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STABILITY OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED HYBRID
COMPOSITE PLATES

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STABILITY OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED HYBRID
COMPOSITE PLATES

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913-921, 1995

Copyright © 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd

Pergamon Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved

0961-9526/95 $9.50+ ~00

0961-9526(95) 00036-4

STABILITY OF F U N C T I O N A L L Y G R A D E D H Y B R I D

COMPOSITE PLATES

Victor Birman

University of Missouri-Rolla, Engineering Eduction Center, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St Louis,

MO 63121, U.S.A.

(Received 9 December 1994;final version accepted 10 February 1995)

Abstract--This paper presents a formulation of the stability problem for a rectangular composite

plate reinforced by two types of fibers, one of them being both stiffer and more expensive than

the other. An obvious design solution based on cost containment is to concentrate stiffer and more

expensive fibers in the area of the plate where they can provide a maximum benefit to its stability.

In the present paper, the stiffer fibers replace a certain fraction of "ordinary" fibers in the layers

of the plate oriented along the load direction. Moreover, a distribution of the volume fraction of

these fibers across the width of the corresponding layers is nonuniform (piece-wise distribution).

The goal is to maximize the buckling load subject to the constraint on the total cross-sectional

area of the stiffer fibers. The solution can be obtained exactly by integrating the equation of

equilibrium for each plate region where the stiffnesses are constant and satisfying the continuity

and boundary conditions. Another approach, which is employed in this paper, is based on the

Galerkin procedure. Numerical examples illustrate a possibility of a significant enhancement of

the buckling load using functionally graded hybrid composite plates.

INTRODUCTION

sites. Significant attention has been paid to various theoretical and practical aspects o f

these materials, as reflected in n u m e r o u s papers on this subject (see, for example, the

special issue in Comp. Engng 4(1) 1994).

Naturally, the purpose o f functionally graded materials is to optimize a composite

structure and its response. In addition, technological problems and cost should be

i m p o r t a n t factors in a decision to apply a functionally graded a p p r o a c h to an actual

design. One o f the relatively simple and economical technological solutions involving

functionally graded materials m a y be based on a piece-wise distribution o f the properties

o f a composite.

In the present paper, the concept o f functionally graded materials is applied to the

problem o f maximizing the buckling load o f a composite plate subjected to a uniaxial

compression, as shown in Fig. 1, and reinforced by two types o f fibers. These two types

o f fibers differ in their stiffness and cost. The latter consideration dictates that the total

weight o f the fibers with superior properties must be limited. The o p t i m u m solution can

be achieved if the stiffer fibers are used in the layers oriented along the direction o f the

load (x-direction). Moreover, the buckling load can be increased, if the stiffness o f the

plate is higher close to the center, at the expense o f the stiffness near the edges. This means

that a functionally graded fiber system can be employed to maximize the buckling load.

The solution considered in the paper involves a symmetrically laminated plate where

all layers oriented at an angle to the load direction are reinforced by " o r d i n a r y " fibers,

while the layers oriented in the load direction include both the " o r d i n a r y " and stiffer

fibers. In addition, volume fractions o f the stiffer fibers vary across the width o f the plate

following a piece-wise distribution law. The constraint on the total cross-sectional area

(weight) o f the stiffer fibers emphasizes cost limitations involved in the design process.

Note that the concept o f hybrid plates has been discussed since the 1970s (Bunsell and

Harris, 1974; Aveston and Sillwood, 1976; Bradley and Harris, 1977; Zweben, 1977). In

particular, Aveston and Sillwood (1976) showed that the failure strain o f c a r b o n - g l a s s -

epoxy composites can be significantly enhanced due to the presence o f stiffer fibers.

Bradley and Harris illustrated that the fracture energy o f c a r b o n fiber-reinforced

tOE S/7-, 913

914 V. Birman

X

1 <

(

Nx 2 < N×

1 <

centration of fibers in region 2 is higherthan in region 1.

composites subjected to impact can be increased by 100% if steel wires are placed close to

the impacted face. Later studies of hybrid composites were published by Maksimov and

Plume (1980), Maksimov et al. (1984), Kochetkov (1987a, b) and Kochetkov and

Maksimov (1994). The last three papers cited above employed the self-consistent micro-

mechanical approach of Hill (1965) to derive elastic characteristics of a hybrid composite.

This approach limited the range of an accurate representation of hybrid composite

properties to a relatively small volume fraction of fibers. This was due to the nature of the

model where each fiber was considered as an isolated inclusion within an elastic medium

with averaged composite properties. It is emphasized that functionally graded hybrid

composites which promise the best utilization of the properties of stiffer fibers have not

been investigated. An exception is the paper of Bradley and Harris (1977) which does not

provide an analytical tool to treat the problem.

ANALYSIS

1. Micromechanics o f composite layer with two different types o f fibers

The problems of defining the properties of a composite material have been inten-

sively studied and a number of micromechanical models have been employed. In all these

models, the overall properties of a composite are defined as functions of the properties of

the fibers and matrix and their volume fractions. The presence of an interphase between

the fibers and the matrix can usually be included in the formulation. Mentioned here are

the generalized self-consistent scheme of Dvorak and Bahei-EI-Din (1979), the

Mori-Tanaka theory (1973), and the micromechanical theory of Aboudi that is often

referred to as the method of cells (Aboudi, 1982; Aboudi and Pindera, 1992).

The model used in the present paper is based on the formulation developed at the

NASA-Lewis Research Center (Chamis, 1983; Hopkins and Chamis, 1985) that follows

from the mechanics of materials. This approach has been successfully used for the studies

of polymer composites (Murthy et al., 1993), metal matrix composites (Murthy and

Chamis, 1993), and ceramic matrix composites (Mital et al., 1993). According to this

approach, sometimes called the multi-cell model, a unidirectional layer represents an

assembly of identical cells, each of them consisting of a fiber, an interphase (if any), and

the surrounding matrix. The properties of the layer are derived through a comparison of

the overall composite response to the response of the representative cell. The theory has

shown a good agreement with experiments and, notably, a comparison of existing

micromechanical methods, including the multi-cell model, illustrated a reasonably good

agreement between them (Bigelow et al., 1989; Noor and Shah, 1993).

In the present paper, the properties of a composite layer that includes two different

types of fibers and a polymeric matrix must be determined. Within each region of the

plate shown in Fig. 1, volume fractions of both systems of fibers in the layers oriented in

the x-direction are constant, say k~l and k~2 where i is the region number. Accordingly, the

properties can be determined for the layers within the corresponding region of the plate,

and, consequently, extensional and bending stiffnesses of a symmetrically laminated plate

are piece-wise functions of the y-coordinate.

Stability of functionally graded hybrid composite plates 915

Both types of fibers and the matrix remain within a linear elastic range;

the fibers are transversely isotropic, and the matrix is isotropic;

- -both types of fibers have the same diameter;

the fibers and the matrix experience the same axial strain in the fiber direction;

- -all constituents experience the same transverse stress in the direction perpen-

dicular to the fibers;

- - the Poisson's effect can be neglected when a load is applied in the transverse

direction.

Note that the last three assumptions represent the foundation of the multi-cell model.

The presence of two different types of fibers requires an introduction of a different

cell which has little resemblance to the cells or representative volume elements used in the

models listed above. It is assumed that both systems of fibers are uniformly distributed

over each region. Then a representative cell or volume element with a unit side length can

be presented by the model in Fig. 2. Note that in each row a number of fibers of each type

is constant. The following geometric results can be useful for the subsequent analysis

(hereafter the superscript i identifying the plate region is omitted for brevity):

4~

a = --~-D

2_ /kn + kn (1)

n = D ~1 -~

where D is a fiber diameter, a is the height of each row shown in Fig. 2, n is the total

number of fibers in a row (or a number of rows in the cell), and b = 1 - na is the total

width of the horizontal or vertical strips of the matrix between the rows. Note that n given

by eqns (1) is a nondimensional number because the total area of fibers in a square cross-

section shown in Fig. 2 is kfl + kf2.

Now following the approach used in the multi-cell model, one can immediately

obtain the longitudinal modulus of the composite layer:

E l = E f l l k f l + Efl2kfl2 + E m k m (2)

where Efll and Ell 2 are longitudinal moduli of fibers, Em is the modulus of elasticity of the

matrix, and km is the matrix volume fraction. A similar expression can be obtained for the

Poisson's ratio

where vf~ and vm are the Poisson's ratios of the fibers and the matrix, respectively.

Fig. 2. Representative volume element of a hybrid composite material with two types of fibers.

Stiffer fibers are shaded (their distribution does not have to follow the pattern in the figure).

916 V. Birman

Transverse displacements of the rows with the width a shown in Fig. 2 can be

obtained by the assumption that the fibers and the matrix between the fibers work in

series:

= Sfl ~fl + Sf2ef2 + SmEm (4)

where e denotes transverse strains, while Sn, sf2 and Sm are the total lengths of the fibers

and matrix sections within the row. The assumption that the transverse stress in the fibers

and in the matrix is identical, differentiation of eqn (4) with respect to this stress, and the

replacement of the derivatives of strain with respect to stress with inverses of the trans-

verse moduli yield:

Emx/kfl + kf2

E~ = (Em/Eftl)kfl + (Em/Eft2)kf2 + ~/kf I 4- kf2 (1 - ~ + kf2) (5)

where Eft 1 and Eft2 are transverse moduli of elasticity of the fibers. Obviously, the

modulus of elasticity in the strips of the matrix between the rows a is equal to that of the

matrix.

Now, similar to the multi-cell model, consider the rows a and the strips of the matrix

between these rows. In this case, the requirement that a transverse force acting on the cell

must be equal to the sum of the forces in the rows and in the strips of the matrix yields:

E t = E t s a + EmS b (6)

where Et is a transverse modulus of the composite layer, Sa = na, and Sb = 1 -- ha.

The substitution of eqns (1) and (5) into eqn (6) yields

kfl + kf2 ].

(7)

+ (Em/Eftl)kfl + (Em/Eft2)kf2 + ~/kfl + El2 (1 - x/kfl + kf2) J

The expression for the shear modulus Glt is similar to eqn (7) where G m and Glt2,

i.e. the shear moduli of the fibers, should replace Eft1 and Eft2, respectively, and the

modulus of the matrix Em must be changed to G m. In a particular case with a single type

of fiber the expressions presented above converge to the formulae of the multi-cell model.

As was shown by Noor and Shah (1993), four constants, i.e. El, Et, Glt and Vlt, evaluated

using this model are in excellent agreement with other analytical models as well as with the

results generated using a finite element method.

The expressions for the transverse shear modulus Gtt and the Poisson's ratio 1)tt are

not shown because these two parameters are not needed for evaluation of the reduced

stiffnesses of a layer in the state of plane stress. Note that this justifies the application of

the multi-cell model in the present problem since the transverse shear modulus and the

corresponding Poisson's ratio obtained by the multi-cell method are not in such good

agreement with experimental and finite element results as E l , Et, Glt and v~t (Noor and

Shah, 1993).

In conclusion, extensional and bending stiffnesses of a symmetric laminate can be

calculated using standard equations, i.e.

I h/2

{Aij , Dij } = Qij{1, z 2} dz (8)

d-h~2

where h is the thickness of the laminate, and Qk are transformed reduced stiffnesses of the

kth lamina, including the stiffnesses of the specially orthotropic layers with two different

types of fibers based on the properties evaluated above.

Linear equations of equilibrium for a symmetrically laminated thin plate with the

stiffnesses which are piece-wise functions of the y-coordinate are uncoupled. This means

Stability of functionally graded hybrid composite plates 917

that equations of in-plane equilibrium are independent of the equation of equilibrium of

forces in the transverse direction. For a piece-wise distribution of bending stiffnesses, the

latter equation is:

where w is a transverse deflection, and Nx denotes an applied stress resultant.

Consider now the solution within the ith region limited by Yi < Y < Yi+ 1. If the edges

x = 0 and x = a are simply supported, an exact solution has the form:

mT~x

Wim = fire(Y) s i n - (10)

a

4

f/m(Y) = ~ Ai~exp(sinvY). (11)

j=l

In eqn (11), Aiav(j = 1, 2) are constants of integration,

and

2(D~2+ 2 D ~ 6 ) ( - ~ ) 2

gim ---- 022

(13)

O~l(mlt/a)2-gx(_~_) z.

rim = D722

Obviously, the superscript i identifies the bending stiffnesses corresponding to the ith

region.

The buckling load can be obtained from the set of continuity and boundary condi-

tions which include the load N x through the coefficients rim- The continuity conditions at

the boundary of the ith and (i + 1)th regions are w i = Wi+l and Wry = Wi.ry. The

boundary conditions at y = 0 and y = b can easily be formulated for such cases as simple

support, clamping, free edges, etc. The set of continuity and boundary equations is linear

and homogeneous with respect to constants of integration. The nonzero requirement to

the solution yields the equation for a critical value of N~.

The method of generating an exact solution discussed in the previous paragraph

involves significant numerical difficulties, particularly if the number of regions is large.

A simple, yet accurate, solution can be obtained by the Galerkin method. In particular,

if the edges y = 0 and y = b are simply supported,

m n x . nny

w(m, n) = Cmn sin sm - - (14)

a b

where Cmn is a constant that represents a good approximation of the buckling mode. Note

that for the plates with laminations used in practical applications and a/b > 1 there is

only one halfwave in the y-direction in the mode shape of instability, i.e. n = 1.

The substitution of eqn (14) into eqn (9) and the Galerkin procedure yield the follow-

ing expression for the critical load:

i

where

D i (m/rX~4 + 2(D~2 + i /mn\Z/nn\Z i I/I17~\4

gi(m'n) = 11~ a / 2066)!k---a-) ~ T ) + O22~kT )

(16)

2 t" Yi+ 1 " 2 ]17~y .

q/in(Y) = b dy, sin --if- oy.

918 v. Birman

Note that in the optimization problem solution (15) is typically subject to certain

constraints. For example, if the volume of the stiffer fibers is limited due to cost require-

ments, the constraint condition can be given in the form

'Vfl n i -<- p

I.(0,t (17)

i

where Ai is the cross-sectional area of the ith region, k~) is the volume fraction of

the stiffer fibers in this region, and P is the maximum allowable area of the fibers of this

type.

NUMERICALEXAMPLES

The following examples illustrate the potential of functionally graded hybrid compo-

sites in enhancement of static stability of plates. The materials considered in the examples

are presented in Table 1. S-glass fibers are considered as "ordinary" fibers, while three

types of stiffer fibers include silicon carbide, boron and nicalon. The plates considered in

the examples were specially orthotropic with the direction of fibers colinear with the load

direction (x-axis). The width and the thickness of the plates were 10 in and 0.2 in,

respectively. The plates were subdivided into three regions, as shown in Fig. 1. The

volume fraction of stiffer fibers in region 1 was kept constant, k~ ) = 0.1, while this

volume fraction in the central region 2 varied from 0.1 to 0.65. The volume fraction of the

matrix was equal to 0.35 throughout the entire plate.

The central region 2 was symmetrically located with respect to the central axis of the

plate (y = b/2). The width of the central region, denoted bc, was taken equal to b/3, if

not indicated otherwise.

Fibers

Properties Matrix

of material S-glass Silicon carbide Boron Nicalon LY 558 (epoxy)

v 0.20 0.30 0.20 0.23 0.354

Source Chamis Lee and Chamis Noor and Noor and

(1983) Murthy (1992) (1983) Shah (1993) Shah (1993)

2800

2400

2000

1600

~ . 1200

2:

800

kf, (z)

Fig. 3. Effect of volume fraction of stiffer(siliconcarbide) fibersin the centralregion of the plate

on the buckling load. The numbers by the curves indicate the aspect ratios (A) of the plates.

Stability of functionally graded hybrid composite plates 919

3000 - /

/

/

//

/

2500

2000

T.

1500

1000

500 i, , l l l ~ p , l l , l l l t l , l l l r q , l , l , l l l L i i ,,,,qllllqlll,,llrll~l,,,,lllrl,ll,,i

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

kn(z)

Fig. 4. Effect of the volume fraction of the stiffer (silicon carbide) fibers and the width of the

central region on the buckling load of a square plate. Curve 1: bc/b = 1/2; curve 2: bc/b = 1/3;

curve 3: bc/b = 1/5.

The effect of the volume fraction of the stiffer fibers on the buckling loads is

illustrated in Fig. 3 for plates with the aspect ratios ;t = a/b equal to 1, 2 and 3. The mode

shapes of buckling included one halfwave in both x- and y-directions for the plates with

2t = 1 and 2, while the plate with 2 = 3 had two halfwaves in the x-direction (m = 2).

The results presented in Fig. 3 illustrate that an introduction of functionally graded stiffer

fibers can be an effective tool in prevention of buckling.

The width of the central region is an important factor affecting stability of plates.

This is illustrated in Figs 4 and 5 for aspect ratios equal to 1 and 3, respectively. In both

figures, an expansion of the central region results in a significant increase in the buckling

load. Note that the buckling mode shapes for the plates considered in Figs 4 and 5

included one halfwave in both directions (square plate, Fig. 4) and rn = 2, n = 1 for the

plate with 2 = 3 (Fig. 5).

2000 -

./

1800 /

/ /

/"

1600.

1/ j

/ f-"

iz

<,.~1400 -

o,?.,M 1200 -

z;

1000 -

800 ~Jlllrllll,t~JJlrJrlllJlllrJllllE,ill~ll~lll,lrllr:r~rlll~lllE~ll]E~ E

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 060 0.70

k n (z)

Fig. 5. Effect of the volume fraction of the stiffer (silicon carbide) fibers and the width of the

central region on the buckling load of a plate with 2 = 3. Curve h bc/b = 1/2; curve 2:

bc/b = 1/3; curve 3: bc/b = 1/5.

920 V. Birman

1800

1700

J

1600

1500

'~1400

J

1300

1200

1100

1000

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

kt/z)

Fig. 6. Buckling loads of functionally graded hybrid composite plates with various stiffer fibers.

= 2; b¢/b = I/3. Curves 1, 2 and 3 correspond to silicon carbide, boron and nicalon fibers,

respectively. Note the change in the buckling mode shape from m = 1 to m = 2 for the plate with

nicalon fibers.

Buckling loads obtained using three types of stiffer fibers are compared in Fig. 6.

As follows from this figure, the tendency of increasing the buckling load as a result of

a larger volume fraction of stiffer fibers in the central region is present in all cases.

However, larger increases occur in the plates reinforced by silicon carbide fibers. The

explanation can be found in Table 1 which illustrates that these fibers have the highest

stiffness. Boron fibers yield results close to those obtained for silicon carbide fibers

because the difference between their stiffnesses is small. Stability of plates with nicalon

fibers which have a relatively inferior stiffness lags behind that for both silicon carbide

and boron fiber-reinforced plates. The number of halfwaves in the x-direction for silicon

carbide and boron fiber-reinforced plates was equal to 1. In nicalon-reinforced plates,

the mode shape of instability changed as a result of variation of the volume fraction

of stiffer fibers. This illustrates that changes of the mode shape of buckling should

be considered when varying the volume fractions of fibers in functionally graded

materials.

CONCLUSIONS

This paper presents a solution to the buckling problem of hybrid composite plates

with functionally graded stiffer fibers. The solution is obtained for the case where stiffer

fibers are embedded within the laminae which are oriented in the load direction. The

properties of such laminae are derived using the multi-cell model of Chamis.

Numerical examples are presented for specially orthotropic plates with a piece-wise

distribution of stiffer fibers. The results obtained for three different types of stiffer fibers

illustrate that buckling loads can be significantly increased as a result of a piece-wise re-

inforcement. Predictably, the benefits increase with the stiffness of the fibers.

In the case where the central region of the plate has a higher concentration of the

stiffer fibers, an increase in the width of this region results in a significant enhancement

of stability. Although the aspect ratio of the plate has a quantitative effect on the buckling

load, the general conclusions are not affected.

Further research is needed to illustrate advantages of functionally graded hybrid

composites and functionally graded materials, in general. The results of this research

should convince industry that it can benefit from using these materials in practical

design.

Stability of functionally graded hybrid composite plates 921

REFERENCES

Aboudi, J. (1982). A continuum theory for fiber-reinforced elastic-viscoplastic composites. Int. J. Engng Sci.

20, 605-621.

Aboudi, J. and Pindera, M.-J. (1992). Micromechanics o f Metal Matrix Composites Using the Generalized

Method o f Cells Model: User's Guide. NASA CR 190756.

Aveston, J. and Sillwood, J. M. (1976). Synergistic fiber strengthening in hybrid composites. J. Mater. Sci. 11,

1877-1883.

Bigelow, C. A., Johnson, W. S. and Naik, R. A. (1989). A comparison of various micromechanics models for

metal matrix composites. In Mechanics o f Composite Materials and Structures (Edited by J. N. Reddy and

J. L. Telpy), pp. 21-31. ASME, New York.

Bradley, P. D. and Harris, S. J. (1977). Strategic reinforcement of hybrid carbon fibre-reinforced polymer com-

posites. J. Mater. Sci. 12, 2401-2410.

Bunsell, A. R. and Harris, B. (1974). Hybrid carbon and glass fibre composites. Composites 5, 157-164.

Chamis, C. C. (1983). Simplified composite micromechanics equations for hygral, thermal and mechanical

properties. NASA TM 83320.

Dvorak, G. J. and Bahei-E1-Din, Y. A. (1979). Elastic-plastic behavior of fibrous composites. J. Mech. Phys.

Solids 27, 51-72.

Hill, R. (1965). A self-consistent mechanics of composite materials. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 13, 213-222.

Hopkins, D. A. and Chamis, C. C. (1985). A unique set of micromechanics equations for high temperature

metal matrix composites. NASA TM 87154.

Kochetkov, V. A. (1987a). Effective elastic and thermal characteristics of unidirectional hybrid composite.

Report 1. Mech. Comp. Mater. 23, 33-41.

Kochetkov, V. A. (1987b). Effective elastic and thermal characteristics of unidirectional hybrid composite.

Report 2. Mech. Comp. Mater. 23, 178-182.

Kochetkov, V. A. and Maksimov, R. D. (1994). Multifibre polymer composites: prediction of deformation and

thermophysical properties. Mech. Comp. Mater. 30, 210-220.

Lee, H.-J. and Murthy, P. L. N. (1992). METCAN demonstration manual. Version 1.0. NASA TM 105607.

Maksimov, R. D. and Plume, E. A. (1980). Elasticity of a hybrid composite material derived from organic and

boron fibers. Mech. Comp. Mater. 16, 279-283.

Maksimov, R. D., Plume, E. Z. and Ponomarjev, V. M. (1984). Strength properties of unidirectionally re-

inforced hybrid composites, Mech. Comp. Mater. 20, 29-35.

Mital, S. K., Murthy, P. L. N. and Chamis, C. C. (1993). Ceramic matrix composite properties/microstresses

with complete and partial interphase bond. NASA TM 106136.

Mori, T. and Tanaka, K. (1973). Average stress in matrix and average elastic energy of materials with misfitting

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