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6 WEEKS VOCATIONAL TRAINING AT DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION LIMITED (DMRC), DELHI

B.Tech. Project Report

BY

SWATI SACHDEVA

14190

(DMRC), DELHI B.Tech. Project Report BY SWATI SACHDEVA 14190 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HAMIRPUR-177005, HP (INDIA)

DECEMBER, 2017

CERTIFICATE I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the B.Tech. Minor

CERTIFICATE

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the B.Tech.

Minor Project Report for six weeks of vocational training at Delhi Metro

Rail Corporation (DMRC) Limited in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the award of the Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering and

submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering of National Institute of

Technology, Hamirpur (HP) is an authentic record of my own work carried

out during the period from May 17, 2017 to June 28, 2017.

Signature of Candidate

SWATI SACHDEVA Roll No. 14190

This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is

correct to the best of my knowledge.

Date:

Signature of Supervisor(s)

Mr. S.N. Jha Chief Project Manager

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1. GENERAL SAFETY RULES:

The majority of accidents in industries are due to more human failures than to lack of machine guards etc. As a result of an investigation in a mill of employing 8000 worker, it has been found that the unavailable circumstances-mishaps or accidents in true sense- accounted for about 20% of the accidents and the human factors- carelessness lack of safety consciousness, ignorance etc are responsible for the remaining 80%.

In industry it is said that the best safety device is a safe worker meaning thereby a safety conscious person who is safety conscious all the time during the working hours.

A very popular slogan in industry is “Accidents do not happen, they are caused:” The most important cause generally is own’s lack of safety consciousness.

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited also provided a Safety Induction to the trainees on the very first day. Trainees are advised to take precautions against any possible accidents/ mishaps in the construction sites of DMRC. Some of the precautions to be observed are as follows:

1. Avoid Loose Garments: Never go to construction sites with loose garments which may get accidently caught in fast rotating machines like mixtures and may cause serious accidents. Girl trainees’ especially should not wear loose dress garments. 2. Head and Foot Protection: Hamlet and safety shoes are to be worn by trainees all the time during their visit to construction sites.

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3. Eye Protection: Goggles for shield should be used by all trainees while observing operations like welding, riveting and heavy hammering etc.

4. Falling Objects: At construction site when people are working at height, tools, nut, bolds or any other objects may fall accidently. Trainees are advised to keep a safe distance i.e. a minimum of 3 m while observing such operations

1.2 GUIDELINES GIVEN BY DMRC FOR PERSON TO USE:

minimum of 3 m while observing such operations 1.2 GUIDELINES GIVEN BY DMRC FOR PERSON TO

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2 ABOUT DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION (DMRC) LIMITED

2 ABOUT DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION (DMRC) LIMITED Delhi Metro is Rapid Transit System serving Delhi,

Delhi Metro is Rapid Transit System serving Delhi, Gurugram, Noida, Ghaziabad and Faridabad in National Capital Region of India. It is one of the largest metro networks in the world. The network consists of six lines with a total length of 218 km. with 164 stations. Now the shopping malls have been sprung up of the clean and well equipped stations.

The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC) was registered on 3rd May 1995 under the Companies Act, 1956 with equal equity participation of the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and the Central Government to implement the dream of construction and operation of a world- class Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS).

The DMRC opened its first corridor between Shahdara and Tis Hazari on 25th December, 2002. Subsequently, the first phase of construction worth 65 km of Metro lines was finished two years and nine months ahead of schedule in 2005. Since then the DMRC has also completed the construction of another 125 km of Metro corridors under the second phase in only four and a half years.

The DMRC today has 235 train sets of four, six and eight coaches. More than a hundred trains of six coach configuration and over 60 trains of eight coach configuration are currently operational. The current project is Phase III whose network is shown below:

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3 ABOUT THE PROJECT: 14190 | DMRC REPORT 6

3 ABOUT THE PROJECT:

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Client :

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) Limited

Contractor:

Hindustan Construction Company

Project Cost

Rs 372.97 Crores

Date of Start:

29 th October 2012

Description: Contract CC 30 from Ch 3440.493 meters to Ch 5641.45 meters from design and construction for twin tunnel from Shalimar Bagh to Netaji Subhash Place, station by Shield Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM), twin box tunnel and underground Ramp for Shakarpur side of Netaji Subhash Station and two stations, namely, Shalimar Bagh (underground) and Netaji Subhash Place (Semi underground) including architural finishing on these two stations on Mukundpur Yamuna Vihar Corridor (Line 7) of Phase Three of Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System (DMRTS).

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4 WHAT WILL PHASE III CHANGE?

4 WHAT WILL PHASE III CHANGE ? The entire network was planned to be built in

The entire network was planned to be built in phases spread over approximately 20 years. Phase I (65 km) and Phase II (125 km) were completed in 2006 and 2011, respectively, and Phase III and Phase IV are scheduled for completion in 2017 and 2022, respectively.

Work on Phase III started in 2012 while planning for Phase IV has begun. Phase III will have 28 underground stations covering 41 km. After completion of Phase III the passenger traffic is expected to go up to 4 million. Till Phase II, Delhi Metro focused on expanding the reach of the metro and thus built long radial lines. However, in Phase III, Delhi Metro is aiming to interconnect existing lines by ring lines to improve connectivity. This will not only help in reducing distances but will also relieve radial lines of some congestion. The total length of the underground corridors in Delhi Metro’s proposed Phase III will be almost equivalent to the total

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underground sections built so far by DMRC in both Phase I and Phase II, making it one of the most challenging construction phases. The 59-km long Majlis Park-Shiv Vihar corridor of Phase III consists of about 14kms of underground lines. Presently, five other TBMs are working in different parts of the corridor across the city. In total, 19 TBMs are operational for the tunneling works of Phase III. In addition to this, DMRC is slated to construct 53 km of underground Metro lines as part of its Phase III construction work for which about 34 TBMs are used. A total of 74 tunnels will be constructed in this phase.

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CONTRACTOR’S PROFILE : Hindustan Construction Co. Ltd ( http://www.hccindia.com/ ) Hindustan Construction

CONTRACTOR’S PROFILE:

Hindustan Construction Co. Ltd (http://www.hccindia.com/)

Hindustan Construction Company Ltd. has been building large and complex structure for the last 76 years. It delivers world class engineering and construction services. HCC focus on constructing landmark projects of high complexity, where it applies its core competencies’ and skills to deliver world class services. It has constructed 25% of India’s hydel-power and 65% of India’s nuclear power generation capacities, over 3800 lane km of Express Lane Highway and more than 320 km of complex tunneling, and over 365 bridges.

5.1 CONTRIBUTION IN DELHI METRO:

HCC is involved in five packages of underground section of Delhi Metro. The first package MC1A was awarded to construct the 4.142 km long tunnel from Vishwadhyala Metro Station to ISBT Metro Station on Yellow Line. The project was completed in December 2004. The next two projects were part of Express Airport Line which includes C1:a2.2 long km twin bored tunnel and 1.3 km cut and cover tunnel from New Delhi Metro Station to Rajiv Chowk Metro Station and C6: a 2.6 km long NATM tunnel from Talkotra area to Budh Jayanti Park. The tunneling depth below Rajiv Chowk Metro Station is 44 m, which is the deepest ever for the Delhi

C1 was completed in 2010 and C6 was completed in

metropolitan region

2011.

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Now the current project, which HCC is handling is CC30. The CC 30 package of 2.2 km twin tunnel between Shalimar Bagh and Subhash Place station (Pink Line) on Mukundpur Yamuna Vihar Corridor was awarded in October 2012. The most recent project awarded to HCC is CC34, involving design and construction of 4.4 km long tunnel on Janakpuri West Kalinidkunj corridor (Brown Line) under Phase-III of Metro Development.

6 CC30 Package:

CC30 Package of DMRC is a part of 59 km long corridor of Pink Line of Phase-III. Scope of work includes design and construction of twin tunnel from Shalimar Bagh to Netaji Subhash Place, station by Shield Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM), twin box tunnel and underground Ramp for Shakarpur side of Netaji Subhash Station and two stations, namely, Shalimar Bagh (underground) and Netaji Subhash Place (Semi underground) including architural finishing on these two stations on Mukundpur Yamuna Vihar Corridor (Line 7) of Phase Three of Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System (DMRTS).

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7 GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION:

HCC immediately undertook the detailed geotechnical investigations of the project along the alignment of the project. The soil was tested by drilling borehole at 9 locations and the samples extracted, were tested in the laboratory. The detailed investigation revealed that the soil along the project alignment was sandy silt and silty fine sand primarily. It was medium dense to highly dense at 30 m depth. The ground water table was encountered at 11 meter of depth.

The geology along the tunnel was of mixed type. Based on this geotechnical study done by DMRC during the tender stage, Earth Pressure Balance Tunnel Boring Machine was finalized for the tunneling. Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) TBMs are used in the excavation of soft ground and soil condition.

8 EPB METHOD:

excavation of soft ground and soil condition. 8 EPB METHOD: This method consist of cutting chamber
excavation of soft ground and soil condition. 8 EPB METHOD: This method consist of cutting chamber

This method consist of cutting chamber located the cutter head and this is used to mix the soil with the water foam. The ground at the cutting face is supported by earth pressure by balancing the advancement of tunnel.

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The rotating cutting wheel equipped with tools is pressed on to the tunnel face and excavate the material. The soil enters the excavate chamber through opening, where it mixes with the soil paste already present there. Mixing arms on the cutting wheels and bulkhead mix the paste until it has the required texture. The bulkhead transfers the pressure of the thrust cylinders to the pliable soil paste. When the pressure of the soil paste equals the pressure of the surrounding soil, the necessary balance has been achieved.

The underlying principle of the EPB method is that the excavated soil itself is used to provide continuous support to the tunnel face by balancing earth pressure against the forward pressure of the machine. The thrust force generated from the rear section of TBM is transferred to the earth in the cutter head chamber so as to prevent uncontrolled intrusion of excavated materials into the chamber. When the shield advances at the face of excavation, the excavated soil is then mixed together with a special foam material which changes its viscosity or thickness and transforms it into a flowing material. This muck is then stored and is used to provide support and to balance the pressure at the tunnel face during the excavation process.

8.1

FUNCTIONALITY:

1. Excavation: Cutting knives and disc cutters removes the soil.

2. Tunnel Face Support: Pliable, plastic soil produces active support pressure in excavation chamber.

3. Removal: Screw conveyor transports the excavated material to the logistic system at the back.

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4. Thrust: Hydraulic thrust cylinder in the shield push the machine forward.

5. Tunnel Lining: Segmental lining and pipe jacking.

8.2

ADVANTAGES:

1. Very high and consistent advance rate possible in cohesive soil with high clay or silt content.

2. Geological range of application can be enhanced by soil conditioning.

3. No additional support medium required.

4. A range of special solution available for heterogeneous soil condition.

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9

GROUTING:

Grout is a construction material used to embed rebar in masonry walls, connecting sections of pre-cast concrete, filling voids and sealing joints etc. Grout is generally composed of mixture of water, cement, sand and often a colour tint and sometime fine gravel. It is applied as thick paste and hardens overtime much like a close relative mortar.

Main varieties include tiling grout, flooring agent, re-size grout, non-shrink grout, structural grout and thixotropic grout. Structural grout is used in re- enforcement to fill the void. Non-shrink grout is used beneath metal bearing plates to ensure a consistent bearing surface between the plate and subgrade. The main purpose of grouting is to decrease the shrinkage of cement. The grout material helps in increasing workability. It gives expansion to increase tightness of the crack. It is self-compactable and nearby it gains strength of M12 grade of concrete in one day.

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10 CONCRETING:

Concreting of the segment is done after the form work. During form work, glue is applied on the wall surface by which we can easily remove the walket from the concrete.

10.1 BASIC INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE

a) Cement it is the basic binding material in concrete.

b) Water it hydrates cement and also make concrete workable.

c) Course Aggregate it is the basic building component of concrete.

d) Fine Aggregate Along with cement paste, it forms mortar grout and fills the voids in the course aggregate.

e) Admixtures they enhance the certain properties of concrete, i.e., strength, workability, setting properties, etc.

10.2 GRADE OF CONCRETE

There are different grades of concrete such as M15, M25, M35, M40, M50, M60 etc. Suppose that the grade of concrete is given M50, it means that the compressive strength of concrete is 50 kN/ m 2 and M denotes mix.

Depending on the requirement, condition of site, location of site and other factors, different grade of concrete may be used. In this Project, M30 grade of concrete is used for R.C.C Box, slabs, beams and M60 grade of concrete is used for columns.

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The common method of the proportion of ingredients of concrete mixed is in the terms of ratio of cement to fine aggregate to course aggregate. For example, a concrete mix of proportion is 1:2:4 means that cement fine aggregate and course aggregate is in the ratio of 1/2/4. The proportion is either by volume or by mass.

The water cement ratio is measured by mass, which is usually between 0.35 to 0.6. Higher water cement ratio, lesser will be the strength.

10.3

Curing is a very important activity in the concrete work as it provides strength to the concrete. It is done after 28 days. Proper curing must be ensured in order to achieve the required strength.

Curing

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11 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT METRO STATIONS:

During the start of training, a brief introduction was given about general layout of any metro station. The information is as follows:

Metro Stations are either i) Elevated ii) Underground

Since the station is UNDERGROUND, therefore it was important to know the methods the subway construction

12.1 SUBWAY CONSTRUCTION METHODS:

Method 1: Cut and Cover:

12.1 SUBWAY CONSTRUCTION METHODS: Method 1: Cut and Cover: In a cut-and-cover excavation, crews dig a

In a cut-and-cover excavation, crews dig a trench and cover it with a temporary or permanent road surface. In order to make a stable covering over

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the excavation site, workers drove piles on either side of the trench. Then, they placed trusses and beams across the trench, using the piles for support. A temporary or permanent roadway could rest on this surface. The beams and trusses could also hold hanging supports for the pipes and conduits unearthed during the tunneling process. With this method, crews could usually create a tunnel that was deep enough for a train to travel through but shallow enough to avoid hitting nearly impenetrable bedrock.

shallow enough to avoid hitting nearly impenetrable bedrock. Method 2: Deep Bore (Shield TBM) There are

Method 2: Deep Bore (Shield TBM)

There are two major shield methods around: earth pressure balanced (EPB) and slurry type shield machine. Selection of shield method depends on ground conditions, surface conditions, dimensions of the tunnel section, boring distance, tunnel alignment and construction period. Both are closed- face type shield machines, meaning the "head" part of machine is "closed" and separated from the rear part of machine. The "head" has a working chamber filled with soil or slurry between the cutting face and bulkhead to stabilize the cutting face under soil pressure.

The Shalimar Bagh Metro Station (Underground) has been built using EPB method which has been explained earlier.

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12.2 BOTTOM UP AND TOP DOWN METHODS:

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A. Bottom Up Method:

In this method, the soil between the walls is excavated to the lowest depth required first which means the base slab is casted first and the construction moves up. The roof slab is casted in the last.

B. Top Down Method:

In this method the roof slab is casted first and then trench cutter digs down to the lowest depth. Excavation of tunnel is carried out through opening in the tunnel roof top down to the base slab of tunnel, i.e., base slab is casted in the last.

Shalimar Bagh Metro Station (Underground) is constructed on conventional Bottom Up Method.

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12.3 TYPES OF PLATFORMS:

There are two types of platforms, one is island platform and the other is two sided platform. In island platform, the platform slab is in the middle and the tracks are laid on both sides. In two sided platform, the tracks are in the middle and the platforms are on the both sides.

are in the middle and the platforms are on the both sides. ISLAND PLATFORM TWO SIDED

ISLAND PLATFORM

and the platforms are on the both sides. ISLAND PLATFORM TWO SIDED PLATFORM Shalimar Bagh Metro

TWO SIDED PLATFORM

Shalimar Bagh Metro Station (Underground) has Island Platform.

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13 SHALIMAR BAGH METRO STATION:

13 SHALIMAR BAGH METRO STATION: The Shalimar Bagh Metro Station is situated on the outer Ring

The Shalimar Bagh Metro Station is situated on the outer Ring Road of Wazirpur Industrial Area. The length of the Station is 227 m, the depth of the Station is 22 m and the width of the Station is 27 m. The Station has two entries and exists which includes two staircases, one each side and lift one side only. The Station is divided on three levels which are base level, concourse level and roof level. Concrete blocks are used in construction.

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To connect the Shalimar Bagh Metro Station to the other side of the ring road, a subway has also been built using a very rare and innovative technique of Box Pushing.

Platform slab thickness is 300 mm.

Concourse slab thickness is 600 mm.

Roof slab thickness is 1 m.

Base slab is done over on PCC and the thickness of Base Slab is 1200

mm.

The thickness of the PCC is 75 mm.

The columns and walls are made of RCC.

DMRC does not necessarily has to follow Building Bye Laws as it has its own specifications.

The Station is divided into 23 grids for better understanding of general

drawings.

90% of the construction work of Shalimar Bagh Metro Station is completed at this stage, and the remaining 10% work which includes final finishing and trials and to ensure all the safety measures before opening the Station for the public, is tentatively scheduled to be completed by the end of the this year.

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13.1 LAYOUT OF SHALIMAR BAGH METRO STATION:

As explained earlier that this Station is built on the Bottom Up Method, it has been digged upto 22 m of depth first. As there is industrial township on one side and on the other side, there is a ring road with moving / heavy traffic all the times, besides the lack of space, a slope was must for excavation.

/ heavy traffic all the times, besides the lack of space, a slope was must for

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14 TEMPORARY STRUCTURE AND EXCAVATION SUPPORT

14 TEMPORARY STRUCTURE AND EXCAVATION SUPPORT 14.1 Excavation Support Methods Excavation support systems are used to

14.1 Excavation Support Methods

Excavation support systems are used to minimize the excavation area, to keep the sides of deep excavations stable, and to ensure that movements will not cause damage to neighboring structures or to utilities in the surrounding ground. Soldier beam and lagging Soldier piles are set in predrilled holes around the periphery of an excavation. Predrilling as opposed to driving is used to provide close control of alignment and location. These piles are then grouted in place with weak concrete. Lagging is the timber placed horizontally between the soldier piles to retain the soil behind the excavated area. Pairs of soldier beams are driven to a depth slightly below the final excavation. Their spacing is in the order of 6 to 10 feet so that available timber can be used for lagging. The lagging timber, which is slightly shorter than the spacing but on the order of 2 to 4 inches thick, are installed behind

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the front flange to retain the soil as excavation proceeds. Some hand excavation is usually required to get the lagging into the place.

is usually required to get the lagging into the place. Soldier piles are installed with conventional

Soldier piles are installed with conventional pile-driving equipment or in

augured holes. The horizontal sheeting or lagging is installed behind the flange closest to the excavation (inside flange). The sheeting can be installed on the inside face of the front flange and held in place by various methods

For cohesion less soils, sheeting

such as clips, welded studs, or bars, etc must be used.

After the excavation, shotcrete is done to prevent any collapse.

14.2 SHOTCRETE:

The concrete in which mortar or concrete is pneumatically projected at high velocity on the backup surface is known as shotcrete. It is also known as spray concrete as the force of jet impacting on the surface compacts it so as to make itself supporting.

This type of concrete has no special properties as compared to normal concrete placed under similar conditions.

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14.2.1 THE METHOD OF SHOTCRETE:

14.2.1 THE METHOD OF SHOTCRETE: A MS Jali is provided as shown above in the picture,

A MS Jali is provided as shown above in the picture, while Shotcreteing. 6

mm aggregate is used in Shotcrete machine.

There are two basic methods for applying shotcrete, viz. dry-mix process and the wet-mix process. `Gunite’ is frequently used when referring to the dry-

mix method, but the terms such as air-placed concrete, gunned concrete and

sprayed concrete have also the similarity to describe the process.

14.2.1.1. DRY-MIX PROCESS SHOTCRETE

In this process, cement and moist aggregate are mixed and then placed into a

device that meters the mixed material into a stream of compressed air. Material is carried by the compressed air through a delivery hose to the

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nozzle where water is added under pressure through a perforated ring. The water thoroughly wets the other ingredients as the mixture is jetted from the nozzle at high velocity onto the surface to be shotcreted.

Bonding ability of dry-process shotcrete is excellent because of the low water-cement ratio and high impact velocity. One of the more attractive features of the wet-mix systems is that the water-cement ratio can be controlled more precisely.

14.2.1.2 WET-MIX PROCESS SHOTCRETE

In the wet-mix process, all ingredients are first mixed to produce mortar or concrete to place it into delivery equipment. The material is forced through a delivery hose to the nozzle where compressed air is injected to increase velocity.

14.2.2 ADVANTAGES OF SHOTCRETE:

Shotcrete concrete layers are very strong.

These types of concrete do not need construction or expansion joints.

It can be evenly applied on uneven surfaces and can be applied from a distance.

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15 CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE OF SHALIMAR BAGH METRO STATION:

The Shalimar Station location was the first area handed over to HCC for

work. It is a complete underground station and goes up to 30 m deep. After

barricading the area, underground utilities shifting was the first task

undertaken before commencing the excavation work. First the 1500 mm

diameter PSC pipe line and MTNL Lines followed by electrical lines of 11

KV & 33 KV, were shifted with the permission from TATA Power Delhi

Distribution Ltd

The second construction area, which was handed over to HCC was the shaft

location next to the Netaji Subhash Place station on the southern part of the

CC30 package. The shaft is of 20m in length, 17m in width and is 12m deep.

Soldier piles are drawn at the periphery of the shaft to stabilize the ground.

Between the shaft and Subhash Place station area is a 75m long tunnel done

by the Cut and Cover method.

The Subhash Place station was the next area handed over to HCC to begin

work. This station is semi- underground as only 12m of this station is below

the ground level and the balance is above. The station was built with the

bottom-up approach where soldier piles are built first to stabilize the ground,

then the excavation starts followed by the intermediate Operations of Earth

Pressure Balance Tunnel Boring Machine construction sequence.

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16 BOX PUSHING :

Box pushing is rarely used in our country. The advent of Box pushing technique has revolutionized the construction world and proven to be an

ideal and the best as it is non intrusive, best suited for construction of underpasses and subways in urban areas in a manner that minimizes

disruption to road traffic, constraints of space and

two methods of subway construction, i.e., Box pushing method and Cut & cover method In the process of constructing Shalimar Bagh Metro Station, a unique technique of Box Pushing has been adopted to over-come the problem of

There are mainly

connecting the road on the other side to the Metro Station by making a subway.

16.1 CASTING OF RCC BOX:

As per this technology, five Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) boxes are being pushed with the help of hydraulic jacks to create the 40 metre long subway tunnel. The boxes are being designed and constructed at the site itself. It takes about 21 days to cast one such box. A thrust bed is being created to generate enough force to push the boxes with the synchronized movement of the jacks.

This method is much faster than the conventional cut and cover technology used generally for the construction of subways. In the case of this particular subway, had DMRC opted for the conventional cut and cover technology, then it would have had to excavate the road above causing great inconvenience to the movement of traffic.

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16.2 PUSHING OPERATION OF THE BOX

The purpose of pushing of Box is to form a horizontal opening below ground or through embankments, can say a tunnel, by providing precast box units underground or an embankment, without disturbing the overhead amenities, like traffic & structures.

the overhead amenities, like traffic & structures. Pushing Box with help of Jacks (piston) To reduce
the overhead amenities, like traffic & structures. Pushing Box with help of Jacks (piston) To reduce

Pushing Box with help of Jacks (piston) To reduce the frictional resistance, a thin film of Grease and thick gauge plastic sheet is provided between the top of the thrustbed & Bottom of the Box. This is done before casting of the Bottom slab of the box. A Glossy Epoxy layer is also provided to reduce friction on the top and prevent the disturbance of the mass over box to least during progress of pushing Where mass of embankment is less or the soil is of poor quality, drag sheet system is also considered for least resistance of friction and disturbance of mass above box.

Auxiliary beds are also provided for casting of the other segments with thin film of grease and plastic and segments are then brought in alignment of pushing as and when required as pushing progresses.

With the progress of jacking, the front unit with shield penetrates into

the embankment

excavation within the shield is done

and there after

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either manually or mechanically and the excavated stuff is transported outside the working area.

After the first segment advances to the end of the thrustbed, the second segment is brought in alignment of the front Box & intermediate jacking space is lift between the two. The progress of pushing is kept continuous and the system of side shifting of remaining box segments from Auxiliary bed and bring in pushing alignment is adopted till total length is pushed.

16.3 ADVANTAGES OF BOX PUSHING

No disruption to rail traffic.

Better quality control.

Economical

Time of completion is less.

Saving in man power & Machinery.

No involvement of crane & heavy equipment.

Less involvement of other Departments

As usual, there are always two sides of any coin. As mentioned above, there are certain advantages but on the other hand, there are disadvantages also of Box pushing which are as under:

Needs trained staff and skilled supervision.

Imposition of caution order exists for a longer period.

Once the vertical & lateral alignment of box disturbed it becomes almost impossible to rectify it.

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17. CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED:

While tunneling in an urban environment, utmost care is taken so that the underground construction activities do not disturb the buildings on the ground. Along the alignment of the CC30 tunnel, there are various new and old buildings. A detailed study was undertaken to find out the status of various structures, their building foundations and adequate steps were taken including stabilisation of ground and continuous monitoring during the TBM drive so that these structures were not disturbed.

Instruments like 3D tilt meters, Ground Settlement Markers (GSM),

inclinometer

few mm. These were monitored continuously during the construction phase.

were set-up to measure the slightest variations as minute as

etc

17.1 CHALLENGES WHILE TUNNELING:

The first major challenge encountered after commencing the TBM operations was crossing the via-duct. Around 138 meters from the TBM entry point the tunnel was crossing between the piers of the via-duct of an existing metro line.

The depth of tunnel below the ground level under the viaduct was only 10 meters. While planning the project, DMRC had taken care to draw the tunnel alignment between the two pillars. The challenge was tunneling between these pillars without disturbing the pillars in any way. Since the soil condition was clayey with significant water presence, the ground between the pillars was strengthened by TAM Grouting. TAM grouting is done by

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drilling boreholes in the soil and injecting cement slurry under pressure so that all cracks or fissures gets filled with the slurry.

so that all cracks or fissures gets filled with the slurry. Tunneling below two pillars of

Tunneling below two pillars of the viaduct

This process consolidates the ground so that there is no lateral deflection on the piles during tunneling. Around 90 boreholes were drilled between these two pillars to make the muddy ground hard for tunneling. After consolidation of the ground a sample piece was tested for the required strength and then tunneling process began under the viaduct.

While tunneling the vibrations caused by the TBM drive were measured. The vibrations during tunnel driving was less than the one caused by the movement of the train on the viaduct.

The next challenge was tunneling under an existing canal. The tunnel was passing under the canal at a depth of 14 m. Though the canal had very less amount of water in that season, the lining of the canal was weathered. Due to

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seepage of water, the ground under the canal was muddy. A similar exercise was carried out while tunneling under the canal by putting various instrumentation and regular monitoring of the soil conditions during tunneling. Thus the TBM could successfully be used without disturbing the canal.

17.2 CHALLENGES WHILE BOX PUSHING:

Box pushing work means at least partly working in blind, so problems usually come up during execution of work. Box pushing work requires close supervision and monitoring and quite often the unsafe conditions develop at these sites. Track must be watched regularly to see signs of heaving, settlement, misalignment etc

Tilting of box, Shifting of longitudinal alignment, Failure of pin pocket, Leaking of joints, Occurrence of boulder layer, Occurrence of hard rock, Occurrence of collapsible strata, Unexpected floods during box pushing and Disturbance in track geometry are the general problems which may occur while exercising the Box pushing technique.

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18. CONCLUSION

Delhi Metro is world class metro. DMRC follows a world class standards in regard to safety, reliability, punctuality and comfort and customers satisfaction.

The Pink Line will be opened in December 2017 . The line is a part of Delhi Metro Phase III network. It consists of 38 metro stations from Majlis Park to Shiv Vihar, both in North Delhi. On completion, the Pink Line with a length of 58.59 kilometres (36.41 mi) will be the longest line in Delhi Metro, breaking the record set by the operational Blue Line. It will be mostly elevated and will be covering Delhi in an almost 'U' shaped pattern. The Pink Line is also known as the Ring Road Line, as the entire line passes alongside the busy Ring Road in Delhi, that witnesses massive traffic jams every day.

The Pink line has planned interchanges with all operational lines of the network such as the Yellow, Red, Green, Blue, Orange Line and Violet lines, as well as with the Hazrat Nizamuddin and Anand Vihar Terminal (Indian Railways) and the ISBT's at Anand Vihar and Sarai Kale Khan. The Pink Line will have highest point of Delhi Metro at Dhaula Kuan with a height of 23.6 metres, passing over the Dhaula Kuan grade separator flyovers and the Airport Express Line.

All the work is carried out as per proper Drawings approved by HCC and DMRC officials. Good Coordination among all the people working at site as awell as regional office. This helps the company to achieve its target within the desired period.

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The workers on the site are skilled and well aware of the techniques used, the labour is well guided by the supervisors and engineers on the site. This helps to improve the efficiency and quality of the work.

The workers are taught about the safety rules. Cleanliness is maintained in work area to ensure the health safety and better working conditions.

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19. REFERENCES:

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