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# University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering

## 6th semester Electronics & Communication Engineering

BANGALORE UNIVERSITY

## Scheme of study and examination for 6th semester B.E(EC)

Under 2k6 scheme.

## No of Hrs/Wk Duration of Exam.

Sl. Sessional Exam Total
Code Subject Theory /
No. Practical Theory Practical marks marks Marks
Tutorial
Digital Communication
1 EC601 3+1 3 25 100 125
Theory
2 EC602 Microcontrollers 3+1 3 25 100 125
3 EC603 3+1 3 25 100 125
4 EC604 Information Theory and 3+1 3 25 100 125
coding
VLSI Design
5 EC605 3+1 3 25 100 125
6 EC606 Computer organization and 3+1 3 25 100 125
Architecture
7 EC607 Analog Communication And 3 3 25 100 125
Microwave lab
8 EC608 DSP Lab 3 3 25 100 125
TOTAL 200 800 1000

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

1
University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering

## EC – 601 Digital Communication Theory

Part A

Chapter 1 : Introduction :

Model of a Digital communication system, Comparison of Digital & Analog Communication system,
Bandwidth of Digital data, Base band Versus Band Pass. (3 Hours)

## Chapter 2 : Discrete Pulse Amplitude Modulation :

Review of sampling theorem, Sampling of low pass and band pass signals, practical aspect of sampling,
Reconstruction of message from its samples, channel band width for PAM Signals, Generation and
detection of PAM. (5 Hours)

## Chapter 3 : Coding of base band analog signals:

Quantization ,quantization –noise, Elements of PCM. Different PCM quantizer, Uniform and non-uniform
quantization, companding , DPCM, PCM decoders.
(6 Hours)

## Chapter 4: Delta Modulation (DM):

Principal , Noise In DM systems, Granular and slope overload in DM systems, ADM systems, Comparing
of PCM and DM, Digital Multiplexers ,TDM – PCM Telephone system, CODEC. (4 Hours)

## Chapter 5: Digital Signaling formats:

Line codes: Various type and their power spectra, regenerating repeater. (3 Hours)

## Chapter 6: Synchronization: Bit synchronization, word synchronization , frame synchronization,

nonlinear clock recovery (codes for recovery). (3 hours)

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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Part B

## Chapter 7: Base band Systems:

Introduction – coding and decoding, inter symbol interference. Base band shaping optimum transmitting
and receiver filter, correlative coding, Base Band M-array Pam systems, Adaptive equalization, Eye
patters scrambler and descrambler. (7 Hours)

## Chapter 8 : Digital carrier systems (Band pass Data translation):

Elements of a Band pass data transmission systems, correlation receiver, Matched filter receiver,
Probability of error of matched filter. (6 Hours)

Modulation and demodulation performance of coherent and non- coherent BASK, Spectral properties of

## Chapter 10 : ASK systems :

Modulators and demodulators performance of coherent and non -coherent ASK system, Minimum shift
keying , Binary PSK systems : Spectral properties of BPSK, BPSK modulators and demodulators ,
Differential coherent demodulation of BPSK, Performance of matched filter detector, discriminator
DPSK, QPSK,MPSK. Introduction to spread spectrum techniques. (16 Hours)

Reference:

 Sam shanmugham : Digital and analog communication systems, John weily and sons
 Simon Haykin: Digital communication, Wiley international EDn,1989.
 Martin s Roden: Digital and data communication systems, prentice Hall, 1982.
 Leonw- couch – 2nd Analog communication systems,3rd Edn Maxwell macmillan International
edn,1989.
 Bernard Sklar: Digital communications : PHI
 R Lathi : communication systems , Delhi , oxford
 Jonu G Prokis : Digital Communication.

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering

## 6th semester Electronics & Communication Engineering

EC 602: Microcontrollers:

Part A

## Comparison between microprocessors and microcontroller, Microcontroller families, RISC/CISE

architecture hardware and Von Neumann architecture.
(4 Hours)

## Chapter 2: 8051 Architecture:

8051 Microcontroller hardware, Pins and Ports circuits, external memory, counters and timers, serial
data I/O Interrupts. (7 Hours)

## Chapter 3: Assembly Level programming concepts of 8051:

Understanding assembly language syntax of 8051, instruction syntax, addressing mode of 8051,
extensive study of instruction set of 8051 and example programs.
(14 Hours)

Part B

## Chapter 4: Memory interfacing:

Memory devices, address decoding, 8/16/32/and 64bit Memory interfacing and dynamic RAMS.
(6 Hours)

## I/O port address decoding, programmable peripheral interface, Keyboard/display interface,

programmable interrupt time, programmable communication interface, interfacing ADC and DAC.
(6 Hours)
Chapter 6: Interrupts Structure of 8051 Microcontroller:

## Basic interrupts processing, hardware interrupts, expanding interrupts structures, programmable

interrupt controller Real time clock. (5Hours)

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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## Chapter 7 : Direct memory access and DMA control I/O :

DMA operation ,DMA controller, shared bus operation ,Disk memory systems , Video display.
(5 Hours)
Chapter 8: Application of 8051 : Temperature sensors, stepper motor and Data acquisition system.

(2 Hours )
References:

 Brey B.B : The intel Microprocessor Architecture , Programming and interfacing , 4e PHI
 Ayala K J : The 8051 microcontroller , 2e,penram international
 Gaonker: Microprocessor Architecture and Programming
 Myke Predko : programming and customizing the 8051 microcontroller, TMH 2001

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering

## EC 603: Microwave and Radar

Part A

Chapter 1: Introduction:

Frequencies used, application, High frequency, limitation of conventional tubes (Qualitative only),
klystron amplifier (two cavity) reflex klystron oscillator power output, efficiency, TWT: BWO: Cavity
magnetron –construction, principle of operation, performance characteristic and application. (6 Hours)

## Chapter 2 : Solid State microwave devices :

( Qualitative discussion only ) Tunnel, Pin , Varactor ,Schottky Barrier, Read,Gunn, TRAPATT,IMPATT ,
Barritt construction and operation. Parametric amplifier using vacator, Manley-Rowe relation
MOSFET,HEMT , oscillator using tunnel and Gunn diodes, PIN switch and modulator. (8 Hours)

## Chapter 3 : Microwave Passive components :

E Plane-Plane ,Magic Tes & direction couples , contruction ,opetation and scattering matrix
representation, capacitive , inductive and E-Bends , Transitions and twits in wave guide, posts, tuning
screws , coupling probes and loops, stoltted line, Attenuators –fixed movable vane and rotary phase
shifter. (6 Hours)

## Chapter 4 : Antenna Basics :

Basic antenna parameter, patterns , beam array radiation intensity, Beam efficiency Directivity and Gain,
Antenna aperture effective height , Radio communication link , Field from oscillating dipole , Antenna
field Zones ,shape-Impedance considerations. (6 Hours)

Part B

## Chapter 5 : Point sources and Antenna Arrays:

Introduction power pattern theory and applications, Radiation intensity, Power patterns, Field Patterns,
Phase patterns Arrays of two isotropic point sources, Non –isotropic similar point sources, Pattern
multiplication, pattern synthesis, Non –isotropic dissimilar point sources, array of n-isotropic sources of
equal amplitude an spacing ,Null directions , array of two driven elements ( broadside cast end – fire
case and general case with equal currents of any phase ) (7 Hours)

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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## Chapter 6 : Loop Antenna helical Antenna and Yagi-Uda Array:

Loop antenna (General case), field comparison of short diploe and small loop, field pattern, radiation
resistance, directivity, radiation efficiency, Q, Bandwidth and SNR .Helical antenna , Helical geometry ,
Design consideration of monofilar axial-mode helical antenna, dipole arrays with parasitic elements ,the
yagi-Uda array, axial – Mode pattern and Phase velocity of wave propagation on monofilar axial-mode
helical antenna and wide and characteristics of monofilar axial-mode helical antenna. (03 Hours)

## Chapter 7 : Introduction to Radar and Radar range equation :

detectable signal, receiver noise, radar cross section of target, range ambiguities, CW and frequency

## Chapter 8 : MTI And pulse Doppler radar:

Block diagram, multiple or staggered pulse repetition frequencies, Pulse Doppler radar, racking radar,
Tracking with radar, sequential lobing, conical scan, monopulse tracking radar, tracking in range,
acquisition. (4 Hours)

Block diagram description description , duplexers, noise figure, low noise font end, mixers displays – PPI
& A-scope , Randomes. (3 Hours)

References:

##  Samuel Y .Liao : Microwave Devices Circuits

 Skolnik : Introduction to Radar Systems : Tata McGraw-Hill
 Kennedy : Electronics Communication Systems, TMS
 FE TERMAN : Electronics and Radio Engg .Meg
 M.Kullarni : Microwave and Radar, umesh publication
 Mrs , chatteriee: Microwaves Engineering (AEWP)
 John D Kraus : Antennas McGraw-Hill,2nd Edition,1988

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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## EC -604 Information Theory and Coding

Chapter 1:

Discrete source – Entropy , conditions for maximum value, definitions ,markov sources, Problems

(7Hours)
Chapter 2:

Source coding- Properties of codes, Shannon, Shannon-Fano , Huffman Binary coding and efficiency
calculations, Non-binary coding – Huffman ternary and quaternary coding , efficiency calculations

(7 Hours)

Chapter 3:

Discrete channels – joint and conditional entropies, mutual information, capacity and extension of
channels. (6 Hours)

Chapter 4:

Continuous channels – joint and conditional entropies, mutual information, capacity and extension of
channels. (6 Hours)

Part B

Chapter 4

Error control codes-Block codes, Minimum distance considerations, standard array and syndrome
decoding, block diagram for encoder and decoder (8 Hours)

Chapter 5

Binary cyclic codes- Generator polynomial systematic cyclic codes, circuits or Block diagram for Encoder
and Syndrome calculation BCH, R-S and Goolay codes. (8 Hours)

Chapter 6

Convolutional codes- Block diagram, Encoding using time domain and transform domain approach, state
diagram approach, code tree. (8 Hours)

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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Reference books:

##  Digital communication – simon Haykin

 Analog and digital communication – sham shanmugam
 Information theory and coding – P S sathyanarayan
 Principle of digital communication – Das , Mallic and chatterjee
 Error control coding – Shu-lin , Castello

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering

## Chapter 1: VLSI Basics:

Evolution of microelectronics , Moore’s law, introduction to VLSI design , The design flow, design
Philosophies- full custom and semi –custom design , silicon compiler, trends in VLSI. (4Hours)

## Chapter 2 : Processing of MOS Devices:

Brief overview of oxidation, diffusion, lon-implantation, sputtering , chemical vapour deposition
and etching , NMOS – Self aligned process , CMOS – N- well, P-Well and twin tub processes ,
channel stop implantation , LOCOS and STI isolation to be discussed . Layout details and
examples. (6 Hours)

Chapter 3: MOS Devices : Depletion and enhancement type transistors. Construction and
working, transfer and output characteristics, Drain current equation, expressions for gm, ὠo,
Cg, cox , currents gain factor etc. (4 Hours)

## Different inverter configuration , CMOS And BICMOS inverter, characteristics , Power

dissipation, Noise Margin , switch logic and restoring logic, implementation of building block
such as logic gates, transmission gate, MUXs latches and register , multivalued logic , Analog
building blocks, current mirrors, differential amplifier , op-amp, CMOS Memory and filter.
(10 Hours)
Part B
Chapter 5: Delay Calculation:
Definitions of sheet resistance , stand unit of capacitance and delay , their calculation , inverter
pair delay , Design of I / s, Design of tapered buffer. (3 Hours)

Chapter 6: Scaling:
Different scaling models, merits of scaling, limitations of scaling, based design rules. (4 Hours)

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering

## 6th semester Electronics & Communication Engineering

Testing philosophy, VLSI testing process and test equipment, fault modeling, testing
combinational and sequential logic, design for testability (DFT), Scan design techniques, BIST.
(7 Hours)
Chapter 8: Programmable devices:
ROMS , PALS, PALS,PLDS and FPGAs , Type of FPGA s, Xilinx and Altera series of ICs . Two Typical
ICs from each Vendor, Architecture and details, Design examples. (10 Hours)

Reference:
 Weste and Eshraghian : Principles of CMOS VLSI Design : A systems perspective pearson
Educaton.
 J M Rabaey, A Chandrakasan, B . Nikolic: Digital integrated circuits : A design Perspective ,
pearson Education .
 Kang and Leblebici : CMOS digital integrated circuits , TATA Mc Graw- Hill Edition.
 Baker lin and Boyce: CMOS circuits design ,Layout and simulation, PHI EEE

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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## EC 606: COMPUTER ORGANIZATION & ARCHITECTURE

PART – A

1. Machines, Machine Languages, and Digital Logic: Classification of computers and their
instruction, computer instruction sets. Informal description of the simple RISC computers,
formal description of RISC using register transfer notation, RTN, Describing addressing modes
with RTN, Register transfers and logic circuits from behaviour to hardware. (7 Hours)
2. Real Machines: Machine characteristics and performance, Machine performance, RISC versus
CISC. A CISC microprocessor. The Motorola 68000. RISC architecture the SPARC. (6 Hours)
3. Processor Design: The design process. A I-bus micro-architecture of the SRC. Data path
implementation. Logic design for the I-bus SRC. The control unit 2 and 3-bus processor designs.
The machine reset. Machine exceptions. (7 Hours)
4. Processor Design: Advanced topics: Pipelining. Instruction: level parallelism –
Microprogramming. (4 Hours)
PART – B
5. Computer Arithmetic and the arithmetic unit: Number systems and Radix conversion. Fixed
point arithmetic Semi-numeric aspects of ALU design. Floating point arithmetic. (4 Hours)
6. Memory System Design: Introduction, the components of the memory system. RAM structures
the logic designer’s perspective. Memory boards and module. Two level memory Hierarchy.
The cache. Virtual memory. The memory subsystem in the computer. (7 Hours)
7. Input & Output: The I/O subsystem. Programmed I/O interrupts. Direct Memory Access
(DMA). I/O data format change and error control. (6 Hours)
8. Peripheral Devices: Magnetic disk drives. Display devices. Printers. Input devices. Interfacing
to the analog world. (7 Hours)

REFERRENCES:

## 1. Hayes “Computer architecture & Organisation: McGraw Hill.

2. Hooy.F.Jordan: Computer system design & Architecture. Addision Wesly.
3. Stallings: Computer Organisation & architecture designing for performance PHI.

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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## I. Analog communication experiments:

1. Design and testing of Butter worth second order active Filters – LPF, HPE, BPF, BEF.
2. Constant K, T and II types filters – LPF, HPE, BPF, BEF.
3. AM generation and Detection
4. FM generation and detection
5. DSBSC/SSB generation and detection.

## II. Microware experiments:

1. Mode curves of microwave source (Gunn/Klystron)
2. Measurement of frequency and VSWR
3. Measurement of unknown impedance (use slotted line and Smith chart)
4. Experiments on directional coupler
5. Experiments on magic Tee
6. Measurement of antenna parameters (may be of Horn antenna)

## University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Department of Electronics and communication

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## Discrete time signals & systems:

Find impulse response, step response, Ramp response & frequency response of a given system.

## Time and Frequency domain responses

a) Linear convolution
b) Circular convolution
c) Verification of linear convolution using DFT
d) Finding DT using FFT algorithms
e) Finding the inverse FFT

Z – Transform

## a) Finding solution to the LCCDE

b) Partial fraction expansion of Z-transform

## Digital filter design

a) IIR digital filter design by impulse invariance method (both Butterworth & Chebshev filters).
b) IIR digital filter design by Bilinear transformation ( both Butterworth & Chebshev filters).
c) FIR Digital filter design by Windows.