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A Clima tropical lluvioso. Todos los meses la temperatura media es superior a 18ºC.

No existe estación invernal y las lluvias son abundantes.


B Climas secos. La evaporación es superior a la precipitación. No hay excedente
hídrico.
C Climas templados y húmedos. El mes más frío tiene una temperatura media
comprendida entre 18ºC y -3ºC, y la media del mes más cálido supera los 10ºC
D Climas templados de invierno frío. La temperatura media del mes más frío es
inferior a -3ºC y la del mes más cálido está por encima de 10ºC
E Climas polares. No tienen estación cálida y el promedio mensual de las
temperaturas es siempre inferior a 10ºC. Cuando el mes más cálido oscila entre 0
y 10ºC de temperatura media, Köppen diferencia el grupo ET (Clima de tundra)
y en el caso de que ningún mes supere los 0ºC de temperatura media el grupo EF
(Clima de hielo permanente)
f Lluvioso todo el año, ausencia de periodo seco
s Estación seca en verano O LLUVIAS EN INVIERNO
w Estación seca en invierno O LLUVIAS EN VERANO
m Precipitación de tipo monzónico
a Temperatura media del mes más cálido superior a 22ºC
b Temperatura media del mes más cálido inferior a 22º, pero con temperaturas
medias de al menos cuatro meses superiores a 10ºC
c Menos de cuatro meses con temperatura media superior a 10ºC
d El mes más frío está por debajo de -38ºC
h Temperatura media anual superior a 18ºC
k Temperatura media anual inferior a 18ºC
FIRST LETTER
Code Type Description
 Monthly average temperature > 18°C
 No winter season
A Tropical climate
 Strong annual precipitations (higher than evaporation)

 Annual evaporation higher than precipitations


Dry climate /
B  No permanent rivers
Desert

 The 3 coldest months average a temperature between -3°C and 18°C


Hot moderate  Hottest month average temperature > 10°C
C
climate  The summer and winter seasons are well defined

 Coldest month average temperature of the coldest month < -3°C


Cold moderate  Hottest month average temperature > 10°C
D
climate  The seasons summer and winter seasons are well defined

 Average temperature of the hottest month <10°C


E Polar climate  The summer season is very little different from the rest of the year
2nd letter
Code Description Applies to
 Steppe climate (semi-arid)
S  Annual precipitations range between 380 and 760 mm B

 Dry (Arid and semi-arid) climates


W  Annual precipitations < 250 mm B

 Wet climate
 Precipitations occur every month of the year
f  No dry season
A-C-D

 Dry season in winter


w A-C-D

 Dry season in summer


s C

 Monsoon climate:
 Annual precipitations > 1500 mm
m  Precipitations of the driest month < 60 mm
A

 Average temperature of the hottest month between 0 and 10°C


T E

 Average temperature of the hottest month < 0°C


F E

3rd letter
A third letter allows us to refine the B,C and D climate types.
It is related to the temperature variations.
Code Description Applies to
 Average temperature of the hottest month > 22°C
a: hot summer C-D

 Average temperature of the hottest month < 22°C


b: moderate
 The 4 hottest months average temperatures > 10°C C-D
summer

 Average temperature of the hottest month < 22°C


 Monthly average temperatures > 10°C for less than 4
c: short and cold
months C-D
summer
 Average temperature of the coldest month > -38°C

 Average temperature of the coldest month < -38°C


d: very cold winter D

 Annual average temperature > 18°C


h: dry and heat B

 Annual average temperature < 18°C


k: dry and cold B
Variables and subscripts

1 The threshold is defined as follows: if Pw ≥ ⅔ Pann then Pth = (2 Tann), else if Ps ≥ ⅔ Pann then
Pth = 2 Tann + 28 °C, else Pth = 2 Tann + 14 °C.

2 For example, 4 Tmon < +10 °C means "at least 4 months with mean temperature below 10 °C."

3 The summer months are April through September (AMJJAS) on the Northern Hemisphere and
the winter months are October through March (ONDJFM), and vice versa for the Southern
Hemisphere.

Variable Description

T Air temperature

P Precipitation

Subscript
min Minimum monthly value for the whole year
min Minimum monthly value for the whole year
max Maximum monthly value for the whole year
ann Annual mean value
th Threshold value 1
mon Number of months satisfying the criterion 2
smin Minimum monthly value for the summer months 3
wmin Minimum monthly value for the winter months 3
smax Maximum monthly value for the summer months 3
wmax Maximum monthly value for the winter months 3
s Mean value for the summer months 3
w Mean value for the winter months 3

Type Description Criterion

A Tropical climates Tmin ≥ +18 °C


Af Tropical rain forest Pmin ≥ 60 mm
Am Tropical monsoon Pann ≥ 25(100 - Pmin) mm
As Tropical savannah with dry summer Pmin < 60 mm in summer
Aw Tropical savannah with dry winter Pmin < 60 mm in winter
B Dry climates Pann < 10 Pth
BW Desert (arid) Pann ≤ 5 Pth
BS Steppe (semi-arid) Pann > 5 Pth
C Mild temperate -3 °C < Tmin < +18 °C
Cs Mild temperate with dry summer Psmin < Pwmin, Pwmax > 3 Psmin, Psmin < 40
mm
Cw Mild temperate with dry summer Psmax > 10 Pwmin, Pwmin < Psmin
Cf Mild temperate, fully humid Not Cs or Cw
D Snow Tmin ≤ -3 °C
Ds Snow with dry summerPsmin < Pwmin, Pwmax > 3 Psmin, Psmin < 40 mm
Dw Snow with dry winter Psmax > 10 Pwmin, Pwmin < Psmin
Df Snow, fully humid Not Ds or Dw
E Polar Tmax < +10 °C
ET Tundra Tmax ≥ 0 °C
EF Frost Tmax < 0 °C
Third letter

Type Description Criterion


h Hot arid Tann ≥ +18 °C
k Cold arid Tann < +18 °C
a Hot summer Tmax ≥ +22 °C
b Warm summer Tmax < +22 °C, 4 Tmon ≥ +10 °C
c Cool summer Tmax < +22 °C, 4 Tmon < +10 °C, Tmin > -38 °C
d Cold summer Tmax < +22 °C, 4 Tmon < +10 °C, Tmin ≤ -38 °C