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PRE-AP CHEMISTRY

REFERENCE PACKET
Includes:
Equations & Constants
Periodic Table
Common Oxidation Numbers
Compound Naming Flowchart
Writing Compound Formulas Chart
Elements to Memorize
Polyatomic Ions to Memorize
Electronegativity Values
Solubility Rules
Graphing Guidelines
PRE-AP CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS
ATOMIC STRUCTURE ΔHrxn   np ΔHf o (products)  nr ΔHf o (reactants)
hc OTHER FORMULAS
E  h c  λν E
λ m
D
Atomic Mass    fraction abundancemass of isotope V

 
isotopes
 accepted value  experimental value 
BEHAVIOR OF GASES % error   (100)
 accepted value 
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + …
 experimental yield 
% yield   (100)
PV = nRT  theoretical yield 

DRT m EQUILIBRIUM
MM  n
P MM
For reaction aA + bB ↔ cC + dD:
P1 V1 P2 V2

n1 T1 n2 T2 K eq 
 C  c D d
Rate = k[A]x[B]y
 A  a B b
SOLUTIONS
CONSTANTS AND CONVERSIONS
moles of solute (n)
Molarity (M)  Avogadro’s Number = 6.022 x 1023 particles per mole
liter of solution
h = Planck’s Constant = 6.63 x 10‒34 J·s
V1M1 = V2M2
c = Speed of Light = 3.0 x 108 m/s
Kw = [H+][OH–] = 1 x 10‒14 (at 25°C)
STP = 0 °C and 1 atm
pH = – log [H+]
0°C = 273 K
pOH = – log [OH–]
Volume of Ideal Gas at STP = 22.4 L/mol
[H+] = 10 – pH
1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101.33 kPa = 14.7 psi
[OH–] = 10 – pOH

pH + pOH = 14 R  0.0821 Lmol K or 62.4 molK or 8.314 molK


atm Ltorr LkPa

THERMOCHEMISTRY 1 cm3 = 1 mL 1 dm3 = 1 L

q = mCΔT (q = ΔH at constant pressure) 1 calorie (cal) = 4.184 joules (J)

ΔH = moles x ΔHfus ΔH = moles x ΔHvap 1000 calories (cal) = 1 Calorie (Cal) = 1 kilocalorie (kcal)

Specific Heat of Water = 4.184 J/g°C


WRITING COMPOUND FORMULAS
IONICS ACIDS COVALENTS
1. Write down your two ions 1. You will be able to pick 1. You will be able to pick out
with their charge. out these compounds these compounds easily
2. If you see a roman easily because they because they include
numeral, it is telling you include the term ACID! PREFIXES!
the positive charge of the 2. Determine which ion is in 2. Determine if the covalent
metal. the acid based on the is organic (one word name
3. Add subscripts in order to name. with –ane ending) or if it is
cancel out the charge of Hydro-__-ic acid = __-ide inorganic (two word
the ions to zero for the ion (nonmetal) name).
overall compound. __-ic acid = __-ate ion 3. If organic, determine the
4. If you need a balancing __-ous acid = __-ite ion carbon # subscript from
subscript on a polyatomic 3. Balance the charge on the the prefix, and determine
ion, add parentheses ion using H+1 ions at the the hydrogen # subscript
around the polyatomic front of the compound. from presence of “cyclo”
ion, and place the 4. Add (aq) to the end of the 4. If inorganic, determine
balancing subscript compound, as all acids are subscripts from prefixes
outside of the aqueous solutions!
parentheses.
HINT: –ATE and –ITE endings = Polyatomic Ions, but
–IDE endings = Non-Metals (except OH-1 and CN-1)
NAMES/SYMBOLS OF ELEMENTS TO MEMORIZE!
NAME SYMBOL NAME SYMBOL NAME SYMBOL
aluminum Al copper Cu nitrogen N
antimony Sb fluorine F oxygen O
argon Ar gallium Ga phosphorus P
arsenic As gold Au platinum Pt
barium Ba helium He potassium K
beryllium Be hydrogen H selenium Se
bismuth Bi iodine I silicon Si
boron B iron Fe silver Ag
bromine Br krypton Kr sodium Na
cadmium Cd lead Pb strontium Sr
calcium Ca lithium Li sulfur S
carbon C magnesium Mg tin Sn
cesium Cs manganese Mn tungsten W
chlorine Cl mercury Hg uranium U
chromium Cr neon Ne xenon Xe
cobalt Co nickel Ni zinc Zn
RULES: (1) 1st letter PRINTED uppercase, 2nd letter PRINTED lowercase (2) spelling counts! (3) NO cursive!
QUIZ ONE: 1st column QUIZ TWO: 1st and 2nd column QUIZ THREE: 1st, 2nd and 3rd column

Electronegativity Values
H He
2.1 0
Li Be B C N O F Ne
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 0
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.8 0
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
0.8 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.2 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.5 0
Cs Ba •La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.4 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 0
Fr Ra §Ac
0.7 0.9 1.1
POLYATOMIC IONS TO MEMORIZE!
YOU MUST MEMORIZE NAME, FORMULA, AND CHARGE!
Polyatomic ions are groups of elements that, when bonded together, have a charge… meaning
electrons are either lost or gained. Polyatomic ions are very important in many of our units this
year! Therefore, it is very important that you learn them, and LEARN THEM WELL!!!

Per____ate _____ate ____ite hypo____ite


PO4—3 PO3—3
xxx xxx
phosphate phosphite
SO4—2 SO3—2 SO2—2
xxx
sulfate sulfite hyposulfite
CO3—2
xxx xxx xxx
carbonate
NO3—1 NO2—1
xxx xxx
nitrate nitrite
ClO4—1 ClO3—1 ClO2—1 ClO—1
perchlorate chlorate chlorite hypochlorite
BrO4—1 BrO3—1 BrO2—1 BrO—1
perbromate bromate bromite hypobromite
IO4—1 IO3—1 IO2—1 IO—1
periodate iodate iodite hypoiodite
per___ate: has one more oxygen than “ATE”
___ate: most common form For help with memorizing the
___ite: one less oxygen than the “ate”
“ATE” polyatomic ions, watch:
hypo__ite: two less oxygens than the “ate”
___ide: no oxygens, not a polyatomic http://youtu.be/-iP2ifS4IUI

OTHERS:
MnO4—1 permanganate
C2H3O2—1 acetate
HCO3—1 hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
CrO4—2 chromate
Cr2O7—2 dichromate
OH—1 hydroxide
CN—1 cyanide
NH4+1 (note positive charge) ammonium
NOTE: The charge can be shown either before or after the number… both are correct. Also, if a
charge is either +1 or –1, you may show just the sign (+ or –). The 1 is not required to be shown.
Solubility of Common Ionic Compounds in Water
SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS (aq) EXCEPTIONS (s)
All Group 1 salts None
All ammonium (NH4+1) salts None
All NO3−1, ClO3−1, ClO4−1, and C2H3O2−1 salts None
All Cl−1, Br−1, I−1 salts Ag , Hg2  (mercury (I)), Pb+2
+1 +2

All F−1 salts Mg+2 Ca+2, Sr+2, Ba+2, Pb+2
All salts of SO4−2 Ca+2, Sr+2, Ba+2, Pb+2, Ag+1, Hg2+2

INSOLUBLE COMPOUNDS (s) EXCEPTIONS (aq)
All salts of OH−1 Group I, NH4+1, Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca+2
All other monatomic and polyatomic anions Group I and NH4+1

Graphing Guidelines – Sketched Graph vs. Constructed Graph


SKETCHED GRAPH CONSTRUCTED GRAPH
Make graph using a PENCIL Make graph using a PENCIL on a sheet of GRAPH PAPER
Include a title for the graph that includes a description Include a title for the graph that includes a description of the purpose of the
of the purpose of the graph/experiment graph/experiment
Use as much of given space as possible for your single Use as much of the graph paper as possible (at least ¾ of the space) for your
quadrant single quadrant
X axis = independent variable X axis = independent variable
Y axis = dependent variable Y axis = dependent variable
X & Y axis drawn free-handed as straight as possible X & Y axis drawn using a RULER
X & Y axis labeled, including units X & Y axis labeled, including units
No scale needed on X & Y axis Show the scale with marked interval divisions along the X & Y axis, starting at
the origin (0,0) – do not break the axis with a “squiggle”
No individual points plotted Plot each individual point - if plotting more than one set of data on the same
graph, use a different color or symbol to distinguish each set of data
Draw a general line or curve to represent the trend of Draw either a trend line (using a ruler) or trend curve that lies as close to the
the data data as possible – do not connect the dots
You may be asked to extrapolate a graph – this means that you will extend
your trend line (using a ruler) with a dashed line beyond your data points
until it crosses an axis
If a data point is notable – either because it’s important to the results, or it’s
extremely outside the general trend – be sure to notate it
Relationship between Volume and Temperature Relationship between Volume and Temperature
using Charles’ Law using Charles’ Law