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insert using finite element method

R C Mehta", K Surcsh " & R Narayana lyer"

"Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022. India

'Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering. Trivandrum 695 016, India

Received 22 September 1997; accepted 20 April 1997

A finite element formulation is developed for the analysis of axisymmetric, transient, anisotropic

heat conduction problem with the temperature dependant thermo-physical material properties of a

graphite throat nozzle for the solid rocket motor. A standard Galerkin method using linear triangular

element is employed for the space discretization. The time integration is done using an implicit time

marching scheme of the first order differential equation. The convective heat transfer coefficient is

calculated using the Bartz correlation. A thermal stress analysis is also carried out on the graphite throat

of the nozzle using finite element method with two degrees of freedom. The developed computer codes

for this purpose are validated with known analytical solution and available ANSYS code.

4

A convergent-divergent nozzle is used as a difference method. Lee has obtained temperature

propulsive device in the launch vehicle. The nozzle distribution inside a nozzle of a solid rocket motor

expands high pressure and temperature gases from employing finite difference method. Henderson) has

subsonic to supersonic velocities. Modern high computed in-depth temperature response by solving

energy solid propellant produces combustion gases heat conduction equation with temperature-

of high temperature in order to enhance the specific dependent thermal properties.

impulse. The throat region of the convergent- The finite element method can easily solve a heat

divergent nozzle is therefore, exposed to high conduction problem for a complex geometrical

temperature and pressure environment as compared configuration. Various grid arrangement can be used

to other zone of the nozzle. The structural failure of to accommodate a complex geometrical configura-

the nozzle material may occur if the temperature tion and resulting simultaneous equations can be

exceeds the permissible operating design limit. A solved by using standard algorithm." The finite

thermo-structural analysis is required for satisfactory element technique to solve a heat transfer problem is

performance of the solid rocket motor. reported elsewhere in detail. A two-dimensional

Analytical and numerical methods are available heat conduction equation with time dependant

to obtain temperature distribution inside the heating condition at one surface of the specimen and

material. Carslaw and Jaeger' have obtained solution a radiation boundary condition at the other end is

for a simple geometrical configuration. A numerical solved using finite element method by Mehta et a/.x

algorithm to solve heat conduction problem The stress analysis of axisymmetric configuration

employing finite difference method is described in is described by Zienkiewicz. To the authors' best

detail by Rosenberg.' The finite difference approach knowledge, a coupled thermo-structure analysis of a

needs jacobian transformation to change rocket nozzle is not available in open literature. The

discretization from physical to computational main aim of the present paper is to investigate

domain, or special mathematical treatment to be thermo-structural analysis of a graphite throat insert

done to take into an account irregular boundary of of a typical solid rocket motor nozzle. A finite

the nozzle wall. element analysis is carried out to solve axisymmetric

Swaminathan and Rajagopalarr' have ana lysed transient anisotropic heat conduction equation with

the nozzle heat transfer problem using finite temperature dependant thermal properties.

272 INDIAN J. ENG. MATER. sci., OCTOBER 1998

Temperature distributions are computed at each The general procedure for solving Eq. (I) is to

node point and at each time interval for a given evaluate the Galerkin residual integral with respect

convective heat transfer coefficient variation. Using to space coordinate for a fixed instant of time. This

the computed temperature profile at the end of yields a system of ordinary differential equation

motor bum-out time, the displacements and resulting solved to obtain temperature distribution. The n

thermal stresses are computed using finite element equations can be written in a matrix form as

method. This coupled thermo structural analysis is dT

validated using ANSYS software." [C]-+[K]T={j} .. (7)

dt

Heat Transfer Analysis where [C], [K] and {f} are capacitance, stiffness

The governing axisymmetric transient anisotropic and load vector matrix, and can be written as

heat conduction equation with temperature [C] = Iv pCI' [N] r [N]dV (8)

dependant thermal properties can be written as

[K] = Iv[kr 8[Nl' 8[N] +k, 8[Nl' 8[N]]dV (9)

!~(rkr aT)+~(kz aT)= pCI' aT (I) ar 8r az az

r ar ar az az or

with the following initial and boundary conditions:

T= To on region t = 0 . (2)

j = Ir [N]" ur.:-T)dr ... (10)

to 27r rcAe about z axis, rc is the centroid of the

DT triangular element.

-k-=h(T,,...-T) onsurfaceratt>O ... (3)

Dn Time integration

where k. and kz are the thermal conductivity in radial and The set of ordinary differential Eq. (7) which

axial directions, respectively. p is the density of the defines the discretized problem is solved using

material, ep is the specific heat of the material, / is time, implicit time marching a scheme. The equation can

h is convective heat transfer, n is the outward normal be written for time level n to n+ I as

and Taw is combustion gas temperature. The other sides

of the nozzle wall are insulated. [C] +[p]/r'+1 = [C](Tf + jn ... (11)

~t ~r

The spacewise discretization of Eq. (I) subjected where [P] is combination of [C] and [K] matrix.

to the above boundary condition can be The algorithm is unconditionally stable and

accomplished using Galerkin method. Let the convergent in the context of finite difference.

unknown function temperature T be approximated Numerical experiments have been done at different

throughout the solution domain at any time t by the values of aspect ratio and time-step in order to

relationship verify the stability of the algorithm.

n

T= I N, (r,z)T; (I) ... (4) Grid generation

i=1 The finite element solver requires the element

where N, is usual shape function defined element coordinate and connectivity in the domain of

by element, T; being the nodal parameters. For a computation. An algebraic procedure is used to

typical triangular element e with nodes numbered generate a triangular element. A schematic sketch of

anticlockwise as i, j, k and placed at vertices of the the nozzle insert is displayed in Fig.l. The outer

triangle, the shape function N, is wall and inner wall of the nozzle insert are

N;= a+br+ca represented as rtop(z) and rw(z). The radial increment

... (5)

where is computed as difference of inner and an outer wall

radius divided by number of sub division. The grid

is structured. Therefore, the connectivity of the

2 A" triangular elements is obtained using recurrence

(z-z.) relation. Fig. 2 shows typical grid arrangement in the

bi = '--"..I----'~ ... (6)

2 A" nozzle insert.

(n - r ,)

Numerical stress analysis

c, = 2 A'"

In the axisymmetric problem of a nozzle throat

and Ae is the area of the element, e. insert, a cylindrical coordinate system is taken in

MEHTA et al.: THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF SOLID ROCKET MOTOR 273

for the axisymmetric configuration can be written as

(l')' = (l'rr eflll ezz erz] (12) E b d b o

[D]=- · .. (17)

(I:)' = [G'" G'HH l:zz l:rz] (13) 1+ fJ b b d o

kr;' = [a()T asr aOTo] (14) o 0 0 1

2

where {e} is the total strain, {s} is the elastic strain where d=( 1-J.1)/(1-2J.1) and b=J.1I( 1-2J.1), J.1 is the

and {cr} is the thermal strain, a is the coefficient Poisson's ratio. The stress vector components for

of thermal expansion and '&T is the change of axisymmetric case can be written as

temperature. The above elastic and thermal strain

vector can be written as {cr}T=[crrrcrOOcrzzcrrz] ... (18)

the stress can be calculated using following Hooke's The general expression for displacement can be

law:

written as

where [D] is the material stiffness matrix and can where u, v and ware displacement in r, and z e,

be written as directions, respectively. The strain displacement

relationship is given as

aw

rr

au

e =-, eoo=-,

ar

u

r =:«

· .. (20)

au aw

boundo.ry 'r:C'.i: ~

erO =0,

er;:= az e:o=O +7);'

~he unknown displacements can be written in

terms of element nodal values

U}i-/

Ulj./

· .. (21)

NOZZLE AX1S

Inner boundo.r y (WQll) U!k·/

Fig. 2-A typical grid system for the graphite throat nozzle

274 INDIAN J. ENG. MATER. SCt., OCTOBER 1998

and G2 for typical nozzle throat inserts of a solid

{u}=[N]{ue} ... (22)

rocket motor. The nozzle G 1 was modelled by 456

By differentiating equation 21 using the strain nodes and 784 triangular elements while G2 was

displacement relationship, we get modelled by 648 nodes and 1166 triangular

elements. The non-linear temperature dependent

s.o ) i 0 bk 0

thermo-physical and other material properties of

graphite were taken from Table 2. The convective

1 2A N I 0 2A Nj 0 2 AN k 0 heat transfer coefficient for the analysis is calculated

(e)=- r r r from Bartz correlation II

2A

0'

h = 0.026 j..Jo·C''K [ p, ]o.X[ D,h ]0.'[ ~ ]o.y a

D~i/ r-" C' . R' A""

c, b, c , b, c, b, ... (3\)

(23) and

It can be written in matrix form as I

a= ---------::-=------

e

{e}=[B] {u } . (24) J~l~l+r-1 M1]+0.5}1.r..I[I+!-1 M"]0.'5

2rc 2 2

The element stiffness matrix can be given as . . . (32)

[K]=[Bf[D][B]Jv dv (25) where ,"4 is Mach number and Tg local gas

temperature. The characteristic velocity C', the

[K]=27tA r. [Bf [D] [B] (26)

The column vector associated with the thermal

Table I--Geometrical parameters of nozzle throat inserts

change is

Jv[BHD]{ET}dv=21t rcA[B]T[D]{ET} .. (27) Type and "rop rexit r, r, a p

Identification of

The integral involving the boundary condition for a Nozzle

load vector can be expressed as Graphite Throat, G I 247 217 165 176 40 15

Graphite Throat, G2 238

Table 2-Properties

Property

208 153 150

of graphite':'

Graphite

25 15

z directions. Thermal conductivity XI -3.76325E-D2

K.(n X2 +9.5842IE-D6

The element stress components are calculated XJ -8. I 8337E-1O

after finding out the nodal displacements by finite

element method, then by Hooke's law -7.10309E+01

Thermal conductivity -3.60873E-D2

{cr}=D( {e}-{ET}) ... (29) K,(D +7. I4803E-D6

+ 1.69792E-1 0

The stress components as a function of the

element a nodal displacements and thermal strain -5.991012E+02

vector are Specific heat -4.76525E+00

C,,(D -3.08595E-D3

... (30) +6.56786E-D7

Density 1700.0

Coefficient of thermal 487x10-6

Results and Discussion expansion

Using the above finite element formulation, the Modulus of Elasticity 9.20x 10Q

thermostructural problem of a graphite throat nozzle Poisson's ratio 0.11

is analysed. The computer programme developed is Kz(7)=Xo+XI T+X2r+XJTJ W/mK

validated for heat transfer and thermal stresses (

separately. The validation cases are described in

detail elsewhere!". Co(7)=Lo+LI T+L27-2+L3TJ .l/kg K

MEHT A et al.: THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF SOLID ROCKET MOTOR 275

2750

Properties HTPB+NH4CI04

Chamber Pressure, P; (N/m2) 2500

4.415E+06

Chamber Temperature, Tc(K) 3410.0 2250

Specific heat Cpg(J/kgK) 1716.55

1.\5 2000

Ratio of specific heats y

Characteristic velocity C· (m/s) 1582.25 '" 1750

<II

Molecular weight, W (kg/kmol) 29.0

~ 1500 __ nozzle mer Slrface

_._nozzle outer surface

i 1250

'"' 1000

composition. Chamber pressure P; corresponds to

500

the test condition and the combustion gas

properties were used for the convective heat flux 250 -.--.---.-.--.~

calculation are taken from Table 3. o ~ __ ~ __ ~ __ ~ __ -L__~ __~ __~~~

The temperature distribution on the nozzle wall of -so -100 -50 o 50 100 150 200 250

Oistance.mm

graphite throat nozzle G I is shown in Fig. 3 and the

Fig. 3- Temperature distribution on the nozzle wall of

isothermal contour plot at various locations are

graphite throat nozzle G I

shown in Fig 4. The throat region of the nozzle is

attained a maximum temperature of 2977 K after the

specified period of performance of the motor. The l\T=92

convergent region experiences a temperature of the

range of 2825-2950 K and a divergent region is

having a range of 2925-2700 K. The convective

heating of the nozzle liner causes, the high

temperature at the inner wall and the maximum

value of convective heat transfer coefficient is at the

throat region. The minimum temperature is at the

Tmax=2977K

outer wall and at the region corresponding to throat

and nearby. The maximum throat material at this Fig. 4;-Isothermal contour plot for graphite throat nozzle G 1

region is the reason behind this minimum

temperature. In a divergent region, this temperature

increases due to less throat material. The maximum 4000

heat transfer coefficient of 14900 W1m K is at the

3500

throat region and minimum at the exit region of the

divergent of the nozzle which are calculated

employing the above mentioned Bartz's correlation.

The heat transfer coefficient increases from the

convergent region up to throat and then decreases.

3000

2500

- -

In nozzle G2, the temperature distribution of the

walls of a nozzle and isothermal contour plots are as __ Nozzle mer surface

in Figs 5 and 6. Here also, the maximum _._ Nozzle outer Slrface

1000

.case, is at the throat region. The minimum

temperature of 303 K is at the outer wall region

corresponding to the throat area where maximum

throat material exists. The convective heat transfer

500

o ~ __

_._.

-L

__ ._-_.- -.--.--

L-__-L L-__-L L-__~

coefficient plot is similar like G 1, nozzle. By -100 -50 0 50 100 W 200 250

comparing nozzle G I and G2, it reveals that the heat

transfer behaviour of nozzles are similar. Fig. 5- Temperature distribution on the nozzle wall of

The model taken for the structural analysis is the graphite throat nozzle G2

276 INDIAN J. ENG. MATER. scr., OCTOBER 1998

G I nozzle. The temperature distribution at all nodal noticed at the node, which is the last comer node of

points determined by thermal analysis is an input for the inner surface of the nozzle. At this node'

the structural analysis purpose along with the -region, the boundary is free to expand. The radial

pressure applied inside the boundary of the nozzle as direction displacement is maximum at the nodal

shown in Fig. 7. The zero displacement on the point near the throat region and value is 0.12236

lateral boundary is considered assuming a rigid mm.

assembly of the nozzle insert with the back-up The distribution of stresses are obtained such as

material. The pressure distribution is assumed (Jz, o, and (Js For the sake of the brevity, we are

constant along the inner wall of the nozzle. presenting the o, and (Jz in Figs 8 and 9. In all the

However, the calculation can be carried out with the these cases, the compressive stresses are acting on

varying pressure distribution. The boundary the inner surface of the nozzle and change to tensi Ie

condition for structural analysis is also shown in the towards the outer wall. It is noticed that the throat

same figure. region and the inner surface are subjected to high

The nodal displacement at each node is compressive stress. The inner surface is under the

determined in z and r directions. Displacement v is compressive stresses and changes to tensile stresses

taken zero due to the axisyrnmetry condition. toward the outer surface.

Maximum value of displacement is 0.040697 mm The stress values obtained by the finite element

B

~T=94

A c

Tmax=3014K

Fig. 7-Schematic sketch of a nozzle throat with application of

Fig. 6--lsothennal contour plot for graphite throat nozzle G2 pressure and thermal load with boundary condition

re

H.lS

-~-Z'.7l

.s.; 7.HZ

-L- -10.Z3

-"-

~

-Z7.70

-, s . 17

~ -1l.64

----L- -eO.lO

_J._ -97.~7

f

-r is .«

...!.2- lB."

~ U.7!

_8 _ _S.O&l

_7 _ _2LH

_1._ _u.eo

..5- -70."

..k-- -92. S2

_3_ -11'"

-L- -1-:16.2

, -1~a.l

,-

MEHTA et al.: THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF SOLID ROCKET MOTOR 277

JIll 9 1991

13:42:47 displacements and stresses formed inside the

POSTl STIOS

ST[P:l

ITU:1

graphite throat nozzle is calculated using finite

SlI (AU(;)

S'LOIA!.

element method in conjunction with temperature

1m ~.I22882

SIIH :-115.158

distribution obtained from the thermal analysis. The

SIIII:-lSZ.388

SIIX :42.177

computer program generated for the solution of

SlIXI:87 .592

thermal analysis is validated against an analytical

ZV :1

DlST:I98.776 solution available. The numerical values are found

xr :2116

o

tt

D

:-51 :211

-11:1.158

-~7.676

in good agreement with the analytical solutions. An

ANSYS 4.4 software is used to validate the

l~ :~:m

'0 --45.m

computer program for stress calculation. The

I0 -a7.7~ computed results are found in good agreement with

10 -16.268

I mJ 7.214

;0 24.6~5

the software results.

~ 42.177

!i References

I Carslaw H S & Jaeger J C, Conduction of heat in solids

y 2nd Ed. (Oxford University Press, London), 1959.

of partial differential

Publishing Co, New York), 1969.

equations (American Elsvier

for the heat transfer of rocket motor nozzle walls, in

Multiphase flow and heat transfer symposium workshop.

method and the computer code is validated by a (Hemispherical publishing corporation, Washington),

software ANSYS 4.4, which deals with the thermal 1980,527-541.

4 Lee R E, Measurements and correlation of heat transfer in

and structural problems. The model selected for the

a solid propellant rocket nozzle, NOL TER-64-163, 1964.

validation is same as that of nozzle G I. The 5 Henderson H P, Correction of the measured and predicted

boundary conditions applied are also the same. The in-depth thermal response of multidimensional woven

stress plots are shown in Fig. 10. Comparing the carbon/carbon ITE under static test firing conditions.

results obtained by the computer code and ANSYS AIAA paper No. 79-1218, 1979.

6 Segerlind L J, Applied finite element analysis (John Wiley

program, it is understood that they are in good

and Sons, New York), 1982.

agreement with each other. 7 Zienkiewicz 0 C, The finite element methods in

engineering sciences (McGraw-HilI. London), 1971.

Conclusions 8 Mehta, R C, Jayachandran, T & Sastri, V M K, Wdrme-

In this thermostructural analysis of a rocket und Stroffubertragung, 22 ( 1988) 227.

nozzle, a numerical method has been developed for 9 ANSYS 4.4. Software. developed by Swanson Analysis

solving an axisymmetric, transient, anisotropic heat Corporation, USA.

10 Suresh, K, Thermostructural analysis of a solid rocket

conduction equation with temperature dependant

motor nozzle throat insert using finite element method.

thermo-physical properties. For the numerical M.Tech.Thesis, University of Kerala, 1997.

simulation finite element method is used due to its II Bartz, D R, Jet Propulsion, 27 (1957), 49-51.

ability to handle the arbitrary geometry, initial 12 Scout Nozzle data book. NASA CR-145136, 1976.

conditions, boundary conditions and material 13 Gordon, S & Mcbride B, Computer program for

calculation of complex chemical equilibrium

properties. Linear triangular elements have been compositions. rocket performance. incident and reflected

used for the space discretization. An implicit time shocks and Chapman-Jouget detonations, NASA SP-273.

marching scheme is used for time integration of the 1971.

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