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Section 14.

3
C14S03.001: The area is
 1  y  1  y
A= 1 dx dy = x dy
y=0 x=y 2 y=0 x=y 2
 1  1
1 2 1 3 1 1 1
= (y − y ) dy = y − y2
= − = .
y=0 2 3 y=0 2 3 6

To find the limits of integration, it is very helpful to sketch the domain of the double integral. The figure is
next; it was produced by Mathematica 3.0 via the command

Plot[ {x, Sqrt[x]}, {x, 0, 1}, AspectRatio→ Automatic ];

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

C14S03.002: The area is


 1  y=x  1  1
1 2 1 5 3
A= 1 dy dx = (x − x4 ) dx = x − x = .
0 y=x4 0 2 5 0 10

C14S03.003: The graphs cross where x2 = 2x + 3; that is, where x = −1 and where x = 3. A sketch of
the domain of the integral is next; it was produced by Mathematica 3.0 via the command

Plot[ {x∗x, 2∗x + 3}, {x, -1, 3}, AspectRatio → Automatic ];

-1 1 2 3

1
The area of the region is
 3  2x+3  3  3
1 32
A= 1 dy dx = (3 + 2x − x ) dx = 3x + x − x3 2 2
= .
−1 y=x2 −1 3 −1 3

C14S03.004: The graphs cross where 2x + 3 = 6x − x2 ; that is, where x = 1 and where x = 3. The area
they enclose is
 3  6x−x2  3  3
1 4
A= 1 dy dx = (4x − 3 − x2 ) dx = 2x2 − 3x − x3 = .
1 y=2x+3 1 3 1 3

C14S03.005: The graphs cross where x2 = 2 − x; that is, where x = −2 and where x = 1. But the x-axis
is also part of the boundary of the region in question, and hence the following figure is important to find not
only the correct limits of integration, but indeed the very region whose area is sought. It was produced by
the Mathematica 3.0 command

Plot[ {x∗x, 2 - x}, {x, -2, 2}, AspectRatio → Automatic ];

-2 -1 1 2

(We enhanced the result using Adobe Illustrator.) The area of the region bounded by all three graphs is
    1
1 2−y 1
√ 2 1 5
A= √
1 dx dy = (2 − y − y) dy = 2y − y 3/2 − y 2 = .
y=0 x= y 0 3 2 0 6

C14S03.006: The region is bounded on the northwest by the graph of y = (x + 1)2 , on the northeast by
the graph of y = (x − 1)2 , and below by the x-axis. To avoid radicals we will integrate first with respect
to y, then with respect to x, even though this entails computing two integrals. The area of the part of the
region to the right of the y-axis is
 1  (x−1)2  1  1
1 1
A1 = 1 dy dx = (x − 1) dx = x − x + x3
2 2
= .
x=0 y=0 0 3 0 3

The area of the part of the region to the left of the y-axis is
 0  (x+1)2  0  0
1 1
A2 = 1 dy dx = (x + 1) dx = x + x + x3 2 2
= .
x=−1 y=0 −1 3 −1 3

2
2
Therefore the total area bounded by all three of the given curves is A1 + A2 = .
3

C14S03.007: The graphs cross where x2 + 1 = 2x2 − 3; that is, where x = −2 and where x = 2. The area
between them is
 2  x2 +1  2  2
1 32
A= 1 dy dx = (4 − x ) dx = 4x − x3 2
= .
x=−2 y=2x −3
2 −2 3 −2 3

C14S03.008: The graphs cross where x2 + 1 = 9 − x2 ; that is, where x = −2 and where x = 2. The area
between them is
 2  9−x2  2  2
2 64
A= 1 dy dx = (8 − 2x2 ) dx = 8x − x3 = .
x=−2 y=x2 +1 −2 3 −2 3

C14S03.009: The part of the region that lies in the first quadrant is shown next; the figure was generated
using the Mathematica 3.0 command

Plot[ {x, 2∗x, 2/x}, {x, 0, 2}, PlotRange → {0, 2.5} ];

2.5

1.5

0.5

0.5 1 1.5 2

√ √ 
The bounding curves cross at the origin and at the points (1, 2), and 2, 2 . The area they bound (in
the first quadrant) is

   √    √  
1 2x 2 2/x 1 2
2
A= 1 dy dx + 1 dy dx = x dx + −x dx
x=0 y=x x=1 y=x 0 1 x
 1  √2
1 2 1 1 1
= x + 2 ln x − x2 = + ln 2 − = ln 2 ≈ 0.693147180559945309417232.
2 0 2 1 2 2

The region is symmetric around the origin, so the total area is 2 ln 2.

C14S03.010: The curves cross where

2
x2 = ;
1 + x2
x4 + x2 − 2 = 0;

(x2 + 2)(x2 − 1) = 0;

thus where x = −1 and where x = 1. The area of the region they bound is

3
 1  2/(1+x2 )  1    1
2 1 2
1 dy dx = − x2 dx = 2 arctan x − x3 =π− ≈ 2.474925986923.
x=−1 y=x2 −1 1 + x2 3 −1 3

C14S03.011: The volume is

 1  1  1  1  1    1
1 3 3 1
V = (1 + x + y) dy dx = y + xy + y 2 dx = x+ dx = x + x2 = 2.
x=0 y=0 x=0 2 y=0 0 2 2 2 0

C14S03.012: The volume is

 2  3  2  3  2  2
2 9
V = (2x + 3y) dx dy = x + 3xy dy = (9 + 9y) dy = 9y + y 2 = 36.
y=0 x=0 y=0 x=0 0 2 0

C14S03.013: The volume is

 2  1  2  1  2  2
1
V = x
(y + e ) dx dy = xy + e x
dy = (e + y − 1) dy = ey + y 2 − y = 2e.
y=0 x=0 y=0 x=0 0 2 0

C14S03.014: The volume is


 π  π  π  π
V = (3 + cos x + cos y) dy dx = 3y + y cos x + sin y dx
x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0
 π  π
= (3π + π cos x) dx = 3πx + π sin x = 3π 2 ≈ 29.608813203268075856503473.
0 0

C14S03.015: The domain of the integral can be drawn by using the Mathematica 3.0 command

Plot[ 1 - x, {x, 0, 1} ];

and the result is shown next.


1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

The volume is

 1  1−x  1  1−x  1  1
1 1 1 1 3 1
V = (x + y) dy dx = xy + y 2 dx = (1 − x ) dx =
2
x− x = .
x=0 y=0 x=0 2 y=0 0 2 2 6 0 3

C14S03.016: The volume is

4
 4  (4−x)/2  4  (4−x)/2
2
V = (3x + 2y) dy dx = 3xy + y dx
x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0

 4    4
5 5 3 64
= 4 + 4x − x2 dx = 4x + 2x − x 2
= .
0 4 12 0 3

C14S03.017: The domain of the integral can be drawn using the Mathematica 3.0 command

ParametricPlot[ {{1,t}, {t,0}, {t,t∗t}}, {t,0,1}, AspectRatio → Automatic ];

and the result is shown next.

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

The volume is

 1  x2  1  x2  1  
1 1
V = (1 + x + y) dy dx = y + xy + y 2 dx = x + x + x4
2 3
dx
x=0 y=0 x=0 2 y=0 0 2
 1
1 3 1 4 1 5 41
= x + x + x = ≈ 0.683333333333.
3 4 10 0 60

C14S03.018: The domain of the integral can be drawn using the Mathematica 3.0 command

ParametricPlot[ {{0,t}, {t,1}, {Sqrt[t],t}}, {t,0,1}, AspectRatio → Automatic ];

and the volume of the solid is

 1  1  1  1  1  
1 2 1 1
V = (2x + y) dy dx = 2xy + y dx = + 2x − 2x3 − x4 dx
x=0 y=x2 x=0 2 y=x2 0 2 2
 1
1 1 1 5 9
= x + x2 − x4 − x = .
2 2 10 0 10

5
C14S03.019: The domain of the integral is shown next.
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-1 -0.5 0.5 1

The volume of the solid is

 1  1  1  1  1  1
1 3 1 5 4
V = 2
x dy dx = 2
x y dx = (x − x ) dx = 2
x − x 4
= .
x=−1 y=x2 x=−1 y=x2 −1 3 5 −1 15

C14S03.020: The domain of the integral can be drawn using the Mathematica 3.0 command

ParametricPlot[ {{t∗t,t}, {4,t}}, {t, -2, 2} ];

and the volume of the solid is

 2  4  2  4  2
V = 2
y dx dy = xy 2
dy = (4y 2 − y 4 ) dy
y=−2 x=y 2 y=−2 x=y 2 −2

 2
4 3 1 5 128
= y − y = ≈ 8.533333333333.
3 5 −2 15

C14S03.021: The volume of the solid is

 2  1  2  1  2    2
1 3 1 1 10
V = (x2 + y 2 ) dx dy = x + xy 2 dy = + y2 dy = (y + y 3 ) = .
y=0 x=0 y=0 3 x=0 0 3 3 0 3

C14S03.022: The volume is

 1  2−x2  1  2−x2
1 3
V = (1 + x2 + y 2 ) dy dx = y + x2 y + y dx
x=−2 y=x x=−2 3 y=x

 1  1
1 14 1 1 1 1 7
= (14 − 3x − 9x2 − 4x3 + 3x4 − x6 ) dx = x − x2 − x3 − x4 + x5 − x
−2 3 3 2 3 5 21 −2

837
= ≈ 11.9571428571428571.
70

C14S03.023: The domain of the integral can be drawn by executing the Mathematica 3.0 command

ParametricPlot[ {{3, 2∗t/3}, {t, 0}, {t, 2∗t/3}}, {t, 0, 3} ];

6
and the result is shown next.
2

1.5

0.5

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

The volume of the solid is

 3  2x/3  3  2x/3
1 2
V = (9 − x − y) dy dx = 9y − xy − y dx
x=0 y=0 x=0 2 y=0

 3    3
8 8 3
= 6x − x2 dx = 3x − x 2
= 19.
0 9 27 0

C14S03.024: The volume of the solid is

 1  √
x  1  √x
1
V = (10 + y − x ) dy dx = 2
10y − x y + y 2 2
dx
x=0 y=x2 x=0 2 y=x2

 1    1
1 1 20 3/2 1 2 10 3 2 7/2 1 5
= 10x 1/2
+ x − 10x2 − x5/2 + x4 dx = x + x − x − x + x
0 2 2 3 4 3 7 10 0

1427
= ≈ 3.3976190476190476.
420

C14S03.025: The volume is

 1  2−2x  1  2−2x
2 2 1
V = (4x + y ) dy dx = 4x y + y 3
2
dx
x=0 y=0 x=0 3 y=0

 1  1
8 8 16 3 8 4 4
= (1 − 3x + 6x2 − 4x3 ) dx = x − 4x2 + x − x = .
0 3 3 3 3 0 3

C14S03.026: The volume is

 1  x2  1  x2  1  
3 1 3
V = (2x + 3y) dy dx = 2xy + y 2 dx = 2x − x4 − x6
3
dx
x=0 y=x3 x=0 2 y=x3 0 2 2
 1
1 4 1 5 3 7 13
= x − x − x = ≈ 0.1857142857142857.
2 10 14 0 70

C14S03.027: The volume is

7
 2  (6−3x)/2  2  (6−3x)/2
V = (6 − 3x − 2y) dy dx = 6y − 3xy − y 2
dx
x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0

 2    2
9 2 9 3
= 9 − 9x + x dx = 9x − x2 + x3 = 6.
0 4 2 4 0

C14S03.028: The volume is

 2  (4−y)/2  2  (4−y)/2
V = (8 − 4x − 2y) dx dy = 8x − 2x − 2xy
2
dy
y=0 x=y/2 y=0 x=y/2

 2  2
2 3 16
= (2y 2 − 8y + 8) dy = y − 4y 2 + 8y = .
0 3 0 3

C14S03.029: The triangular domain of the integral can be drawn by executing the Mathematica 3.0
command

ParametricPlot[ {{1, 2 + 2∗t}, {1 + 4∗t, 2}, {1 + 4∗t, 4 - 2∗t}},


{t, 0, 1}, PlotRange → {{-0.5, 5.5}, {-0.5, 4.5}},
AspectRatio → Automatic, AxesOrigin → {0, 0} ];

and the result is shown next.

1 2 3 4 5

The volume of the solid is

 5  (9−x)/2  5  (9−x)/2
1 2
V = xy dy dx = xy dx
x=1 y=2 x=1 2 y=2

 5    5
65 9 1 65 2 3 3 1 4
= x − x2 + x3 dx = x − x + x = 24.
1 8 4 8 16 4 32 1

C14S03.030: To generate the triangular base of the solid, execute the Mathematica 3.0 command

ParametricPlot[ {{-3, -4 + 8∗t}, {-3 + 8∗t, 4 - 4∗t}, {-3 + 8∗t, -4 + 4∗t}},


{t, 0, 1} ];

8
and the result is shown next.

-2 2 4

-2

-4

The top of the triangle has equation y = 1


2 (5 − x) and the bottom has equation y = 12 (x − 5). Hence the
volume of the solid is

 5  (5−x)/2  5  (5−x)/2
1
V = (25 − x − y ) dy dx =
2 2
25y − x y − y 3
2
dx
x=−3 y=(x−5)/2 x=−3 3 y=(x−5)/2

 5    5
1375 75 25 2 13 3 1375 75 2 25 3 13 4 1792
= − x− x + x dx = x− x − x + x = .
−3 12 4 4 12 12 8 12 48 −3 3

C14S03.031: The volume is


 1  √1−y2
V = √ (x + 1) dx dy.
y=−1 x=− 1−y 2

This integral can be evaluated exactly with a single command in Mathematica 3.0, but we will evaluate it
one step at a time. As usual, the Mathematica output is rewritten slightly for more clarity.

Integrate[ x + 1, x ]

1 2
x+ x
2

(% /. x → Sqrt[1 - y∗y]) - (% /. x → -Sqrt[1 - y∗y])


1 1
2 1 − y 2 + (1 − y 2 ) + (y 2 − 1)
2 2

Simplify[ % ]

2 1 − y2

Integrate[ %, y ]

y 1 − y 2 + arcsin y

(% /. y → 1) - (% /. y → -1)

N[ %, 60 ]

9
3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510582097494

C14S03.032: The volume is


  √
3 9−x2
V = √ (9 − x2 − y 2 ) dy dx.
x=−3 y=− 9−x2

We used Mathematica 3.0 much as in the solution of Problem 31 to obtain the numerical value of V :

 3  √9−x2  3
1 4
V = 9y − x2 y − y 3 √
dx = (9 − x2 )3/2 dx
x=−3 3 y=− 9−x2 −3 9
  
x 3
4 45 1 81 81
= (9 − x2 )1/2 x − x3 + arcsin = π ≈ 127.2345024703866262.
3 8 4 2 3 −3 2

C14S03.033: The volume is


  √
1 1−x2
V = √ 2 4 − x2 − y 2 dy dx.
x=−1 y=− 1−x2

We used Derive 2.56 to evaluate this integral in a step-by-step fashion much as in the solution of Problem
31. Results:

 1  √1−x2
y
V = (4 − x2 ) arctan + y 4 − x2 − y 2 √
dx
x=−1 4 − x2 − y 2 y=− 1−x2
 1 √ √ 
3 1 − x2 √
= 2(4 − x ) arctan
2
+ 2 3 1 − x2 dx
−1 3
 √ √ √
2 3 1 − x2 16 3 (2x + 1)
= x(12 − x ) arctan
2
+ arctan √
3 3 3 3 1 − x2
√ √ 1
16 3 (2x − 1) √ 2 3
+ arctan √ − 4 3 arcsin x + x 1 − x2
3 3 1 − x2 3 −1

π

= 32 − 12 3 ≈ 11.7447292674805137.
3
In Section 14.4 we will find that this integral is quite easy to evaluate if we first convert to polar coordinates.
If so, the integral takes the form

    1     
2π 1 2π
2 2π
16 √ 16 √
2r 4− r2 dr dθ = − (4 − r2 )3/2 dθ = −2 3 dθ = 2π −2 3 .
θ=0 r=0 θ=0 3 r=0 0 3 3

C14S03.034: The volume is


  √
1 1−x2
V = √ 2 − x2 − y 2 − (x2 + y 2 ) dy dx
x=−1 y=− 1−x2

We used Derive 2.56 to evaluate V , one step at a time much as in the solution of Problem 31. Results:

10
    √1−x2
1
2 − x2 y y 2 − x2 − y 2 1
V = arctan + − x2 y − y 3 √
x=−1 2 2 − x2 − y 2 2 3 y=− 1−x2

  
1
1 − 4x2
= (2 − x2 ) arctan 1 − x2 + 1 − x2 dx
−1 3
 √  √ 
x(6 − x2 ) 7 2 2 x 2 + 1
= arctan 1 − x2 + arcsin x + arctan √
3 6 3 1 − x2
√  √  1
2 2 x 2 −1 x x
+ arctan √ + (1 − x ) −
2 3/2
1−x2
3 1 − x2 3 6 −1

π

= 8 2 − 7 ≈ 2.2586524883563962.
6
The volume would be much easier to evaluate using polar coordinates (as in Section 14.4, coming up next).
We would thereby obtain
  1
1 1 1 π

V = 2π (r 2− r2 − r ) dr = 2π − (2 − r2 )3/2 − r4
3
= 8 2 −7 .
0 3 4 0 6

C14S03.035: Given: the plane with Cartesian equation


x y z
+ + = 1
a b c
cutting off a tetrahedron in the first octant. We set z = 0 and solve for

b
y= (a − x);
a
the triangular region in the first quadrant bounded by this line and the coordinate axes is the domain of the
volume integral. Hence the volume of the tetrahedron is

 
  b(a−x)/a
a b(a−x)/a
x y a
2abcy − 2bcxy − acy 2
V = c 1− − dy dx = dx
x=0 y=0 a b x=0 2ab y=0
  2 a
a
bc(a − x)2 3a bcx − 3abcx2 + bcx3 abc
= 2
dx = 2
= .
0 2a 6a 0 6

C14S03.036: The volume is

 a  √
a2 −x2  a  √a2 −x2  a
V = √ (x + h) dy dx = xy + hy √
dx = 2(x + h)(a2 − x2 )1/2 dx
x=−a y=− a2 −x2 x=0 y=− a2 −x2 −a
 a  a  a
2
= 2h (a − x )
2 2 1/2
dx + 2x(a − x )
2 2 1/2
dx = h · πa + − (a2 − x2 )3/2
2
= πa2 h.
−a −a 3 −a

We evaluated the first integral in the second line by observing that it is the area of a semicircle of radius a.

C14S03.037: The volume is

11
 1  √1−y2  
1 √1−y2  1  1
1 2
V = 1 − y 2 dx dy = x 1 − y2 dy = (1 − y 2 ) dy = y − y 3 = .
y=0 x=0 y=0 x=0 0 3 0 3

As the text indicates, the other order of integration provides more difficulties. You obtain

  √
  √1−x2
1 1−x2 1
1 1
V = 1− y2 dy dx = y 1 − y 2 + arcsin y dx
x=0 y=0 x=0 2 2 y=0
 

1
1 1
= x 1 − x2 + arcsin 1 − x2 dx
0 2 2
 
1
1 2 2 1 2
= x − 1 − x2 + x arcsin 1 − x2 = .
6 3 2 0 3

C14S03.038: The volume is

 π  sin x  π  sin x
V = 2 sin x dy dx = 2y sin x dx
x=0 y=− sin x x=0 y=− sin x
 π  π
= 4 sin2 x dx = 2x − sin 2x = 2π ≈ 6.2831853071795865.
0 0

C14S03.039: We integrate to find the volume of an eighth of the sphere, then multiply by 8. Thus the
volume of a sphere of radius a is
  √
a a2 −x2
V =8 a2 − x2 − y 2 dy dx.
x=0 y=0

Let y = (a2 − x2 )1/2 sin θ. Then dy = (a2 − x2 )1/2 cos θ dθ. This substitution yields

 
a π/2 1/2
V =8 (a2 − x2 ) − (a2 − x2 ) sin2 θ (a2 − x2 )1/2 cos θ dθ dx
x=0 θ=0
 a  π/2
=8 (a2 − x2 ) cos2 θ dθ dx
x=0 θ=0
 a/2  π/2  a  π/2
1 + cos 2θ 1 1
=8 (a − x ) · 2
dθ dx = 8 2
(a − x ) θ + sin 2θ
2 2
dx
x=0 θ=0 2 x=0 2 4 0
 a  a
π 2 1 3 2 4
=8 (a − x ) dx = 2π a x − x
2 2
= 2π · a3 = πa3 .
0 4 3 0 3 3

C14S03.040: Given: the ellipsoid with equation

x2 y2 z2
+ + = 1; (1)
a2 b2 c2
we assume that a, b, and c are all positive. Set z = 0 in Eq. (1) to find that the ellipsoid intersects the
xy-plane in the ellipse with equation

12
x2 y2 b 2
+ = 1; that is, y= (a − x2 )1/2
a2 b2 a
(we take the positive root because we plan to integrate over the quarter of the ellipse that lies in the first
quadrant). Finally, we solve Eq. (1) for
c 2 2
z= (a b − b2 x2 − a2 y 2 )1/2 .
ab
We integrate to find the volume of the eighth of the ellipsoid that lies in the first octant, then multiply by
8. Hence the volume of the ellipsoid is
 a  (b/a)(a2 −x2 )1/2
c 2 2
V =8 (a b − b2 x2 − a2 y 2 )1/2 dy dx.
x=0 y=0 ab

Let

b 2 b 2
y= (a − x2 )1/2 sin θ; then dy = (a − x2 )1/2 cos θ dθ.
a a
This substitution yields

 
a π/2
c 2 2 1/2 b 2
V =8 (a b − b2 x2 )(1 − sin2 θ) · (a − x2 )1/2 cos θ dθ
x=0 θ=0 ab a
 a  π/2  a  π/2
8bc 8bc 1 + cos 2θ
= (a2 − x2 ) cos2 θ dθ dx = (a2 − x2 ) · dθ dx
a2 x=0 θ=0 a2 x=0 θ=0 2
  π/2 
8bc a θ sin 2θ 8bc a π 2
= 2 (a − x )
2 2
+ dx = 2 (a − x2 ) dx
a x=0 2 4 θ=0 a 0 4
 a
2πbc 1 2πbc 2 4
= 2 a2 x − x3 = 2 · a3 = πabc.
a 3 0 a 3 3

C14S03.041: We integrate over the quarter-circle of radius 5 and center (0, 0) in the first quadrant, then
multiply by 4. Hence the volume is

 5  √
25−x2  5  √25−x2
1
V =4 (25 − x − y ) dy dx = 4
2 2
25y − x y − y 3
2
dx
x=0 y=0 x=0 3 y=0

 5   
x 5
8 8 125 1 3
= (25 − x )
2 3/2
dx = 25 − x2 x − x + 625 arcsin
0 3 3 8 4 5 0

625
= π ≈ 981.747704246810387019576057.
2
The techniques of Section 14.4 will transform this problem into one that is remarkably simple.

C14S03.042: When we solve the equations of the paraboloids simultaneously, we find that x2 + y 2 = 4.
Thus the intersection of the paraboloids is a curve that lies in this cylinder. So an appropriate domain for
a double integral will be the circular disk of radius 2 centered at the origin. Therefore the volume of the
intersection of the two paraboloids is

13
 2  √
4−x2  2  √4−x2
V = √ (12 − 3x2 − 3y 2 ) dy dx = 12y − 3x2 y − y 3 √
dx
x=−2 y=− 4−x2 x=−2 y=− 4−x2
 2 
x 2
= 4(4 − x ) 2 3/2
dx = (10x − x ) 4 − x + 24 arcsin
2 3
= 24π ≈ 75.398223686155.
−2 2 −2

C14S03.043: Suppose that the cylinder is the one with equation x2 + z 2 = R2 and that the square hole is
centered on the z-axis and its sides are parallel
 to the coordinate planes. Thus the hole meets the xy-plane
in the square with vertices at ± 12 R, ± 12 R . We will integrate over the quarter of that square that lies in
the first quadrant, then multiply by 4. Hence the volume of material removed by the drill is

 R/2  R/2  R/2  R/2


V =4 2 R2 − x2 dy dx = 4 2y R2 − x2 dx
x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0
 R/2    R/2
1 1 x
=4 R(R2 − x2 )1/2 dx = 4 Rx(R2 − x2 )1/2 − R3 arctan
0 2 2 (R2 − x2 )1/2 0
   √
1√ 1√ 3 3 + 2π
= 3 + 2 arctan 3 · R3 = · R3 ≈ (1.913222954981)R3 .
2 3 6

C14S03.044: When the equations of the elliptical paraboloid and the parabolic cylinder are solved si-
multaneously, one consequence is that x2 + 4y 2 = 4. Hence this elliptical cylinder contains the curve of
intersection of the two surfaces, and the ellipse x2 + 4y 2 = 4 in the xy-plane is an appropriate domain for a
double integral. Hence the volume bounded by the two surfaces is

 2  (1/2)(4−x2 )1/2  2  (1/2)(4−x2 )1/2


4
V = (4 − x − 4y ) dy dx =
2 2
4y − x y − y 3
2
dx
x=−2 y=−(1/2)(4−x2 )1/2 x=−2 3 y=−(1/2)(4−x2 )1/2
 2 
x 2
2 1
= (4 − x )
2 3/2
dx = (4 − x ) (10x − x ) + 4 arcsin
2 1/2 3
= 4π ≈ 12.566370614359.
−2 3 6 2 −2

C14S03.045: The region bounded by the parabolas y = x2 and y = 8 − x2 in the xy-plane is a suitable
domain for a double integral that gives the volume of the solid. Hence the volume of the solid is

 2  8−x2  2  8−x2  2
V = (2x − x ) dy dx =
2 2 2
x y dx = (8x2 − 2x4 ) dx
x=−2 y=x2 x=−2 y=x2 −2
 2
8 3 2 5 256
= x − x = ≈ 17.066666666667.
3 5 −2 15

C14S03.046: We used Mathematica 3.0 in the usual way; the volume of the solid is
 π/2  cos x  π/2  cos x
1 3
V = (4 − x2 − y 2 ) dy dx = 4y − x2 y − y dx
x=−π/2 y=− cos x x=−π/2 3 y=− cos x
 π/2    π/2
2 1
= (8 − 2x2 ) cos x − cos3 x dx = 207 sin x − 72x cos x − 36x2 sin x − sin 3x
−π/2 3 18 −π/2

208 − 9π 2
= ≈ 13.2415067100217525.
9

14
C14S03.047: We used Mathematica 3.0 in the usual way; the volume of the solid is

 π/2  cos x  π/2  cos x


V = cos y dy dx = sin y dx
x=−π/2 y=− cos x x=−π/2 y=− cos x

 π/2
= 2 sin(cos x) dx ≈ 3.57297496390010467337.
−π/2

Mathematica reports that the exact value of the integral is


   
3 3 1
4∗HypergeometricPFQ {1}, , , − .
2 2 4

C14S03.048: A Mathematica solution:

I1 = Integrate[ Sin[x]∗Cos[y], { y, 0, Cos[x] } ]


(sin x) sin(cos x)

V = 4∗Integrate[ I1, { x, 0, Pi/2 } ]


4[1 − cos(1)]

N[V]
1.83879 —C.H.E.

C14S03.049: A Mathematica solution:

eq1 = z == 2∗x + 3;
eq2 = z == x∧2 + y∧2;
Eliminate[ { eq1, eq2 }, z ]
y 2 = −x2 + 2x + 3

This is the circle (x − 1)2 + y 2 = 4 with center (1, 0) and radius 2. Therefore the volume of the solid is

Integrate[ 3 + 2∗x − x∧2 - y∧2, { x, −1, 3 },


{ y, −Sqrt[ 3 + 2∗x − x{∧2 ], Sqrt[ 3 + 2∗x − x∧2 ] } ]
8π —C.H.E.

C14S03.050: A Mathematica solution:

eq1 == z == 4∗x + 4∗y;


eq2 = z == x∧2 + y∧2 − 1;
Eliminate[ { eq1, eq2 }, z ]
−y 2 + 4y + 1 == x2 − 4x

This is the circle (x − 2)2 + (y − 2)2 = 9 with center (2, 2) and radius 3. Hence the volume of the solid
bounded by the two surfaces is

15
Integrate[ 1 + 4∗x + 4∗x - x∧2 - y∧2, { x, −1, 5 },
{ y, 2 − Sqrt[ 9 − (x − 2)∧2 ], 2 + Sqrt[ 9 − (x - 2)∧2 ] } ]

81π
—C.H.E.
2
The answer is correct in spite of the typographical error in the last Mathematica command, which should be

Integrate[ 1 + 4∗x + 4∗y - x∧2 - y∧2, { x, −1, 5 },


{ y, 2 − Sqrt[ 9 − (x − 2)∧2 ], 2 + Sqrt[ 9 − (x - 2)∧2 ] } ]

How do you explain that?

C14S03.051: A Mathematica solution:

eq1 = z == −16∗x − 18∗y;


eq2 = z == 11 − 4∗x∧2 − 9∗y∧2;
Eliminate[ { eq1, eq2 }, z ]
−9y 2 + 18y + 11 = 4x2 − 16x

This is the ellipse 4(x − 2)2 + 9(y − 1)2 = 36 with center (2, 1) and semiaxes a = 3 and b = 2. Hence the
volume of the solid is

Integrate[ 11 − 4∗x∧2 − 9∗y∧2 + 16∗x + 18∗y, { x, −1, 5 },


{ y, 1 − 1/3∗Sqrt[ 36 − 4∗(x − 2)∧2 ], 1 + 1/3∗Sqrt[ 36 − 4∗(x − 2)∧2 ] } ]

108π —C.H.E.

C14S03.052: A Mathematica solution:

I1 = Simplify[ 8∗Integrate[ Sqrt[ 4 − x∧2 − y∧2 ], y ] ]


 
y
4y 4 − x2 − y 2 − 4(x2 − 4) tan−1
4 − x2 − y 2

(I1 /. y → 1) − (I1 /. y → 0)
 
−1 1
4 3 − x − 4(x − 4) tan
2 2

3 − x2

(Assuming that no one really wants to see the antiderivative of the preceding expression, let’s jump imme-
diately to the double integral that gives the volume of the hole.)

V = 8∗Integrate[ Integrate[
Sqrt[ 4 − x∧2 - y∧2 ], { y, 0, 1 } ], { x, 0, 1 } ]
      
4 √ 1 1 5
2 2 + 11 tan−1 √ + 19 tan−1 √ − 8 tan−1 √
3 3 2 2

N[V]

16
14.5755

100∗%/(4∗Pi∗8/3)∗percent

43.4954 percent —C.H.E.

C14S03.053: First let’s put the center of the sphere at the point (−2, 0, 0). A Mathematica solution:

V = FullSimplify[ 2∗Integrate[ Integrate[


Sqrt[ 16 − (x + 2)∧2 − y∧2 ], { y, −1, 1 } ], { x, −1, 1 } ] ]

2 √ √



6 6 − 2 14 + 29 cot−1 6 + 41 cot−1 14 − 47 csc−1 15
3



+ 47 sin−1 3/5 + 20 tan−1 3/2 − 108 tan−1 9 3/2


√ 
− 20 tan−1 11/ 14 + 108 tan−1 19/ 14

N[V]

26.7782

100∗%/(4∗Pi∗64/3)∗percent

9.98878 percent —C.H.E.

17