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# Engineering

CIV2226

## Design of Concrete & Masonry

Structures

Dr. Ye Lu
Lecture #3 (week 4)
Previously on this topic…
 Strength Check
Rd >= Ed (Design capacity >= Design action effects)
Rd = φ Ru
Ed =1.2 G + 1.5 Q
 Serviceability Check
Long term load, Ed = G + ψl Q
Short term load, Ed = G + ψs Q
 Simplified Method for Continuous Beams

## Moment = Coef. * Fd Ln2

Today’s Lecture (Chapters 3)

## Serviceability Check for RC Beams

• Deflections
• Crack Control
Some Notations
bef

tf
d
D

Ast

bw
bef : Effective width of flange
bw : Width of web
b =bef = bw
Ast : Area of tensile reinforcement
tf : Thickness of flange
D: Overall depth
d: Effective depth (from extreme compression fibre to resultant tensile force)
Review of Beam in Bending

## S: First Moment of Area b

A. b*h*d
h
B. b*h*d/2
h/2
C. b*h*d/4
d N.A.
Review of Beam in Bending
b
Which one is correct for I = ?
I: Second Moment of Area
A. b*h3/8 h N.A.
B. b*h3/12 h/2
C. b*h3/6

## What if N.A. is not at the middle of the section?

b

I = b*h3/12+b*h*d2
h
h/2

d N.A.
Review of Beam in Bending
ε σ

y
N.A.

ε σ
Stress and strain distribution

## My For elastic range: σ = Eε

σ =
Ig Deformation (strain) compatibility

## y: Distance to neutral axis

Serviceability Check
• Deflections
Short term deflection – instant deflection by loads

UDL: w

EI

∆=?
Simply Supported Beam

Mid-Span Deflection:

## Different materials with different elastic moduli (Es, Ec)?

Cracked and Uncracked Sections

a) uncracked

b) cracked

N.A.

## Different sections with different I?

Section Transformation (Uncracked)

## , the modular ratio (steel to concrete)

Section Transformation (Fully Cracked)
b b

dn

D d

n Ast
Ast

## , the modular ratio (steel to concrete)

Uncracked Elastic Section
b εc σc

dn

D d

εst σst
εct σct
Ast n Ast (n-1) Ast

## Determine the N.A.

d
2
b n =b
(D − d n ) + (n − 1)A (d − d )
2

st n
2 2
D
bD × + ( n − 1) A st d
dn = 2
bD + ( n − 1) A st
Calculate Ig
2
1  D
Ig = bD 3 + bD  d n −  + ( n − 1) Ast ( d − d n ) 2
12  2
b εc σc

dn

D d

εst σst
εct σct
Ast n Ast (n-1) Ast

σc =
Md n M (D − dn )
Calculate stress σ ct =
Ig Ig

ε st d − d n σ st E s d − d n
=
=
ε ct D − d n σ ct E c D − d n

M (d − d n )
σ st = n
Ig

## Cracking occurs when σct =σcr

Cracking moment: Mcr = σcrIg/(D-dn)
Fully Cracked Elastic Section
b b εc σc
kd/3
dn=kd

d
D
jd=d-kd/3

C
εst σst

## n Ast T = Ast σst

Ast

1
b d n = n A st ( d − d n )  dn = kd ; p = Ast/bd 
2
Determine the N.A.
2
1 d 1
I cr = bd n + bd n ( n ) 2 + n Ast ( d − d n ) 2 = bd n + n Ast ( d − d n ) 2
3 3
Calculate Icr
12 2 3

M dn ε st d − d n σ st E s d − d n M (d − d n )
Calculate stress σc = = = σ st = n
I cr εc dn σ c Ec d n I cr
Doubly Reinforced Fully Cracked Section
M dn
σc =
b (n-1) Asc I cr
M (d n − d sc )
dsc σ sc = n
I cr
Asc dn=kd

d
D

M (d − d n )
σ st = n σ c = n
I cr

Ast n Ast

1
b d n + ( n − 1) Asc ( d n − d sc ) = n Ast ( d − d n )
2
Determine the N.A.
2
1
I cr = bd n + n Ast ( d − d n ) 2 + ( n − 1) Asc ( d n − d sc ) 2
3
Calculate Icr
3
Stiffness (EI) Change with Bending Moment

EIcr
EIg

EIcr

EIg

## At service loads (points C1 and C2), the

average EI values are between EIg and EIcr
Effective Ief (Clause 8.5.3)
1 d 1
 Ief > Icr I cr = bd n + bd n ( n ) 2 + n Ast (d − d n ) 2 = bd n + n Ast (d − d n ) 2
3 3

12 2 3
b b

dn=kd

D d

n Ast
Ast
2
1  D
 Ief < Ig I g = bD 3 + bD  d n −  + (n − 1) Ast ( d − d n ) 2
12  2
b

D d

Ast n Ast
Effective Ief

Ig,

Ig,

0.6Ig,

b b

dn=kd

Ast n Ast

## f cf' = 0.6 f c '

Ast / bw d

3.1.7.2

g
Short Term Deflection (Mid-Span)
Short term load, w = G + ψs Q

## Simply supported beam:

Continuous beam:

Continuous beam

Mm
Stiffness (EI) Change with Location

The EI value will vary along the length of a beam because of different
bending moments.
AS3600 p114 or Textbook p108

## For simplicity, in practice class question:

Ief = Ief, at mid-span
Long Term Deflection
• ∆l = kcs ∆s.sus
• ∆l : Long-term deflection
• ∆s.sus : immediate deflection due to sustained
Long term deflection factor
• ∆tot = ∆l + ∆s
• ∆tot ≤ ∆allow (allowable deflection)
Deemed to Comply Span-to-Depth Ratios
for Deflection Control

Ec: the concrete elastic modulus, bef: the effective width of the flange (Textbook P141)

Fd,ef = effective design load per unit length, taken as:
= (1.0 + kcs) G + (ψs + kcs ψl) Q for total deflection
or
= kcs G + (ψs + kcs ψl) Q for additional deflection, which
occurs after the addition or attachment of partitions.
kcs = Long term deflection factor
∆ / Lef = deflection limit
Crack Control of Beams
1) Check reinforcement ratio (Clause 8.6)
A D
2
f ct' , f
OR p = st ≥ p min = α b  
bw d d  f sy

## bef: the effective width of the flange

fsy: the characteristic yield strength of steel reinforcement
f’ct,f: the characteristic tensile strength of concrete
bw
Ds: overall depth of a slab
Crack Control of Beams
2) Check concrete cover and bar spacing (Clause 8.5.3)

c s

bw
c <=100 mm
s <=300 mm
Crack Control of Beams
3) Check tension stress in bars
C

jd

Ms = T j d = Ast fst jd
fst = Ms / (Ast jd) < the larger stress from tables 8.6.1 (a) and (b)
Ms is determined by short term load (G + 0.7 Q )
Assume j ≈ 0.9
3) Check tension stress in bars
3) Check tension stress in bars
Serviceability Design - Summary
• Step 1: Locate neutral axis
• Step 2: Define Icr and Ig
• Step 3: Define Ief with Mcr
• Step 4: Determine serviceability load combinations
(short term and long term)
• Step 5: Serviceability check
Serviceability Design - Summary

##  Deflection < Limit deflection

1. calculate ∆tot = ∆l + ∆s ≤ ∆allow
2. check span-to-depth ratios Lef/d
 Crack control
check 1) reinforcement ratio
2) concrete cover and bar spacing
3) steel stresses