.

Away from the activity within the buildings, the courtyards provide a
contemplative void, enhanced by the placing of sculptures in their
centre. These act a meditative focal point for the viewer, much like the
solitary tree often found in the centre of Japanese courtyards.

Shape of site: almost square.

Topography: contour site.
Soil condition: fertile soil and having good bearing capacity of soil
2C.Background and History
The early 1980s, government focus on developing arts across the
nation, through regional center’s for arts in state capital cities.

The initiative in Madhya Pradesh was taken by cultural administrator,

Ashok vajpeyi, an IAS-officer in state Ministry of Education.

Bharat bhavan was established and funded by the Department of

Culture, Government of Madhya Pradesh, through it is run by an
autonomous a 12-member Bharat Bhavan Trust.

The complex is most known for its art museum, Roopankar, which
houses a permanent collection of tribal art, collected by J.
Swaminathan in its early years, and represents the best examples of
tribal art in India.

3.Factual Data
Location - J. Swaminathan Marg, Shamla Hills, Near Upper Lake,
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462013
Architect – Charles correa
Year of complition – 1982.

Architectural program with area
1.ROOPANKAR ( Museum)
Roopankar is the only museum of arts in India which houses both
contemporary, urban, folk and tribal arts.
It has fully equipped workshops for printmaking.
Efficient and well planned. This space is characterised by continuous
modulations in the ceiling and floor levels. The circulation system is
such that the viewer is directed to each display in a continuous flow of

Walls - white
Ceiling - Exposed concrete
Floor – Polished Kota stone

Rangamandal has at its disposal an indoor theatre called
“Antarang” & an outdoor theatre called "Bahirang". It owns an
impressive theatre library& data collection.

Light & Ventilation:

Both natural & artificial light has been made use of. Natural light filters
through the shell skylight (canon).

Stage, Rehearsal room ,Backstage, Green rooms
Seating has been provided on three sides of the stage. There
are no aisles – seating & circulation is on the same treads.

Lighting & Acoustics:

The lighting of the stage is controlled from the control
The spotlights are fixed on rods on the low side of the coffers of the
ceiling. The max. distance between the last seat & the stage is
18m.Hence the sound is clear. The coffers above are covered so as to
reduce echoes.

Location: It is located towards the lakeside so that the lake forms
a backdrop for the performances. There are no aisles for circulation.

Vagarth: It aims to protect and preserve the ancient & contemporary

poetry in the Indian languages, either in spoken, or in printed form.

Anhad: Documents folk and contemporary music and organizes concerts.

Karyalaya: It is the administrative

block here.

Site area = 4 Acres

Fountain court = 400 sqm
Antarang court = 400 sqm
Tribal art court = 400 sqm
Administration = 64 sqm
Modern art gallery = 500 sqm + 275 sqm store
Library = 550 sqm
Tribal art gallery = 500 sqm + 274 sqm store
Restaurant = 150 sqm
Workshop = 600 sqm
Ticket counter = 36 sqm
Rehersal room = 350 sqm
Ashram = 200 sqm
Bhairang = 260 sqm
Toilets = 120 sqm

Positive Features
View of the lake
Informal nature of design
Location of outdoor auditorium on the bank of lake
Tribal paintings on the skylights make us essential with the
building stronger.
Negative features
Lack of natural daylight and sufficient ventilation within the
building mass.
High proportion of hard landscaped area.
Further more landscape does not provide any shade.
Split level planning accounts for some confusion for the very first