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Name: Timb D.

Student Number: 18795110

(1) Unit Outline indicating where the 3 Lesson Unit exploring

‘Purpose’ fits into A HSC Year 11 Preliminary Program, along with
the 750 word rationale.

(2) Three Formal Lesson Outlines covering the use of the five source
anthology and how their use meets HSC Advanced English

(3) An anthology of 5 works including an award winning panel from

the comic book The Walking Dead, extracts from T.S. Eliot’s play
Murder in the Cathedral, H.P. Lovecraft’s poem Despair, extracts
from T.S. Eliot’s difficult poem The Hollow Men and an extract
from Jean-Paul Sartre’s Being and Nothingness exploring human

(4) Sets of open ended questions, sequenced with lessons and texts,
aimed at scaffolding the process of developing a personal
informed response to T.S. Eliot’s The Hollow Men, and building on
the textual integrity of the poem with a range of supporting
material while taking into account changes in the curriculum and
the types of questions that have appeared in prior HSC exams.

(5) A bibliography of works cited including several critical works

that have informed the structure of this unit within the overall
program of “Nihilism and the Sacred”, most notable of which is
Helen Garner’s 1949 seminal study of T.S. Eliot’s work “Sanctity
versus Self-Consciousness”
Lesson One: Zombie’s Hollow Men and Privation of Purpose
Extracts: The Hollow Men, T.S. Eliot

Between the idea
We are the hollow men
And the reality
We are the stuffed men
Between the motion
Leaning together
And the act
Headpiece filled with straw. Alas!
Falls the Shadow
Our dried voices, when
For Thine is the
We whisper together
Are quiet and meaningless
As wind in dry grass
Between the conception
Or rats' feet over broken glass
And the creation
In our dry cellar
Between the emotion
And the response
Shape without form, shade without colour,
Falls the Shadow
Paralysed force, gesture without motion;
Life is very long
Those who have crossed
Between the desire
With direct eyes, to death's other Kingdom
And the spasm
Remember us-if at all-not as lost
Between the potency
Violent souls, but only
And the existence
As the hollow men
Between the essence
The stuffed men.
And the descent
Falls the Shadow
For Thine is the
This is the dead land
For Thine is
This is cactus land
Life is
Here the stone images
For Thine is the
Are raised, here they receive
The supplication of a dead man's hand
This is the way the world ends
Under the twinkle of a fading star.
This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
Is it like this
Not with a bang but a whimper
In death's other kingdom
Waking alone
At the hour when we are
Trembling with tenderness
Lips that would kiss
Form prayers to broken stone.
Lesson One: Zombie’s Hollow Men and Privation of Purpose

Questions for discussion

(1) What is different about zombie unlife to human life? What makes human
life special and worth preserving in a zombie apocalypse? Is human life
special and worth preserving over zombie life and what makes it so?
Would you fight to survive in a zombie apocalypse? What would you fight
to preserve? Draw up a list of points.
(2) Drawing on the text how might the comic illustrate this difference, this
space between zombie life and human life?
(3) Using your knowledge of zombies, how might a zombie be like the ‘Hollow
Men’ in T. S. Eliot’s poem? Draw on the extracts of T.S. Eliot’s poem to
support your answers.
Lesson Two: The Exploration of Nihilism, Purpose and Meaning

Extracts: Despair by H. P. Lovecraft Extract: T. S. Eliot’s play:

Murder in the Cathedral
Once, I think I half remember,
Ere the grey skies of November
Quench’d my youth’s aspiring ember,
Liv’d there such a thing as bliss;
Skies that now are dark were beaming,
Gold and azure, splendid seeming
Till I learn’d it all was dreaming—
Deadly drowsiness of Dis.

But the stream of Time, swift flowing,

Brings the torment of half-knowing—
Dimly rushing, blindly going
Past the never-trodden lea;
And the voyager, repining,
Sees the wicked death-fires shining,
Hears the wicked petrel’s whining
As he helpless drifts to sea.

Thus the living, lone and sobbing,

In the throes of anguish throbbing,
With the loathsome Furies robbing
Night and noon of peace and rest.
But beyond the groans and grating
Of abhorrent Life, is waiting
Sweet Oblivion, culminating
All the years of fruitless quest.

(1) Using the above two poems to arrive at your own understanding write a
description of Nihilism as you understand it. What does Nihilism ‘mean’
for you in relation to these two texts? Write a paragraph.
(2) Having begun with ‘meaning’ in the two texts now work back to the
language used in the poems to support your description of what you think
nihilism means. Include similitude, synodoche, suspended metaphor,
diction, poetic meter, poetic foot, emotive content, sound, connotation.
Include quotes in your critical informed response. Compare the two poems
and show how they support your description of nihilism. Write a
Lesson Three: Purpose and Human Reality

Sartre extract Being and Nothingness.

“For human reality, being in the world means radically to lose

oneself in the world through the very revelation that causes there to
be a world – that is, to be referred to without respite, without even
the possibility of “a purpose for which” from instrument to
instrument with no recourse save the reflective revolution. . . To be
sure these work clothes are for the worker. But they are for the
worker so he can fix the roof without getting dirty. And why
shouldn’t he get dirty? In order not to spend most of his salary on
clothes. This salary is the minimum quantity of money that will
enable him to support himself; and he ‘supports’ himself so as to be
able to apply his capacities for work at repairing roofs . . . The
ensemble of these references is void of meaning, but in this sense –
the possibility of positing meaning on this level does not exist. We
work to live, and we live to work. The question of the meaning of the
totality “life-work” – “Why do I work? I who am living? Why live if it
is in order to work?” This can only be posited on the reflective level
since it implies a self discovery on the part of the for-itself.”

(1) What is the writer saying?


(2) How might Sartre be used to critique the Existentialism in Eliot’s

Hollow Men?

(3) Begin a poem based on the Sartre’s concept of human reality.

Program: Nihilism and the Sacred: Stage 6 Preliminary
Unit1 : Exploration of Purpose

This unit explores the concept of ‘Purpose’ and is the first in a series of units that explore T.S.
Eliot. The unit uses an original anthology of works based around themes of nihilism,
existentialism and human meaning that allow students to develop an informed personal critical
response to Eliot’s poetry, drawing on a unique mixture of texts outside of the curriculum to
support curriculum readings. This unit is designed to be used with a second unit that draws on
T.S. Eliot’s Burnt Norton, along with John Donne and Shakespeare’s King Lear which explores
‘the sacred’, followed by a three-week creative workshop.

Time This unit comprises of 3 x 60 minute classes exploring ‘Purpose’ which are part of a
9 week program made up of 3 x 3 week units exploring ‘Nihilism and the Sacred’.

The other two units making up the Program are

3 Classes of ‘Alienation, martyrdom and the Sacred’
3 Classes of Workshops for poetry and drama writing
1 Spare lesson
Rationale Given that the shift from the 2009-Curriculum to the new curriculum focuses on
750 words students developing an informed personal critical response the Program “Nihilism
and the Sacred” focuses on three units made up of three classes. The first of these
units focuses on students developing a personally informed deep analytical study of
T.S. Eliot’s The Hollow Men.

However, given the new curriculum, rather than engaging in traditional schools of
interpretation, the first class focuses on the relationship between composer,
responder and context and the development of a personally informed critical
response to T.S. Eliot as part of a wider historical movement towards modernism
and existentialism.

More importantly, in accordance with changes to the curriculum the unit focuses
on students developing their own concept of what a ‘Hollow Man’ is drawing on the
concept of zombies and a highly-acclaimed comic book panel from the award
winning The Walking Dead series, where students try to articulate the difference
between human life and zombie life and what is important about human life. Here
the idea of a zombie is used as a gateway concept for a ‘Hollow Man’ and a way
into T.S. Eliot’s difficult text.

The Hollow Men is a very difficult poem which requires deep knowledge of nihilism,
T.S. Eliot’s existentialism and other influential texts like Joseph Conrad’s The Heart
of Darkness and is usually given context within the literary traditions and historical
context of Modernism and 20th Century Existentialism.

In order to dissuade students from engaging “with particular critical theories” and
“generating readings” the unit “Purpose” offers students a chance to authentically
engage with H. P Lovecraft’s poem on Despair in order to develop their own
concepts of nihilism, as well as an extract from T.S. Eliot’s play on Thomas Becket
Murder in the Cathedral. Students are encouraged to fulfil 3.3.1 of the HSC
curriculum by working on their own understanding of terminology. In deriving their
own description of Lovecraft and T.S. Eliot’s Nihilism they fulfil curriculum learning
objects of 1.1.2, 2.2.1 and 6.6.1, chiefly comparing and contrasting Lovercraft’s
poetry with T.S. Eliot’s speech by the four tempters of Becket. After experiencing
the two poems and working towards meaning, students then look for distinctive
features of language used by Lovecraft and T.S. Eliot to support their descriptions of
the type of nihilism that arises from the two texts which enables them to meet
curriculum learning objects 4.4.1, 7.7.1 and 7.2.1. All three objectives; 4.4.1, 7.7.1
and 7.2.1 supervene on 12.1, 12.2. In composing and articulating their own
understanding of nihilism, then supporting this with textual evidence drawn from
the Lovecraft poem and extracts of T.S. Eliot’s play, the students are also engaging
with learning objectives 10.1, 10.2 and 10.3.

The group work can be broken down even further depending on how well the class
dealt with the first lesson and was able to grasp key concepts that arise from the
Walking Dead text and Lovecraft’s poem. Here groups may be broken up into (1) A
Linguistic Lens (2) Semantic lens (3) structural analysis (4) cultural context, and
rotated. Likewise they might be able to be given The Hollow Men and the extract
from T.S. Eliot’s Murder in the Cathedral.

The use of T.S. Eliot’s play Murder in the Cathedral is important to the next unit
where students will engage with John Donne’s famous crucifixion stanza’ in his La
Corona, T.S. Eliot’s Burnt Norton as well as the fate of Gloucester in Shakespeare’s
King Lear in order to explore the concept of sacrifice, martyrdom and meaning in
life, in contrast to the alienation of nihilism as a form of existential horror like we
find in T.S. Eliots The Hollow Men.

The focus on the textual integrity of T.S. Eliot’s The Hollow Men with open
questions, supporting examples of T.S. Eliot’s poetry, intertextuality and the use of
Jean-Paul Sartre to historically situate T.S. Eliot’s existential horror within the
framework of another existentialist, is critical for providing the frameworks for
students to explore a sustained analysis of the textual integrity of the work while
providing them with the scope of developing their understanding of the text as an
informed and personal one in accordance with the new curriculum. Given the
nature of the questions in the HSC and the recent shift towards a close personal
informed critique of the text in the curriculum, the inclusion of Sartre allows
students to engage with another historical school and source of modernism and
develop their own critique of the existential horror in T.S. Eliot’s poem The Hollow
Men. Moreover it provides a frame work for engaging the six language modes with
writing activities.

This can be deepened in the final three weeks of the unit when students engage
with extracts of Satre’s drama along with T.S. Eliot’s other poetry using questions
that allow students the chance to construct meaning using a broad integration of
critical and creative approaches including the development of poetry from Sartre’s
prose and

Objectives By the end of this unit the student should be able to articulate an informed
Goals personal critical view of T.S. Eliot’s poem The Hollow Men and support the textual
integrity and complexity of that work drawing on other works of T.S. Eliot, H. P.
Lovecraft, the award winning comic The Walking Dead, along with situated criticism
arising from a personal engagement and understanding of Jean-Paul Sartre’s
The student will be able to articulate their own understanding of nihilism, using
examples drawn from poetry and drama of literary devices and language that
supports that understanding. This unit provides the ground work for a second unit
exploring meaning, along with a unit based on a creative writing workshop that
draws on both preliminary units.

12.1, 12.2, 12.6, 6.6.1, 8.8.1, 4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.4.3, 1.1.3, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 3.3.1, 3.3.2,
7.7.2, 7.2.1.

Learning Students are provided with scaffolding and a number of opportunities to develop
experiences their understanding of nihilism, existentialism, meaning and their own concepts
about human existence and share them with the group. These experiences allow
them to develop the foundations for some very high level creative writing which
will be marked, along with a short open ended exam on nihilism given in the second
Evaluation Evaluation for this unit is largely informal as this is an introductory unit, however
the model of pre-assessment, formative assessment and summative assessment
has been used informally in structuring the class as a large amount of research
suggests that this approach to student learning has a range of benefits.

Evaluations will be carried out based on the content of this unit, in the form of an
open ended question about nihilism and T.S. Eliot’s The Hollow Men will be given at
the completion of the second unit in the program, along with evaluation given in
the creative writing unit where students draw on the material presented in the
prior two unit to write a piece of poetry from prose and dramatize a scene from a
and notes

Lesson Plan One

Subject/topic Time Date

6.6.1, 8.8.1, 4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.4.3, Class 1
1.1.3, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 12.6,

Students should be able to

apply concepts of meaning and
human existence to T.S. Eliot’s
difficult poem The Hollow
Men, develop a range of
responses to deepen their
understanding of the textual
integrity of the poem, and
describe features that support
their understanding of the


5 copies of The Walking Dead comic book scene, and 25 copies T. S. Eliot poem The Hollow Men to
hand out.

Teacher’s activities Student’s activities Assessment data

Introductory Activity Pre-Assessment

Put students into zombie Students discuss questions Collect information from
survival groups. Get them to about human and zombie student group answers about
discuss the difference between existence for 10 minutes. how well they understand
human’s and zombie by asking zombies and whether this
whether they would fight to Go around and listen to main knowledge can be synthesized
survive in a zombie points. with difficult knowledge about
apocalypse. Ask them why T. S. Eliot’s difficult to
they are fighting to survive. understand existential nihilism
Students study and discuss expressed in his poem ‘The
What makes human existence Walking Dead text for five to Hollow Men’.
special and worth preserving ten minutes.
and not zombie existence? Collect information in the form
Why not just have zombies? This particular scene is chosen of how well students
They walk like us, look like us, because it allows students a understand the difference
what makes us special? sensory experience of the between human life and
alienation and ‘otherness’ of zombie unlife to see if they are
Hand out first sheet with the zombie, as well as helping ready to transfer those
award winning scene from The students to attune their concepts, and use ‘zombies’ as
Walking Dead. Ask them how experience to the sensory a ‘gateway’ to understanding
the text illustrates some of the qualities of a text. They must T. S. Eliots poem.
differences between human ‘experience’ the comic book
life and zombie unlife. panel to understand the
meaning and this will enhance
What is a zombie’s purpose? their sensory experience of
What is a human’s? poetry as well.
Main Activity Students read poem and Formative Assessment
discuss some of the ways that
Hand out T. S. Eliot’s The zombies are like T. S. Eliots Here we are trying to convey
Hollow Men. Hollow Men. the depth of existential horror
and poetic insight T.S. Eliot’s
Introduce the concept of What might be missing from poem derives from Joseph
negative predication, Derrida’s the Hollow Men that makes Conrad’s story Heart of
presence by absence and the their existence devoid of Darkness, which of course is
idea of privation. How is the meaning? How might we use the traditional way universities
Hollow Man’s existence our concepts of zombies to teach the poem, along side
defined by privation of express the meaninglessness introductory units on nihilism,
purpose? of the Hollow Men? existentialism and modern
literature. Here we would,
Here, possibly introduce some traditionally, in a university
very brief background about setting steer them towards
Joseph Conrad’s The Heart Of Francis Ford Cuppola’s movie
Darkness, and the idea of the Apocalypse Now and the
Hollow Men. intertextual relationship
between the movie, poem and
Given changes in curriculum story.
documents it is important to
steer students away from pre- The problem, however, is
fabricated answers typified by within the framework of the
common schools of high school classroom the
interpretation. rating of the movie prevents
such an outline, and students
do not yet have the
intellectual concepts for
dealing with existential crisis
of nihilism which would
include European Intellectual
developments going back into
the 19th Century.

Hence, the pop culture

concept of a zombie can be
used to scaffold a framework
for introducing the idea of
meaningless human existence
and existential horror. This
also accords with Bloom’s
Taxonomy as students are
synthesizing new knowledge
with existing concepts about
zombies they can draw on.
This is important because a
shift in curriculum documents
means with the new
curriculum means we want
students to be building up
their own informed critical

Here, the assessment is based

on them applying concepts
about zombies from the
Walking Dead comic book, a
work of potentially enduring
value, which deals with
existential themes and has
won awards, and visually
depicts some of the concepts
about human meaning and its
lack in zombies.

Specifically, how well they

reapply concepts of existential
alienation from The Walking
Dead, to T.S. Eliot’s poem.
Concluding activity Each group picks 3 specific Summative Assessment
phrases from The Hollow Men
that describe the type of Here we are informally
meaninglessness zombies have assessing how well students
with Hollow Men. are able to understand basic
concepts in groups and
support that understanding
with some analysis of texts.

Lesson Plan Two

Subject/topic Time Date

12.1, 12.2, 12.6, 6.6.1, 8.8.1, Class 2
4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.4.3, 1.1.3, 10.1,
10.2, 10.3, 3.3.1, 3.3.2, 7.7.2,

By the end of this lesson

students should be able to
articulate their own
conceptual matter about the
nature of nihilism, draw on T.S.
Eliot’s poetry, along with the
work of H. P. Lovecraft to
sustain their articulations
about nihilism and the loss of
meaning. This relates directly
to 3.3.1 and the development
of terminology, as well as
4.4.1, 7.7.2, 7.7.1, in
identifying features of the
language used in the poem.

Students will be able to apply

these concepts about nihilism
to their prior lesson for a
deeper informed critical
response which they can apply
to language, construction and
content of Eliot’s poem The
Hollow Men for an enhanced
understanding of textual


5 copies of the sheet H.P Lovecraft Despair/ T.S. Eliot Murder in the Cathedral sheet.
Additional copies if students want to take away their own.

Teacher’s activities Student’s activities Assessment data

Introductory activity Pre-Assessment

Students are put into zombie Students recall the similarities How well do students
survival groups once more. and differences between understand the concept of
zombies and humans, and ‘Hollow Men’?
then zombies and Hollow Men

Main activity Formative Assessment

1. Students experience
Students are given a sheet the two poems.
with H. P Lovecraft and an 2. Students then search Here we are building the
extract from T.S. Eliot’s the poems for their support concepts for Eliot’s
Murder in the Chapel. meaning. Construct The Hollow Men text,
their own introducing students to the
I read the two poems out. understanding of materials that will allow them
Nihilism from the to construct their own
meaning in the poem. understanding of Nihilism, so
What is the they are critically informed
relationship between and able to make a response.
Nihilism, meaning and
purpose in the two The emphasis here is on how
poems? Is it different well they develop their own
for each poem? concepts about nihilism and
3. Students justify their use texts and examples from
understanding of the two texts to support that.
Nihilism with examples
of the language and It is important to avoid
linguistic devices used. traditional sources of Nihilism
like Dostoevsky’s Brothers
Analysis of T.S. Eliot’s Karamzov, Max Stirner,
Murder in the Cathedral is Schopenhauer or Nietzsche’s
important for the next unit writings on God because of the
where we will examine shift in emphasis away from
Burnt Norton and the students using established
theme of meaning, criticism and critical schools in
resistance and self- the new curriculum. Here we
sacrifice. This will be are using H. P. Lovecraft’s
combined with a textual beautiful and neglected work,
analysis of the fate of as well as a section from Eliot’s
Gloucester in King Lear, play.
along with the ‘Crucifixion
stanza’ in john Donne’s
circular argument La
Corona in order to allow
students to explore the
concept of martyrdom and
meaning in life.

The concept of meaning

and human life ties in with
the issues explored in this
unit. Nihilism is of course
the loss of meaning, while
martyrdom is about
human meaning beyond

The two units form a

Pseudo-Dionysian duality
between light and shadow,
religion and secular
humanism, loss of God and
loss of life, with plenty of
scope for students to
develop an informed
critical perspective to
construct their own
understanding of texts and
the power that poetry has
to explore nihilism and the
sacred. A power of
exploration that literature
offers which can not be
found in either theology or

The two units are

supplemented by judicious
use of Helen Garner’s work
on T.S. Eliot and her
analytical division of T.S.
Eliot’s work in to
conceptual framework of
‘Sanctity vs Self Sacrifice’.

Concluding activity Students use their developing Summative Assessment

understanding of nihilism as a
type of existential horror to Emphasis here on the final
deepen their understanding of informal assessment is on the
the textual integrity of the idea that zombies are not
Hollow Men. aware of the full horror of
their existence, while human
horror is existential. The
Hollow Man is aware of his
emptiness and the horror of
his being in a way the zombie
is not.


Lesson Plan Three

Subject/topic Time Date

12.2, 12.6, 4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.4.3, Class 3
1.1.3, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 3.3.1,
6.6.1, 8.8.1.

By the end of this class

students should have started
to develop their own basic
understanding of some of the
concepts of Sartre’s
existentialism which will allow
them to critique T.S. Eliot,
developing an informed
personal critical response,
from within the Existential
tradition of Modernism that
T.S. Eliot’s poetry is received


5 sheets with an extract from Jean-Paul Sartre’s Being and Nothingness.

Teacher’s activities Student’s activities Assessment data


Students are sorted into Students are given questions How well are they able to
groups of people they would that allow them to recount the articulate their own concepts
most likely not like to survive a difference between the Hollow about nihilism, and the nature
zombie apocalypse in honour Men and zombies and the of the horror and alienation in
of Sartre’s play No Exit, but for Nihilism of Lovecraft and the the Hollow Men?
Camus-based reasons they are Four Tempters in Murder in
not told why. the Cathedral. Do we need to spend more
time on this, or can I begin to
give them critical tools from
other schools of Existentialism
to critique T.S. Eliot?

Students are given a copy of Students read the Sartre The emphasis here is on
the Sartre extract from Being extract in groups aloud. understanding the ordinary
and Nothingness. every day absence of meaning.
They must then discuss the Purpose, in the unreflective
reading. type Sartre draws our
attention to, does not free one
What is Sartre saying about from the trials of the Hollow
purpose? Men. This is a different type of
Existentialism, one that says
the horror of nihilism is not an
extraordinary event, there is
nothing dramatic about it. The
everyday world is humanely
meaningless, in Sartre one
finds existential horror in the
Concluding activity Students discuss how Sartre’s Here I am looking for their
existentialism is a rival to the ability to use Sartre, and a rival
type of nihilistic horror we find school of existentialism, to
in the Hollow Men. How is this critique T.S. Eliot and from
different to the overwhelming that develop an informed
horror in The Hollow Men? critical response. This is
important because T.S. Eliot’s
work is historically received
within the tradition of
existential sources. Some
engagement with Sartre places
it within this context.
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